Digitized Version

The Pali Text Society's
Pāli-English Dictionary

Edited by
T.W. Rhys Davids, F.B.A., D.Sc., Ph.D., L.L.D., D.Litt.
and William Stede, Ph.D.

Corrected Reprint by

K.R. Norman
William Pruitt
and Peter Jackson

Published by
The Pali Text Society

Corrected reprint Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

This work is based on an scanned version
of an early reprint
of an early edition
The Pali Text Society's
Pali English Dictionary
revised in accordance with the 2015 "Reprint with corrections"
by K.R. Norman, William Pruitt and Peter Jackson.


[ A ] [ Ā ] [ I ] [ Ī ] [ U ] [ Ū ] [ E ] [ O ]
[ K ] [ Kh ] [ G ] [ Gh ] [ C ] [ Ch ] [ J ] [ Jh ] [ Ñ ]
[ Ṭ ] [ Ṭh ] [ Ḍ ] [ Ḍh ] [ T ] [ Th ] [ D ] [ Dh ] [ N ]
[ P ] [ Ph ] [ B ] [ Bh ] [ M ]
[ Y ] [ R ] [ L ] [ Ḷ ] [ V ] [ S ] [ H ]

Pages for the 2015 and later editions (indicated by green numbers in curly brackets, e.g.: {1}) can be reached by appending '#pg0, 00, or 000' to the end of the url;
pages in the pre 2015 edition (indicated by black numbers in curly brackets, e.g.: {1}) can be reached by appending '#pre0, 000, or 000' to the end of the url.

Clicking on a page number will place the url for that page in the address bar.

Each word-entry is given a separate new line and is preceded by the special character "::[#=space]", which means that terms can be searched using: ":: [word]". Compounds follow the main entry and are indented. Some additional materials from other sources are occasionally added to word-entries and follow the main entry and are preceded by a source code in square brackets, e.g. [BD]:, [DPL]:, [CPD]:, etc.

A few Unicode combining characters do not display properly in the text (or source) file; (e.g.: r̥ "r followed by ̥ ") however they will display properly in a browser.


FUTURE GENERATIONS: This whole file should be proofed again. There is a large possibility that corrections made new errors in what was already proofed. Further there are design inconsistancies which would be well to correct: the use of — (M-dash) is inconsistent. Capitilization of words beginning sentences is inconsistent. The structure of the various divisions of a definition (I.A.1.(a)(b)2.(a)(b)B.1.(a)(b)2.(a)(b) II~) is inconsistent and should be made consistent. The etymologies have been removed from the Pali Text Society's revised edition because they were sometimes doubtful; they are often helpful and have been retained in this digital edition, but should be examined/revised/corrected by a skilled philologist.

Improvements: This work is likely to be the most useful digital Pali dictionary for some time as the new DoP will be under copyright for a long time into the future. Some suggestions as to how it can be improved are therefore not inappropriate:
Link citations to their sources.
Incorporate new citations, perhaps from some indexing software program. It seems reasonable that a lot of valuable information could be found in the ability to distinguish those terms which belong exclusively to the various divisions of the Dhamma.);
incorporate definitions found in other dictionaries.

purgatory > Hell; (Note on page 607, Sata, and elsewhere, PED ed has used 'hell'.)
-saññā consciousness > perception (sometimes originally 'perception' sometimes not)(sometimes left as is as being too complicated to change)
some abbreviations: Sn > Snp; Mil > Miln; Thī > Thig; Th > Thag;
"as N. per." (as Name person) changed to "as proper name"
Lent > The Rains, except where referring to Lent.

Left as is from the previous digital edition, could be better:
use of () and []; no use of bold;
punctuation and capitilization — Initial entry term will be boldface in .htm;
inconsistant capitalizations throughout have sometimes been left as found, sometimes changed.



Of this latest reprint, Dr. Gethin, President of the Pali Text Society writes in his "Foreword to the Reprint with Corrections:

"The present 'corrected reprint' is an attempt to go some way towards improving PED without producing a fully revised edition. Obvious mistakes such as misspellings and typographical errors have been corrected. Very occasional references to more recent publications on particular words have been added. There has been no attempt, however, to revise or rewrite definitions, nor was it deemed practical to check all the references to Pāli texts, though errors that came to light have been amended. Many of the reference to other Indo-European languages seem problematic and misleading nearly a century later, so aside from those to Vedic and Sanskrit, these have been removed Abbreviations of Pāli texts have been amended to conform to the sysem used in A Critical Pāli Dictionary. . The earler editions had a section 'C. Additions and Corrections' following the introductory material. These additions and corrections have been incorporated into this reprint."

The alterations mentioned in Dr. Gethin's Foreword are being incorporated in this edition of the PED with the exception that the problematic and misleading references to other Indo-European languages have been retained. Additionally, the Greek terms no longer require a special font to display properly. Please also be assured that all editorial input has been placed in clearly marked sections (see below) below entries. Except for stylistic changes, entries are either as found in early editions, as corrected by the PTS proofreaders, or are combinations of both; nothing has been added by this publisher.



Foreword to the First PTS Edition

It is somewhat hard to realize, seeing how important and valuable the work has been, that when ROBERT CAESAR CHILDERS published, in 1872, the first volume of his Pāli Dictionary, he only had at his command a few pages of the canonical Pāli books. Since then, owing mainly to the persistent labours of the PTS, practically the whole of these books, amounting to between ten and twelve thousand pages, have been made available to scholars. These books had noun authors. They are anthologies which gradually grew up in the community. Their composition, as to the Vinaya and the four Nikāyas (with the possible exception of the supplements) was complete within about a century of the Buddha's death; and the rest belong to the following century. When scholars have leisure to collectand study the data to be found in this pre-Sanskrit literature, it will necessarily throw as much light on the history of ideas and language as the study of such names and places as are mentioned in it (quite incidentally) has already thrown upon the political divisions, social customs, and economic conditions of ancient India.

Some of these latter facts I have endeavoured to collectin my "Buddhist India"; and perhaps the most salient discovery is the quite unexpected conclusion that, for about two centuries (both before the Buddha's birth and after his death), the paramount power in India was Kosala — a kingdom stretching from Nepal on the North to the Ganges on the South, and from the Ganges on the West to the territories of the Vajjian confederacy on the East. In this, the most powerful kingdom in India; there had naturally arisen a standard vernacular differing from the local forms of speech just as standard English differs from the local (usually county) dialects. The Pāli of the canonical books is based on that standard Kosala vernacular as spoken in the 6th and 7th centuries B. commentary It cannot be called the "literary" form of that vernacular, for it was not written at all till long afterwards. That vernacular was the mother tongue of the Buddha. He was born in what is now Nepal, but was then a district under the suzerainty of Kosala and in one of the earliest Pāli documents he is represented as calling himself a Kosalaṃ.

When, about a thousand years afterwards, some pandits in Ceylon began to write in Pāli, they wrote in a style strikingly different from that of the old texts. Part of that difference is noun doubt due simply to a greater power of fluent expression unhampered by the necessity of constantly considering that the words composed had to be learnt by heart When the Sinhalese used Pāli, they were so familiar with the method of writing on palmleaves that the question of memorizing simply did not arise. It came up again later. But none of the works belonging to this period were intended to be learneuter They were intended to be read.


On the other hand they were for the most part reproductions of older material that had, till then, been preserved in Sinhalese. Though the Sinhalese pandits were writing in Pāli, to them, of course, a dead language, they probably did their thinking in their own mother tongue. Now they had had then, for many generations, so close and intimate an intercourse with their Dravidian neighbours that Dravidian habits of speech had crept into Sinhalese. It was inevitable that some of the peculiarities of their own tongue, and especially these Dravidanisms, should have influenced their style when they wrote in Pāli. It will be for future scholars to ascertain exactly how far this influence can be traced in the idioms and in the order of the arrangement of the matter of these Ceylon Pāli books of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D.

There is noun evidence that the Sinhalese at that time knew Sanskrit. Some centuries afterwards a few of them learnt the elements of Classical Sanskrit and very proud they were of it. They introduced the Sanskrit forms of Sinhalese words when writing "high" Sinhalese. And the authors of such works as the Dāṭhāvaṃsa, the Saddhammopāyana, and the Mahābodhivaṃsa, make use of Pāli words derived from Sanskrit that is, they turned into Pāli form certain Sanskrit words they found either in the Amara-ko.sa, or in the course of their very limited reading, and used them as Pāli. It would be very desirable to have a list of such Pāli words thus derived from Sanskrit. It would not be a long one.

Here we come once more to the question of memory. From the 11th ceneuter onwards it became a sort of fashion to write manuals in verse, or in prose and verse, on such subjects as it was deemed expedient for novices to {viii} know. Just as the first book written in Pāli in Ceylon was a chain of memoriter verses strung together by very indifferent Pāli verses, so at the end we have these scarcely intelligible memoriter verses meant to be learned by heart by the pupils.

According to the traditions handed down among the Sinhalese, Pāli, that is, the language used in the texts, could also be called Māgadhī. What exactly did they mean by that° They could not be referring to the Māgadhī of the Prakrit grammarians, for the latter wrote some centuries afterwards. Could they have meant the dialect spoken in Magadha at the date when they used the phrase, say, the sixth century A. D.° That could only be if they had any exact knowledge of the different vernaculars of North India at the time. For that there is noun evidence, and it is in itself very improbable. What they did mean is probably simply the language used by Asoka, the king of Magadha. For their traditions also stated that the texts had been brought to them officially by Asoka's son Mahinda; and not in writing, but in the memory of Mahinda and his companions. Now we know something of the language of Asoka. We have his edicts engraved in different parts of India, differing slightly in compliance with local varieties of speech. Disregarding these local differences, what is left may be considered the language of head-quarters where these edicts were certainly drafted. This "Māgadhī" contains none of the peculiar characteristics we associate with the Māgadhī dialectical It is in fact a younger form of that standard Kosalaṃ lingua franca mentioned above.

Now it is very suggestive that we hear nothing of how the king of Magadha became also king of Kosala. Had this happened quietly, by succession, the event would have scarcely altered the relation of the languages of the two kingdoms. That of the older and larger would still have retained its supremacy. So when the Scottish dynasty succeeded to the English throne, the two languages remained distinct, but English became more and more the standard.


However this may be, it has become of essential importance to have a Dictionary of a language the history of whose literature is bound up with so many delicate and interesting problems. The PTS, after long continued exertion and many cruel rebuffs and disappointments is now at last in a position to offer to scholars the first instalment of such a dictionary.

The merits and demerits of the work will be sufficiently plain even from the first fasciculus. But one or two remarks are necessary to make the position of my colleague and myself clear.

We have given throughout the Sanskrit roots corresponding to the Pāli roots, and have omitted the latter. It may be objected that this is a strange method to use in a Pāli dictionary, especially as the vernacular on which Pāli is based had never passed through the stage of Sanskrit. That may be so; and it may not be possible, historically, that any Pāli word in the canon could have been actually derived from the corresponding Sanskrit word. Nevertheless the Sanskrit form, though arisen quite independently, may throw light upon the Pāli form; and as Pāli roots have not yet been adequately studied in Europe, the plan adopted will probably, at least for the present, be more useful.

This work is essentially preliminary. There is a large number of words of which we do not know the derivation. There is a still larger number of which the derivation does not give the meaning, but rather the reverse. It is so in every living language. Who could guess, from the derivation, the complicated meaning of such words as "conscience" , "emotion" , "disposition" ° The derivation would be as likely to mislead as to guide. We have made much progress. No one needs now to use the one English word "desire" as a translation of sixteen distinct Pāli words, noun one of which means precisely desire. Yet this was done in Vol. X of the Sacred Books of the East by Ps IX MuLLER and FAUSBoLL See Mrs. RHYS SvVIDS in + ā + S., 1898, page 58.. The same argument applies to as many concrete words as abstract ones. Here again we claim to have made much advance. But in either case, to wait for perfection would postpone the much needed dictionary to the Greek kalends. It has therefore been decided to proceed as rapidly as possible with the completion of this first edition, and to reserve the proceeds of the sale for the eventual issue of a second edition which shall come nearer to our ideals of what a Pāli Dictionary should be.

We have to thank Mrs. STEDE for valuable help in copying out material noted in my interleaved copy of Childers, and in collating indexes published by the Society; Mrs. RHYS SvVIDS for revising certain articles on the technical terms of psychology and philosophy; and the following scholars for kindly placing at our disposal the material they had collected for the now abandoned scheme of an international Pāli Dictionary:

{ix} Prof. STEN KONOW. Words beginning with S or H. (Published in + ā + S. 1909 and 1907, revised by Prof. Dr. D. ANDERSEN).
Dr. Ps IBEL H. BODE. B, Bh and M.
Dr. W. H. D. ROUSE. C-Ñ.

In this connection I should wish to refer to the work of Dr. Edmond Hardy. When he died he left a great deal of material; some of which has reached us in time to be made available. He was giving his whole time, and all his enthusiasm to {viii} the work, and had he lived the dictionary would probably have been finished before the war. His loss was really the beginning of the end of the international undertaking.

Anybody familiar with this sort of work will know what care and patience, what scholarly knowledge and judgment are involved in the collection of such material, in the sorting, the sifting and final arrangement of it, in the adding of cross references, in the consideration of etymological puzzles, in the comparison and correction of various or faulty readings, and in the verification of references given by others, or found in the indexes. For all this work the users of the Dictionary will have to thank my colleague, Dr. WILLIAM STEDE. It may be interesting to notice here that the total number of references to appear in this first edition of the new dictionary is estimated to be between one hundred and fifty and one hundred and sixty thousand. The Bavarian Academy has awarded to Dr. STEDE a personal grant of 3100 marks for his work on this Dictionary.

Chipstead, Surrey. July, 1921.

{x} {ix}




Anguttara-Nikaya 5 vols. PTS 1885-1900 (A)
Apadāna PTS, 1925 (Ap)
Buddhavaṃsa PTS 1882 (Bv)
Cariyāpiṭaka PTS 1882 (Cp)
Dhammapada PTS 1914 (Dhp)
Dhammasaṅgaṇi PTS 1885 (Dhs), references are to the paragraph numbers
Dhātukathā, PTS, 1892 (Dhātuk)
Dīgha-Nikāya 3 vols. PTS (D)
Dukapaṭṭhāna, PTS, 1906 (Dukap)
Itivuttaka PTS 1890 (It)
Kathāvatthu 2 vols. PTS 1894, 95 (Kv)
Khuddakapāṭha PTS 1915 (Khp)
Majjhima-Nikāya 3 vols. PTS 1887-1902 (M)

Niddesa I, Mahaº 2 vols. PTS 1916, 1917 (Nidd I)
Niddesa II, Cullaº PTS 1918 (Nidd II)
Paṭisambhidāmagga 2 vols. PTS 1905, 1907 (Paṭis)
Petavatthu PTS 1889 (Pv)
Puggalapaññatti PTS 1883 (Pp)
Saṃyutta-Nikāya 5 vols. PTS 1884-1898 (S)
Suttanipāta PTS 1913 (Sn)
Theratherīgāthā PTS 1883 (Thag) & (Thig)
Tikapaṭṭhāna, 3 vols. PTS, 1921-1923 (Tikap)
Udāna PTS 1885 (Ud)
Vibhaṅga PTS 1904 (Vbh)
Vimānavatthu PTS 1886 (Vv)
Vinaya-Pitaka 5 vols. London 1879-1883 (Vin)




Abhidhammāvatara, PTS 1915 (Abhidh-av)
Abhidhānappadīpikā, ed. W. Subhūti, Colombo, 2nd ed., 1883. (Abhp.)
Atthasālinī, PTS 1897 (As)
Buddhadatta's Manuals, PTS 1915, see Abhidh-av and Rūpār (Bdhd.)
Dāṭhavaṃsa, JPTS 1884 (Dāṭh)
Dhātupāṭha & Dhātumañjūsā, ed. Andersen & Smith, Copenhagen 1921 (Dhātup, Dhātum).
Dhammapada Commentary, 4 vols. PTS 1906-1914 (Dhp-a)
Dhātupāṭha (Dhātup)
Dhātumañjūsā (Dhātum)
Dīpavaṃsa, London 1879 (Dpvs)
Jātaka, 6 vols. London 1877-1896 (Ja) (tr. J.S.)
Kaccāyanappakaraṇa, ed. & tr. Senart (JAs, 1871) (Kacc)
Khuddakapāṭha Commentary, PTS 1915 (Pj I)
Khuddhasikkhā, JPTS 1883 (Khuddas)
Manorathapūraṇī PTS, 1924 (Mp)
Mahāvaṃsa, PTS 1908 (Mhv)
Mahābodhivaṃsa, PTS 1891 (Mhbv)
Milindapañha, London 1880 (Miln)

Mūlasikkhā, JPTS 1883 (Mūls)
Nettipakaraṇa, PTS 1902 (Nett)
Pañcagatidīpana, JPTS 1884 (Panca-g)
Papañcasūdanī, pt. I, PTS, 1922 (Ps)
Petavatthu Commentary, PTS 1894 (Pv-a)
Puggalapaññatti Commentary, JPTS 1914 (Pug-a)
Rūpārūpavibhāga, PTS 1915, (Rūpār)
Saddhammopāyana, JPTS 1887 (Saddh)
Samantapāsādikā PTS, 1924 (Sp)
Sammohavinodanī, PTS, 1923 (Vibh-a)
Sumaṅgalavilāsinī, vol. I, PTS 1886 (D-a I)
{x} Suttanipāta Commentary, 2 vols. PTS 1916-1917 (Pj II)
Tela-kaṭāha-gāthā, JPTS 1884 (Tel)
Therīgātha Commentary, PTS 1891 [second ed. 1998] (Thī-a)
Vimānavatthu Commentary, PTS 1901 (Vv-a)
Visuddhimagga, 2 vols. PTS 1920-1921 (Vism)
Yogāvacara's Manual, PTS, 1896 (Yogāv)

Note. The system adopted in quotations of passages from Pali texts is that proposed in JPTS VI (1909), pp. 385-87,[2] with this modification that Petavatthu (Pv) is quoted by canto and verse, and Cullaniddesa (Nidd II) by section number of word in Part II, "Explanatory Matter".





Avadānaśataka, ed. J. S. Speyer (Bibl. Buddhica III), 2 vols., St Petersburg 1906 (Avś)
Avadānakalpalatā, ed. Sarat Chandra Das, Calcutta 1888-1918 (Av-kip)
Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā, ed. Rajendralala Mitira, Calcutta 1888) (Aṣṭa-Prajñā-p)
Bodhicaryāvatāra (Bodhic-av)
Divyāvadāna, ed. Cowell & Neil, Cambridge 1886 (Divy)
Jātakamālā, ed. Hendrik Kern (Harvard Oriental Series I), Boston 1891 (Jm)
Lalitavistara, ed. S. Lefmann, I. Halle 1902 (Lai).[3]
Lalitavistara, ed. P. L. Vaidya (Buddhist Sanskrit Texts 1) Dharbhanga 1958
Mahāvastu, ed. É. Senart, 3 vols., Paris 1882-1897 (Mvu)
Mahāvyutpatti, ed. Mironow (Bibl. Buddhica XIII) St Petersburg 1910, 11. (Vyu)
Pratimoksha-sutra, ed. I. P. Minayeff, St., Petersburg, 1869. (Pr.S.)
Saddharmapuṇḍarīka, ed. Hendrik Kern (Bibl. Buddhica X) St Petersburg 1908-1912 (Saddharmap)
Śikṣā-samuccaya, ed. C. Bendall, (Bibl. Buddhica I) St. Petersburg, 1902 (Śikṣ)
Udānavarga, ed. Hermann Beckh, Berlin 1911 (Uv(tib))


[2] in this reprint with corrections, abbreviations used in CPD have been adopted.

[3] The edition quoted in the dictionary is the Calcutta ed. (1877) by Rajendralala Mitra (Bibl. Indica), and not Lefmann's. The ed. by P. L. Vaidya contains a concordance of the various Lai. eds.





