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Contents

Keeping the Sabbath

Lifespans of the Gods

The Ten Fundamental Attachments
And
The Four Pairs of Powerful Individuals

Indo-European Languages

Adam's Apple

Index of Proper Names

Rhys Davids, Buddhist India:
Chapter VII: Writing -- The Beginnings
Chapter VIII: Writing -- It's Development
Chapter IX: Literature: General View
Chapter X: Literature: The Pali Books

Chronology Of The Pali Canon, B.C. Law, History of Pali Literature. An investigation of the likely dates for the formation of the various books of the Pali Buddhist Canon.

ASCII version of diacritical marks for Pali as used by the Pali Text Society

The Pali "Cannon"

The Patimokkha (The Rules of the Order)

Weights and Measures

 


 

Sorts of Sabbath

From
Anguttara Nikaya
Tikanipata

Sutta 70

Muluposatha Sutta

The Roots of the Uposatha

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Provenance, terms and conditons

 


 

[70] I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara's mother.

Now at that time — it being the Uposatha day — Visakha, Migara's mother, went to the Blessed One in the middle of the day and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side.
As she was sitting there the Blessed One said to her,

"Well now, Visakha, why are you coming in the middle of the day?"

"Today I am observing the Uposatha, lord."

"Visakha, there are these three Uposathas.
Which three?

The Uposatha of a cowherd,
the Uposatha of the Jains,
and the Uposatha of the Noble Ones.

"And what is the Uposatha of a cowherd?

Just as when a cowherd returns the cattle to their owners in the evening, he reflects:

'Today the cattle wandered to that spot and this,
drank at this spot and that;
tomorrow they will wander to that spot and this,
will drink at this spot and that';
in the same way,
there is the case where a certain person observing the Uposatha reflects,
'Today I ate this sort of non-staple food and that sort of staple food.
Tomorrow I will eat that sort of non-staple food and this sort of staple food.'

He spends the day with an awareness imbued with that covetousness,
with that greed.

Such is the Uposatha of a cowherd, Visakha.

When this Uposatha of a cowherd is undertaken,
it is not of great fruit or great benefit,
not of great glory or great radiance.

"And what is the Uposatha of the Jains? There are the contemplatives called the Niganthas (Jains). They get their disciple to undertake the following practice: 'Here, my good man. Lay down the rod with regard to beings who live more than 100 leagues to the east... more than 100 leagues to the west... more than 100 leagues to the north... more than 100 leagues to the south.' Thus they get the disciple to undertake kindness and sympathy to some beings, but not to others.

"On the Uposatha day, they get their disciple to undertake the following practice: 'Here, my good man. Having stripped off all your clothing, say this: "I am nothing by anything or of anything. Thus there is nothing by anything or of anything that is mine."' Yet in spite of that, his parents know of him that 'This is our child.' And he knows of them that 'These are my parents.' His wives and children know of him that 'This is our husband and father.' And he knows of them that 'These are my wives and children.' His workers and slaves know of him that 'This is our master.' And he knows of them that 'These are my workers and slaves.' Thus at a time when he should be persuaded to undertake truthfulness, he is persuaded to undertake falsehood. At the end of the night, he resumes the consumption of his belongings, even though they aren't given back to him. This counts as stealing, I tell you. Such is the Uposatha of the Jains, Visakha. When this Uposatha of the Jains is undertaken, it is not of great fruit or great benefit, not of great glory or great radiance.

"And what is the Uposatha of the Noble Ones? It is the cleansing of the defiled mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Tathagata, thus: 'Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge and conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine and human beings, awakened, blessed.' As he is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when the head is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the head cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of cosmetic paste and clay and the appropriate human effort. This is how the head is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Tathagata... As he is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Brahma-Uposatha. He lives with Brahma [= the Buddha]. It is owing to Brahma that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Dhamma, thus: 'The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here and now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized by the wise for themselves.' As he is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when the body is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the body cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of scouring balls and bath powder and the appropriate human effort. This is how the body is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Dhamma... As he is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Dhamma-Uposatha. He lives with Dhamma. It is owing to Dhamma that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Sangha, thus: 'The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples who have practiced well... who have practiced straight-forwardly... who have practiced methodically... who have practiced masterfully — in other words, the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types — they are the Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world.' As he is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when clothing is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is clothing cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of salt earth and lye and cow dung and the appropriate human effort. This is how clothing is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Sangha... As he is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Sangha-Uposatha. He lives with the Sangha. It is owing to the Sangha that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own virtues, thus: '[They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, conducive to concentration.' As he is recollecting virtue, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when a mirror is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is a mirror cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of oil and ashes and chamois and the appropriate human effort. This is how a mirror is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own virtues... As he is recollecting virtue, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the virtue-Uposatha. He lives with virtue. It is owing to virtue that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

