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Satipatthana Resources
Rhys Davids Introduction to their translation of the Satipatthana Sutta, and the translation itself
Puremind, M. Punnaji, Awakening Meditation, 1-13, 1-15, 3-12, 4-3, 4-6, 6-8, 7-6,7, 7-11, 8-52, 8-60, 8-61, 8-86
[MN 10]
WP: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, 10: The Foundations of Mindfulness, pp 145
[DN 22]
WP: The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Maurice Walshe, 22: The Greater Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness, pp335
PTS:, Middle Length Sayings I, #10: Discourse on the Applications of Mindfulness, Horner, pp70
The Pali Line:Part IV The 10th Question, Part 1 The Powers
Warren: Buddhism in Translations: I 69. World-Cycles I 65. The Six High Powers



Pali MO Nyanasatta Thera Soma Thera Hare Horner Punnaji Bodhi Nanamoli T.W. Rhys Davids C.A.F. Rhys Davids Thanissaro Walshe Woodward
citte emotion, heart, mind consciousness consciousness thought, mind consciousness, mind emotion, mood mind mind thoughts thoughts mind, intent mind, consciousness



Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede


Citta: [Sk. citta, orig. pp. of cinteti, cit...]

I. Meaning: the heart (psychologically), i. e. the centre & focus of man's emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in & accompanies its manifestations; i. e. thought. In this wise citta denotes both the agent & that which is enacted...for in Indian Psychology citta is the seat & organ of thought...

The meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us, as: with all my heart; heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart (cp. ekagga); all of which emphasize the emotional & conative side or "thought" more than its mental & rational side...It may therefore be rendered by intention, impulse, design; mood, disposition, state of mind, reaction to impressions. It is only in later scholastic lgg. that we are justified in applying the term "thought" in its technical sense. It needs to be pointed out, as complementary to this view, that citta nearly always occurs in the singular (=heart), & out of 150 cases in the Nikayas only 3 times in the plural (=thoughts). The substantiality of citta (cetas) is also evident from its connection with kamma (heart as source of action), kama & the senses in general...

Citta in it's relation to other terms referring to mental processes.

1. citta-hadya, the heart as incorporating man's personality: hadayan phaleyya, cittavikkhepan papuneyya (break his heart, upset his reason) S I.126; . . . S I.207, 214; Sn p. 32; . . .

2. c. as mental status, contrasted to (a) physical status: e. g. kilanta* weary in body & mind D I.20=III.32; atura* S III.2-5; nikattha* A II.137; thita* steadfast in body & soul (cp. thitatta) S V.74; *passaddhi quiet of body & soul S V.66. . . .

3. c. as emotional habitus:

(a) active=intention, contrasted or compared with: (a) will, c. as one of the four samadhis, viz. chanda, viriya, c., vimansa D III.77; S V.268; Vbh 288. - (b) action, c. as the source of kamma: . . . "when the intention is evil, the deed is evil as well" A I.262; . . . - Esp. in contrast to kaya & vaca, . . . (in deed & speech & will . . .

(b) passive=mood, feelings, emotion, ranging with kaya & panna under the (3) bhavana D III.219; S IV.111; A III.106; cp. M I.237...classed with kaya vedana dhamma under the (4) satipatthanas D II.95, 100, 299 sq.; S V.114, etc. . . .As part of the silakkhandha (with sila ethics, panna understanding) in adhisila, etc. Vin V.181. . . - citta & panna are frequently grouped together, e. g. S I.13 = 165; D III.269... As feeling citta is contrasted with intellection in the group sanna c. ditthi A II.52...

Citta in its range of semantical applications: (1) heart, will, intention, etc.

(a) heart as general status of sensory-emotional being; its relation to the senses (indriyani). A steadfast & constrained heart is the sign of healthy emotional equilibrium, this presupposes the control over the senses; . . . a guarded heart turns to great profit A I.7; . . . "from the fetters of Mara those are released who control their heart" Dh 37 . . .

(b) Contact with kama & raga: a lustful, worldly, craving heart. - (a) kama; S IV.210; S I.188;. . . A IV.392; S I.92; . . . A II.211 . . . (my h. does not leap, sit or stand in cravings) D III.239; . . .(b) raga: rago cittan anuddhanseti (defilement harasses his heart) S I.185; II.231=271; A II.126; III.393; . . . A III.285; . . .S IV.73; . . .S IV.74; Sn 235; PvA 168. . . .