Aitareya-brāhmana (AitBr)
Atharva-veda (AV)
Chāndogyopaniṣat (ChUP)
Halāyudha's Abhidhānaratnamālā, A Sanskrit Vocabulary, Edited by Th. Aufrecht with a Sanskrit-English Glossary, London 1861.
Kathāsaritsāgara (Kathās)
Mahābhārata (MBh)
Mālatīmādhava (Mālatīm)
Mr̥cchakaṭika X (Mr̥cch)
R̥g-veda (R̥V)
Śatapatha-brāhmana (ŚBr)
Suśruta (Suśr)
Vājasaneyī Saṃhitā (VS)






Deśīnāmamālā by Hemacandra (Hc-Deś)
Kalpasūtra (ed. W. Schubring) (Kalpas)





Buch der Erzählungen aus früheren Existenzen Buddhas, Das, (tr. of the Jātaka) by Julius Dutoit. München-Neubiberg: Oskar Schloss, 7 vols., 1906-21. (Ja tr.)
Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics (tr. of the Dhammasaṅgaṇi) by C.A.F. Rhys Davids (RAS Tr. Fund XII), London 1900. (BMPE, references are to the paragraph numbers.)
Buddhist Suttas, tr. by T.W. Rhys Davids (SBE, Vol. 11), Oxford, 1881. (Buddh. Suttas).
Compendium of Philosophy (tr. of the Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha) by S. Z. Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids, PTS, 1910. (Cpd)
Designation of Human Types (tr. of Puggalapaññatti) by B.C. Law, PTS, 1924. (Pp tr.)
Dialogues of the Buddha, (tr. of the Dīgha-Nikaya) by T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids. London: Vol. I, 1899; Vol. II, 1910; Vol. Ill, 1921. (Dial.)
Dīghanikāya: Das Buch der Langen Texte des buddhistischen Kanons, tr. by Rudolf Otto Franke. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1913. (Dīgha tr.)
Dutoit, Julius, see Buch der Erzählungen aus früheren Existenzen Buddhas, Das,
Elders' Verses I (tr. of Thag), by K.R. Norman, PTS, 1969. (EV I)
Expositor (tr. of the Atthasālinī), by Pe Maung Tin, PTS, 1920-21. (Expos.)
Franke, Rudolf Otto, Dīghanikāya: Das Buch der Langen Texte des buddhistischen Kanons, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1913 (Dīgha tr.)
Geiger, Wilhelm, see Saṃyutta-Nikāya
Great Chronicle of Ceylon (Mhv tr.), see Mahāvaṃsa
Jacobi, H., Jaina Sutras, Part 1 (Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 22 (1884)), Part 2 (Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 45 (1895)). (Jaina Sūtras).
The Jataka or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births, 1895-1907, tr. by various hands under the editorship of E.B. Cowel, PTS, 1895-1907 (J.S.)
Kathāvatthu, see Points of Controversy.
Kindred Sayings (tr. of the Saṃyutta-nikāya), by C.A.F. Rhys Davids, PTS, tr. 1917. (KS)
Lieder der Mönche und Nonnen Gotamo Buddho's, Die: Aus den Theragatha und Therigatha, by Karl Eugen Neumann. Berlin: Ernst Hofmann, 1899. (LMN)
Mahāvaṃsa or The Great Chronicle of Ceylon, tr. by W. Geiger, PTS, 1912. (Mhv tr.)
Manual of a Mystic (tr. of the Yogāvacara), by F. L. Woodward, PTS, 1916. (Mystic)
Path of Purity (tr. of the Visuddhimagga) by Pe Maung Tin, PTS, tr. 1923, 1st pt. (Vism tr.)
Points of Controversy (tr. of the Kathāvatthu) by Shwe Zan Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids, PTS 1915. (PtsC)
Psalms of the Brethren (tr. of the Theragathā) by C.A.F. Rhys Davids, PTS, tr. 1913. (Ps.B)
Psalms of the Sisters (tr. of the Therīgātha) by C.A.F. Rhys Davids, PTS, tr. 1909. (Ps.S)
Questions of King Milinda (tr. of the Milindapañha) by T.W. Rhys Davids, SBE Vols. 35, 36. (Q.K.M.)
Reden Gotamo Buddho's, Die: Aus der Sammlung der Bruchstücke Suttanipato des Pali-Kanons, by Karl Eugen Neumann. Leipzig: Barth, 1905. 2nd ed., Munich: Piper, 1924. (SB)
Reden Gotamo Buddho's, Die: Aus der längerer Sammlung Dighanikayo des Pali-Kanons, by Karl Eugen Neumann. Munich: R. Piper, 1907-1912, 1918. (L.S.)
Reden Gotamo Buddho's, Die: Aus der mittleren Sammlung Majjhimanikayo des Pali-Kanons, by Karl Eugen Neumann. Leipzig: W. Friedrich, 1892-1902, 1921. Vols. I to III2 1921. (M.S. Mitt. S. & Mitlere Sammlung I)
Samyutta-nikaya: Die in Gruppen geordnete Sammlung aus dem Pāli-Kanon der Buddhisten. Wilhelm Geiger. Zeitschrift für Buddhismus und Verwandte Gebiete, IV-VIII, 1922-28 = Saṃyutta-Nikāya. München-Neubiberg 1925-1930, Vols. I-II. (Saṃyutta tr.)
Vinaya Texts (tr. by T.W. Rhys Davids & H. Oldenberg), SBE Vols. 13, 17, 20. (Vin. Texts)
Worte der Wahrheit, Dhammapadam, by Leopold von Schroeder, Leipzig, 1892






Album Kern: Opstellen geschreven te eere van Dr. H. Kern, hem aangeboden door vrienden en leerlingen op zijn zeventigsten verjaardag, den vi. April MDCCCCIII. Leiden: Brill, 1903.
Andersen, Dines, A Pali Reader, 1901. (Andersen, PR)
--------, A Pali Glossary : Including the Words of the Pali Reader and of the Dhammapada. Copenhagen, 1904.
Banerjea, Pramathanath, Public Administration in Ancient India, London, 1916.
Beal, Samuel, tr., Buddhist Records of the Western World (Hiuen Tsiang), 1884. (Beal, Buddh. Records)
--------, Texts from the Buddhist Canon, Commonly Known as Dhammapada, Boston, 1878.
Böhtlingk, Otto, and Rudolph Roth, Sanskrit-Wörterbuch, 7 vols., St Petersburg, 1852-75. (BR)
Bolée, W.B., Gone to the Dogs in Ancient India, 2006.
Bühler, Johann Georg, in: Hermann Oldenberg, "Bemerkungen zur Pâli-Grammatik", see below
Brough, J., The Early Brahmanical System of Gotra and Pravara: A Translation from the Gotra-pravara-mañjarī of Puruṣottama-paṇḍita, Cambridge, 1953.
Brugmann, K., "Altindisch dāyādá-, griechisch χηρωστής und lateinisch hērēs", Album Kern, Leiden, 1903, pp. 29-32.
--------, "Die Demonstrativpronomina der indogermanischen Sprachen", Abhandlungen der philologisch-historischen Klasse der Königlich- sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Band 22, Nr. 6. Leipzig 1904
--------, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, Strassburg 1902-1904.
Childers, R.C., A Dictionary of the Pali Language, London 1874. (Childers)
Coomaraswamy, A.K., La Sculpture de Bharhut, 1956.
Cunningham, Alexander, The Ancient Geography of India, 1871.
-------, The Stupa of Bharhut. London, 1879.
Ehni, J., Der vedische Mythus de Yama: Verglichen mit den analogen Typen der persischen, griechischen und germanischen Mythologie, Strassburg, 1890. (Ehni, Yama)
Fick, Richard. Die sociale Gliederung im nordöstlichen Indien zu Buddha's Zeit. Kiel: Haeseler, 1897. (Soc. Gl.)
Fleet, J.F., "The Name Gujarāt", JRAS, Vol. 38 (1906), pp. 458-60.
Franke, R.O., "Einiges über Beziehung der Wortbedeutung zur Wortform" in: Gurupūjākaumudī ... Festgabe Albrecht Weber, Leipzig 1896, pp. 26ff. = Kleine Schriften, Wiesbaden, 1978, pp. 268ff.
-------, Geschichte und Kritik der einheimischen Pāli-Grammatik und -Lexicographie, Strassburg, 1902 = Kleine Schriften, Wiesbaden 1978, pp. 9-1II. (Franke, Pāli-Gram.)
--------, 1893, "Indische Fabeln bei den Suahelis", WZKM, Vol. VII, pp. 215-16, 384-85.
--------, 1908, "The Buddhist Councils at Rājagaha and Vesālī", JPTS VI, pp. 1-80 = Kleine Schriften. Wiesbaden 1978, pp. 1381-1460.
{xi}Geiger, M. and W., Pāli Dhamma: Vornehmlich in der kanonischen Literatur, München, 1920 = Kleine Schriften 1978, pp. 101-228.
Geiger, W., "Dhamma und Brahman", Zeitschrift für Buddhismus und verwandte Gebiete, Munich, 3, 1921, pp. 73-83 = Kleine Schriften 1973, pp. 88-98.
-------, Kleine Schriften zur Indologie und Buddhismuskunde. Herausgegeben von Heinz Bechert. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1973.
--------, A Pali Grammar, tr. B. Ghosh, revised and edited by K.R. Norman, 1994. (P.Gram.)
--------, Pali Literature and Language, tr. B. Ghosh, 2nd ed., Delhi, 1968. (P.L.L.)
Gogerly, Daniel, Ceylon Buddhism, Colombo, 1908.
Grassmann, W., Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda, Leipzig 1873.
Grierson, G.A., "The Home of Literary Pali", Commemorative Essays Presented to Sir Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, Poona, 1917, pp. 117-23.
Grimm, Märchen: Kinder und Hausmärchen gesammelt durch die Brüder Grimm. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam 1857.
Haug, Martin, Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, Bombay, 1862.
Hardy, E., "Über den Ursprung des Samajja", Album Kern, Leiden, 1903, pp. 61-66. (Hardy, Album Kern)
--------, Buddha, Leipzig, 1903.
Hardy, R. Spence, Eastern Monachism, London, 1850. (Hardy, E.M.)
--------, Manual of Buddhism in Its Modern Development, London, 1853.
Heiler, F., Die buddhistische Versenkung: Eine religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung, 1918; 2nd ed., München, 1922.
Hinüber, Oskar von, A Handbook of Pāli Literature, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1996.
Indische Studien, see Weber, A.
Indo-Iranian Journal (IIJ)
Kern, Hendrik, Toevoegselen op't Woordenboek van Childers; 2 pts (Verhandelingen Kon. Ak. van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam N. R. XVI, 5), Amsterdam 1916. (Kern Toev.).
Kirfel, W., Kosmographie der Inder, Bonn & Leipzig 1920.
Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung, Kuhn, A. (KZ).
Lassen, Chr., Indische Alterthumskunde, Bonn, 4 vols., 1847-1862. (Ind. Alt).
Leumann, Ernst, "Die Ligatur mh in der Kharoṣṭhī-Handschrift des Dhammapada", Album Kern, pp. 393-95 (= Kleine Schriften, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner (1998), pp. 454-58. (Leumann, Album Kern.)
[Review article of Pv-a, A III, and A IV], Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen (Gött. Anz.), 1899, pp. 585-602 (= Kleine Schriften, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner (1998), pp. 537-54.
Lüders, H., 1954, Beobachtungen über die Sprache des buddhistischen Urkanons, herausgegeben von E. Waldschmidt. Abhandlungen der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Klasse fur Sprache, Literatur und Kunst Jg. 1952, Nr. 10.
--------, "Zwei indische Etymologien", Nachrichten von der königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttinger, Phil.-hist. Klasse, (NGAW) 1898, pp. 1-5 (= Philologica Indica, Göttingen 1939, pp. 43-47).
Macdonell, A.A., Vedic Mythology, Strassburg, 1897.
-------- and A.B. Keith, Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, London, 1912.
Mayrhofer, Manfred, 1994, "Zu Prakrit māhaṇa- 'Brahmane'", WZKS 38, pp. 169-71.
Michelson, T., "Pali and Prakrit Lexicographical Notes", Indogermanische Forschungen, Vol. XXIII, pp. 127-30.
Müller, E., "Mrs Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Early Buddhists, 1. Psalms of the Sisters", JRAS 1910, pp. 536-39.
--------, Simplified Grammar of the Pāli Language, Trübner, 1884. (Müller P.Gram.).
Muir, J., "On the Interpretation of the Veda", JRAS 1866, pp. 303-402.
Oberlies, Thomas, Pāli: A Grammar of the Language of the Theravāda Tipiṭaka, Berlin, 2001.
Oldenberg, Hermann, "Bemerkungen zur Pāli-Grammatik", KZ XXV (1881), pp. 314-27 (= Kleine Schriften II (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1967), pp. 1162-75).
--------, Buddha: sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde, Berlin, 1881, 7th ed. 1920.
--------, Die Reden des Buddha, München, 1922. (Reden des B.)
Otto, R., Das Heilige, Breslau: Tredwendt und Granier, 1917.
Pischel, R., Leben und Lehre des Buddha, Leipzig, 1910.
--------, Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen, Strassburg, 1900. (Pischel, Pkt Gr.).
Plunket, E., Ancient Calendars and Constellations, London, 1903.
Printz, W., Bhāsa's Prakrit, Frankfurt, 1921.
Pyī Sadaw, Atthasālinī Nissaya (the New Nissaya), Rangoon: Kemmendine, 1905.
Rhys Davids, C.A.F., Buddhism : A Study of the Buddhist Norm, London, 1912.
--------, Buddhism: Its Birth and Dispersal, London, 1934.
--------, Buddhist Psychology, London, 1924.
--------, "Economic Conditions According to Early Buddhist Literature", in E.J. Rapson, ed., The Cambridge History of India, Volume I, Ancient India, Cambridge 1922, pp. 198-219.
Rhys Davids, T.W., Buddhist India, London, 1903.
-------, Early Buddhism, London, 1908.
Scherman, L., Materialen zur indischen Visionsliteratur, Leipzig 1892 (= Kleine Schriften. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart 2001, pp. 103-267). (Scherman Materialen)
Seidenstücker, K., Karl: Das Udāna: eine kanonische Schrift des Pali-Buddhismus. Leipzig: H Tränker, 1913.
Senart, E., Essai sur la Légende du Buddha, 2nd ed., Paris, 1882.
Stede, W., Die Gespenstergeschichten des Peta Vatthu, Leipzig, 1914. (GPv)
Thieme, P., Kleine Schriften, 1984.
Trenckner, V., "Notes on the Milindapañho," in JPTS 1908, 102 sq.
Vetter, T., The Khandha Passages in the Vinayapiṭaka and the Four Main Nikayas, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte, 682. Band. Wien 2000.
Vogel, Jean Phillipe, "Epigraphical Discoveries at Sārnāth", Epigraphia Indica VIII (1905-1906).
--------. "The Sign of the Spread Hand or 'Five-Finger-Token' (Pañcāṅgulika) in Pāli Literature", Verslagen en Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeling Letterkunde, 5th Series, Vol. IV, Amsterdam 1920, pp. 218-35.
Wackernagel, J., and A. Debrunner, Altindische Grammatik, Vols. 1-3, Göttingen Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1896-1957; R. Hauschild, Register zur Altindischen Grammatik, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1964.
Walde, A., Lateinisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Heidelberg, 2nd ed., 1910. (Lat. Wtb.)
Warren, H.C., Buddhism in Translation, Cambridge, Mass., 1896.
Weber, Albrecht Friedrich, Indische Streifen, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1879. {Ind. Str.)
--------, Indische Studien: Beiträge für die Kunde des indischen Alterthums, 18 vols., Berlin: Dümmler, 1850-1898. (Ind. Stud.)
--------, Über ein Fragment der Bhagavatī: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Heiligen Literatur und Sprache der Jaina, 2 vols., Abhanmdlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Berlin, 1866-1867. (Weber Bhagavatī)
-------, "Über den Vājapeya", Sitzungsberichte der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin,1892. (Vājapeya).
Whitney, W.D., The Roots, Verb-Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language, Leipzig, 1885. (Sanskrit Roots, 1885)
Wilson, John, Indian Caste, Bombay, 1877.
Windisch, E., Māra und Buddha, Leipzig: C.F. Amelung, 1895.
--------, Buddha's Geburt und die Lehre von der Seelenwanderung, Leipzig, 1809.
Winternitz, M., Geschichte der indischen Litteratur, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1907-1922.
--------, Religionsgeschichtliches Lesebuch, Tübingen, 1908 (Rel. gesch. Lesebuch)
Woods, J.H., Yoga-System of Patahjali, Harvard Oriental Series XVII, Cambridge, Mass., 1914.
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. (ZDMG)
Zimmer, H., Altindisches Leben, die Cultur der vedischen Arier nach den Samhitā, Berlin, 1879. (Altind. Leben).





I. Titles of Books and Periodicals
(the no. refers to section of A)

A — Aṅguttara ia
-a — commentary
Abh — Abhidhānappadīpikā 4
Abhidh-av — Abhidhammāvatāra
Abhidh-r-m — Abhidhānaratnamālā
Abhidh-s — Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha
Anāg — Anāgatavaṃsa
Ap — Apadāna 1a
As — Atthasālinī
Att — Attanagaluvihāravaṃsa
AV — Atharvaveda-saṃhita
Av-klp — Avadānakalpalatā
Avś — Avadāna-śataka 2
BMPE — Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics
BMPE2 — 2nd edition
BR — Otto Böhtlingk & Rudolph Roth, Sanskrit-Wörterbuch. St Petersburg, 1852-75.
Brethren — see Psalms 3
Bv — Buddhavaṃsa 1a
Cp — Cariyāpiṭaka 1a (ref. to section (e.g. II), subsection, verse (e.g. 8, 4))
Cpd — Compendium 3
D — Dīgha-Nikāya 1a
Dāth — Dāṭhāvaṃsa 1b
Dhātum — Dhātumañjūsā
Dhātup — Dhatupāṭha
Dhp — Dhammapada ia
Dhs — Dhammasaṅgani 1a
Dhs tr.Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics 3
Dial. — Dialogues of the Buddha 3
Divy — Divyāvadāna 2
Dip — Dīpavaṃsa 1b
DPPN — Malalasekera, Dictionary of Pali Proper Names
Dukap — Dukapaṭṭhāna 1a
Expos.The Expositor
Epist. — Horace, Epistles
G.C.C.The Great Chronicle of Ceylon
Gött. Anz. — Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen
Halayudha — see Aufrecht 4
Hc-Deś — Deśīnāmamālā
Hom. — Homeric Greek
Hom. Od. — Homer, Odyssey
Hor. Od. — Horace, Odes
Hor. Sat. — Horace, Satires
HPL — 0. v. Hinüber, Handbook of Pāli Literature (Berlin, 1996).
IIJIndo-Iranian Journal
It — Itivuttaka 1a
Ja — Jātaka 1b
JAOSJournal American Oriental Society 4
JAsJournal Asiatique 4
Jm — Jātakamala 2
JPTSJournal Pali Text Society 4
JRASJournal Royal Asiatic Society 4
J.S.The Jataka or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births
Kacc — Kaccāyana
Khp — Khuddakapāṭha
Khuddas — Khuddasikkhā
KSKindred Sayings
Kv — Kathāvatthu

KZ — [Kuhns] Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Indogermanischen Sprachen 4
Lai — Lalitavistara 2
LMN — Neumann, Die Lieder der Mönche und Nonnen 3
M — Majjhima-Nikaya 1a
Mhbv — Mahābodhivaṃsa 1b
Mhv — Mahāvaṃsa 1b
Mil — Milindapañha 1b
Mp — Manorathapūraṇi (Aṅguttara-nikāya Commentary)
Mūls — Mūlasikkhā
Mvu — Mahāvastu 2
Mvy — Mahāvyutpatti 4
MV — Mahāvagga of the Vinaya-piṭaka
Mystic — see Manual 3
Nidd I — Mahāniddesa 1a
Nidd II — Cullaniddesa 1a
Nett — Nettipakaraṇa 1b
Pañca-g — Pañcagatidīpana 1b
Paṭis — Paṭisambhidāmagga 1a
Pj I — Paramatthajotikā I (Khuddakapāṭha Cty) 1b
Pj II — Paramatthajotikā II (Suttanipāta Cty) 1b
Pp — Puggalapaññatti 1a
Pp tr. — Designation of Human Types 3
PR — Dines Andersen, A Pali Reader, Copenhagen 1901
Ps — Papañcasūdanī (Majjhima-nikāya Cty) 1b
PtsC. — Points of Controversy
Pv — Petavatthu 1a
Pv-a — Petavatthu Commentary (= Paramatthadīpanī IV)
pw — Böhtlingk, Otto & Rudolph Roth, Sanskrit Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung, St Petersburg 1879-1889
Q.K.M.Questions of King Milinda 3
Rūpārūp — Rūpārūpavibhāga 1b
R̥V — R̥gvedav 2b
S — Saṃyutta-Nikāya 1a
Saddh — Saddhammopāyana (ref. are to verses) 1b
Saddharmap — Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 2a
Sās — Sāsanavaṃsa
ŚBr — Śatapathabrāhmana 2b
SBESacred Books of the East. 3
Śikṣ — Śikṣāsamuccaya 2
Sisters — see Psalms 3
Sn — Suttanipāta 1a
Sp — Samantapāsādikā
Sv — Sumaṅgalavilāsinī (Dīgha-Nikāya Cty) 1b
Tel — Tela-kaṭāha-gāthā 1b
Thag — Theragāthā 1a
Thig — Therīgāthā 1a
Thig-a — Therīgāthā Cty[4] 1b
Tikap — Tikapaṭṭhāna 1a
Tikap-a — Tikapaṭṭhāna Cty 1b
Toev.Toevoegselen 4
Ud — Udāna 1a
Vibh — Vibhaṅga 1a
Vibh-a — Sammohavinodanī 1b
Vin — Vinaya 1a
Vin. Texts — Vinaya Texts 3
Vism — Visuddhimagga lb
Vism. tr. — Path of Purity 3
Vv — Vimānavatthu la
WZKS — Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens
Yam — Yamaka
Yam-a — Yamaka-aṭṭhakathā
Yogāv — Yogāvacara's Manual
ZB — Zeilschrift für Buddhismus und verwandte Gebiete
ZDMG — Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen


[4] References are to the page numbers of the first edition which are indicated in brackets in the second edition.