"[Again, the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the devas, thus: 'There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the Thirty-three, the Yama Devas, the Contented Devas, the devas who delight in creation, the devas who have power over the creations of others, the devas of Brahma's retinue, the devas beyond them. Whatever conviction they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of conviction is present in me as well. Whatever virtue they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of virtue is present in me as well. Whatever learning they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of learning is present in me as well. Whatever generosity they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of generosity is present in me as well. Whatever discernment they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of discernment is present in me as well.' As he is recollecting the devas, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when a gold is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is gold cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of a furnace, salt earth, red chalk, a blow-pipe, tongs, and the appropriate human effort. This is how gold is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the devas... As he is recollecting the devas, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Deva-Uposatha. He lives with the devas. It is owing to the devas that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones reflects thus: 'As long as they live, the Arahants — abandoning the taking of life — abstain from the taking of life. They dwell with their rod laid down, their knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Today I too, for this day and night — abandoning the taking of life — abstain from the taking of life. I dwell with my rod laid down, my knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. By means of this factor I emulate the Arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

"'As long as they live, the Arahants — abandoning the taking of what is not given — abstain from taking what is not given. They take only what is given, accept only what is given, live not by stealing but by means of a self that has become pure. Today I too, for this day and night — abandoning the taking of what is not given — abstain from taking what is not given. I take only what is given, accept only what is given, live not by stealing but by means of a self that has become pure. By means of this factor I emulate the Arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

"'As long as they live, the Arahants — abandoning uncelibacy — live a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way. Today I too, for this day and night — abandoning uncelibacy — live a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way. By means of this factor I emulate the Arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

"'As long as they live, the Arahants — abandoning false speech — abstain from false speech. They speak the truth, hold to the truth, are firm, reliable, no deceivers of the world. Today I too, for this day and night — abandoning false speech — abstain from false speech. I speak the truth, hold to the truth, am firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world. By means of this factor I emulate the Arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

"'As long as they live, the Arahants — abandoning fermented and distilled liquors that cause heedlessness — abstain from fermented and distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. Today I too, for this day and night — abandoning fermented and distilled liquors that cause heedlessness — abstain from fermented and distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. By means of this factor I emulate the Arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

"'As long as they live, the Arahants live on one meal a day, abstaining from food at night, refraining from food at the wrong time of day [from noon until dawn]. Today I too, for this day and night, live on one meal, abstaining from food at night, refraining from food at the wrong time of day. By means of this factor I emulate the Arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

"'As long as they live, the Arahants abstain from dancing, singing, music, watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying themselves with perfumes and cosmetics. Today I too, for this day and night, abstain from dancing, singing, music, watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying myself with perfumes and cosmetics. By means of this factor I emulate the Arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

"'As long as they live, the Arahants — abandoning high and imposing seats and beds — abstain from high and imposing seats and beds. They make low beds, on a pallet or a spread of straw. Today I too, for this day and night — abandoning high and imposing seats and beds — abstain from high and imposing seats and beds. I make a low bed, on a pallet or a spread of straw.'

"Such is the Uposatha of the Noble Ones, Visakha. When this Uposatha of the Noble Ones is undertaken, it is of great fruit and great benefit, of great glory and great radiance.

[Ed.: The remainder of this sutta describes the fruition of such a practice as described above. It is included here just below as a separate Appendix as being of interest in an of itself.]

 


 

References:

See: [AN 3 70]
Uposatha Discussions in the BuddhaDust Archives
Link to the Uposatha (Sabbath) day calendar on Access to Insight:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sila/uposatha.html

 


 

Length of Life
the
Fruition of Uposatha

From: AN 3.70 Woodward, The Book of the Gradual Sayings, or More-Numbered Suttas, Part III The Book of the Threes Chapter VII: The Great Chapter: Sutta 70: Sorts of Sabbath.