(c) A heart, composed, concentrated, settled, self-controlled, mastered, constrained. . . S I.98; A I.207; III.248; A IV.209, 213; S III.133; A III.245; S II.273; IV.263; A II.94, 157; D I.13=III.30, 108; S I.120, 129, 188; IV.78=351; A I.164; II.211; III.17, 280; IV.177; S III.93; V.154; 301; D III.101; A V.195; S I.132; A I.165; . . .

(e) An evil heart; D I.20= III.32; A I.8; IV.92; A I.262: S IV.322; A II.220; D I.79; II.299; III.281. . .

(f) "blessed are the pure in heart," a pure, clean, purified (cp. Ger. geläutert), emancipated, free, detached heart. (a) mutta-c*, vimutta-c*, etc. (cp. cetaso vimokkho, ceto-vimutti, muttena cetasa) S III.132, etc.; vi* Sn p. 149. - vimutta: S I.28 (+subhavita), 29, 46=52; III.45 (+viratta), 90; IV.236 (raga); - suvimutta: S I.126, 141, 233; IV.164; A III.245; V.29. - (b) cittan parisodheti M I.347; A II.211; S IV.104. - (g) alina c. (unstained) S I.159; A V.149.

(g) good-will, a loving thought, kindliness, tenderheartedness, love ("love the Lord with all your heart"). - (a) metta-c* usually in phrase mettacittan bhaveti "to nourish the heart with loving thought," to produce good-will D I.167; S II.264; A I.10; V.81; Sn 507 (cp. metta-sahagatena cetasa). - (b) bhavita-c* "keep thy heart with all diligence" (Prov. 4, 23) S I.188 (+susamahita); IV.294; V.369 (saddha-paribhavita); A I.6 (+bahulikata, etc.); Sn 134 (=S I.188); Dh 89=S V.29; PvA 139.

(h) a heart calmed, allayed, passionless (santa* upasanta*) D.III.49; S I.141; Sn 746.

(i) a wieldy heart, a heart ready & prepared for truth, an open & receptive mind: kalla*, mudu*, udagga*, pasanna* A IV.186; kalla* PvA 38 (sanctified); lahu* S I.201; udagga* Sn 689, 1028; S I.190 (+mudita)...

(k) Various phrases. Abbhuta-cittajata "while wonder filled their hearts" S I.178; evancitto "in this state of mind" S II.199; Sn 985; cittam me Gotamo janati (G. knows my heart) S I.178; theyya-citto intending to steal Vin III.58; araddha-citto of determined mind M I.414; S II.21, cp. 107; Sn p. 102; annacittan upatthapeti S II.267; nana* of varying mind J I.295; nihinacitto low-minded PvA 107; nikattha* A II.137; ahata* A IV.460=V.18; supahata* S I.238 (cp. Miln 26); visankharagata* Dh 154; sampanna* Sn 164; vibbhanta* S I.61=A I.70=II.30=III.391.

(2) thought: ma papakan akusalan cittan cinteyyatha (do not think any evil thought) S V.418; na cittamattam pi (not even one thought); mama cittan bhaveyya (I should think)...

-uppada the rise of a thought, i. e. intention, desire as theyya *n uppadesi he had the intention to steal (a thought of theft) Vin III.56; M I.43; III.45; J II.374;
-ekaggata "one-pointedness of mind," concentration Nett 15, 16; Vism 84, 137, 158; DhA III.425; ThA 75; cp. ekagga-citto A III.175;
-kilesa stain of h. Dh 88 (DhA II.162=panca nivara?a);
-cetasika belonging to heart & thought, i. e. mental state, thought, mind D I.213; Dhs 1022 (-dhamma, Mrs. Rh. D.: emotional, perceptual & synthetic states as well as those of intellect applied to sense-impressions), 1282; Ps I.84; Miln 87; Vism 61, 84, 129, 337;
-passaddhi calm of h., serenity of mind (cp. kaya*) S V.66; Dhs 62;
-bhavana cultivation of the h. M III.149;
-mala stain of h. PvA 17;
-muduta plasticity of mind (or thought) Dhs 62, 277, 325;
-rupan according to intention, as much as expected Vin I.222; II.78; III.161; IV.177, 232;
-samadhi (cp. ceto-samadhi) concentration of mind, collectedness of thought, self-possession S IV.350; V.269; Vbh 218;


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