-a in combination with a title abbreviation (e.g. Dhp-a) = Commentary (on Dhp)

abl. — ablative
abs. — absolute(ly)
abstr. — abstract
acc. — accusative
act. — active
add. — addition
adj. — adjective
adv. — adverb
ag. n. — agent noun
aor. — aorist
appl. — applied
Armen. — Armenian
art. — article
AS — Anglo-Saxon
attr. — attribute
AV — Avesta
Av.S. — Avadanasataka
BB — Burmese MSS
Be — Burmese edition
bef. — before
Bdhd. — Buddhadatta's Manuals
Bdhgh. — Buddhaghosa
BHS — Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
caus. — causative
cert. — certain
Celt. — Celtic
Class. — Classical
coll. — collective
combd, combn — combined, combination
comp. — compare, comparative, comparison, composition
comparat. — comparative cond. — conditional
cons. — consonant
cont. — contraction
corr. — correct(ed)
correl. — correlation, correlative
cp. — compare
cpd(s) — compound(s)
cty (cties) — commentary (commentaries)
dat. — dative
def(s). (defn) defmition(s), defined
denom. — denominative
der. — derived derivation
desid. — desiderative
Dhpāla — Dhammapāla
dial. — dialect(ical)
diff. — different
dist. — distinct, distinguished
ed. — edition
Ee — European edition
Eng. — English
e.g. — for instance
encl. — enclitic
enumd — enumerated
ep. — epithet
esp. — especially
etym. — etymology
exc. — except
excl. — exclamation, exclusive
expld — explained
expln — explanation
explns — explains
f. — feminine
f — following (page(s), paragraph(s), etc.)
fig- — figurative(ly)
foll. — following
form. — formation
fr. — from
freq. — frequently, frequentative
fut. — future
fut. pr. — future participle
Ga. — Gallic
gen. — genitive
ger. — gerund
Ger. — German
Goth. — Gothic
Gr. — Greek
gram. — grammar, ºatical
grd. — gerundive
ibid. — at the same passage
id. — the same
id. p. — identical passage
i.e. — that is
IG — lndo-Germanic
imper. imperat. — imperative
impers. — impersonal
impf. — imperfect
ind. — indicative
indecl. — indeclinable
indef. — indefinite
inf. — infinitive
instr. — instrumental
intens. — intensive
interr. — interrogative
intrs. — intransitive
iter. — iterative
Lat. — Latin

I.e. — loco citato
lex. — lexicon
lexicogr. — lexicographical
lit. — literal(ly), literary
Lit. — Lithuanian
loc. — locative
Mar. — Marathi
m. or masc. — masculine
med. — medium (middle)
MHG — Middle High German
Mir. — Middle Irish
ms (mss) — manuscript(s)
N. — Name
NGAW — Nachrichten von der königl.
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu
Göttinger. Phil-hist. Klasse
NHG — New High German
n(n). — noun(s), note(s)
no. — number
nom. — nominative
N. per. — Name of person
N. place. — Name of place
N. pr. — proper name
nt. — neuter
num. — numeral
Obulg. — Old Bulgarian
OHG — Old High German
Olcel. — Old Icelandic
OIr. — Old Irish
onom. — onomatopoetic
opp. — opposed, opposite
OPruss. — Old Prussian
opt. — optative
ord. — odinal, ordinary
orig. — original(ly)
OS — Old Saxon
part — particle
pass. — passive
perf. — perfect
pers. — personal
p.f.p. — participle of the future passive
pl. — plural
p.p.p. — participle of the perfect passive
p.pr. — participle present
pop. — popular
poss. — possessive
pot. — potential
pp. — past participle
ppr. — present participle
prec. — preceding
pred. — predicative
pref. — prefix
prep., preps — preposition(s)
pres. — present
pret. — preterit
Pkt — Prakrit
prob. — probably
pron. — pronoun
pt — part
PTS, — Pali Text Society
quot. — quoted, quotation
q(q).v. — quod vide (which see)
redupl. — reduplicative, reduplication
redupl. iter. reduplicated interative
ref. — reference, referred
refl. — reflexive
rel. — relation, relative
Rh.D. — Rhys Davids
Russ. — Russian
S. — Sutta
Sansk. — Sanskrit
sc. — scilicet, that is to say, namely
sec. — secondary
sep. — separate(ly)
sing. — singular
Skt. — Sanskrit
Slav. — Slavonic
SS. — Singhalese mss
ster. — stereotype
suff. — suffix
superl. — superlative
s.v(v). — sub voce (under the word(s) mentioned)
syn. — synonym, synonymous
T. — Text (i.e. the Pali text just mentioned)
trans. — transitive
tr. — translated, translates, translation
t.t. — technical term
t.t.gram. — technical term in grammar
v(v). — verse(s)
var. — variant, various
v.l. (w.ll.) — varia lectio, variant reading(s)
voc. — vocative
w.r. — wrong reading
Wtb. — Wörterbuch
WZKM — Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes
ZDMG — Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft




*(s)qyel, sq, sqq indicates a (reconstructed or conjectured) Indo-Germanic root.

*Skt means, that the Sanskrit word is constructed after the Pali word; or as Skt form is only found in lexicographical lists, a: the cap over a vowel indicates that the a is the result of a syncope a + a (e. g. khuddanukhudda), whereas a represents the proper a, either pure or contracted with a preceding a (khlnasava = khlna + asava).

º represents the headword either as first (º—) or second (—º) part of a compound; sometimes also an easily supplemented part of a word.

> < indicates an etymological relation or line of development between the words mentioned.

≈ means "at similar" or "at identical, parallel passages".

The meaning of all other abbreviations may easily be inferred from the context.


The Pāḷi Alphabet

Links are to audio files indicates audio file


a    ā    i    ī    u  ū    e    o


Gutturals (or Velars) k kh g gh
Palatals c ch j jh ñ
(or Cerebrals)
ṭh ḍh
Dentals t th d dh n
Labials p ph b bh m


y    r    l        ḷh    v






The anusvāra (the pure nasal ṃ, e.g. ahaṃahaṃ) does not change before y, r, l, v, s, and h; and in that position it comes before all other consonants in the alphabetical order. For example, saṃvara and saṃsaya come before saka.

Before other consonants, may change to the class nasal, i.e. that in the same line in the table above. For example, -ṃk- may be written -ṅk-, -ṃc- may be written -ñc-). Thus saṃgha is the same as saṅgha,saṅgha saṃcaya as sañcaya, etc. Even when the anusvāra is written, its place in the alphabet is that of the equivalent class nasal.



Diacritics used in Roman Scripts for Pali/Sanskrit studies; PTS: Pali English Dictionary.
A page with all the characters needed for the PED. To be copied and pasted.

Pali Roots

Pali Suffixes

Pali Grammatical Terms

Lingo Unusual terms used on BuddhaDust

Pali Pronunciation Audio Files.

Glossology. The study of the meanings of the words of a language or the terms used in a science



{1} {1}

-----[ A ]-----    A


:: A-1 the preposition ā shortened before double consonants, as akkosati (ā + kr̥uś), akkhāti (ā + khyā), abbahati (ā + br̥h). — Best to be classed here is the a- we call expletive. It represents a reduction of ā- (mostly before liquids and nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus anantaka (for ā-nantaka = nantaka) Vv 807; amajjapa (for ā-majjapa = majjapa) Ja VI 328; amāpaya (for ā-māpaya = māpaya) Ja VI 518; apassiveto (= passintassa) Ja VI 552.

:: A-2 (an° before vowels) [Vedic a-, an-; Indo-Germanic °n, gradation form to °ne (see na2); Greek ά, άν-; Latin °en-, in-; Gothic, Old High German and Anglo-Saxon un-; Old-Irish an-, in-] negative particle prefixed to (1) nouns and adjectives; (2) verbal forms, used like (1), whether particle, gerund, gerundive or infinitive; (3) finite verbal forms. In compounds with words having originally two initial consonants the latter reappear in their assimilated form (e.g. appaṭicchavin). In meaning it equals na-, nir- and vi-. Often we find it opposed to sa-.
Verbal negatives which occur in specific verbal function will be enumerated separately, while examples of negative formation of (1) and (2) are given under their positive form unless the negative involves a distinctly new concept, or if its form is likely to lead to confusion or misunderstanding. — Concerning the combining and contrasting (original negative) °a- (ā-) in reduplicated formations like bhava-ā-bhava see ā°4.

:: A-3 [Vedic a-; Indo-Germanic °e (locative of pronoun stem, cf. ayaṃ; original a deictic adverb with specific reference to the past, cf. Sanskrit sma); Greek ἐ-; also in Greek ἐκεῖ, Latin equidem, enim] the augment (sign of action in the past), prefixed to the root in preterit, preterit and conditional tenses; often omitted in ordinary prose. See forms under each verb; cf. also ajja. Identical with this a- is the a- which functions as base of some pronoun forms like ato, attha, asu etc. (q.v.).

:: A-4 the sound "a" (a-kāra) Ja VI 328, 552; Vv-a 279, 307, 311.

:: Aṃsa1 [Vedic aṃsa; cf. Greek ὦμοϛ, Latin umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us]
(a) the shoulder A V 110; Snp 609. aṃse karoti to put on the shoulder, to shoulder Ja I 9.
(b) a part (literal side) (cf. °āsa in koṭṭhāsa and explanation of aṃsa as koṭṭhāsa at Sv I 312, also v.l. mettāsa for mettaṃsa at It 22). — atīt'aṅse in former times, formerly D II 224; Thig 314. mettaṃsa sharing friendship (with) A IV 151 = It 22 = Ja IV 71 (in which connection Miln 402 reads ahiṃsā). — Disjunctive ekena aṃsena + ā + ekena aṃsena on the one hand (side) + ā + on the other, partly + ā + partly A I 61. From this: ekaṃsa (adjective) on the one hand (only), i.e. incomplete (opposite ubhayaṃsa) or (as not admitting of a counterpart) definite, certain, without doubt (opposite dvidhā): see ekaṃsa. — paccaṃsena according to each one's share A III 38. puṭaṃsena with a knapsack for provisions D I 117; A II 183; cf. Sv I 288, with v.l. puṭosena at both passages;

-kūṭa "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin III 127; Dhp-a III 214; IV 136; Vv-a 121. — vaṭṭaka a shoulder strap (mostly combined with kāya-bandhana; vv.ll. °vaddhaka, °bandhaka) Vin I 204 (Text °bandhaka); II 114 (-ddh-); IV 170 (-ddh-); Vv 3340 (Text °bandhana, commentary v.l. °vaṭṭaka); Dhp-a III 452.

:: Aṃsa2 [see next] point, corner, edge; frequently in combination with numerals, e.g. catur° four-cornered, chaḷ°, aṭṭh°, soḷas° etc. (q.v.) all at Dhs 617 (cf. Dhs-a 317). In connection with a Vimāna: āyat° with wide or protruding capitals (of its pillars) Vv 8415; as part of a carriage-pole Vv 642 (= kubbara-phale patiṭṭhitā heṭṭhima-aṃsā Vv-a 265).

:: Aṃsi (feminine) [cf. Vedic aśri, aśra, aśani; Greek ἄκροϛ pointed, ἄκριϛ, also ὄξύϛ sharp: Latin ācer sharp. Further connections in Walde Latin Wtb. under ācer] a corner, edge (= aṃsa2) Vv 782 (= aṃsa-bhāga Vv-a 303).

:: Aṃsu [cf. Sanskrit aṃśu (Abhidh-r-m) a ray of light] a thread Vin III 224;

-mālin, sun Sās 1.

:: Akaṭa (adjective) [a + kaṭa] not made, not artificial, natural;

-yūsa natural juice Vin I 206

:: Akampiyatta (neuter) [abstract from akampiya, gerund of a + kampati] the condition of not being shaken, stableness Miln 354.

:: Akalu (cf. agalu) an ointment Ja IV 440 (akaluñ candanañ ca, v.l. aggaluṃ; commentary explanains as kālākaluñ ca ratta-candanañ ca, thus implying a blacking or dark ointment); VI 144 (°candana-vilitta; v.l. aggalu°); Miln 338 (°tagara-tālīsaka-lohita-candana).

:: Akāca (adjective) [a + kāca] pure, flawless, clear D II 244; Snp 476; Ja V 203.

:: Akācin (adjective) = akāca Vv 601. Kern (Toev. sub voce) proposes reading akkācin (= Sanskrit arka-arcin shining as the sun), but Vv-a 253 explains by niddosa, and there is no v.l. to warrant a misreading.

:: Akāsi, see Karoti.

:: Akāsiya (adjective/noun) [a + kāsika ?] "not from the Kāsi-country" (?); official name of certain tax-gatherers in the king's service Ja VI 212 (akāsiya-saṅkhātā rāja-purisā commentary).

:: Akiccakāra (adjective) [a + kicca + kāra 1. not doing one's duty, doing what ought not to be done A II 67; Dhp 292; Miln 66; Sv I 296. 2. ineffective (of medicine) Miln 151.

:: Akiriya (adjective) [a + kiriya] not practical, unwise, foolish Ja III 530 (°rūpa = akattabba-rūpa commentary); Miln 250.

:: Akilāsu (adjective) [a + kilāsu] not lazy, diligent, active, untiring S I 47; V 162; Ja I 109; Miln 382.

:: Akissava at S I 149 is probably faulty reading for akiñcana.

:: Akutobhaya (adjective) see ku°.

:: Akuppa (adjective) [a + kuppa, gerund of kup, cf. BHS akopya Mvu III 200] not to be shaken, immovable; sure, steadfast, safe Vin I 11 (akuppā me ceto-vimutti) = S II 239; Vin II 69; IV 214; D III 273; M I 205, 298; S II 171; A III 119, 198; Miln 361.

:: Akuppatā (feminine) [abstract from last] "state of not being shaken", surety, safety; especially of Nibbana Thag 364.

:: Akka [cf. Sanskrit arka] name of a plant: Calotropis Gigantea, swallowwort M I 429 (°assa jiyā bowstrings made from that plant).

-nāla a kind of dress material Vin I 306 (vv.ll. agga° and akkha°);
-vāṭa a kind of gate to a plantation, a movable fence made of the akka plant Vin II 154 (cf. akkha-vāṭa).

:: Akkanta [past participle of akkamati] stepped upon, mounted on A I 8; Ja I 71; Miln 152; Dhp-a I 200.

:: Akkandati [ā + kandati, krand] to lament, wail, cry S IV 206.

:: Akkamati [ā + kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, attack Ja I 7, 279; Thig-a 9; — to rise Vin III 38. — gerund akkamma Cp III 72. — past participle akkanta (q.v.).

:: Akkamana (neuter) [cf. BHS ākramaṇa Jm 3158] going near, approaching, stepping upon, walking to Ja I 62.

:: Akkuṭṭha (adjective/noun) [past participle of akkosati
1. (adjective) being reviled, scolded, railed at Snp 366 (= dasahi akkosavatthūhi abhisatto Pj II 364); Ja VI 187.
2. (neuter) reviling, scolding, swearing at; in combination akkuṭṭha-vandita Snp 702 (= akkosa-vandana Pj II 492) Thig 388 (explained Thig-a 256 as above).

:: Akkula (adjective) [= akula] confused, perplexed, agitated, frightened Ud 5 (akkulopakkula and akkulapakkulika). See ākula.


:: Akkosa [ā + kr̥uś = kruñc, see kuñca and koñca2; to sound, root kr̥, see note on gala] shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling Snp 623; Miln 8 (+ paribhāsa); Pj II 492; Thig-a 256; Pv-a 243; Dhp-a II 61.

-vatthu always as dasa a.-vatthūni 10 bases of abuse, 10 expressions of cursing Ja I 191; Pj II 364, 467; Dhp-a I 212; IV 2.

:: Akkosaka (adjective) [from last] one who abuses, scolds or reviles, + paribhāsaka A II 58; III 252; IV 156; V 317; Pv-a 251.

:: Akkosati [to kruś see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, revile Ja I 191; II 416; III 27; Dhp-a I 211; II 44. Often combined with paribhāsati, e.g. Vin II 296; Dhp-a IV 2; Pv-a 10. — preterit akkocchi Dhp 3; Ja III 212 (= akkosi Dhp-a I 43. Derived wrongly from {2} krudh by Kaccāyana VI 417; cf. Franke, Einh. Pāli Grammar 37, and Geiger, Pāli Grammar § 164). — past participle akkuṭṭha (q.v.).

:: Akkha1 [Vedic akṣa; Avesta aśa; Greek ἄξων ἄμαξα (chariot with one axle); Latin axis; Old High German etc. ahsa, English axle, to root of Latin ago, Sanskrit aj] the axle of a wheel D II 96; S V 6; A I 112; Ja I 109, 192; V 155 (akkhassa phalakaṃ yathā; commentary: suvaṇṇa-phalakaṃ viya, i.e. shiny, like the polished surface of an axle); Miln 27 (+ īsā + cakka), 277 (atibhārena sakaṭassa akkho bhijjati: the axle of the cart breaks when the load is too heavy); Pv-a 277. — akkhaṃ abbhañjati to lubricate the axle S IV 177; Miln 367.

-chinna one whose axle is broken; with broken axle S I 57; Miln 67; bhagga with a broken axle Ja V 433;
-bhañjana the breaking of the axle Dhp-a I 375; Pv-a 277.

:: Akkha2 [Vedic akṣa, probably to akṣi and Latin oculus, "that which has eyes" i.e. a die; cf. also Latin ālea game at dice (from asclea ?)] a die D I 6 (but explained at Sv I 86 as ball-game: guḷakīḷa); S I 149 = A V 171 = Snp 659 (appamatto ayaṃ kali yo akkhesu dhanaparājayo); Ja I 379 (kūṭ° a false player, sharper, cheat) anakkha one who is not a gambler Ja V 116 (commentary: ajūtakara). Cf. also accha3.

-dassa (cf. Sanskrit akṣadarśaka) one who looks at (i.e. examines) the dice, an umpire, a judge Vin III 47; Miln 114, 327, 343 (dhamma-nagare);
-dhutta one who has the vice of gambling D II 348; III 183; M III 170; Snp 106 (+ itthidhutta and surādhutta);
-vāṭa fence round an arena for wrestling Ja IV 81. (? read akka-).

:: Akkha3 (adjective) (—°) [to akkhi] having eyes, with eyes Pv-a 39 (v.l. rattakkha with eyes red from weeping, gloss on assumukha). Probably akkhaṇa is connected with akkha.

:: Akkhaka [akkha1 + ka] the collar-bone Vin IV 213 (adhakkhakaṃ); V 216.

:: Akkhaṇa [a + khaṇa, BHS akṣaṇa Avś I 291 = 332] wrong time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 enumerated at D III 263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D III 287; Vv-a 193; Saddh 4f. See also khaṇa.

-vedhin (adjective/noun) a skilled archer, one who shoots on the moment, i.e. without losing time, explained as one who shoots without missing (the target) or as quickly as lightning (akkhaṇa = vijju). In various combinations; mostly as durepātin a. A I 284 (+ mahato kāyassa padāletā); II 170f. (the same), 202; IV 423, 425; Ja II 91 (explained as either "avirādhita-vedhī" or "akkhaṇaṃ vuccati vijju": one who takes and shoots his arrows as fast as lightning), III 322; IV 494 (commentary explains aviraddha-vedhino vijju-ālokena vijjhana-samattha page 497). In other combination at Ja I 58 (akkhaṇavedhin + vālavedhin); V 129 (the 4 kinds of archers: a., vālavedhin, saddavedhin and saravedhin).
In BHS we find akṣuṇṇavedha (a Sanskritised Pāli form, cf. Mathurā kṣuṇa = Sanskrit kṣaṇa) at Divy 58, 100, 442 (always with dūrevedha), where mss however read akṣuṇa°; also at Lal 178. See Divy index, where translation is given as "an act of throwing the spear so as to graze the mark" (Schiefner gives "Streifschuss").

Note: The explanations are not satisfactory. We should expect either an etymology bearing on the meaning "hitting the centre of the target" (i.e. its "eye") (cf. English bull's eye), in which case a direct relation to akkha = akkhi eye would not seem improbable (cf. formation ikkhana) or an etymology like "hitting without mishap", in which case the expression would be derived directly from akkhaṇa (see preceding) with the omission of the negative an-; akkhaṇa in the meaning of "lightning" (Ja II 91 commentary) is not supported by literary evidence.

:: Akkhata (adjective) [past participle of a + kṣan, cf. parikkhata1] unhurt, without fault Mhv 19, 56 (commentary niddosa). — accusative akkhataṃ (adverb) in safety, unhurt. Only in one phrase Vv 8452 (paccāgamuṃ Pāṭaliputtaṃ akkhataṃ) and Pv IV 111 (nessāmi taṃ Pāṭaliputtaṃ akkhataṃ); see Vv-a 351 and Pv-a 272.

:: Akkhaya (adjective) [a + khaya, kṣi] not decaying, in akkhaya-paṭibhāna, of unfailing skill in exposition Miln 3, 21.

:: Akkhara (adjective) [Vedic akṣara] constant, durable, lasting D III 86. As technical term for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning (D I 88) it is Phonetics which probably included Grammar, and is explained by sikkhā (Sv I 247 = Pj 477) plural neuter akkharāni sounds, tones, words. cittakkhara of a discourse (suttanta) having variety and beauty of words or sounds (opposed to beauty of thought) A I 72 = III 107 = S II 267. Akkharāni are the sauce, flavour (vyañjana) of poetry S I 38. Th know the context of the a° the words of the texts, is characteristic of an Arahant Dhp 352 (commentary is ambiguous Dhp-a IV 70). Later: akkharaṃ a syllable or sound Pv-a 280 (called sadda in next line); akkharāni an inscription Ja II 90; IV 7 (likhitāni written), 489; VI 390, 407. In Grammar: a letter Kaccāyana 1.

-cintaka a grammarian or versifier Pj I 17; Pj II 16, 23, 321. Cf. 466; Pv-a 120;
-pabheda in phrase sakkhara-p-pabheda phonology and etymology D I 88 (akkhara-p-pabhedo ti sikkhā ca nirutti ca Pj II 447 = Sv I 247) = A III 223 = Snp 105;
-piṇḍa "word-ball", i.e. sequence of words or sounds Dhp-a IV 70 (= akkharānaṃ sannipāto Dhp 352).

:: Akkharikā (feminine) a game (recognising syllables written in the air or on one's back). D I 7; Vin II 10; III 180. So explained at Sv I 86. It may be translated "letter game"; but all Indian letters of that date were syllables.