Just as if, Visakha, one should exercise lordship, rule and sovereignty over these sixteen great provinces, replete with the seven gems, to wit: The Angas, Magadhas, Kasis, Kosalans, Vajjians, Mallas, Cetis, Vansas, Kurus, Pancalas, Macchas, Surasenas, Assakas, Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja, -- yet would such sovereignty not be worth one-sixteenth part of a Sabbath observed in all its eightfold parts. What is the cause of that ? A poor thing, Visakha, is human sovereignty to set beside heavenly bliss.

Now, Visakha, fifty years of human life are a single night and day to the Devas of the Four Great Kings. Thirty such days and nights make a month. Twelve of such months make a year. Five hundred of such years make up the life period of the Devas of the Four Great Kings. [50X30X12X500 = 9,000,000 human years]

But there is the possibility, Visakha, that some woman or man, by observing the Sabbath in all its eight parts, when body breaks up after death may be reborn in the company of the Devas of the Four Great Kings. It was in this connection that I said: "A poor thing is human sovereignty to set beside heavenly bliss.'

Again, Visakha, a hundred years of human life are but a single night and day to the Devas of the Thirty-Three. Thirty such nights and days make a month. Twelve of such months make a year. A thousand such heavenly years make the life-period of the Devas of the Thirty-Three. [100X30X12X1000 = 36,000,000 human years]

But there is the possibility, Visakha, that some woman or man . . . may be reborn in the company of the Devas of the Thirty-Three. It was in this connection that I said . . .

Two hundred years of human life are but a single night and day to the Yama Devas. Thirty such days . . .Two thousand such heavenly years make up the life-period of the Yama Devas. [200X30X12X2000 = 144,000,000 human years]

But there is the possibility, Visakha, that some woman or man. . . may be reborn in the company of the Yama Devas. It was in this connection that I said . . .

Four hundred years of human life make one night and day of the Happy Devas . . . Four thousand such years make up the life-period of the Happy Devas. [400X30X12X4000 = 576,000,000 human years]

But there is the possibility, Visakha, that some woman or man. . . may be reborn in the company of the Happy Devas. It was in this connection that I said. . .

Eight hundred years of human life make one night and day of the Devas that delight in creation . . . eight thousand such heavenly years make up the life-period of these Devas. [800X30X12X8000 = 2,304,000,000 human years]

But there is the possibility, Visakha, that some woman or man . . . may be reborn in the company of the Devas that delight in creation. It was in this connection that I said . . .

Sixteen hundred years of human life make one night and day of the Devas that delight in other's creations . . . Sixteen thousand such years make up the life-period of these Devas. [1600X30X12X16000 = 9,216,000,000 human years]

But there is the possibility, Visakha, that some woman or man, by observing the Sabbath in all its eight parts, when body breaks up after death may be reborn in the company of these Devas. It was in this connection that I said: " A poor thing is human sovereignty to set beside heavenly bliss."

 


 

From: AN 3.114 Woodward, The Book of the Gradual Sayings, or More-Numbered Suttas, Part III The Book of the Threes Chapter XII: The Downfall: Sutta 114: The Sphere of Infinite Space.

Herein, monks, a certain person, by utterly transcending consciousness of form, by the disappearance of consciousness of resistance, by paying no heed to the diversity of consciousness, regarding space as infinite, reaches up to and abides in the sphere of infinite space. He enjoys it, longs for it and finds happiness therein. Established therein, given thereto, generally spending his time therein and not falling away therefrom, when he makes an end he is reborn in the company of the Devas who have reached the sphere of infinite space.

Now, monks, the life of those Devas is 20,000 cycles.

Again, monks, here we have a certain person who, by utterly transcending the sphere of infinite space, regarding consciousness as infinite, reaches up to and abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness. ... when he makes an end he is reborn in the company of the Devas who have reached the sphere of infinite consciousness.

Now, monks, the life of those Devas is 40,000 cycles.

