Digha Nikaya


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Digha Nikaya

The Long Discourses of the Buddha

Sutta 33

Sangiti Suttanta

The Chanting Together

Sixes

© Maurice Walshe 1987.
Used with the permission of Wisdom Publications.

 


 

'There are [sets of] six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord ...

[6.01][wp][bd] 'Six internal sense-spheres (ajjhattikani ayatanani): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-(kayayatanam), mind-sense-sphere (manayatanam).

[6.02][wp][bd] 'Six external sense-spheres (bahirani ayatanani): sight-object (rupayatanam), sound-, smell-, taste-, tangible object (phottabb¢yatanam), mind-object (dhamm¢yatanam).

[6.03][wp][bd] 'Six groups of consciousness (vinnaina-kaya): eye-consciousness, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-consciousness.

[6.04][wp][bd] 'Six groups of contact (phassa-kaya): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact (mano-samphasso).

[6.05][wp][bd] 'Six groups of feeling (vedana-kaya): feeling based on eye-contact (cakkhu-samphassaja vedana), [244] on ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact.

[499][6.06][wp][bd] 'Six groups of perception (sanna-kaya): perception of sights (rupa-sanna), of sounds, of smells, of tastes, of touches, of mind-objects (dhamma-sanna).

[6.07][wp][bd] 'Six groups of volition (sancetana-kaya): volition based on sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

[6.08][wp][bd] 'Six groups of craving (tanha-kaya): craving for sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

[6.09][wp][bd] 'Six kinds of disrespect (agarava): Here, a monks behaves disrespectfully and discourteously towards the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect of earnestness (appamade), of hospitality (patisanthare).

[6.10][wp][bd] 'Six kinds of respect (garava): Here, a monk behaves respectfully ... (as (9)).

[6.11][wp][bd] 'Six pleasurable investigations (somanassupavicara)[1100] When, on seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing ... , smelling ... , tasting ... , touching ... , knowing a mind-object with the mind, one investigates a corresponding object productive of pleasure.

[245] [6.12][wp][bd] 'Six unpleasurable investigations: (as (11) but: productive of displeasure).

[6.13][wp][bd] 'Six indifferent investigations: (as (11) but: productive of indifference (upekha).

[6.14][wp][bd] 'Six things conducive to communal living (saraIJ-zya dhamma):[1101] As long as monks both in public and in private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of body, speech and thought, ... share with their virtuous fellows whatever they receive as a rightful gift, including the contents of their almsbowls, which they do not keep to themselves, ... keep consistently, unbroken and unaltered those rules of conduct that are spotless, leading to liberation, praised by the wise, unstained and conducive to concentration, and persist therein with their fellows both in public and in private, ... continue in that noble view that leads to liberation, to the utter destruction of suffering, remaining in such awareness with their fellows both in public and in private (as Sutta 16, verse 1.11). [246]

[6.15][wp][bd] 'Six roots of contention (vivada-mulani): Here, (a) a monk is angry and bears ill-will, he is disrespectful and discourteous to the Teacher, the Dhamma and the Sangha, and does not [500] finish his training. He stirs up contention within the Sangha, which brings woe and sorrow to many, with evil consequences, misfortune and sorrow for devas and humans. If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention. If you find no such root of contention ... , then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future.
Or (b) a monk is deceitful and malicious (makkhi hoti pa'asi) ... ,
(c) a monk is envious and mean ... ,
(d) a monk is cunning and deceitful. .. ,
(e) a monk is full of evil desires and wrong views ... ,
(f) a monk is opinionated (sanditthi-paramasi), obstinate and tenacious. [247] If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention. If you find no such root of contention ... , then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future.

[6.16][wp][bd] 'Six elements: the earth-, water-, fire-, air-, space-element (akasa-dhatu), the consciousness-element (vinnana-dhatuyo).[1102]

[6.17][wp][bd] 'Six elements making for deliverance (nissaraniya-dhatuyo): Here, a monk might say:
(a) "I have developed the emancipation of the heart (ceto-vimutti) by loving-kindness (metta), [248] expanded it, made it a vehicle and a base, established, worked well on it, set it well in train. And yet ill-will still grips my heart." He should be told: "No! do not say that! Do not misrepresent the Blessed Lord, it is not right to slander him thus, for he would not have said such a thing! Your words are unfounded and impossible. If you develop the emancipation of the heart through loving-kindness, ill-will has no chance to envelop your heart. This emancipation through loving-kindness is the cure for ill-will."
Or (b) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through compassion (karuna), and yet cruelty still grips my heart ... "
Or (c) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy (mudita), and yet aversion (arati) still grips my heart ... "
[249] Or (d) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through equanimity (upekha), and yet lust (rago) grips my heart."
Or [501] (e) he might say: "I have developed the signless emancipation of the heart (animitta ceto-vimutti),[1103] and yet my heart still hankers after signs (nimitt¢nusari hoti) ... "
Or (f) he might say: "The idea 'I am' is repellent to me, I pay no heed to the idea: 'I am this.' Yet doubts, uncertainties and problems still grip my heart ... " (Reply to each in similar terms to (a)).

[250] [6.18][wp][bd] 'Six unsurpassed things (anuttariyani)[1104] [certain] sights, things heard, gains, trainings, forms of service (paricariy¢nuttariyam), objects of recollection.

[6.19][wp][bd] 'Six subjects of recollection (anussati-tthanani): the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, morality, renunciation, the devas.

[6.20][wp][bd] 'Six stable states (satata-vihara)[1105] On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound ... , smelling a smell ... , tasting a flavour ... , touching a tangible object ... or cognising a mental object with the mind, one is neither pleased (sumano) nor displeased (dummano), but remains equable (upekhako), mindful and clearly aware.

[6.21][wp][bd] 'Six "species" (abhijatiyo):
Here, (a) one born in dark conditions [251] lives a dark life,
(b) one born in dark conditions lives a bright life,
(c) one born in dark conditions attains Nibbana, which is neither dark nor bright,
(d) one born in bright conditions lives a dark life,
(e) one born in bright conditions leads a bright life,
(f) one born in bright conditions attains Nibbana which is neither dark nor bright.

[6.22][wp][bd] 'Six perceptions conducive to penetration (nibbedha-bhagiya-sanna): the perception of impermanence, of suffering in impermanence, of impersonality in suffering, of abandoning, of dispassion (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (26)) and the perception of cessation (nirodha-sanna).

'These are the [sets of] six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord ... '

 


[1100] 'Investigations linked with pleasure' (DA).

[1101] The meaning of saraniya dhamma is not quite certain. At DN 16.1.11, RN has 'conditions of welfare', which is a slip for the preceding aparihaniya dhamma.

[1102] The four primary elements (n.70) with the two additional ones sometimes found with them (as MN 140). For the first five in later Buddhism, cf. Lama Anagarika Govinda, Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism (London 1959), 183ft.

[1103] Cf. VM 21.66.

[1104] A miscellaneous collection of 'unsurpassed' things, the last, for example, being the recollection (not 'memory', RD!) of Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.

[1105] RD quaintly renders this 'chronic states'.


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