:: Akkhāta (adjective) [past participle of akkhāti] announced, proclaimed, told, shown A I 34 (dur°); II 195; IV 285, 322; V 265, 283; Snp 172, 276, 595, 718.

:: Akkhātar one who relates, a speaker, preacher, story-teller S I 11, 191; III 66; Snp 167.

:: Akkhāti [ā + khyā, Indo-Germanic °sequ; cf. Sanskrit ākhyāti, Latin inquam, Greek ἐννέπω, Gothic saihvan, German sehen etc. See also akkhi and cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Snp 87, 172; imperative akkhāhi Snp 988, 1085; preterit akkhāsi Snp 251, 504, 1131 (= ācikkhi etc. Nidd II 465); future akkhissati Pv IV 163; conditional akkhissaṃ Snp 997; Ja VI 523. — passive akkhāyati to be proclaimed, in phrase aggaṃ a. to be deemed chief or superior, to be first, to excel Miln 118, 182 (also in BHS agram ākhyāyate Mvu III 390); gerund akkheyya to be pronounced S I 11; It 53. — past participle akkhāta (q.v.). — Intensive or Frequentative is ācikkhati.

:: Akkhāna Ākhyāna (neuter) [Sanskrit ākhyāna] telling stories, recitation; tale, legend D I 6 (= Sv I 84: Bhārata-Rāmāyanādi); III 183; M I 503; III 167; Saddh 237. — preaching, teaching Nidd I 91 (dhamm'akkhāna). The 5th Veda Ja V 450. (vedam akkhāna-pañcamaṃ; commentary: itihāsa-pañcamaṃ veda-catukkaṃ). — The spelling ākhyāna also occurs (q.v.).


:: Akkhāyika (adjective) relating, narrating Ja III 535; lok'akkhāyikā kathā talk about nature-lore D I 8; Miln 316.

:: Akkhāyin (adjective) telling, relating, announcing S II 35; III 7; Ja III 105.

:: Akkhi (neuter) [to °oks, an enlarged form of °oqṷ, cf. Sanskrit īkṣate, kṣaṇa, pratīka, anīka; Greek ὄσσε, ὥψ Κύκλωψ, ὀφϧαλμός, πρόσωπον; Latin oculus, Anglo-Saxon ēowan (= English eye and wind-ow); Gothic augō. See also cakkhu and cf. akkha2 and ikkhaṇika] the eye M I 383 (ubbhatehi akkhīhi); Snp 197, 608; Ja I 223, 279; V 77; VI 336; Pv II 926 (akkhīni paggharanti: shed tears, cf. Pv-a 123); Vv-a 65 (°īni bhamanti, my eyes swim) cf. akkhīni me dhūmāyanti Dhp-a I 475; II 26; III 196 (°īni ummīletvā opening the eyes); Saddh 103, 380. — In combination with sa- as sacchi and sakkhi (q.v.). As adjective (—°) akkha3 (q.v.).

-añjana eye ointment, collyrium Dhp-a III 354;
-kūpa the socket of the eye Ja IV 407;
-gaṇḍa eye-protuberance, i.e. eye-brow (?) Ja VI 504 (for pamukha Text);
-gūtha secretion from the eye Pv-a 198;
-gūthaka the same Snp 197 (= dvīhi akkhicchiddehi apanītattaca-maṃsasadiso a.-gūthako Pj II 248);
-chidda the eye-hole Pj II 248;
-dala the eye-lid Sv I 194; Thig-a 259; As 378;
-pāta "fall of the eye", i.e. a look, in mand° of soft looks (adjective) Pv-a 57;
-pūra an eyeful, in akkhipūraṃ assuṃ (assu ?) an eye full of tears Ja VI 191;
-mala dirt from the eye Pv III 53 (= °gūtha commentary);
-roga eye disease Dhp-a I 9.


:: Akkhika1 (—°) (adjective) having eyes, with eyes Thag 960 (añjan° with eyes anointed); Dhp-a IV 98 (aḍḍh° with half an eye, i.e. stealthily); Saddh 286 (tamb° red-eyed). °an° having no eyes Dhp-a I 11.

:: Akkhika2 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit akṣa] the mesh of a net Ja I 208.

-hāraka one who takes up a mesh (?) M I 383 (corresponds with aṇḍahāraka).

:: Akkhitta1 see khitta.

:: Akkhitta2 (adjective) [BHS ākṣipta Divy 363, past participle of ā + kṣip] hit, struck, thrown Ja III 255 (= ākaḍḍhita commentary).

:: Akkhin (adjective) = akkhika Ja III 190 (mand° soft-eyed); Vv 323 (tamb° red-eyed); Dhp-a I 11.

:: Akkhobbha (adjective) [a + kṣubh, see khobha] not to be shaken, imperturbable Miln 21.

:: Akkhobhana (adjective) = akkhobbha Ja V 322 (= khobhetun na sakkhā commentary).

:: Akkhohiṇī (feminine) [= akkhobhiṇī] one of the highest numerals (1 followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) Ja V 319; VI 395.

:: Akhaṇḍaphulla see khaṇḍa.

:: Akhāta (adjective) not dug: see khāta.

:: Akhetta barren-soil: see khetta. — In compound °ññu the negative belongs to the whole: not knowing a good field (for alms) Ja IV 371.

:: Agati see gati. °ºgamana practising a wrong course of life, evil practice, wrong doing D III 228 (4: chandaº, dosaº mohaº bhayaº); A II 18f., Ja iv.402; V 98, 510; Pv-a 161.

:: Agada [Vedic agada; a + gada] medicine, drug, counter-poison Ja 180 (ºharīṭaka); Miln 121, 302, 319, 334; Sv I 67; Dhp-a 1.215; Pv-a 198 (= osadhaṃ).

:: Agaru (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit aguru, a + garu (a) not heavy, not troublesome, only in phrase: sace te agaru "if it does not inconvenience you, if you don't mind" (cf. BHS yadi te aguru. Avś I 94, 229; II 90) Vin. I 25; IV 17, D I 51; Dhp-a I 39. (b) disrespectful, irreverent (against = genitive) D I 89; Snp 51.

:: Agalu [cf. Sanskrit aguru, which is believed to appear in Hebrew ahalim (aloe), also in Greek ἀλόμ and ἀγάλλοχον] fragrant aloe wood, Agallochum Vv 537 (aggalu = Vv-a 237 agalu-gandha); Vv-a. 158 (+ candana). Cf. also Avś I 24, and akalu.

:: Agā Agā [DPL]: see Eti

:: Agāra (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit agāra, probably with the a- of communion; Greek ἀγεἱρω to collect ἀγορά market. Cf. in meaning and etymology gaha1]. 1. house or hut, usually implying the comforts of living at home as opposed to anagāra homelessness or the state of a homeless wanderer (mendicant). Thus frequently in two phrases contrasting the state of a householder (or layman, cf. gihin), with that of a religious wanderer (pabbajita), viz. (a) kesamassuṃ ohāretva kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati "to shave off hair and beard, put on the yellow robes, and wander forth out of the home into the homeless state" D I 60 etc.; cf. Nidd II 17211. See also S I 185 (agārasmā anagāriyaṃ nikkhanta); M II 55 (agāraṃ ajjhāvasatā); Snp 274, 805 (ºṃ āvasati), and with pabbajita D I 89, 115, 202, 230; Pv II 1317. (b) of a "rajā cakkavattin" compared with a "sambuddha": sace agāraṃ āvasati vijeyya paṭhaviṃ imaṃ adaṇḍena asatthena + ā + sace ca so pabbajati agārā anagāriyaṃ vivaṭacchado sambuddho arahā bhavissati "he will become the greatest king when he stays at home, but the greatest saint when he takes up the homeless life", the prophesy made for the infant Gotama D II 16; Snp 1002, 1003. — Further passages for agāra Vin I 15; D I 102 (v.l. agyāgāra, but Sv I 270 explained as dānāgāra); A I 156, 281; II 52f.; Dhp 14, 140; Ja I 51, 56; III 392; Dīp I 36. 2. anagāra (adjective) houseless, homeless; a mendicant (opposite gahaṭṭha) Snp 628 = Dhp 404; Snp 639, 640 (+ paribbaje); Pv II 25 (= anāvāsa Pv-a 80). — (nt.) the homeless state (= anagāriyā) Snp 376. See also agga2. 3. ºāgāra: Owing to frequent occurrence of agāra at the end of compounds of which the first word ends in a, we have a dozen quite familiar words ending apparently in āgāra. This form has been considered therefore as a proper doublet of agāra. This however is wrong. The long ā is simply a contraction of the short a at the end of the first part of the compound with the short a at the beginning of agāra. Of the compounds the most common are:

-āgantukº reception hall for strangers or guests S IV 219; V 21;
-itthº lady's bower S I 58, 89;
-kūtº a house with a peaked roof, or with gables S II 103. 263; III 156; IV 186; V 43; A I 230; III 10, 364; IV 231; V 21;
-koṭṭhº storehouse, granary D I 134 (cf. Sv I 295); S I 89;
-tiṇº a house covered with grass S IV 185; A I 101;
-bhusº threshing shed, barn A I 241;
- santhº a council hall D I 91; II 147; S IV 182; V 453; A II 207; IV I79 f;
- suññº an uninhabited shed; solitude S V 89, 157, 310f., 329f.; A I 241 (v.1. for bhusāgāra); III 353; IV 139, 392, 437; V 88, 109, 323 f.

:: Agāraka (neuter) [from agāra] a small house, a cottage M I 450; Ja VI 81.

:: Agārika (adjective) 1. having a house, in eka°, dva° etc. D I 166 = A I 295 = II 206. 2. a householder, layman Vin I 17. feminine agārikā a housewife Vin I 272. See also āgārika.

:: Agārin (adjective) [from agāra] one who has or inhabits a house, a householder Snp 376, Thag 1009; Ja III 234. — feminine agārinī a housewife Vv 527 (= gehassāminī Vv-a 225); Pv III 43 (the same Pv-a 194).

:: Agāriya = agārika, a layman M I 504 (°bhūta). — Usually in negative anagāriyā (feminine) the homeless state (= anagāraṃ) as opposed to agāra (q.v.) in formula agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajita (gone out from the house into the homeless state) Vin I 15; M I 16; II 55, 75; A I 49; D III 30f., 145f.; Snp 274, 1003; Pv II 1316; Sv I 112.


:: Agga1 (adjective/noun) [Vedic agra; cf. Avesta agrō first; Lithuanian agrs early 1. (adjective) (a.) of time: the first, foremost Dīp IV 13 (saṅgahaṃ first collection). See compounds (b.) of space: the highest, topmost, Ja I 52 (°sākhā). (commentary) of quality: illustrious, excellent, the best, highest, chief Vin IV 232 (agga-m-agga) most excellent, D II 4: S I 29 (a. sattassa Sambuddha); A II 17 = Pv IV 347 (lokassa Buddho aggo [Pv-a: aggaṃ] pavuccati); It 88, 89; Snp 875 (suddhi); Pv-a 5. Often combined with seṭṭha (best), e.g. D II 15; S III 83, 264. 2. (neuter) top, point. (a.) literal: the top or tip (nearly always °—°); as ār° point of an awl Snp 625, 631; Dhp 401; kus° tip of a blade of grass Dhp 70; Saddh 349; tiṇ° the same Pv-a 241; dum° top of a tree Ja II 155; dhaj° of a banner S I 219; pabbat° of a mountain Saddh 352; sākh° of a branch Pv-a 157; etc. (b.) figurative: the best part, the ideal, excellence, prominence, first place, often to be translated as adjective the highest, best of all etc. S II 29 (aggena aggassa patti hoti: only the best attain to the highest); Mhv 7, 26. Usually as °—°; e.g. dum° the best of trees, an excellent tree Vv 3541 (cf. Vv-a 161); dhan° plenty D III 164; madhur° S I 41, 161, 237; bhav° the best existence S III 83; rūp° extraordinary beauty Ja I 291; lābh° highest gain Ja III 127; sambodhi-y-agga highest wisdom Snp 693 (= sabbaññuta-ñāṇa Pj II 489; the best part or quality of anything, in enumeration of the five "excellencies" of first-fruits (panca aggāni, after which the N. Pañcaggadāyaka), viz. khettaggaṃ rās° koṭṭh° kumbhi° bhojan° Pj II 270. sukh° perfect bliss Saddh 243. Thus frequent in phrase aggaṃ akkhāyati to be the most excellent D I 124; S III 156, 264; A II 17 (Tathāgato); It 87 (the same); Nidd II §517 D (appamādo); Miln 183. 3. Cases as adverb: aggena (instrumental) in the beginning, beginning from, from (as preposition), by (the same) Vin II 167. (aggena gaṇhāti to take from, to subtract, to find the difference; Kern Toev. sub voce unnecessarily changes aggena into agghena), 257 (yadaggena at the moment when or from, followed by tad eva "then"; cf. agge), 294 (bhikkh° from alms); Vibh 423 (vass° by the number of years). aggato (ablative) in the beginning Snp 217 (+ majjhato, sesato). aggato kata taken by its worth, valued, esteemed Thig 386, 394. agge (locative) 1. at the top A II 201 (opposite mūle at the root); Ja IV 156 (the same); Snp 233 (phusit° with flowers at the top: supupphitaggasākhā Pj I 192); Ja II 153 (ukkh°); III 126 (kūp°). 2. (as preposition) from, after, since, usually in phrases yad° (followed by tad°) from what time, since what date D I 152; II 206; and ajja-t-agge from this day, after today D I 85; M I 528; A V 300; Snp 25 (cf. BHS adyāgreṇa Avś II 13); at the end: bhattagge after a meal Vin II 212. {4}

-aṅgulī the main finger, i.e. index finger Ja VI 404;
-āsana main seat Sv I 267;
-upaṭṭhāka chief personal attendant D II 6;
-kārikā first taste, sample Vin III 80;
-kulika of an esteemed clan Pv III 55 (= seṭṭh° Pv-a 199);
-ñña recognized as primitive primeval, D III 225 (porāṇa +), A II 27f.; IV 246, Kv 341;
-danta one who is most excellently self-restrained (of the Buddha) Thag 354;
-dāna a splendid gift Vin III 39;
-dvāra main door Ja I 114;
-nakha tip of the nail Vin IV 221;
-nagara the first or most splendid of cities Vin I 229;
-nikkhitta highly praised or famed Miln 343;
-nikkhittaka an original depository of the Faith Dīp IV 5;
-pakatimant of the highest character Ja V 351 (= aggasabhāva);
-patta having attained perfection D III 48 f;
-pasāda the highest grace A II 34; It 87;
-piṇḍa the best oblation or alms S I 141; M I 28; II 204;
-piṇḍika receiving the best oblations Ja VI 140;
-puggala the best of men (of the Buddha) Snp 684; Dhp-a II 39; Saddh 92, 558;
-purohita chief or prime minister Ja VI 391;
-phala the highest or supreme fruit (i.e. Arahantship) Ja I 148; Pv IV 188; Pv-a 230;
-bīja having eggs from above (opposite mūla°), i.e. propagated by slips or cuttings D I 5; Sv I 81;
-magga (adjective) having reached the top of the path, i.e. Arahantship Thig-a 20;
-mahesi the king's chief wife, queen-consort Ja I 262; III 187, 393; V 88; Dhp-a I 199; Pv-a 76;
-rājā the chief king Ja VI 391; Miln 27;
-vara most meritorious, best Dīp VI 68;
-vāda the original doctrine (= Theravāda) Dīp IV 13;
-vādin one who proclaims the highest good (of the Buddha) Thag 1142.

:: Agga2 (neuter) (only °—°) [a contracted form of agāra] a (small) house, housing accomodation; shelter, hut; hall.

-dān° a house of donation, i.e. a public or private house where alms are given Ja III 470; IV 379, 403; VI 487; Pv-a 121; Miln 2;
-salāk° a hut where food is distributed to the bhikkhus by tickets, a food office Ja I 123, Vv-a 75.

:: Aggatā (feminine) [abstract of agga] pre-eminence, prominence, superiority Kv 556 (°ṃ gata); Dīp IV 1 (guṇaggataṃ gatā). — (adjective) mahaggata of great value or superiority D I 80; III 224.

:: Aggatta (neuter) [abstract of agga = Sanskrit agratva] the state or condition of being the first, pre-eminence Pv-a 9, 89.

:: Aggalu see agalu.

:: Aggaḷa and Aggaḷā (feminine) (also occasionally with °l-.) [cf. Sanskrit argala and argalā to areg to protect, ward off, secure etc., as in Anglo-Saxon reced house; aleg in Sanskrit rakṣati to protect, Greek ἀλέξω the same, Anglo-Saxon ealh temple. Cf. also °areq in Greek ὰρκέο = Latin arceo, Orcus, Old High German rigil bolt.] a contrivance to fasten anything for security or obstruction: 1. a bolt or cross-bar Vin I 290; D I 89 (°ṃ ākoṭeti to knock upon the cross-bar; a. = kavāṭa Sv I 252); A IV 359 (the same); S. IV 290; A I 101 = 137 = IV 231. (phusit° with fastened bolts, securely shut Thag 385 (the same); Vin IV 47; Ja V 293 (°ṃ uppīḷeti to lift up the cross-bar. 2. a strip of cloth for strengthening a dress etc., a gusset Vin I 290 (+ tunna), 392 (Sp V 1128); Ja I 8 (+ tunna) VI 71 (°ṃ datvā); Vin IV 121.

-dāna putting in a gusset Ja I 8;
-phalaka the post or board, in which the cross-bar is fixed (cf. °vaṭṭi) M III 95;
-vaṭṭi = °phalaka Vin II 120, 148;
-sūci bolting pin M I 126.

:: Aggavant (adjective) occupying the first place, of great eminence A I 70, 243.

:: Aggi Aggi [Vedic agni = Latin ignis. Besides the contracted form aggi we find the diæretic forms gini (q.v.) and aggini (see below)] fire.
1. fire, flames, sparks; conflagration, Vin II 120 (fire in bathroom); M I 487 (anāhāro nibbuto fire gone out for lack of fuel); S IV 185, 399 (sa-upādāno jalati provided with fuel blazes); Snp 62; Dhp 70 (= asani-aggi Dhp-a III 71); Ja I 216 (sparks), 294 (pyre); II 102; III 55; IV 139; Vv-a 20 (aggimhi tāpanaṃ + udake temanaṃ). — The various phases of lighting and extinguishing the fire are given at A IV 45: aggiṃ ujjāleti (kindle, make burn), ajjhupekkhati (look after, keep up), nikkhipati (put down, lay). Other phrases are e.g. aggiṃ jāleti (kindle) Ja II 44; gaṇhāti (make or take) Ja I 494 (cf. below b); deti (set light to) Ja I 294; nibbāpeti (put out) It 93; Saddh 552. aggi nibbāyati the fire goes out S II 85; M I 487; Ja I 212 (udake through water); Miln 304. aggi nibbuto the fire is extinguished (cf. °Nibbāna) Ja I 61; Miln 304. agginā dahati to burn by means of fire, to set fire to A I 136, 199; Pv-a 20. udar° the fire supposed to regulate digestion Pv-a 33; cf. D.B. II 208, note 2; kappuṭṭhān° the universal conflagration Ja III 185; dāv° a wood or jungle fire Ja I 212; naḷ° the burning of a reed Ja VI 100; padīp° fire of a lamp Miln 47.
2. the sacrificial fire: In one or two of the passages in the older texts this use of Aggi is ambiguous. It may possibly be intended to denote the personal Agni, the fire-god. But the commentators do not think so, and the Jātaka commentary, when it means Agni, has the phrase Aggi Bhagavā the Lord Agni, e.g. at Ja I 285, 494; II 44. The ancient ceremony of kindling a holy fire on the day the child is born and keeping it up throughout his life, is also referred to by that commentary e.g. Ja I 285; II 43. Aggiṃ paricarati (cf. °paricāriyā) to serve the sacred fire Vin I 31 (jaṭilā {5} aggī paricaritukāmā); A V 263, 266; Thig 143 (= aggi-huttaṃ paric° Thig-a 136); Dhp 107; Ja I 494; Dhp-a II 232. aggiṃ juhati (cf. °homa, °hutta) to sacrifice [in]to the fire A II 207; often combined with aggi-huttaṃ paricarati, e.g. S I 166; Snp 79. aggiṃ namati and santappeti to worship the fire A V 235. aggissa (genitive) paricāriko Ja VI 207 (cf. below °paricārika); aggissa ādhānaṃ A IV 41.
3. (ethical, always °—°) the fire of burning, consuming, feverish sensations. Frequently in standard set of 3 fires, viz. rāg°, dos°, moh°, or the fires of lust, anger and bewilderment. The number three may possibly have been chosen with reference to the three sacrificial fires of Vedic ritual. At S IV 19; A IV 41f. there are 7 fires, the 4 last of which are āhuneyy°, gahapat°, dakkhiṇeyy°, kaṭṭh°. But this trinity of cardinal sins lies at the basis of Buddhist ethics, and the fire simile was more probably suggested by the number. D III 217; It 92, Vibh 368. In late books are found others: ind° the fire of the senses Pv-a 56; dukkh° the glow of suffering ibid. 60; bhava-dukkh° of the misery of becomings Saddh 552; vippaṭisār° burning remorse Pv-a 60; sok° burning grief ibid. 41.
Note: The form aggini occurs only at Snp 668 and 670 in the meaning of "pyre", and in combination with sama "like", viz. aggini-samaṃ jalitaṃ 668 (= samantato jalitaṃ aggiṃ Pj II 480); aggini-samāsu 670 (= aggisamāsu Pj II 481). The form agginī in phrase niccagginī can either be referred to gini (q.v.) or has to be taken as nominative of aggini (in adjectival function with ī metri causa; otherwise as adjective agginiṃ), meaning looking constantly after the fire, i.e. careful, observant, alert.