Again, monks, we have a certain person who, by utterly transcending the sphere of infinite consciousness, with the idea of "nothing at all exists," reaches up to and abides in the sphere of nothingness. ... when he makes an end he is reborn in the company of those Devas who have reached the sphere of nothingness.

Now the life-span of those Devas is 60,000 cycles.

 


 

Ask yourself, if this be true, how exalted can be the beings that (given that it is true at all) are channeled through mediums for long periods of time or frequently. Some of these Devas do, indeed, visit this realm, but when they do so it is with tremendous effort (at pinpointing a certain place and time) and for exceedingly brief periods. Note also, this is by no means the complete list of places beings, at the break up of the elements may find consciousness again. This list is limited to certain major (lower) "lokas" (locations) where beings keeping the Sabbath as described have the possibility of finding consciousness relocated. Other realms are attained by other means such as by great good deeds and by proficiency in the Jhanas. And, of course, keep in mind that rebirth is not the goal of the Buddhist: it is often put like this; "Failing the goal, he finds rebirth in . . . such and such Deva World."

Let him not kill, nor take what is not given,
Nor utter lies, nor of strong drink partake:
But from unchastity let him abstain,
Nor eat at night, nor at unfitting times,
Nor wear a garland, nor use scents, but stay
On a mat spread on the ground. This is the Sabbath
Great, eightfold, of a kind to make an end
Of Ill, by the Enlightened One proclaimed.
The moon and sun, the sight of which is sweet,
Move to and fro, shed radiance where they move,
Scatter the gloom and, gliding thro' the sky,
Make the clouds lustrous, lighting every quarter.
Within this space all manner of wealth is found, --
Pearl, crystal, beryl, luck-stone, nugget-gold,
And lustrous gold and that called hataka [ant made].
Yet are they all not worth one-sixteenth part
Of a Sabbath with its precepts eight complete;
Nor is the bright moon with its host of stars.
Therefore the woman and the man devout
Who keep this Sabbath with its precepts eight,
Performing merit fruitful of results,
In the heaven-world are born without reproach.'

 


 

The Ten Fundamental Attachments
And
The Four Pairs of Powerful Individuals

The Ten Fundamental Attachments

Saŋyojana

(The "N" in SAN is an N-G 'say "N, G"' , and, in PALI they hate the sound AE as we make the A, so say AH, so: SAHNG-YO-JA-NA)

SAN=one's own; YOJA=yoga, yoke; JANA=burning to live

The Yokes to Rebirth

1. Sakkāyaditthi: One-Truth View

Holding the view that any one way of seeing the self is the one true way and that all other ways are false

2. Vicikiccha: Doubt

Re-What?-What?-Stuff (C-Cha = K-Kha, except it is Human K-Kha) Formally, in the Pali: Doubt about DUKKHA, doubt about the origin of DUKKHA, doubt about the ending of DUKKHA, and doubt about the Way to the ending of DUKKHA

3. Sīlabbata-parāmāso: Foolish Beliefs

Holding to the belief that Ethical Culture, Good Deeds, Ritual or Ceremony will bring an end to dukkha, Pain, or will free one from the effects of kamma

4. Kāmacchanda: Pleasure Wanting

Attachment to wanting, wishing for pleasure, greed, lust, wanting to give pleasure, seeking one's own good, not being Satisfied with things the way they are

5. Vyāpādo: Warped thinking, deviance from the Magga, including maleevolance, wrath, anger.

6. Rūparāgo: RUPA=Material, RAGA=Rage (as in it's all the rage), Lust

Materialism, attachment to things with form, shape: The eye and sigh ta it, The ear ana soun'a loveallaroun, the nose and scenta mula, the tongue and tastitree, the body ana toucha evera Eve ana Anna anna Ava ana Ona n On for Eva

7. Arūparāgo: (A=not) Unworldly desire

Attachment to the Incorporeal, Ideas, Nibbana (I've always been especially attached to the sphere that isn't there)

8. Māna: Gone Mental, Pride

Pride of Birth, Family Wealth, Health, Youth, Life. Conceit. Arrogance

9. Uddhaccan: Shuddering C-Ca. Overexcitement

Attachment to detachment producing excitement, flurry, anxiety, worry, fear and trembling and loosing ya grip

10. Avijjā: Blindness

No Vision. Not seeing j-ja as it really is.

