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Satipatthana Resources
Rhys Davids Introduction to their translation of the Satipatthana Sutta, and the translation itself
Puremind, M. Punnaji, Awakening Meditation, 1-13, 1-15, 3-12, 4-3, 4-6, 6-8, 7-6,7, 7-11, 8-52, 8-60, 8-61, 8-86
[MN 10]
WP: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, 10: The Foundations of Mindfulness, pp 145
[DN 22]
WP: The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Maurice Walshe, 22: The Greater Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness, pp335
PTS:, Middle Length Sayings I, #10: Discourse on the Applications of Mindfulness, Horner, pp70
The Pali Line:Part IV The 10th Question, Part 1 The Powers
Warren: Buddhism in Translations: Ī 69. World-Cycles Ī 65. The Six High Powers



Pali MO Nyanasatta Thera Soma Thera Hare Horner Punnaji Bodhi Nanamoli T.W. Rhys Davids C.A.F. Rhys Davids Thanissaro Walshe Woodward
citte emotion, heart, mind consciousness consciousness thought, mind consciousness, mind emotion, mood mind mind thoughts thoughts mind, intent mind, consciousness



Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede


Citta: [Sk. citta, orig. pp. of cinteti, cit...]

I. Meaning: the heart (psychologically), i. e. the centre & focus of man's emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in & accompanies its manifestations; i. e. thought. In this wise citta denotes both the agent & that which is enacted...for in Indian Psychology citta is the seat & organ of thought...

The meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us, as: with all my heart; heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart (cp. ekagga); all of which emphasize the emotional & conative side or "thought" more than its mental & rational side...It may therefore be rendered by intention, impulse, design; mood, disposition, state of mind, reaction to impressions. It is only in later scholastic lgg. that we are justified in applying the term "thought" in its technical sense. It needs to be pointed out, as complementary to this view, that citta nearly always occurs in the singular (=heart), & out of 150 cases in the Nikāyas only 3 times in the plural (=thoughts). The substantiality of citta (cetas) is also evident from its connection with kamma (heart as source of action), kāma & the senses in general...

Citta in it's relation to other terms referring to mental processes.

1. citta-hadya, the heart as incorporating man's personality: hadayaŋ phaleyya, cittavikkhepaŋ papuṇeyya (break his heart, upset his reason) S I.126; . . . S I.207, 214; Sn p. 32; . . .

2. c. as mental status, contrasted to (a) physical status: e. g. kilanta* weary in body & mind D I.20=III.32; ātura* S III.2-5; nikaṭṭha* A II.137; ṭhita* steadfast in body & soul (cp. ṭhitatta) S V.74; *passaddhi quiet of body & soul S V.66. . . .

3. c. as emotional habitus:

(a) active=intention, contrasted or compared with: (a) will, c. as one of the four samādhis, viz. chanda, viriya, c., vimaŋsa D III.77; S V.268; Vbh 288. - (b) action, c. as the source of kamma: . . . "when the intention is evil, the deed is evil as well" A I.262; . . . - Esp. in contrast to kāya & vācā, . . . (in deed & speech & will . . .

(b) passive=mood, feelings, emotion, ranging with kāya & paññā under the (3) bhāvanā D III.219; S IV.111; A III.106; cp. M I.237...classed with kāya vedanā dhammā under the (4) satipaṭṭhānas D II.95, 100, 299 sq.; S V.114, etc. . . .As part of the sīlakkhandha (with sīla ethics, paññā understanding) in adhisīla, etc. Vin V.181. . . - citta & paññā are frequently grouped together, e. g. S I.13 = 165; D III.269... As feeling citta is contrasted with intellection in the group saññā c. diṭṭhi A II.52...

Citta in its range of semantical applications: (1) heart, will, intention, etc.

(a) heart as general status of sensory-emotional being; its relation to the senses (indriyāni). A steadfast & constrained heart is the sign of healthy emotional equilibrium, this presupposes the control over the senses; . . . a guarded heart turns to great profit A I.7; . . . "from the fetters of Mara those are released who control their heart" Dh 37 . . .

(b) Contact with kāma & rāga: a lustful, worldly, craving heart. - (a) kāma; S IV.210; S I.188;. . . A IV.392; S I.92; . . . A II.211 . . . (my h. does not leap, sit or stand in cravings) D III.239; . . .(b) rāga: rāgo cittaŋ anuddhaŋseti (defilement harasses his heart) S I.185; II.231=271; A II.126; III.393; . . . A III.285; . . .S IV.73; . . .S IV.74; Sn 235; PvA 168. . . .