-agāra (agyāgāra) a heated room or hut with a fire Vin I 24; IV 109; D I 101, 102 (as v.l. for agāra); M I 501; A V 234, 250;
-khandha a great mass of fire, a huge fire, firebrand S II 85; A IV 128; Thig 351 (°samākāmā); Ja IV 139; VI 330; Paṭis I 125; Dīp VI 37; Miln 304;
-gata having become (like) fire Miln 302;
-ja fire-born Ja V 404 (commentary; Text aggi-jāta);
-ṭ-ṭha fire-place Ja V 155;
-ṭ-ṭhāna fire-place Vin II 120 (jantāghare, in bathroom);
-daḍḍha consumed by fire Dhp 136; Pv I 74;
-dāha (mahā°) a holocaust A I 178;
-nikāsin like fire Ja III 320 (suriya);
-Nibbāna the extinction of fire Ja I 212;
-pajjota fire-light A II 140 (one of the 4 lights, viz. canda°, suriya°, a°, paññā°);
-paricaraṇa (-ṭ-ṭhāna) the place where the (sacrificial) fire is attended to Dhp-a I 199;
-paricariyā fire-worship Dhp-a II 232; Pj II 291 (pāri°) 456;
-paricārika one who worship the fire A V 263 (brāhmaṇa);
-sālā a heated hall or refectory Vin I 25, 49 = II 210; I 139; II 154;
-sikhā the crest of the fire, the flame, in simile °ūpama, like a flaming fire Snp 703; Dhp 308 = It 43, 90 (ayoguḷa);
-hutta (neuter) the sacrificial fire (see above 2), Vin I 33, 36 = Ja I 83; Vin I 246 = Snp 568 (°mukha-yañña); S I 166; Dhp 392; Snp 249, p 79; Ja IV 211; VI 525; Thig-a 136 (= aggi); Dhp-a IV 151 (°ṃ brāhmaṇo namati);
-huttaka (neuter) fire-offering Ja VI 522 (= aggi-jūhana commentary);
-hotta = {5} °hutta Pj II 456 (v.l. °hutta);

-homa fire-oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni) D I 9 (= aggi-jūhana Sv I 93).

:: Aggika (adjective) [aggi + ka] one who worships the fire Vin I 71 (jaṭilaka); D II 339f. (jaṭila); S I 166 (brāhmaṇa).

:: Aggha [see agghati
1. price, value, worth, Miln 244; Mhv 26, 22; 30, 76; Vv-a 77. — mahaggha (adjective) of great value Ja IV 138; V 414; VI 209; Pv II 118. See also mahā-raha. appaggha (adjective) of little value Ja IV 139; V 414. — anaggha (neuter) pricelessness, Ja V 484; cattari anagghāni the four priceless things, viz. setacchatta, nisīdana-pallaṅka, ādhāraka, pādapīṭhikā Dhp-a III 120, 186. (adjective) priceless, invaluable Ja V 414; Mhv 26, 25; Dhp-a IV 216. — agghena (instrumental) for the price of Vin II 52, cf. Buddhaghosa on page 311, 312.
2. an oblation made to a guest D II 240; Ja IV 396 = 476.

-kāraka a valuator Ja I 124;
-pada valuableness Ja V 473 (°lakkhaṇaṃ nāma mantaṃ).

:: Agghaka (adjective) = aggha; worth, having the value of (—°) Mhv 30, 77. — an° priceless Mhv 30, 72.

:: Agghati (intransitive) [Sanskrit arghati, argh = arh (see arahati), cf. Greek ἀλϕἠ reward, ἀλϕάνω to deserve] to be worth, to have the value of (accusative), to deserve Ja I 112 (sata-sahassaṃ; aḍḍhamāsakaṃ); VI 174, 367 (padarajaṃ); Dhp-a III 35 (maṇin nāgghāma); Mhv 32, 28. Frequently in stock phrase kalaṃ nāgghati (nāgghanti) soḷasiṃ not to be worth the 16th part of (cf. kalā) Vin II 156; S I 233; Dhp 70; Vv 207 (= nānubhoti Vv-a 104), 437; Ja V 284. — causative agghāpeti to value, to appraise, to have a price put on (accusative) Ja I 124; IV 137, 278; Miln 192; Mhv 27, 23. Cf. agghāpanaka and agghāpaniya.

:: Agghanaka (adjective) (—°) [from °agghana, abstract to agghati] having the value of, equal to, worth Vin IV 226; Ja I 61 (satasahass°), 112; Sv I 80 (kahāpaṇ°); Dhp-a III 120 (cuddasakoṭi°); Mhv 26, 22; 34, 87. — feminine °ikā Ja I 178 (sata-sahass°).

:: Agghaniya (adjective) [in function and form gerund of agghati] priceless, invaluable, beyond the reach of money Miln 192.

:: Agghāpanaka [from agghāpana to agghāpeti, causative of agghati] a valuator, appraiser Ja I 124, 125; V 276 (°ika).

:: Agghāpaniya (adjective) [gerund of agghāpeti, see agghati] that which is to be valued, in °kamma the business of a valuator Ja IV 137.

:: Agghika (neuter) (—°) [= agghiya] an oblation, decoration or salutation in the form of garlands, flowers etc., therefore meaning "string, garland" (cf. Sinhalese ägä "festoon work") Mhv 19, 38 (pupph°) 34, 73 (ratan°) 34, 76 (dhaj°); Dāṭh I 39 (pupphamay°); V 51 (kusum°).

:: Agghiya (adjective/noun) [gerundive form from agghati
1. (adjective) valuable, precious, worth Ja VI 265 (maṇi); Dhp-a II 41 (ratan° of jewel's worth); Mhv 30, 92.
2. (neuter) a respectful oblation Ja V 324 = VI 516; Dīp VI 65; VII 4.

:: Agha1 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit agha, of uncertain etymology] evil, grief, pain, suffering, misfortune S I 22; M I 500 (roga gaṇḍa salla agha); A II 128 (the same); Ja V 100; Thig 491; Saddh 51. — adjective painful, bringing pain Ja VI 507 (agha-m-miga = aghakara masculine commentary).

-bhūta a source of pain S III 189 (+ agha and salla).

:: Agha2 (masculine neuter) [the etymology suggested by Morris JPTS 1889, 200 (with reference to M I 500, which belongs under agha1) is untenable (to Sanskrit kha, as a-kha = agha, cf. Jain Prākrit khaha). Neither does the popular etymology of Buddhaghosa offer any clue (= a + gha from ghan that which does not strike or aghaṭṭaniya is not strikeable As 326, cf. BMPE 178. note 1 and Ja IV 154 aghe ṭhitā = appaṭighe ākāse ṭhitā the air which does not offer any resistance). On the other hand the primary meaning is "darkness", as seen from the phrase lokantarikā aghā asaṃvutā andhakārā D II 12; S V 454, and BHS aghasaṃvr̥ta Mvu I 240, adjective dark Mvu I 41; II 162; Lal Vist 552] the sky, originally the dark sky, dark space, the abyss of space D II 12; S V 45; Vv 161 (aghasi gama, locative = vehāsaṃ gama Vv-a 78); Ja IV 154; Dhs 638 (+ aghagata); Vibh 84 (the same).

-gata going through or being in the sky or atmosphere Dhs 638, 722; Vibh 84;
-gāmin moving through the atmosphere or space i.e. a planet S I 67 = Miln 242 (ādicco seṭṭho aghagāminaṃ).

:: Aghata at Thag 321 may be read as agha-gata or (preferably) with v.l. as aggha-gataṃ, or (with Neumann, LMN) as agghaṃ agghatānaṃ. See also Mrs. Rh.D., Ps.B. , page 191.

:: Aghammiga [to agha1 ?] a sort of wild animal Ja VI 247 (= aghāvaha miga) 507 (= aghakara). Cf. BHS agharika Divy 475.

:: Aghavin (adjective) [to agha1] suffering pain, being in misery Snp 694 (= dukkhita Pj II 489).

:: Ago, A mountain; a tree

:: Agocaro, That which ought not to be gone to or frequented, wrong sphere, improper or sinful place or object. Brothels, taverns, etc., are agocarā, or places to be avoided by the Buddhist priest (E. Mon. 71). Vesiyādibhede agocare caranto, going after forbidden things, harlots, etc. (Dh. 334). Dhp 358, 396

:: Aguṇo, Bad quality, badness. Dhp 242.

:: Agyāgāraṃ see: Aggi.


:: Aṅka1 = aṅga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; °karana branding Ja IV 366, 375. See also aṅketi.

:: Aṅka2 [Vedic aṅka hook, bent etc., anc, cf. aṅkura and aṅkusa. Greek ἀγκών elbow, ἄγκυρα = anchor; Latin uncus nail; Old High German aṅgul = English angle
1. a hook Ja V 322 = VI 218 (v.l. aṅga).
2. the lap (i.e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindu mothers or nurses (aṅkena vahati) Vin II 114; D II 19 (aṅke pariharati to hold on one's lap or carry on one's hips), 20 (nisīdāpeti seat on one's lap); M II 97 (aṅkena vahitvā); Thag 299; Ja I 262 (aṅke nisinna); II 127, 236; VI 513; Dhp-a I 170 (aṅkena vahitvā) Pv-a 17 (nisīdāpeti).

:: Aṅkita [past participle of aṅketi] marked, branded Ja I 231 (cakkaṅkitā Satthu padā); II 185 (°kaṇṇaka with perforated ears).

:: Aṅkura [cf. Sanskrit aṅkura, to aṅka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout (literal or figurative) Ja II 105; VI 331 (Buddh° a nascent Buddha), 486; Dhs 617 (°vaṇṇa); Miln 50, 251 269; Saddh 273; Mhv 15, 43.

:: Aṅkusa [Vedic aṅkuśa; to añc, see aṅka2]
1. a hook, a pole with a hook, used (1.) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook Ja I 9 (°pacchi hook and basket); V 89 = VI 520 (pacchi-khanitti°), 529 (= phalānaṃ gaṇhanatthaṃ aṅkusaṃ). (2.) to drive an elephant, a goad (cf patoda and tutta) Vin II 196 (+ kasā); Ja VI 489; Thig-a 173 (ovādaṃ aṅkusaṃ katvā, figurative guide); Saddh 147 (daṇḍ°).
2. Name of a certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting in inferring certain mental states of a general character from respective traits where they are to be found Nett 2, 4, 127; Nett-a 208; — acc° beyond the reach of the goad D II 266 (nāga). See also aṅkusaka.

-gayha (the art) how to grasp and handle an elephant-driver's hook M II 94 (sippa);
-gaha an elephant-driver Dhp 326.

:: Aṅkusaka [see aṅka2, cf. aṅkusa 1. a crook for plucking fruit Ja III 22. 2. an elephant-driver's hook Ja III 431.

-yattha a crooked stick, alpenstock, staff (of an ascetic) Ja II 68 (+ pacchi).

:: Aṅketi [denominative from aṅka1] to mark out, brand Ja I 451 lakkhaṇena); II 399. — past participle aṅkita, q.v.

:: Aṅkola [dialect for aṅkura] a species of tree Alaṅgium Hexapetalum Ja VI 535. Cf. next.

:: Aṅkolaka = ankola Ja IV 440; V 420.

:: Aṅga (neuter) [Vedic aṅga, añc cf. Latin aṅgulus = angle, corner etc., ungulus finger-ring = Sanskrit aṅgulīya. See also aṅka, aṅguṭṭha and aṅgula 1. (literal) a constituent part of the body, a limb, member; also of objects: part, member (see compound °sambhāra); uttam° the reproductive organ Ja V 197; also as "head" at Thig-a 209. Usually in compounds (see below, especially °paccaṅga), as sabbaṅga-kalyāṇī perfect in all limbs Pv III 35 (= sobhaṇa-sabbaṅga-paccaṅgī Pv-a 189) and in reduplication aṅga-m-aṅgāni limb by limb, with all limbs (see also below aṅga + paccaṅga) Vin III 119; Vv 382 (°ehi naccamāna); Pv II 1210, 13, 18 (sunakho te khādati). 2. (figurative) a constituent part of a whole or system or collection, e.g. uposath° the vows of the fast Ja I 50; bhavaṅga the constituents or the condition of becoming (see bhava and cf. Cpd. 265 feminine); bojjhaṅga (q.v.). Especially with numerals: cattāri aṅgāni 4 constituents A II 79 (viz. sīla, samādhi, paññā, vimutti; and rūpa, vedanā, saññā, bhava), aṭṭhaṅgika (q.v.) magga the Path with its eight constituents or the eightfold Path (Pj I 85: aṭṭh'aṅgāni assā ti) navaṅga Buddha-sāsana see nava. 3. a constituent part as characteristic, prominent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality D I 113f., 117 {6} (iminā p'aṅgena by this quality, or: in this respect, cf. below 4; Sv I 281 explains tena kāraṇena). In a special sense striking (abnormal) sign or mark on the body D I 9, from which a prophesy is made (hattha-pādādisu yena kenaci evarūpena aṅgena samannāgato dīghāyu + ā + hotī ti + ā + aṅgasatthan = chiromantics Sv I 92). Thus in combination with samannāgata and sampanna always meaning endowed with "good", superior, remarkable "qualities", e.g. Ja I 3 (sabbaṅga-sampanna nagaraṃ a city possessing all marks of perfection); II 207. In enumeration with various numerals: tīhi aṅgehi s. A I 115; cattāri sotapannassa a. D III 227 = A IV 405f.; pañcaṅga-vippahīno (i.e. giving up the 5 hindrances, see nīvaraṇa) and pañcaṅga-samannāgato (i.e. endowed with the 5 good qualities, viz. the sīla-kkhandha, see khandha II A d) S I 99 = A I 161; V 15, 29. Similarly the 5 attributes of a brahmin (viz. sujāta of pure birth, ajjhāyaka a student of the Vedas, abhirūpa handsome, sīlavant of good conduct, paṇḍita clever) D I 119, 120. Eight qualities of a king D I 137. Ten qualities of an Arahant (cf. dasa1 B 2) S III 83; Khp IV 10 = Pj I 88; cf. M I 446 (dasah'aṅgehi samannāgato rañño assājāniyo). 4. (modally) part, share, interest, concern; ajjhattikaṃ aṅgaṃ my own part or interest (opposite bāhiraṃ the interest in the outside world). A I 16f. = S V 101f.; It 9. rañño aṅgaṃ an asset or profit for the king M I 446. Thus adverb tadaṅga (see also ta° I a) as a matter of fact, in this respect, for sure, certainly and tadaṅgena by these means, through this, therefore M I 492; A IV 411; Saddh 455, 456; iminā p'aṅgena for that reason M II 168. — In compounds with verbs aṅgi° (aṅgī°): aṅgigata having limbs or ports, divided Sv I 313; cf. samaṅgi (-bhūta).

-jāta "the distinguishing member", i.e. sign of male or female (see above 3); membrum virile and muliebre male or female sexual organ Vin I 191 (of cows); III 20, 37, 205; Ja II 359; Miln 124;
-paccaṅga one limb or the other, limbs great and small M I 81; Ja VI-20, used (a) collectively: the condition of perfect limbs, or adjectivally with perfect limbs, having all limbs Pv II 1212 (= paripuṇṇa-sabbaṅga-paccaṅgavatī Pv-a 158); Pj II 383; Dhp-a I 390; Thig-a 288; Saddh 83 figurative rathassa aṅgapaccaṅga M I 395; sabbaṅga-paccaṅgāni all limbs Miln 148. — (b) distributively (cf. similar reduplicated formations like chiddāvachidda, seṭṭhānu-seṭṭhi, khaṇḍākhaṇḍa, cuṇṇavicuṇṇa) limb after limb, one limb after the other (like aṅgamaṅgāni above 1), piecemeal M I 133 (°e ḍaseyya), 366; Ja I 20; IV 324 (chinditvā);
-paccaṅgatā the condition or state of perfect limbs, i.e. a perfect body Vv-a 134 (suvisuddh°);
-paccaṅgin having all limbs (perfect) D I 34 (sabbaṅga-peccaṅgī); Pv-a 189;
-rāga painting or rouging the body Vin II 107 (+ mukha°);
-laṭṭhi sprout, offshoot Thig-a 226;
-vāta gout Vin I 205;
-vijjā the art of prognosticating from marks on the body, chiromantics, palmistry etc. (cf. above 3) D I 9 (see explained at Sv I 93); Ja I 290 (°āya cheka clever in fortune-telling); °ānubhāva the power of knowing the art of signs on the body Ja II 200; V 284; °pāṭhaka one who is versed in palmistry etc. Ja II 21, 250; V 458;
-vekalla bodily deformity Dhp-a II 26;
-sattha the science of prognosticating from certain bodily marks Sv I 92;
-sambhāra the combination of parts Miln 28 = S I 135; Miln 41;
-hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests Ja VI 538.

:: Aṅgaṇa1 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit aṅgaṇa and °na; to aṅga ?] an open space, a clearing, Vin II 218; Ja I 109 (= manussānan sañcaraṇa-ṭ-ṭhāne anāvaṭe bhūmibhāge commentary); II 243, 290, 357; Dāṭh I 27. — cetiy° an open space before a Chaitya Miln 366, Sv I 191, 197; Vv-a 254. ° rāj° the empty space before the king's palace, the royal square Ja I 124, 152; II 2; Dhp-a II 45;

-ṭ-ṭhāna a clearing (in a wood or park) Ja I 249, 421;
-pariyanta the end or border of a clearing Ja II 200.

:: Aṅgaṇa2 [probably to añj, thus a variant of añjana, q.v.]; a speck or freckle (on the face) A V 92, 94f. (+ raja). Usually in negative anaṅgaṇa (adjective) free from fleck or blemish, clear, (of the mind) (opposite sāṅgaṇa Snp 279); D I 76; M I 24f.; 100 (+ raja); A II 211; Snp 517 (+ vigata- {7} raja = aṅgaṇānaṃ abhāvā malānañ ca vigamā + ā + Pj II 427), 622 = Dhp 125 (= nikkilesa Dhp-a III 34); Dhp 236, 351; Pp 60; Nett 87.

:: Aṅgada [cf. Sanskrit aṅgada; probably aṅga + da that which is given to the limbs] a bracelet Ja V 9, 410 (citt°, adjective with manifold bracelets).

:: Aṅgadin (adjective) [to aṅgada] wearing a bracelet Ja V 9.

:: Aṅgāra (masculine neuter) [Vedic aṅgāra] charcoal, burning coal, embers A III 97, 380, 407; Ja I 73; III 54, 55; V 488; Snp 668; Saddh 32. kul° the charcoal of the family, a squanderer S IV 324 (see under kula).

-kaṭāha a pot for holding burning coal, a charcoal pan Sv I 261;
-kapalla an earthenware pan for ashes Dhp-a I 260; As 333; Vv-a 142;
-kammakara a charcoal burner Ja VI 209;
-kāsu a charcoal pit M I 74, 365; Thig 491; Ja I 233; Snp 396; Thig-a 288; Dhp-a I 442; Saddh 208;
-pacchi a basket for ashes Dhp-a IV 191;
-pabbata the mountain of live embers, the glowing mount (in Niraya) A I 141; Miln 303; Pv-a 221 (°āropaṇa); Saddh 208;
-maṃsa roast meat Mhv 10, 16;
-masi ashes Dhp-a III 309;
-rāsi a heap of burning coal Ja III 55.

:: Aṅgāraka (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit aṅgāraka] like charcoal, of red colour, name of the planet Mars Sv I 95; cf. Ja I 73.

:: Aṅgārika a charcoal-burner Ja VI 206 (= aṅgāra-kammakara Ja VI 209).

:: Aṅgārin (adjective) [to aṅgāra] (burning) like coal, of bright red colour, crimson Thag 527 = Ja I 87 (dumā trees in full bloom).

:: Aṅgika (—°) (adjective) [from aṅga] consisting of parts, — fold; only in compounds with numeral like aṭṭh°, duv° (see dve), catur°, pañc° etc., q.v.

:: Aṅgin (adjective) limbed, having limbs or parts, — fold, see catur° and pacc° (under aṅga-paccaṅgin). — feminine aṅginī having sprouts or shoots (of a tree) Thig 297 (= Thig-a 226).

:: Aṅguṭṭha [cf. Sanskrit anguṣṭha, see etymology under aṅga
1. the thumb Vin III 34; Miln 123; Pv-a 198.
2. the great toe Ja II 92; Mhv 35, 43.

-pada thumb-mark A IV 127 = S III 154;
-sineha love drawn from the thumb, i.e. extraordinary love Pv III 52, cf. Pv-a 198.

:: Aṅguṭṭhaka = aṅguṭṭha Ja IV 378; V 281; pād° the great toe S V 270.

:: Aṅgula [Vedic aṅgula, literally "limblet" see aṅga for etymology
1. a finger or toe M I 395 (vaṅk'aṅgulaṃ karoti to bend the fingers, v.l. aṅguliṇ); A III 6 (the same); Ja V 70 (goṇ° adjective with ox toes, explained by commentary as with toes like an ox's tail; vv.ll. °aṅguṭṭha and °aṅgulī).
2. a finger as measure, i.e. a finger-breadth, an inch Vin II 294, 306 (dvaṅgula 2 inches wide); Mhv 19, 11 (aṭṭh°); Dhp-a III 127 (ek°).

-aṭṭhi (? Cf. aṅga-laṭṭhi) fingers (or toes) and bones Sv I 93;
-aṅguli fingers and toes Dhp-a III 214;
-antarikā the interstices between the fingers Vin III 39; Miln 180; Dhp-a III 214.