[See Fetter]

 


 

The Four Pairs Of Very Powerful Individuals

As a Group, known as The SAMGHA: The Gang, The Brotherhood, The Blood, The Congregashona

The SOTAPATTI

Most commonly known as The Streamwinner. One with an Ear (SOTA) for the Patter of Pat (Pajapati: The Creator of the Created, the Creator of Language, Patois, Patter, Pali, Parla, Spracha, Talka, Habla, Bla, Bla, Bla. . . Kha). In the Pali Streamwinners range from those with unshakable faith that the Buddha has found the way to the End of DUKKHA to those who have attained the DHAMMACAKKHU: The Eye of DHAMMA: seeing for one's self that whatsoever has come to be, all that is destined to come to an end.

1. An individual headed straight toward becoming such or
2.One who is such

Start up the PALI Way by aiming for this one. At the least the guarantee is that attaining this one is safe from rebirth in Hell or as an animal or daemon. In the PALI, as one would expect, this is not a promise made out of thin air, but is based on the logic of the condition, which is:

The SOTAPATTI is an Individual who has broken through the TINI SANYOJANANI:

1. SAKKAYADITTHI: One Self View

2. VICIKICCHA: Doubts

3. SILABBATAPARAMASO: Clinging to Virtue and Good Deeds, Rites and Rituals

The TINI SANYOJANANI are capable of yoking (downbinding) one to rebirth in Hells, as an animal, as a ghost or as a daemon (as well as to good rebirths). Conversely, being detached in these ways prevents thereafter the possibility of rebirth in these Woeful Ways.

Additionally, the nature of the vision (wisdom, knowledge, insight) developed to break through these attachments is such as will, after a time, eat through all the other attachments . . . so it is said that one who has got this far is assured of attaining utter Detachment, UPEKKHA, NIBBANA. Some say this is accomplished in seven births, but the word for seven, "SATTA," is also 100, 1000, 10,000, and a very large number, so it is, I believe, better to say a "limited" number of rebirths.

For the qualities of the streamwinner and the fruits of streamwinning, see: dhammatalk/bd_dhammatalk/beginners_questions/good_example.htm#fn9
and also see: The Four Characteristics of the Streamwinner

The SAKADAGAMIN

The Just-One-More-Timer, or more commonly called The Once Returner

3. An Individual headed straight toward becoming such or
4. One who is such

This is a SOTAPATTI who has gone a long way toward breaking through Pleasure Seeking and Anger.

The ANAGAMIN

The No-Turning-Backer, or The Never-Againer, or, more commonly known as The Non-Returner

5. An Individual headed straight toward becoming such or
6. One who is such

One who has broken, or will break at death of the body, or before rebirth in a new existence, or shortly after rebirth in a new existence, or in the new existence, the ORAMBHAGIYANI SANYOJANA: The Yokes to the Downbound.

1. SAKKAYADITTHI: One Self View

2. VICIKICCHA: Doubt

3. SILABBATAPARAMASO: Belief in Virtue, Good Deeds, Rites and Rituals (Note: this means "as a way to end DUKKHA or escape Kamma". Good deeds are certaily a good thing that one can believe creates good kamma.)

4. KAMACCHANDO: Pleasure Wishing

5. VYAPADO: Warped thinking, deviance from the Magga, including maleevolance, wrath, anger.

This individual is most commonly said to be reborn in the SUBHAKINNA Realms, LOKA or locations which are especially conducive toward solving the problem of DUKKHA. There are five such realms:

AVIHA (The Harmless),
ATAPPA (No Self Torture, or No Burning),
SUDASSA and
SUDASSI (beats me, something to do with being Pure),
and AKANITTHA (No Youngsters Here).