(c) A heart, composed, concentrated, settled, self-controlled, mastered, constrained. . . S I.98; A I.207; III.248; A IV.209, 213; S III.133; A III.245; S II.273; IV.263; A II.94, 157; D I.13=III.30, 108; S I.120, 129, 188; IV.78=351; A I.164; II.211; III.17, 280; IV.177; S III.93; V.154; 301; D III.101; A V.195; S I.132; A I.165; . . .

(e) An evil heart; D I.20= III.32; A I.8; IV.92; A I.262: S IV.322; A II.220; D I.79; II.299; III.281. . .

(f) "blessed are the pure in heart," a pure, clean, purified (cp. Ger. geläutert), emancipated, free, detached heart. (a) mutta-c*, vimutta-c*, etc. (cp. cetaso vimokkho, ceto-vimutti, muttena cetasā) S III.132, etc.; vi* Sn p. 149. - vimutta: S I.28 (+subhāvita), 29, 46=52; III.45 (+viratta), 90; IV.236 (rāga); - suvimutta: S I.126, 141, 233; IV.164; A III.245; V.29. - (b) cittaŋ parisodheti M I.347; A II.211; S IV.104. - (g) alīna c. (unstained) S I.159; A V.149.

(g) good-will, a loving thought, kindliness, tenderheartedness, love ("love the Lord with all your heart"). - (a) metta-c* usually in phrase mettacittaŋ bhāveti "to nourish the heart with loving thought," to produce good-will D I.167; S II.264; A I.10; V.81; Sn 507 (cp. mettā-sahagatena cetasā). - (b) bhavita-c* "keep thy heart with all diligence" (Prov. 4, 23) S I.188 (+susamahita); IV.294; V.369 (saddhā-paribhavita); A I.6 (+bahulikata, etc.); Sn 134 (=S I.188); Dh 89=S V.29; PvA 139.

(h) a heart calmed, allayed, passionless (santa* upasanta*) D.III.49; S I.141; Sn 746.

(i) a wieldy heart, a heart ready & prepared for truth, an open & receptive mind: kalla*, mudu*, udagga*, pasanna* A IV.186; kalla* PvA 38 (sanctified); lahu* S I.201; udagga* Sn 689, 1028; S I.190 (+mudita)...

(k) Various phrases. Abbhuta-cittajātā "while wonder filled their hearts" S I.178; evaŋcitto "in this state of mind" S II.199; Sn 985; cittam me Gotamo jānāti (G. knows my heart) S I.178; theyya-citto intending to steal Vin III.58; āraddha-citto of determined mind M I.414; S II.21, cp. 107; Sn p. 102; aññācittaŋ upaṭṭhāpeti S II.267; nānā* of varying mind J I.295; nihīnacitto low-minded PvA 107; nikaṭṭha* A II.137; ahata* A IV.460=V.18; supahata* S I.238 (cp. Miln 26); visankhāragata* Dh 154; sampanna* Sn 164; vibbhanta* S I.61=A I.70=II.30=III.391.

(2) thought: mā papakaŋ akusalaŋ cittaŋ cinteyyātha (do not think any evil thought) S V.418; na cittamattam pi (not even one thought); mama cittaŋ bhaveyya (I should think)...

-uppāda the rise of a thought, i. e. intention, desire as theyya *ŋ uppādesi he had the intention to steal (a thought of theft) Vin III.56; M I.43; III.45; J II.374;
-ekaggatā "one-pointedness of mind," concentration Nett 15, 16; Vism 84, 137, 158; DhA III.425; ThA 75; cp. ekagga-citto A III.175;
-kilesa stain of h. Dh 88 (DhA II.162=pañca nivara?a);
-cetasika belonging to heart & thought, i. e. mental state, thought, mind D I.213; Dhs 1022 (-dhamma, Mrs. Rh. D.: emotional, perceptual & synthetic states as well as those of intellect applied to sense-impressions), 1282; Ps I.84; Miln 87; Vism 61, 84, 129, 337;
-passaddhi calm of h., serenity of mind (cp. kaya*) S V.66; Dhs 62;
-bhāvanā cultivation of the h. M III.149;
-mala stain of h. PvA 17;
-mudutā plasticity of mind (or thought) Dhs 62, 277, 325;
-rūpaŋ according to intention, as much as expected Vin I.222; II.78; III.161; IV.177, 232;
-samādhi (cp. ceto-samādhi) concentration of mind, collectedness of thought, self-possession S IV.350; V.269; Vbh 218;


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