:: Aṅgulika (neuter) [= aṅgulī] a finger Ja III 13 (pañc°); V 204 (vaṭṭ° = pavāḷ° aṅkurasadisā vaṭṭaṅgulī Ja V 207). See also pañcaṅgulika.

:: Aṅgulī and Anguli Anguli (thus always in compounds) (feminine) [Vedic aṅgulī and °i; see aṅga] a finger A IV 127; Snp 610; Ja III 416; IV 474; V 215 (vaṭṭ° with rounded fingers); Miln 395; Dhp-a II 59; IV 210; Pj II 229.

-patodaka nudging with the fingers Vin III 84 = IV 110; D I 91 = A IV 343;
-pada finger-mark A IV 127 = S III 154;
-poṭha snapping or cracking the fingers Ja V 67;
-muddikā a signet ring Vin II 106; Ja IV 498; V 439, 467;
-saṅghaṭṭana° = poṭha Sv I 256.

:: Aṅguleyyaka (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit aṅgulīyaka that which belongs to the finger, Mhg. vingerlîn = ring; English bracelet, French bras; thimble thumb etc.] an ornament for the finger, a finger-ring Ja II 444 (= nikkha).

:: Acaṅkama (avj.) [a + caṅkama] not fit for walking, not level or even Thag 1174 (magga).


:: Acittaka (adjective) [a + citta2 + ka
1. without thought or intention, unconscious, unintentional Dhp-a II 42.
2. without heart or feeling, instrumental acittakena (adverb) heartlessly Ja IV 58 (commentary for acetasā).

:: Acittikata (adjective) [a + citta2 + kata; cf. cittikāra] not well thought of Miln 229.

:: Acira see cira and cf. nacira.

:: Acela (adjective/noun) [a + cela] one who is not clothed, especially technical term for an anti-Buddhist naked ascetic D I 161, 165; III 6, 12, 17f.; S I 78; Ja V 75.

:: Acelaka = acela D I 166; III 40; A I 295; II 206; III 384 (°sāvaka); Ja III 246; VI 229; Pp 55; Dhp-a III 489.

:: Acc-
1. a + c°, e.g. accuta = a + cuta.
2. Assimilation group of (a) ati + vowel; (b) c + consonant e.g. acci = arci.

:: Accagā [ati + agā] 3rd singular preterit of ati-gacchati (q.v. for similar forms) he overcame, should or could overcome Snp 1040 (explained wrongly as past participle = atikkanta at Nidd II §10 and as atīta at Dhp-a IV 494); Dhp 414.

:: Accaṅkusa (adjective) [ati + aṅkusa] beyond the reach of the goad D II 266 (nāga).

:: Accatari see atitarati.

:: Accati [Vedic arcati, r̥c, original meaning to be clear and to sing i.e. to sound clear, cf. arci] to praise, honour, celebrate Dāṭh V 66 (accayittha, preterit) — past participle accita, q.v.

:: Accanta (adjective — and adverb °-) [ati + anta, literally "up to the end"
1. uninterrupted, continuous, perpetual Ja I 223; Miln 413; Vv-a 71; Pv-a 73, 125, 266; Saddh 288.
2. final, absolute, complete; adverb thoroughly S I 130 (°ṃ hataputtā'mhi); III 13 = A I 291f.; V 326f. (°niṭṭha, °yogakkhemin); Kv 586 (°niyāmatā final assurance; cf. PtsC.40).
3. (°-) exceedingly, extremely, very much A I 145 (°sukhumāla, extremely delicate), Miln 26 (the same); Snp 794 (°suddhi = paramattha-accantasuddhi Pj II 528); Thag 692 (°ruci); Dhp 162 (°dussīlya = ekanta° Dhp-a III 153).

:: Accaya [from acceti, ati + i, going on or beyond; cf. Sanskrit atyaya
1. (temporal) lapse, passing passing away, end, death. Usually as instrumental accayena after the lapse of, at the end or death of, after Vin I 25; D II 127 (rattiyā a.), 154 (mam° when I shall be dead); M I 438 (temās° after 3 months); S I 69; Snp page 102 (catunnaṃ māsānaṃ), page 110 (rattiyā); Ja I 253 (ekāha-dvīh°), 291 (katipāh° after a few days); Pv-a 47 (katipāh°), 82 (dasamās°), 145 (vassasatānaṃ).
2. (modal) passing or getting over, overcoming, conquering, only in phrase dur-accaya difficult to overcome, of kāmapaṅka Snp 945 (= dur-atikkamanīya Pj II 568), of saṅga Snp 948: taṇhā Dhp 336; sota It 95.
3. (figurative) going beyond (the norm), transgression, offence Vin I 133 (thull° a grave offence), 167 (the same); II 110, 170; especially in following phrases: accayo maṃ accagamā a fault has overcome me, i.e. has been committed by me (in confession formula) D I 85 (= abhibhavitvā pavatto has overwhelmed me Sv I 236); A I 54; M I 438 (the same); accayaṃ accayato passati to recognise a breach of the regulation as such Vin I 315; A I 103; II 146f.; °ṃ deseti to confess the transgression S I 239; °ṃ accayato paṭigaṇhāti to accept (the confession of) the fault, i.e. to pardon the transgression, in confession formula at D I 85 = (Vin II 192; M I 438 etc.). In the {8} same sense accaya-paṭiggahaṇa pardon, absolution Ja V 380; accayena desanaṃ paṭigaṇhāti Ja I 379; accayaṃ khamati to forgive Miln 420.

:: Accasara (adjective) [a formation from preterit accasari (ati + sr̥), influenced in meaning by analogy of ati + sara (smr̥). Not with Morris (JPTS 1889, 200) a corruption of accaya + sara (smr̥), thus meaning "mindful of a fault"
1. going beyond the limits (of proper behaviour), too self-sure, overbearing, arrogant, proud S I 239 (v.l. accayasara caused by prolepsis of following accaya); Ja IV 6 (+ atisara); Dhp-a IV 230 (= expecting too much).
2. going beyond the limits (of understanding), beyond grasp, transcendental (of pañha a question) M I 304; S V 218 (v.l. ajjhapara). Cf. accasārin.

:: Accasarā (feminine) [abstract to accasara] overbearing, pride, self-surity Vibh 358 (+ māyā). Note: In the same passage at Pp 23 we read acchādanā instead of accasarā.

:: Accasari [from ati + sr̥] preterit 3. singular of atisarati to go beyond the limit, to go astray Ja V 70.

:: Accasārin (adjective) = accasara 1., aspiring too high Snp 8f. (yo nāccasārī, opposed to na paccasārī; explained at Pj II 21 by yo nātidhāvi, opposite na ohiyyi).

:: Accahasi [from ati + hr̥] preterit 3 singular of atiharati to bring over, to bring, to take Ja III 484 (= ativiya āhari commentary).

:: Accābhikkhaṇa (°-) [ati + abhikkhaṇa] too often Ja V 233 (°saṃsagga; commentary explains ativiya abhiṇha).

:: Accāyata (adjective) [ati + āyata] too long A III 375.

:: Accāyika (adjective) [from accaya] out of time, viz.
1. irregular, extraordinary Ja VI 549, 553.
2. urgent, pressing M I 149 (karaṇiya business) II 112; Ja I 338; V 17 °ṃ (neuter) hurry Dhp-a I 18. See also acceka.

:: Accāraddha (adjective adverb) [ati + āraddha] exerting oneself very or too much, with great exertion Vin I 182; Thag 638; Pj II 21.

:: Accāvadati [ati + āvadati; or is it = ajjhāvadati = adhi + āvadati ?] to speak more or better, to surpassivein talk or speech; to talk somebody down, to persuade, entice Vin IV 224, 263; S II 204f.; Ja V 433 (v.l. ajjhārati), 434 (v.l. aghācarati for ajjhācarati = ajjhāvadati ?).

:: Accāsanna (adjective) [ati + āsanna] very near, too near Pv-a 42 (na a. n'ātidūra neither too near nor too far, at an easy distance).

:: Accahita (adjective) [ati + ahita] very cruel, very unfriendly, terrible Ja IV 46 = V 146 (= ati ahita commentary) = VI 306 (the same).

:: Acchi Acci and (in verse) accī (feminine) [Vedic arci masculine and arcis neuter and feminine to r̥c, cf. accati] a ray of light, a beam, flame S IV 290 (spelt acchi), 399; A IV 103; V 9; Snp 1074 (vuccati jālasikhā Nidd II §11); Ja V 213; Miln 40; Thig-a 154 (dīp°); Saddh 250.

:: Accikā (feminine) [from acci] a flame M I 74; S II 99.

:: Accita [past participle of accati] honoured, praised, esteemed Ja VI 180.

:: Acci-bandha (adjective) [= accibaddha ?] at Vin I 287 is explained by Buddhaghosa as caturassa-kedāra-baddha ("divided into short pieces" Vinaya Texts II 207), i.e. with squares of irrigated fields. The vv.ll. are acca° and acchi°, and we should prefer the conjecture acchi-baddha "in the shape of cubes or dice", i.e. with square fields.

:: Accimant (adjective) [from acci, cf. Vedic arcimant and arciṣmant] flaming, glowing, fiery; brilliant Thag 527; Ja V 266; VI 248; Vv 388.

:: Accuggacchati [ati + uggacchati] to rise out (of), gerund accuggamma D II 38; A V 152 (in simile of lotus).

:: Accuggata (adjective) [ati + uggata 1. very high or lofty Miln 346 (giri); Vv-a 197; Dhp-a II 65. 2. too high, i.e. too shrill or loud Ja VI 133 (sadda), 516 (figurative = atikuddha very angry commentary).

:: Accuṇha (adjective) [ati + uṇha] very hot, too hot Snp 966; Nidd I 487; Dhp-a II 85, 87 (v.l. for abbhuṇha). See also ati-uṇha.

:: Accuta (adjective) [a + cuta] immoveable; everlasting, eternal; neuter °ṃ especially of Nibbāna (see also cuta) A IV 295, 327; Snp 204, 1086 (= nicca etc. Nidd II 12); Dhp 225 (= sassata Dhp-a III 321); Saddh 47.

:: Accupaṭṭhapeti at Ja V 124 is to be read with v.l. as apaccupaṭṭhapeti (does not indulge in or care for).

:: Accuppati Accupati at Ja IV 250 read accuppati, preterit 3rd singular of accuppatati to fall in between (literal onto), to interfere (with two people quarelling). commentary explains atigantvā uppati. There is no need for Kern's correction acchupati (Toev. sub voce).

:: Accussanna (adjective) [ati + ussanna] too full, too thick Vin II 151.

:: Acceka = accāyika, special; °cīvara a spccial robe Vin III 261; cf. Vinaya Texts I 293.

:: Acceti [ati + eti from i
1. to passive(of time), to go by, to elapse Thag 145 (accayanti ahorattā).
2. to overcome, to get over Miln 36 (dukkhaṃ). — causative acceti to make go on (locative), to put on Ja VI 17 {8} (sūlasmiṃ; commentary āvuṇeti), but at this passage probably to be read appeti (q.v.).

:: Accogāḷha (adjective) [ati + ogāḷha] too abundant, too plentiful (of riches), literally plunged into A IV 282, 287, 323f.

:: Accodaka (neuter) [ati + udaka] too much water (opposite anodaka no water) Dhp-a I 52.

:: Accodara (neuter) [ati + udara] too much eating, greediness, literally too much of a belly Ja IV 279 (commentary ati-udara).

:: Accha1 (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit accha, dialect, to r̥c (see accati), thus "shining"; cf. Sanskrit r̥kṣa bald, bare and Vedic r̥kvan bright. Monier-Williams however takes it as a + cha from chad, thus "not covered, not shaded"] clear, transparent Vin I 206 (°kañjika); D I 76 (maṇi = tanucchavi Sv I 221), 80 (udakapatta), 84 (udaka-rahada); M I 100; S II 281 (°patta); III 105 (the same); A I 9; Ja II 100 (udaka); Vv 7910 (vāri); Sv I 113 (yāgu).

-odaka having clear water, with clear water (of lotus ponds) Vv 4411; 815; feminine °odikā Vv 412 = 602.

:: Accha2 [Vedic r̥kṣa = Greek ἄρκτοϛ, Latin ursus, Cymr. arth] a bear Vin I 200; A III 101; Ja V 197, 406, 416; Miln 23, 149. At Ja VI 507 accha figures As name of an animal, but is in explanation taken in the sense of accha4 (acchā nāma aghammigā commentary). Note: Another peculiar form of accha is Pāli ikka (q.v.).

:: Accha3 = akkha2 (a die) see acci-bandha.

:: Accha4 (adjective) [Vedic r̥kṣa] hurtful, painful, bad Dhp-a IV 163 (°ruja).

:: Acchaka = accha2, a bear Ja V 71.

:: Acchati [Vedic āsyati and āste, ās; cf. Greek ἧσται
1. to sit, to sit still Vin I 289; A II 15; It 120 (in set carati tiṭṭhati a. sayati, where otherwise nisinna stands for acchati); Vv 741 (= nisīdati Vv-a 298); Pv-a 4.
2. to stay, remain, to leave alone Thag 936; Ja IV 306.
3. to be, behave, live Vin II 195; D I 102; S I 212; Vv 112; Pv III 31 (= nisīdati vasati Pv-a 188); Miln 88; Dhp-a I 424. In this sense often pleonastic for finite verb, thus aggiṃ {9} karitvā a. (= aggiṃ karoti) D I 102; aggiṃ paricaranto a. (= aggiṃ paricarati) Sv I 270; tantaṃ pasārento a. (= tantaṃ pasāreti) Dhp-a I 424. — potential acche It 110; preterit acchi Vin IV 308; Dhp-a I 424.

:: Acchanna (adjective) [past participle of acchādeti] covered with, clothed in, figurative steeped in (commentary locative) Ja III 323 (lohite a. = nimugga commentary). At D I 91 nacchanna is for na channa (see channa2) = not fair, not suitable or proper (paṭirūpa).

:: Acchambhin (adjective) [a + chambhin] not frightened, undismayed, fearless Snp 42 (reading achambhin; Nidd II §13 explains abhīru anutrāsi etc.); Ja VI 322 (= nikkampa commentary). See chambhin.

:: Accharā1 (feminine) [etymology uncertain, but certainly dialectical; Trenckner connects it with ācchurita ("Notes" 76); Childers compares Sanskrit akṣara (see akkhara); there may be a connection with akkhaṇa in akkhaṇa-vedhin (cf. BHS acchaṭā Divy 555), or possibly a relation to ā + tsar, thus meaning "stealthily", although the primary meaning is "snapping, a quick sound"] the snapping of the fingers, the bringing together of the finger-tips:
1. (literal) accharaṃ paharati to snap the fingers Ja II 447; III 191; IV 124, 126; V 314; VI 366; Dhp-a I 38, 424. — As measure: as much as one may hold with the finger-tips, a pinch Ja V 385; Dhp-a II 273 (°gahaṇamattaṃ); cf. ekacchara-matta Dhp-a II 274.
2. (figurative) a finger's snap, i.e. a short moment, in ekacchara-k-khaṇe in one moment Miln 102, and in definition of acchariya (q.v.) at Sv I 43; Vv-a 329.

-saṅghāta the snapping of the fingers as signifying a short duration of time, a moment, °matta momentary, only for one moment (cf. BHS acchaṭāsaṅghāta Divy 142) A I 10, 34, 38; IV 396; Thag 405; Thig 67 (explained at Thig-a 76 as ghaṭikāmattam pi khaṇaṃ aṅgulipoṭhanamattam pi kālaṃ);
-sadda the sound of the snapping of a finger Ja III 127.

:: Accharā2 (feminine) [Vedic apsaras = āpa, water + sarati, origanilly water nymph] a celestial nymph M I 253 (plural accharāyo) II 64; Thig 374 (= devaccharā Thig-a 252); Ja V 152f. (Alambusā a.) Vv 55 (= devakaññā Vv-a 37); Vv 172; 1811 etc.; Dhp-a III 8, 19; Pv-a 46 (dev°); Miln 169; Saddh 298.

:: Accharika (neuter or feminine ?) [from accharā2] in °ṃ vādeti to make heavenly music (literally the sounds of an accharā or heavenly nymph) A IV 265.

:: Acchariya (adjective-neuter) [cf. Sanskrit āścarya since Upanishads of uncertain etymology — The conventional etymology of Pāli grammarians connects it with accharā1 (which is probably correct and thus reduces Sanskrit āścarya to a Sanskritization of acchariya) viz. Dhammapāla: anabhiṇha-p-pavattitāya accharā-paharaṇa-yoggaṃ that which happens without a moment's notice, at the snap of a finger; i.e. causally unconnected (cf. Gothic silda-leiks in similar meaning) Vv-a 329; and Buddhaghosa: accharā-yoggan ti acchariyaṃ accharaṃ paharituṃ yuttan ti attho Sv I 43] wonderful, surprising strange, marvellous D II 155; M I 79; III 118, 125, 144 (an°); S IV 371; A I 181; Miln 28, 253; Dhp-a III 171; Pv-a 121; Vv-a 71 (an°). As neuter often in exclamations: how wonderful! what a marvel! Ja I 223, 279; IV 138; VI 94 (a. vata bho); Dhp-a IV 51 (aho a.); Vv-a 103 (aho ti acchariyatthena nipāto). Thus frequently combined with abbhutaṃ = how wonderful and strange, marvellous, beyond comprehension, e.g. D I 2, 60, 206, 210; II 8; and in phrase acchariyā abbhutā dhammā strange and wonderful things, i.e. wonderful signs, portents marvels, M III 118, 125; A IV 198; Miln 8; also as adjective in phrase acchariya-abbhuta-(citta-)jātā with their hearts full of wonder and surprise Dhp-a IV 52; Pv-a 6, 50. — See also acchera and accheraka.

:: Acchādana (neuter) [from acchādeti] covering, clothing Thag 698; Miln 279. — figurative protection, sheltering Ja I 307.

:: Acchādanā (feminine) [= preceding] covering, hiding, concealment Pp 19, 23. — Note: In the same passage at Vibh 358 we read accasarā for acchādanā. Is the latter merely a gloss?

:: Acchādeti [ā + chādeti1, causative of chad, cf. BHS ācchādayati jīvitena to keep alive Avś, I 300; Divy 136, 137] to cover, to clothe, to put on D I 63 = It 75; Ja I 254; III 189; IV 318; Pp 57; Pv I 105 (gerund acchādayitvāna); Sv I 181 (= paridahitvā); Pv-a 49, 50. — figurative to envelop, to fill Ja VI 581 (abbhaṃ rajo acchādesi dust filled the air). — past participle acchanna (q.v.).

:: Acchi at S IV 290 is faulty spelling for acci (q.v.).

:: Acchijja (v.l. accheja) destroying (?) S I 127. Is the reading warranted? Cf. acchecchi.

:: Acchidda see chidda.

:: Acchindati [ā + chindati, literally to break for oneself] to remove forcibly, to take away, rob, plunder Vin IV 247 (sayaṃ a. to appropriate); Ja II 422; III 179; IV 343; Miln 20; Saddh 122. — gerund acchinditvā Ja II 422; Dhp-a I 349; Pv-a 241 (sayaṃ); and acchetvā M I 434. causative II acchindāpeti to induce a person to theft Vin IV 224, 247.

:: Acchinna (adjective) [ā + chinna, past participle of acchindati] removed, taken away, stolen, robbed Vin IV 278, 303; Ja II 78; IV 45; V 212.

:: Acchiva [Sanskrit akṣiba and akṣība] a certain species of tree (HypanThera Moringa) Ja VI 535.

:: Acchupeti [ā + chupeti, causative of chupati] to procure or provide a hold, to insert, to put on or in Vin I 290 (aggaḷaṃ) II 112.

:: Acchecchi [Sanskrit acchaitsīt] 3rd singular preterit of chindati "he has cut out or broken, has destroyed" (see also chindati3), in combination with taṇhaṃ M I 122; S I 12, 23, 127 (so read for acchejja); IV 105, 207. It 47; A III 246, 445; Dhp-a IV 70 (gloss acchindi, for acchidda preterit of Dhp 351). The v.l. at all passages is acchejji, which is to be accounted for on graphological grounds, ch and j being substituted in mss Kern (Toev. sub voce) mistakes the form and tries to explain acchejji as adjective = ati-ejin (ejā), acchecchi = ati-icchin (icchā). The syntactical construction however clearly points to an preterit.

:: Acchejja [= a + chejja not to be destroyed, indestructible, see chindati.

:: Acchedana (neuter) [abstract to acchindati] robbing, plundering Ja VI 544.


:: Acchera (adjective) = acchariya wonderful, marvellous S I 181; Vv 8413 (compare accheratara); Pv III 51 (°rūpa = acchariya-sabhāva Pv-a 197); Saddh 244, 398.

:: Accheraka (adjective) = acchera (acchariya) Ja I 279; Bv I 9 (pāṭihīraṃ).

:: Aja Aja [Vedic aja from aj (Latin ago to drive), cf. ajina] a he-goat, a ram D I 6, 127; A II 207; Ja I 241; III 278f.; V 241; Pp 56; Pv-a 80.