A Chinese school of Buddhism, (The Pure Land Buddhists), make it their objective not to attain NIBBANA, but to be reborn in these realms. These are the only five places of rebirth where even you will not have been born at one time or another in the long distant past (you will have been born in every other single condition of any sort whatsoever, excepting up to the state of SOTAPATTI--some will have attained this and even higher conditions prior to this life). Individuals reborn in these realms always finish up attaining NIBBANA. Non-Returners can be reborn elsewhere than these realms, and rebirth takes place through spontaneous reappearance in a male individuality aged about 15. Such beings are on record as having made brief appearances back in this world after being reborn in one of those realms. The laws of relativity appear to apply to heavenly births, in spite of what channels and mediums would have us believe. Not only are the rebirths in higher realms of extraordinary length (millions of years), but they are experienced, subjectively much as we experience time here, so a visit to a lower realm must be timed extraordinarily accurately and will appear to such a being to last but a finger snap. [remember to snap fingers]. Aside from matters of Time, beings from higher realms seldom visit earth for the reason that it is said to stink for a distance upward toward the heavens of about 200,000 miles. When they do make it here, they stand, they would never sit in it.

The ARAHATTA

The Worthy, The Trackless

7. An Individual headed straight toward becoming such or
8. One who is such

One who has broken through all Ten Attachments.

Five things that are impossible for an ARAHATTA:

1. Telling an intentional lie

2. Intentionally killing a living creature

3. Theft

4. Sexual Intercourse

5. Saving up for future enjoyment of Sense Pleasures

Of ARAHATTA two are ranked as The Most Powerful:

A SAMMASAMBUDDHA: The Buddha. One, who after an enormous period of training, alone in the world (unassisted) attains UPEKKHA, Detachment, ARAHANTship, NIBBANA, AKALIKA (Living Outside Time), and is then able to teach and lead a large following (Gotama had a following in the many millions in his own time).

And

A PACCAKABUDDHA: Usually called a Silent Buddha; one who attains ARAHANTship unassisted, but who generally declines to teach.

Odd Miscellaneous Bit of Information:

The Karmic rebound off a SOTAPATTI is said to be a hundred thousand times a boundless number of huge heaps. So they say: "Up passed SOTAPATTI, what can you say?" In trying to figure out how to work very effective good deeds, one should also be aware that as well as the above mentioned very powerful men, there is a type of receiver of action that is not graded as an individual: An act done toward an individual who legitimately stands in as the representative of a group. A gift given to The SAMGHA, through a Beggar who is an initiated member of The SAMGHA is considered to be more potent in it's rebound than even a gift to a living Buddha. Additionally, of course, receivers of action may be ordinary common men of poor moral behavior (rebound 1000 X), ordinary common men of good moral behavior (rebound 100,000 X), and there are animals (100 X) and ghosts too who are possible sources of rebounds. For more on the topic of Kamma, see DhammaTalk:Advantage Giver.

 


 

Indo-European Languages

Languages known to have evolved from Pali: [There is a debate as to whether Pali was earlier or later or contemporaneous with forms of Sanskrit and other closely related languages such as Magadhese: This will serve to introduce my stand on the debate (from a public discussion):

MO: I hold that Pali, the Language (no matter what the written historical records show or don't show) is the original language, the most fundamental form of speech. It's simple form is the sound "A" with stops (what we call consonants). I am not alone in this belief, although I did not arrive at it as a consequence of relying on authority.

H: Are you saying with the above lines that Pali was the first language within the history of humanity?, please explain.

MO: Not exactly that, since I buy the continuous evolution/devolution of the world view. Within this structure humanity actually "devolves" from higher conditions. I do not see Cave Man, grunting the A and evolving language. I see the Creator (Pajapati if you like), uttering the first sound, "A" as a simultaneous occurrence with the beginning of his creation. From there, one or two major syllables evolve: Pa (Father and Pass) and Ma (Mother and Make) and Da (That and Father) and Ta (This and That) and then Ka and Ca (disagreeable sounds, the first relating to non human KaKa, and the second relating to human CaCa) [Edited addition: and Sa and Ra (the sun and it's rays) and Ja (fire and birth illumination and knowledge) and Na (no to no-no! and not to understand?)]. What you might call a DNA of language. There is no doubt in my mind that all the IndoEuropean languages evolve from this initial set. Since I am not familiar with the Asian, Semitic and African Languages, I cannot say I know, but I would guess they were variations. The Polynesian languages appear closely related to the IndoEuropean languages, although they clearly evolved differently. Different past evolutions of the world have begun with a sound other than the "A."

