PTS: Middle Length Sayings I, #1: Discourse on the Synopsis of Fundamentals, Horner, trans., pp 3.
WP: Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: The Root of All Things, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans., pp 83
Examining the Mulapariyaya -- Analysis
The Root Sequence, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, translation of the Mulapariyaya
|Pali||MO||Hare||Horner||Punnaji||Bodhi||Rhys Davids||(Mrs)Rhys Davids||Thanissaro||Walshe||Woodward|
|Bhuta||beings, living things||beings||beings||beings|
Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede
bhuta: [pp of bhavati...] grown, become; born, produced; nature as the result of becoming. -- The (exegetical) definition by Bdhgh of the word bhuta is interesting. He...distingishes the foll. 7 meanings of the term: (1) animate Nature as principle, or the vital aggregates (the 5 Khandhas)...(2) ghosts (amanussa)...(3) inanimate Nature as principle, or the Elements (the 4 dhatus)...(4) all that exists, physical existence in general (vijjamanan)...(5) what we should call a simple predicative use, is exemplified by a typical dogmatic example. viz. "kalaghaso bhuto," where bhuta is given as meaning khinasava (Arahant)...(6) all beings or specified existence, animal kingdom (satta) D II.157; (7) the vegetable kingdom, plants, vegetation (rukkh'adayo) Vin Iv34 (as bhuta-gama).
-- Meanings: 1. bhuta and bhutani (pl) beings, living beings, animate Nature...moveable and immovable S. II.47 mind and body as come-to-be; M I.2; The pl. nt. bhutani is used as pl. to meaning 2; viz. inanimate Nature, elements, usually enumerated under term maha-bhutani; 2. (nt.) nature, creation, world M 1.2 (bhute bhutato asnjanati; recognises the beings from nature, i.e. from the fact of being nature); 3. (nt. adj.) that which is, i.e. natural, genuine, true; nt. truth; neg. abhuta falsehood, lie; 4. a supernatural being, ghost, demon, Yakkha; pl. bhuta guardian genii (of a city) J. IV.245; 5. pp. in predicative use (cp. on this meaning Bdhgh's meaning No. 5 above) (a) what has been or happened; viz. matu-bhutan having been his mother...abhutapubba bhutan what has never happened before happened (now); (b) having become such and such, being like, acting as, being quasi (as it' were), consisting of...
Bhu: being, creature, living being
Bhu2 [fr. bhu, otherwise bhumi] the earth
Organic. Having life as a property. Butane.
Note: the search term "Beings" produces both here and on Access to Insight a huge number of references that do not relate to the term 'bhuta'. Probably most of these should be uderstood to translate back into Pali as the term 'satta'. Since 'beings' is the preferred translation of 'bhuta' of all those translators of the Mulapariyaya it was still felt to be necessary to include a search on this term. Happy sifting!