-eḷaka [Sanskrit ajaiḍaka] goats and sheep D I 5, 141; A II 42f., 209; Ja I 166; VI 110; Pp 58. As plural °ā S I 76; It 36; Ja IV 363;
-pada goat-footed M I 134. aja-pada refers to a stick cloven like a goat's hoof; so also at Vism 161;
-pāla goatherd, in °nigrodha-rukkha (Name of place) "goatherds' Nigrodha-tree" Vin I 2f. Dīp I 29 (cf. Mvu III 302);
-pālikā a woman goatherd Vin III 38;
-lakkhaṇa "goat-sign", i.e. prophesying from signs on a goat etc. D I 9 (explained Sv I 94 as "evarūpānaṃ ajānaṃ maṃsaṃ khāditabbaṃ evarūpānaṃ na khāditabban ti");
-laṇḍikā (plural) goats' dung, in phrase nāḷimattā a. a cup full of goats' dung (which is put down a bad ministers throat as punishment) Ja I 419; Dhp-a II 70; Pv-a 282;
-vata "goats' habit", a practice of certain ascetics (to live after the fashion of goats) Ja IV 318.


:: Ajaka a goat, plural goats Vin II 154. — feminine ajikā Ja III 278 and ajiyā Ja V 241.

:: Ajagara [aja + gara = gala from °gel to devour, thus "goat-eater"] a large snake (rock-snake ?), Boa Constrictor Ja VI 507; Miln 23, 303, 364, 406; Dhp-a III 60. Also as ajakara at Ja III 484 (cf. Trenckner, "Notes" page 64).

:: Ajacca (adjective) [a + jacca] of low birth Ja III 19; VI 100.

:: Ajajjara see jajjara.

:: Ajaddhumāra Ajaddhuka and Ajaddhumāra see jaddhu.

:: Ajamoja [Sanskrit ajamoda, cf. Sanskrit ajājī] cummin-seed Vv-a 186.

:: Ajā Ajā (feminine) a she-goat Ja III 125; IV 251.

:: Ajānana (°-) (neuter) [a + jānana] not knowing, ignorance (of) Ja V 199 (°bhāva); VI 177 (°kāla).

:: Ajina (neuter) [Vedic ajina, to aja, original goats' skin] the hide of the black antelope, worn as a garment by ascetics D I 167; Snp 1027; Ja I 12, 53; IV 387; V 407. kharājina a rough skin (as garment) M I 343; S IV 118; A II 207; Snp 249 (= kharāni a.-cammāni Pj II 291). dantājina ? ivory (q.v.).

-khipa a cloak made of a network of strips of a black antelope's hide D I 167; S I 117; A I 240, 295; II 206; Vin I 306; III 34; Ja VI 569;
-paveṇi a cloth of the size of a couch made from pieces of antelope skin sewn together Vin I 192; D I 7 (= ajina-cammehi mañcappamāṇena sibbitvā katā paveṇi Sv I 87); A I 181;
-sāṭī a garment of skins (= ajina-camma-sāṭī Dhp-a IV 156) Dhp 394 = Ja I 481 = III 85.

:: Ajini preterit 3rd singular jayati, q.v.

:: Ajiya = ajikā (see ajaka).

:: Ajira (neuter). [Vedic ajira to aj, cf. Greek ἀγρόϛ, Latin ager, Gothic akrs = German Acker, = English acre] a court, a yard Mhv 35, 3.

:: Ajīraka (neuter) [a + jīraka] indigestion Ja I 404; II 181, 291; III 213, 225.

:: Ajeyya1 and Ajjeyya (adjective) [a + jeyya, jeyya gerund of jayati, q.v.
(a) not to be taken by force Khp VIII 8 (cf. Pj I 223).
(b) not to be overpowered, invincible Snp 288; Ja V 509.

:: Ajeyya2 (adjective) [a + jeyya jeyya, gerund of jīyati, q.v.] not decaying, not growing old, permanent Ja VI 323.

:: Ajja Ajja and Ajjā (adverb) [Vedic adya and adyā, a + dyā, a° being base of demonstrative pronoun (see a3) and dyā an old locative of dyaus (see diva), thus "on this day"] today, now Snp 75, 153, 158, 970, 998; Dhp 326; Ja I 279; III 425 (read bahutaṃ ajjā; not with Kern, Toev. sub voce as "food"); Pv I 117 (= idāni Pv-a 59); Pv-a 6, 23; Mhv 15, 64. Frequently in phrase ajjatagge (= ajjato + agge(?) or ajja-t-agge, see agga 3) from this day onward, henceforth Vin I 18; D I 85; Sv I 235.

-kālaṃ (adverb) this morning Ja VI 180;
-divasa the present day Mhv 32, 23.

:: Ajjatana (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit adyatana] referring to the day, today's, present, modern (opposite porāṇa) Thag 552; Dhp 227; Ja II 409. — dative ajjatanāya for today Vin I 17; Pv-a 171 and passim.

:: Ajjatā (feminine) [abstract from ajja] the present time, in ajjatañ ca this very day S I 83 (v.l. ajjeva).

:: Ajjati [Vedic arjati, r̥j, a variant of arh, see arahati] to get, procure, obtain Ja III 263 (?). past participle ajjita (q.v.).

:: Ajjava (adjective/noun) [cf. Sanskrit ārjava, to r̥ju, see uju] straight, upright (usually combined with maddava gentle, soft) D III 213; A I 94; II 113; III 248; Snp 250 (+ maddava), 292 (the same); Ja III 274; Dhs 1339; Vibh 359 (an°); Pj II 292 (= ujubhāva), 317 (the same).

:: Ajjavatā (feminine) [from preceding] straightforwardness, rectitude, uprightness Dhs 1339. (+ ajimhatā and avaṅkatā).

:: Ajjita [past participle of ajjati] obtained Saddh 98.

:: Ajjuka [Sanskrit arjaka] name of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum Vin IV 35; Sv I 81 (all mss have ajjaka).

:: Ajjukaṇṇa [Sanskrit arjakarṇa] name of a tree Pentaptera Tomentosa Ja VI 535 (-nn-).

:: Ajjuṇho (adverb) [haplology from ajja-juṇho; see juṇhā] this moonlight night Vin I 25; IV 80.

:: Ajjuna [Vedic arjuna, to raj; cf. Greek ὰργόϛ white, ἄργυροϛ silver, Latin argentum] the tree Pentaptera Arjuna Ja VI 535; Dhp-a I 105 (°rukkha).

:: Ajjh- Assimilation group of adhi + vowel.

:: Ajjhagā [adhi + agā] 3rd singular preterit of adhigacchati (q.v. for similar forms) he came to, got to, found, obtained, experienced S I 12 (vimānaṃ); Snp 225 (explained at Pj I 180 by vindi paṭilabhi), 956 (ratiṃ; explained at Nidd I 457 by adhigacchi); It 69 (jāti-maraṇaṃ); Dhp 154 (taṇhānaṃ khayaṃ); Vv 327 (visesaṃ attained distinction; explained at Vv-a 135 by adhigata); 5021 (amataṃ santiṃ; explained Vv-a 215 by v.l. adhigañchi, Text adhigacchati).

:: Ajjhatta (adjective/noun) [cf. Sanskrit adhyātma, cf. attā], that which is personal, subjective, arises from within (in contrast to anything outside, objective or impersonal); as adverb and °— interior, personal, inwardly (opposite bahiddhā bāhira etc. outward, outwardly); cf. ajjhattika and see BMPE 250, note 4. — D I 37 (subjective, inward, of the peace of the 2nd jhāna), 70 = A II 210; V 206 (inward happiness. a. sukkhaṃ = niyakajjhattaṃ attano santāne ti attho Sv I 183 cf. As 169, 338, 361); S I 70, 169; II 27 (kathaṃ kathī hoti is in inward doubt), 40 (sukhaṃ dukkhaṃ); III 180 (the same); IV 1 singular (āyatanāni), 139, 196; V 74 (ṭhitaṃ cittaṃ ajjhattaṃ susaṇṭhitaṃ suvimuttaṃ a mind firm, inwardly well planted, quite set free), 110, 143, 263, 297, 390; A I 40 (rūpasaññī), 272 (kāma-c-chanda etc.); II 158. (sukhadukkhaṃ), 211; III 86 (ceto-samatha), 92 (vūpasanta-citta); IV 32 (saṅkhittaṃ), 57 (itthindriyaṃ), 299 (cittaṃ), 305 (rūpa-saññī), 360 (ceto-samatha), 437 (vūpasanta-citta); V 79f., 335f. (sati); It 39 (ceto-samatha inward peace), 80, 82, 94; Ja I 345 (chātajjhatta with hungry insides); V 338 (the same); Paṭis I 76 (cakkhu etc.); Dhs 161 (= attano jātaṃ As 169), 204, 1044; Pp 59; Vibh 1f. (khandhā), 228 (sati), 327 (paññā), 342 (arūpa-saññī). — adverb °ṃ inwardly, personally (in contrast-pair ajjhattaṃ vā bahiddhā vā; see also compound °bahiddhā) A I 284; II 171; IV 305; V 61; Snp 917 (= upajjhayassa vā ācariyassa vā te guṇā assū ti Nidd I 350).

-ārammaṇa a subjective object of thought Dhs 1047;
-cintin thought occupied with internal things Snp 174, 388;
-bahiddhā inside and outside, personal-external, mutual, interacting S II 252f.; III 47; IV 382; Nidd II 15; Dhs 1049 etc. (see also bahiddhā);
-rata with inward joy D II 107 = S V 263 = Dhp 362 = Ud 64 (+ samāhita); Thag 981; A IV 312; Dhp-a IV 90 (= gocar'ajjhatta-saṅkhātāya kammaṭṭhāna-bhāvanāya rata);
-rūpa one's own or inner form Vin III 113 (opposite bahiddhā-rūpa and ajjh.-bah° r.);
-saṃyojana an inner fetter, inward bond A I 63f.; Pp 22; Vibh 361;
-santi inner peace Snp 837 (= ajjhattānaṃ rāgādīnaṃ santibhāva Pj II 545; cf. Nidd I 185);
-samuṭṭhāna originating from within Ja I 207 (of hiri; opposite bahiddhā°).

{11} {10}

:: Ajjhattika (adjective) [ajjhatta + ika], personal, inward (cf. BMPE 180 and Nidd I 346: ajjhattikaṃ vuccati cittaṃ); opposite bāhira outward (q.v.). See also āyatana. — M I 62; S I 73 (°ā rakkhā na bāhirā); IV 7f. (āyatanāni); V 101 (aṅga); A I 16 (aṅga); II 164 (dhātuyo); III 400 (āyatanāni); V 52 (the same); It 114 (the same), 9 (aṅga); Khp IV (= Pj I 82); Ja IV 402 (bāhira-vatthuṃ ayācitvā ajjhattikassa nāmaṃ gaṇhati); Dhs 673, 751; Vibh 13, 67, 82f., 119, 131, 392f.

:: Ajjhapara S V 218: substitute v.l. accasara (q.v.).

:: Ajjhappatta (and Ajjhapatta) [adhi + ā + °prāpta
1. having reached, approached, coming near to Ja II 450; VI 566 (Text; commentary attano santikaṃ patta).
2. having fallen upon, attacked Ja II 59; V 198 (Text; commentary sampatta)
3. attained, found, got Snp 1134 (= adhigacchi Nidd II); Ja III 296 (Text commentary sampatta); V 158 (ajjhāpatta; commentary sampatta).

:: Ajjhabhavi 3rd singular preterit of adhibhavati to conquer, overpower, overcome S I 240 (prohibitive mā vo kodho ajjhabhavi); Ja II 336. Cf. ajjhabhu and ajjhobhavati.

:: Ajjhabhāsi 3rd singular preterit of adhibhāseti to address S IV 117 (gāthāhi); Khp V = Snp page 46 (gāthāya); Pv-a 56, 90.

:: Ajjhabhu (3rd singular preterit of adhibhavati (q.v.) to overcome, conquer It 76 (dujjayaṃ a. he conquered him who is hard to conquer; v.l. ajjhabhi for ajjhabhavi). Cf. ajjhabhavi.

:: Ajjhayana (neuter) [adhi + i] study (learning by heart) of the Vedas Miln 225. See also ajjhena.

:: Ajjhavodahi 3rd singular preterit of ajjhodahati [Sanskrit adhyavadhāti] to put down Ja V 365 (= odahi, ṭhapesi commentary). Kern, Toev. sub voce proposes reading ajjhavādahi (= Sanskrit avādhāt).

:: Ajjhāgāre (adverb) [adhi + agāre, locative of agāra] at home, in one's own house A I 132 = It 109; A II 70.

:: Ajjhācarati [adhi (or ati ?) + ā + car 1. to conduct oneself according to Vin II 301; M I 523; Miln 266. 2. to flirt with (perhaps to embrace) Ja IV 231 (aññam-aññaṃ). past participle ajjhāciṇṇa. See also accāvadati and aticarati.

:: Ajjhācāra [to adhi (ati ?) + ā + car
1. minor conduct (conduct of a bhikkhu as to those minor rules not included in the Pārājika's or Saṃghādisesa's) Vin I 63 (see note in Vinaya Texts, I 184.
2. flirtation Vin III 128 (in the Old commentary as explanation of avabhāsati).
3. sexual intercourse Ja I 396; V 327 (°cara v.l. for ajjhāvara); Miln 127 (an°).

:: Ajjhāciṇṇa [past participle of ajjhācarati] habitually done Vin II 80f., 301.

:: Ajjhājīva [adhi (ati ?) + ā + jīv] too rigorous or strenuous a livelihood M II 245 (+ adhipāṭimokkha).

:: Ajjhāpajjati [adhi + ā + pad] to commit an offence, to incur, to become guilty of (accusative) Vin IV 237. past participle ajjhāpanna (q.v.).

:: Ajjhāpatti (feminine) [abstract to ajjhāpajjati] incurring guilt Dhs 299 (an°).

:: Ajjhāpana1 (neuter) [from causative II of ajjheti] teaching of the sacred writ, instruction Miln 225.

:: Ajjhāpana2 (neuter) [ā + jhāpana from kṣā] burning, conflagration Ja VI 311.

:: Ajjhāpanna [past participle of adhi + āpajjati] become guilty of offence D I 245; III 43; S II 270; A IV 277, 280; V 178, 181. an° guiltless, innocent Vin I 103; D III 46; S II 194, 269; A V 181; Miln 401. For all passages except A IV 277, 280, cf. ajjhopanna.

:: Ajjhāpīḷita [adhi + ā + pīḷita] harassed, overpowered, tormented Pv-a 180 (khuppipāsāya by hunger and thirst).

:: Ajjhābhava [cf. Sanskrit adhyābhava] excessive power, predominance Ja II 357.

:: Ajjhābhavati [adhi + ā + bhū, in meaning of abhi + bhū] to predominate Ja II 357.

:: Ajjhāyaka [cf. Sanskrit adhyāyaka, cf. ajjhayana] (a brahman) engaged in learning the Veda (mantajjhāyaka Ja VI 209; Pj II 192), a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious, learned person D I 88, 120; III 94; A I 163; III 223; Snp 140 (°kula: thus for ajjhāyakula Fausbøll); Thag 1171; Ja I 3; VI 201, 498; Sv I 247.

:: Ajjhāruha (and °rūha) (adjective) [to adhi + ā + ruh] growing up over, overwhelming A III 63f. = S V 96; Ja III 399.

:: Ajjhārūḷha (adjective) [past participle of adhi + ā + ruh] grown up or high over Ja III 399.

:: Ajjhārūhati [adhi + ārohati cf. atyārohati] to rise into the air, to climb over, spread over S I 221 = Nett 173 (= ajjhottharati Spk I 343; cf. K.S. I 285).

:: Ajjhāvadati see accāvadati.

:: Ajjhāvara [from adhi + ā + var] surrounding; waiting on, service, retinue Ja V 322, 324, 326, 327 (explained at all passages by parisā). Should we read ajjhācara? Cf. ajjhācāra.

:: Ajjhāvasatar [agent noun to ajjhāvasati] one who inhabits D I 63 (agāraṃ).

:: Ajjhāvasati [adhi + ā + vas] to inhabit (agāraṃ a house; i.e. to be settled or live the settled life of a householder) D II 16; M I 353; Vin IV 224; Ja I 50; Pp 57; Miln 348. — past participle ajjhāvuttha (q.v.).

:: Ajjhāvuttha [cf. Sanskrit adhyuṣita; past participle of ajjhāvasati] inhabited, occupied (of a house) Vin II 210; Ja I 145; II 333; Pv-a 24 (°ghara); figurative [not] occupied by Pj II 566 (= anosita).

:: Ajjhāsaya [from adhi + ā + śri, originally hanging on, leaning on, BHS, however, adhyāśaya Divy 586] intention, desire, wish, disposition, bent D II 224 (adjective: intent on, practising); Ja I 88, 90; II 352; V 382; As 314, 334; Pv-a 88, 116, 133 (adjective dān° intent on giving alms), 168; Saddh 219, 518. Frequently in phrase ajjhāsay-ā-nurūpa according to his wish, as he wanted Pv-a 61, 106, 128.

:: Ajjhāsayatā (feminine) [abstract to ajjhāsaya] desire, longing Pv-a 127 (uḷār° great desire for commentary locative).

:: Ajjhāsita [past participle of adhi + ā + śri] intent on, bent on Miln 361 (jhān°). Cf. ajjhosita and nissita.

:: Ajjhiṭṭha [past participle of ajjhesati] requested, asked, invited Vin I 113 (an° unbidden); D II 289 (Buddhaghosa and text read ajjhitta); Snp page 218 (= ajjhesita Nidd II § 16); Ja VI 292 (= āṇatta commentary); Dhp-a IV 100 (v.l. abhijjhiṭṭha). See also an°.

:: Ajjhupagacchati [adhi + upa + gam] to come to, to reach, obtain; to consent to, agree, submit Thig 474 (= sampaṭicchati Thig-a 285); Ja II 403; Miln 300; past participle ajjhupagata (q.v.).

:: Ajjhupagata [past participle of ajjhupagacchati] come to, obtained, reached A V 87, cf. 210; V 187 f.

:: Ajjhupagamana (neuter) [adhi + upa + gam] consent, agreement, justification Vin II 97, 104.

:: Ajjhupaharati [adhi + upa + hr̥; cf. upaharati] to take (food) to oneself Ja II 293 (preterit ajjhupāhari = ajjhohari commentary).

:: Ajjhupekkhati [adhi + upa + ikṣ; cf. BHS adhyupekṣati
1. to look on A I 257; Miln 275.
2. to look {12} on intently or with care, to oversee, to take care of A IV 45 (kaṭṭh'aggi, has to be looked after); Pv-a 149 (sisaṃ celaṃ vā).
3. to look on indifferently to be indifferent, to neglect Vin II 78 = III 162, cf. Ja I 147; M I 155; II 223; A III 194, 435; Ja V 229; Dhp-a IV 125.

:: Ajjhupekkhana (neuter) and °ā (feminine) [abstract from ajjhupekkhati] care, diligence, attention Paṭis I 16; II 119; Vibh 230f.; Dhp-a IV 3.

:: Ajjhupekkhitar [agent noun to ajjhupekkhati] one who looks on (carefully), one who takes care or controls, an overseer, caretaker S V 69 (sādhukaṃ), 324 (the same), 331f.; Vibh 227.

:: Ajjhupeti [cf. Sanskrit abhyupeti; adhi + upa + i] to go to meet, to receive Ja IV 440.

:: Ajjheti [Sanskrit adhyeti] to be anxious about, to fret, worry Snp 948 (socati + a); explained at Nidd I 433 by nijjhāyati, at Pj II 568 by abhijjhati (v.l. gijjhati).

:: Ajjhena (neuter) [Sanskrit adhyayana, see also ajjhayana] study (especially of the Vedas) M III 1; Ja II 327 (as v.l. to be preferred to ajjhesanā); III 114 (= japa); V 10 (plural = vede); VI 201 = 207; Vibh 353; Pj II 314 (mant').

-kujja (°kūta v.l. ?) a hypocrite, a pharisee Snp 242; cf. Pj II 286.


:: Ajjhesati (adhi + iṣ; cf. BHS adhyeṣate Divy 160] to request, ask, bid Dhp-a IV 18; preterit ajjhesi Vin II 200; past participle ajjhiṭṭha and ajjhesita (q.v.), with which compair pariyiṭṭha and °esita.

:: Ajjhesanti [an 8.63] request...

:: Ajjhesanā (feminine) [see ajjhesati] request, entreaty Vin I 6 = D II 38 = S I 138; Ja II 327 (better v.l. ajjhena).

:: Ajjhesita [past participle of ajjhesati; cf. ajjhiṭṭha] requested, asked, bidden Nidd II § 16 (= ajjhiṭṭha).

:: Ajjhokāsa [adhi + okāsa] the open air, only in locative ajjhokāse in the open Vin I 15; S I 212; Dhp-a IV 100.

:: Ajjhogāḷha [past participle of ajjhogāhati] plunged into, immersed; having entered M I 457; S I 201; Miln 348.

:: Ajjhogāhati (and °gāheti) [Sanskrit °abhyavagāhate; adhi (= abhi) + ava + gāh] to plunge into, to enter, to go into D I 101 (vanaṃ), 222 (samuddaṃ); M I 359, 536; A III 75, 368; IV 356; V 133; Vin III 18; Ja I 7; Nidd I 152 (ogāhati + a.); Miln 87 (samuddaṃ); 300 (vanaṃ). — past participle ajjhogāḷha (q.v.). Cf. pariyogāhati.

:: Ajjhoṭhapeti [adhi + ava + ṭhapeti, causative of sthā] to bring to Pv-a 148 (gāmaṃ), where we should read °ṭṭhapeti.

:: Ajjhotthata [past participle of ajjhottharati] spread over; covered, filled; overcome, crushed, overpowered Ja I 363 (ajjhottaṭa), 410; V 91 (= adhipanna); Dhp-a I 278; Pv-a 55; Dāṭh V 5.