Two things are important in this view: that those who were speaking before were using a simpler language, and that they, as a consequence, had a clearer view of the meanings of the words they were using than do we. The fewer words they used were more encompassing. They were also more directly in contact with the root meanings (the individual syllables) they were using when inventing new words and hearing the older ones. The word, as we know it, appeared more like our sentence.]

[More recently I have evolved this position, and now hold that what we have in the Pali is the original set of sound-elements and compounds (words) used to form language. I am saying that these were present in the language of the Buddha's day (no matter what it may have been called), and were deliberately chosen by the Buddha for their unique ability to convey information across cultures, and down through time. So the original statement that begins this section should be: "Languages known to have evolved from the root sounds found in Pali."]

Germanic Languages

Old Norse

Icelandic

Faeroese

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

Old High German

Middle High German

German

Yiddish

Old Saxon

Middle Low German

Middle Dutch

Dutch

Afrikaans

Middle Flemish

Flemish

Frisian

Old English

Middle English

English

Celtic

Gaulish

Old Welsh

Middle Welsh

Welsh

Old Cornish

Cornish

Middle Breton

Breton

Old Irish

Irish Gaelic

Middle Irish

Scottish Gaelic

Mans

Italic

Oscan

Umbrian

Sabellian

Venetic

Lanuvian

Faliscan

Praenestine

Latin

Portuguese

Spanish

Judeo-Spanish

Catalan

Old Provencal

Provencal

Old French

Middle French

French

Haitian Creole

Italian

Rhaeto-Romanic

Sardinian

Dalmatian

Romanian

Ligurian

Messapian

Illyrian

Thracian

Phrygian

Albanian

Greek

Ancient Greek

Byzantine Greek

Middle Greek

Modern Greek

Baltic

Old Prussian

Lithuanian

Latvian

Slavic

Old Church Slavonic

Slovene

Serbo-Croatian

Macedonian

Bulgarian

Old Czech

Czech

Slovak

Polish

Kashubian

Wendish

Polabian

Old Russian

Russian

Ukranian

Belorussian

Armenian

Old Armenian

Modern Armenian

Iranian

Old Persian

Pahlavi

Classical Persian

Modern Persian

Kurdish

Baluchi

Tajiki

Avestan

Sogdian

Khotanese

Pashto (Afghanistan)

Ossetic (Caucasus)

Indic

Pali

Sanskrit

Prakrits

Prakrits

Lahnda

Sindhi

Panjabi

Rajasthani

Gujarati

Konkani

Orriya

Bengali

Assamese

Bihari

Hindi

Urdu

Nepali

Sinhalese

Romany

Tocharian

Tocharian A

Tocharian B (central asia)

And, Possibly:

Anatolian

Hittite

Luwian

Palaic

Hieroglyphic Hittite

Lydian

Lycian


ASCII version of diacritical marks for Pali as used by the Pali Text Society

Long vowels are doubled: aa, ii, uu.

Other diacritics precede the letters marked by them, so:

vowels: .r .l

retroflex consonants: .t .th .d .dh .n

retroflex sibilant: .s

palatal sibilant: "s

palatal nasal: ~n

gutturalnasal: "n

anusvara: .m

visarga: .h

Examples: nirvaa.na, vi~n~naa.na.


The Pali "Canon"

For the orthadox list of books included in the Theravada Canon, seeAccess to Insight
The list below is what I would call the "strict" canon. Books we can be very sure are of the oldest strata of the collection process; highly likely to be reflecting an accurate picture of what the Buddha taught
See also the Sutta Index where in all cases where suttas have titles, the complete list of suttas is given with reference to location in the Pali Text Society Texts and Translations, the Wisdom Publication Translations, the suttas in Pali and Translation on line on BuddhaDust and Access to Insight, and various other locations.

Vinaya Pitaka / The Book of the Discipline

Sutta Pitaka

Digha Nikaya / Dialogues of the Buddha

Majjhima Nikaya / Middle Length Sayings

Samyutta Nikaya / The Book of Kindred Sayings

Anguttara Nikaya / The Book of Gradual Sayings

Doubtful but not problematic in terms of Dhamma:

Udana / Verses of Uplift

Theragatha / Elders' Verses Vol I: Psalms of the Brethren

Therigatha / Elders' Verses Vol II: Psalms of the Sisters

Jataka / Birth Stories


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