:: Ajjhottharati [adhi + ava + str̥] to cover over, spread out, spread over, cover; to submerge, flood Vin I 111; Ja I 61, 72, 73; Miln 296, 336; Dhp I 264; passive °tthariyati to be overrun with (instrumental), to be smothered, to be flooded A III 92 = Pp 67; preterit ajjhotthari Vv-a 48 (gāmapadeso: was flooded). past participle ajjhotthata (q.v.).

:: Ajjhopanna (?) only found in one stock phrase, viz. gathita (q.v.) mucchita ajjhopanna with reference to selfishness, greed, bonds of craving. The reading ajjhopanna is the lectio difficilior, but the accredited reading ajjhosāna seems to be clearer and to harmonize better with the cognate ajjhosita and ajjhosāna (noun) in the same context. The confusion between the two is old-standing and hard to be accounted for. Trenckner under v.l. to M I 162 on page 543 gives ajjhopanna as B mss (= adhi-opanna). The mss of Nidd II clearly show ajjhopanna as inferior reading, which may well be attributable to the very frequent substitution of p for s (see Nidd II Introduction XIX.). Besides this mixture of vv.ll. with s and p there is another confusion between the vv.ll. ajjhāpanna and ajjhopanna which adds to the complication of the case. However since the evidence of a better reading between these two preponderates for ajjhopanna we may consider the o as established, and, with a little more clearness to be desired, may in the end decide for ajjhosāna (q.v.), which in this case would have been liable to change through analogy with ajjhāpanna, from which it took the ā and p. Cf. also ajjhosita. The following is a synopsis of readings as preferred or confused by the editors of the various texts.
1. ajjhopanna as Text reading: M I 162, 173, 369; A I 74; II 28; III 68, 242; Ud 75, 76; Sv I 59; as v.l.: D I 245.
2. ajjhosāna as v.l.: A I 74 (commentary explains ajjhosāya gilitvā ṭhita); Nidd II under nissita and passim; Ud 75, 76 (ajjhosanna); Sv I 59 (the same).
3. ajjhāpanna as Text reading: D I 245; III 43, 46; S. II 194, 270: IV 332 (ajjhapaṇṇa); A V 178, 181; Nidd II under nissita; Miln 401; as v.l.: M I 162; A III 242; Ud 75, 76.

:: Ajjhobhavati [adhi + ava + bhū, Sanskrit abhi°] to overcome, overpower, destroy Ja II 80 (preterit ajjhobhavi = adhibhavi commentary).

:: Ajjhomaddati [adhi + ava + mr̥d] to crush down A IV 191, 193.

:: Ajjhomucchita [past participle adhi + ava + mūrch, cf. adhimuccita] stiffened out (in a swoon), lying in a faint (?) A III 57f. (v.l. ajjhomuñcïta or °muccita better: sarīre attached to her body, clinging to her body).

:: Ajjholambati [adhi + ava + lamb] to hang or hold on to (accusative), to cling to S III 137; M III 164 = Nett 179, cf. Saddh 284 and 296.

:: Ajjhosa = ajjhosāya, in verse only as ajjhosa tiṭṭhati to cleave or cling to S IV 73; Thag 98, 794.

:: Ajjhosati [adhi + ava + sayati, sā, to bind, past participle sita: see ajjhosita] to be bound to, to be attached, bent on; to desire, cleave to, indulge in. Future ajjhosissati M I 328 (with accusative paṭhaviṃ, better as ajjhesati). gerundive ajjhositabha M I 109 (+ abhinanditabba, v.l. °etabba); As 5 (the same); gerund ajjhosāya (q.v.) past participle ajjhosita (q.v.).

:: Ajjhosāna (neuter) cleaving to [earthly joys], attachment, D II 58f.; III 289; M I 498 (+ abhinandana); S III 187; A I 66; II 11 (diṭṭhi°, kāma° + taṇhā). In combination with (icchā) and mucchā at Nidd II under chanda and nissita and taṇhā (see also ajjhopanna), and at Dhs 1059 of lābha, (the explained at As 363, 370, from as to eat, is popular etymology) Nett 23f. (of taṇhā).

:: Ajjhosāya [gerund of ajjhosati, cf. BHS adhyavasāya tiṣṭhati Divy 37, 534] being tied to, hanging on, attached to, only in phrase a. tiṭṭhati (+ abhinandati, same in Divy) M I 266; S. IV 36f.; 60, 71f.; Miln 69. See also ajjhosa.

:: Ajjhosita [cf. Sanskrit adhyavasita, from adhi + ava + sā; but sita is liable to confusion with sita = Sanskrit śrita, also through likeness of meaning with esita; see ajjhāsita and ajjhesita] hanging on, cleaving to, being bent on, (with locative) S II 94 (+ mamāyita); A II 25 (diṭṭha suta muta + a.); Nidd I 75, 106, 163 = Nidd II under nissita; Thig 470 (asāre = taṇhāvasena abhiniviṭṭha Thig-a 284); Pv IV 84 (mayhaṃ mayhaṃ ghare = taṇhābhinivisena abhiniviṭṭha Pv-a 267; vv.ll. ajjhesita ajjhāsita). °an° S IV 213; V 319; Nidd I 411; Miln 74 (pabbajita).

:: Ajjhohata [past participle of ajjhoharati] having swallowed Saddh 610 (balisaṃ maccho viya: like a fish the fishhook).

:: Ajjhoharaṇa (neuter) = ajjhohāra 1. A V 324; Ja VI 213.


:: Ajjhoharaṇiya (adjective) [gerund of ajjhoharati] something fit to eat, eatable, for eating Ja VI 258; Dhp-a I 284.

:: Ajjhoharati [Sanskrit abhyavaharati; adhi (= abhi) + ava + hr̥] to swallow, eat, take as food M I 245; Ja I 460; II 293; VI 205, 213; Miln 366; Pv-a 283 (preterit) — past participle ajjhohaṭa (q.v.).

:: Ajjhohāra [Sanskrit abhyavahāra
1. taking food, swallowing, eating and drinking Vin IV 233; Miln 176, 366.
2. Name of a fabulous fish ("swallower"; cf. timiṅgala) Ja V 462.

:: Añcati Ja I 417, read añchati (see next).

:: Añchati [in meaning = ākaḍḍhati, which latter is also the Sanskrit gloss (ākārṣayati) to the Jain Prākrit aṃchāvei = añchati: see Morris, JPTS 1893, 60] to pull, drag, pull along, to turn on a lathe D II 291 (bhamakāro dīghaṃ a., where K has note: añjanto ti pi acchanto ti pi pātho) = M I 56 (vv.ll. page 532 acch° and añj°); Thag 750 (añcāmi Text, v.l. aññāmi). Añchati should also be read at Ja I 417 for udakaṃ añcanti (in explanation of udañcanī pulling the water up from a well, q.v.), where it corresponds to udakaṃ ākkaḍḍhati in the same sentence.

:: Añja (adverb) [original imperative of añjati1; cf. Sanskrit anjasā (instrumental)] pull on! go on! gee up! Ja I 192.

:: Añjati1 [= Sanskrit r̥ñjati, r̥jyati to stretch, pull along, draw out, erect; cf. Sanskrit r̥ju straight, causative arjyati; Greek ὀρέγω; Latin rego, rectus = erect. See also Pāli uju, añchati, ajjita, ānañja-ānejja]. See añja, añjaya, añjali, añjasa.

:: Añjati2 and Añjeti [= Sanskrit añjayati, causative of anakti to smear etc.; cf. Sanskrit añji ointment, ājya butter; Latin unguo to anoint, unguentum ointment; Old High German ancho = German Anke butter] to smear, anoint, paint S II 281; Ja IV 219 (akkhīni añjetvā, v.l. añcitvā). causative II añjāpeti Dhp-a I 21. past participle añjita (q.v.).

:: Añjana (neuter) [from añjati2] ointment, especially a collyrium for the eyes, made of antimony, adjective anointed, smeary; glossy, black (cf. kaṇha II and kāla1 note).
1. Vin I 203 (five kinds viz. kāḷ°, ras°, sot°, geruka, kapalla); D I 7, 12; Sv I 98 (khār°); 284; Dhp-a III 354 (akkhi° eye-salve).
2. glossy, jet-black Ja I 194; II 369; V 416. The reading añjana at A IV 468 is wrong, it should be corrected into thanamajjanamattaṃ. See also pacc°. In meaning collyrium box at Thig 413 (= añjana-nāḷi Thig-a 267); Dhp-a II 25.

-akkhiha with anointed eyes Thag 960;
-upapisana perfume to mix with ointment Vin I 203; II 112;
-cuṇṇa aromatic powder As 13;
-nāḷi an ointment tube, collyrium box Thig-a 267;
-rukkha Name {12} of a tree ("black" tree) Ja I 331;
-vaṇṇa of the colour of collyrium, i.e. shiny, glossy, dark, black D II 18 (lomāni); Ja I 138 (kesā), 194; II 369; Pv-a 258 (vana).

:: Añjanisalāka (frminine) a stick to put the ointment on with Vin I 203; II 135; Ja III 419.

:: Añjanī (feminine) [from añjana] a box for ointment, a collyrium pot Vin I 203, 204; II 135; IV 168; M II 65 = Thag 773.

:: Añjaya (adjective) [from añjati1] straight Ja III 12 (vv.ll. ajjava and ājjava better ?) explained by commentary as ujuka, akuṭila. See also ajjava. Should we assume misreading for añjasa?

:: Añjali [cf. Sanskrit añjali, from añjati1] extending, stretching forth, gesture of lifting up the hands as a token of reverence (cf. English to "tender" one's respect), putting the ten fingers together and raising them to the head (Vv-a 7: dasanakha-samodhāna-samujjalaṃ añjaliṃ paggayha). Only in stock phrases (a.) añjaliṃ paṇāmeti to bend forth the outstretched hands Vin II 188; D I 118; Snp 352; Snp p 79. (b.) °ṃ paggaṇhāti to perform the a. salutation Ja I 54; Dhp-a IV 212; Vv-a 7, 312 (sirasmiṃ on one's head); Pv-a 93. (commentary) °ṃ karoti the same Pv-a 178; cf. katañjali (adjective) with raised hands Snp 1023; Ja I 17; Pv-a 50, and añjalikata the same Pv II 1220. Cf. pañjali

-kamma respectful salutation, as above A I 123; II 180; IV 130; Vv 788, 8316; Dhp-a I 32;
-karaṇīya (adjective) that is worthy of being thus honoured D III 5; A II 34; III 36; IV 13f.; It 88.

:: Añjalikā (feminine) [= añjali] the raising of the hands as a sign of respectful salutation Vv 15 (explained at Vv-a 24 as dasanakha-samodhāna samujjalaṃ añjaliṃ sirasi paggaṇhantī guṇa-visiṭṭhānaṃ apacayānaṃ akāsiṃ).

:: Añjasa [Sanskrit āñjasa (?). Cf. ārjava = Pāli ajjava, see añjati1 and añjaya] straight, straight-forward (of a road) D I 235; Ja I 5; Thig 99; Vv 5020 (cf. Vv-a 215); Vv-a 84 (= akuṭila); Mhv 25, 5; Miln 217; Saddh 328, 595. Cf. pañjasa.

:: Añjita [Sanskrit aṅkta and añjayita, past participle of añjeti] smeared, anointed Ja I 77 (su-añjitāni akkhīni); IV 421 (añjit'akkha).

:: Añña Añña (pronoun) [Vedic anya, with comparative suffix ya; Gothic anϸar; Old High German andar; formation with n analagous to those with l in Greek ᾰλλος (ᾰλjος), Latin alius (cf. alter), Gothic aljis Anglo-Saxon elles = English else. From demonstrative base *eno, see na1 and cf. a3] another etc.
A. By itself:
1. other, not the same, different, another, somebody else (opposite oneself) Vin III 144 (aññena, scilicet maggena, gacchati to take a different route); Snp 459, 789, 904; Dhp 158 (opposite attānaṃ), 165; Ja I 151 (opposite attano); II 333 (aññaṃ vyākaroti give a different answer).
2. another one, a second; neuter else, further Snp 1052 (= uttariṃ neuter Nidd II 17); else Ja I 294. aññaṃ kiñci (indefinite) anything else Ja I 151. yo añño every other, whoever else Ja I 256.
3. aññe (plural) (the) others, the rest Snp 189, 663, 911; Dhp 43, 252, 355; Ja I 254.
B. In correlation:
1. copulative. añña + ā + añña the one + ā + the other (... the third etc.); this, that and the other; some + ā + some Vin I 15; Miln 40; etc.
2. reciprocative añño aññaṃ, aññamaññaṃ, aññoññaṃ one another, each other, mutually, reciprocally (in ordinary construction and declension of a noun or adjective in singular; cf. Greek ἀλλἡλων, αλλἡλωϛ in plural).
(a.) añño aññaṃ Dhp 165.
(b.) aññamañña (cf. BHS añyamañya Mvu II 436), as pronoun: n'ālaṃ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā D I 56 = S III 211. n'aññamaññassa dukkhaṃ iccheyya do not wish evil to each other Snp 148. daṇḍehi aññamaññaṃ upakkamanti (approach each other) M I 86 = Nidd II 199. °ṃ agāravo viharati A III 247. dve janā °ṃ ghātayiṃsu (slew each other) Ja I 254. aññamaññaṃ hasanti Ja V 111; °ṃ musale hantvā Ja V 267. °ṃ daṇḍābhigāṭena Pv-a 58; or adjective: aññamaññaṃ veraṃ bandhiṃsu (established mutual enmity) Ja II 353; °ṃ piyasaṃvāsaṃ vasiṃsu Ja II 153; aññamaññaṃ accayaṃ desetvā (their mutual mistake) Dhp-a I 57; or adverb dve pi aññamaññaṃ paṭibaddha-citta ahesuṃ (in love with each other) Ja III 188; or °-: aññamañña-paccaya mutually dependent, interrelated Paṭis II 49, 58.
(commentary) aññoñña (°-) Ja V 251 (°nissita); Dāṭh V 45 (°bhinna).
3. disjunctive añña + ā + añña one + ā + the other, this one + ā + that one, different, different from aññaṃ jīvaṃ + ā + aññaṃ sarīraṃ one is the soul + ā + the other is the body, i.e. the soul is different from the body D I 157; M I 430; A V 193; aññā va saññā bhavissati añño attā D I 187. Thus also in phrase aññena aññaṃ opposite, the contrary, differently, contradictory (literal other from that which is other) Vin II 85 (paṭicarati make counter-charges); D I 57 (vyākāsi gave the opposite or contradictory reply); Miln 171 (aññaṃ kayiramānaṃ aññena sambharati).
(1) not another, i.e. the same, self-same, identical M I 256 (= ayaṃ).
(2) not anotber, i.e. alone, by oneself, oneself only Snp 65 (°posin; past participle paraṃ) = Nidd 4, cf. Nidd II §36.
(3) not another, i.e. no more, only, alone Snp 106 (dve va gatiyo bhavanti anaññā: and no other or no more, only two). See also under compounds

-ādisa different Ja VI 212, °tā difference Pv-a 243;
-khantika acquiescing in different views, following another {14} faith (see khantika) D I 187; M I 487;
-titthiya an adherent of another sect, a non-Buddhist.; D III 115; M I 494, 512; S II 21, 32f., 119; III 116f.; IV 51, 228; V 6, 27f.; A I 65, 240; II 176; IV 35f.; Vin I 60; Ja I 93; II 415;
-diṭṭhika having different views (combined with añña-khantika) D I 187; M I 487;
-neyya (an°) not to be guided by somebody else, i.e. independent in one's views, having attained the right knowledge by oneself (opposite para°) Snp 55, 213, 364;
-mano (an°) (adjective) not setting one's heart upon others Vv 115 (see Vv-a 58);
-vāda holding other views, an° (adjective) Dīp IV 24;
-vādaka one who gives a different account of things, one who distorts a matter, a prevaricator Vin IV 36;
-vihita being occupied with something else, distracted, absent-minded Vin IV 269; Dhp-a III 352, 381; °tā distraction, absentmindedness Dhp-a I 181;
-saraṇa (an°) not betaking oneself to others for refuge, i.e. of independent, sure knowledge S III 42 = V 154;
-sita dependent or relying on others Snp 825.

:: Aññatama (pronoun adjective) [añña + superlative suffix tama; see also aññatara] one out of many, the one or the other of, a certain, any Mhv 38, 14.

:: Aññatara Aññatara (pronoun adjective) [Sanskrit anyatara, añña + comparative suffix tara, cf. Latin alter, Gothic anϸar etc.] one of a certain number, a certain, somebody, some; often used (like eka) as indefinite article "a". Very frequent, e.g. Snp 35, 210; It 103; Dhp 137, 157; Ja I 221, 253; II 132 etc. devaññatara a certain god, i.e. any kind of god S IV 180 = A IV 461.

:: Aññattha (adverb) [from añña = aññatra, adverb of place, cf. kattha, ettha] somewhere or anywhere else, elsewhere (either place where or whereto) Ja I 291; II 154; As 163; Dhp-a I 212; III 351; Pv-a 45; Mhv 4, 37; 22, 14.

:: Aññatra (adverb) [anya + tra, see also aññattha] elsewhere, somewhere else Ja V 252; Pv IV 162. In compounds also = añña°, e.g. aññatra-yoga (adjective) following another discipline D I 187; M I 487. — As preposition with ablative (and instrumental) but, besides, except, e.g. a. iminā tapo- pakkamena D I 168; kiṃ karaṇīyaṃ a. dhamma-cariyāya S I 101; ko na aññatra-m-ariyehi who else but the nobles Snp 886 (= ṭhapetvā saññā-mattena Pj II 555). °kiṃ aññatra what but, i.e. what else is the cause but, or: this is due to; but for D I 90 (vusitavā-mānī k. a. avusitattā); S I 29 (k. a. adassanā except from blindness); Snp 206 (the same).

:: Aññathatta (neuter) [aññathā + tta
1. change, alteration S III 37; IV 40; A I 153; III 66; Kv 227 (= jarā commentary, cf. PtsC.5 note 2); Miln 209.
2. difference Ja I 147; It 11.
3. erroneous supposition, mistake Vin II 2; S III 91; IV 329.
4. fickleness, change of mind, doubt, wavering, M I 448, 457 (+ domanassa); Ja I 33 (cittaṃ); Pv-a 195 (cittassa).

:: Aññathā (adverb) [añña + thā] in a different manner, otherwise, differently S I 24; Snp 588, 757; As 163; Pv-a 125, 133. anaññathā without mistake Vv 4418; anaññatha (neuter) certainty, truth Paṭis II 104 (= tatha).

-bhāva (1) a different existence A II 10; It 9 = 94; Snp 729, 740, 752; (2) a state of difference; i.e. change, alteration, unstableness {13}
D I 36; S II 274; III 8, 16, 42; Vibh 379;
-bhāvin based on difference S III 225f.; IV 23f., 66f.; an° free from difference Vin I 36.

:: Aññadatthu (adverb) [literally aññad atthu let there be anything else, i.e. be it what it will, there is nothing else, all, everything, surely] particle of affirmation = surely, all-round, absolutely (ekaṃsa-vacane nipāto Sv I 111) only, at any rate D I 91; II 284; Snp 828 (na h'aññadatth'atthi pasaṃsa-lābhā, explained Pj II 541 as na hi ettha pasaṃsa-lābhato añño attho atthi, cf. also Nidd I 168); Miln 133; Vv-a 58; Pv-a 97, 114.

-dasa sure-seeing, seeing everything, all pervading D I 18; III 135, 185; A II 24; III 202; IV 89, 105; It 15.

:: Aññadā (adverb) [añña + dā, cf. kadā, tadā, yadā] at another time, else, once S IV 285; Ja V 12; Dhp-a IV 125.

:: Aññā (feminine) [Sanskrit ājñā, = ā + jñā, cf. ājānāti] knowledge, recognition, perfect knowledge, philosophic insight, knowledge par excellence, viz. Arahantship, saving knowledge, gnosis (cf. on term Cpd 176 note 3 and Ps.B. introduction xxxiii) M I 445; S I 4 (sammad°), 24 (aññāya nibbuta); II 221; V 69, 129 (diṭṭh'eva dhamme), 133, 237; A III 82, 143, 192; V 108; It 39f., 53, 104; Dhp 75, 96; Khp VII 11; Miln 334. — aññaṃ vyākaroti to manifest ones Arahantship (by a discourse or by mere exclamation) Vin I 183; S II 51f., 120; IV 139; V 222; Ja I 140; II 333. See also Arahatta.

-atthika desirous of higher knowledge Pv IV 114;
-ārādhana the attainment of full insight M I 479;
-indriya the faculty of perfect knowledge or of knowledge made perfect D III 219; S V 204; It 53; Pp 2; Dhs 362, 505, 552; Nett 15, 54, 60;
-citta the thought of gnosis, the intention of gaining Arahantship S II 267; A III 437;
-paṭivedha comprehension of insight Vin II 238;
-vimokkha deliverance by the highest insight Snp 1105, 1107 (Nidd II 19: vuccati Arahatta-vimokkho).

:: Aññāṇa (neuter) [a + ñāṇa] ignorance; see ñāṇa 3 e.

:: Aññāṇaka (neuter) [denominative of aññāṇa] ignorance Vin IV 144.

:: Aññāṇin (adjective) [a + ñāṇin] ignorant, not knowing Dhp-a III 106.

:: Aññāta1 [past participle of ājānāti, q.v.] known, recognised Snp 699. an° what is not known, in phrase anaññātaṃ-ñassāmī-t-indriya the faculty of him (who believes): "I shall know what is not known (yet)" D III 219; S V 204; It 53; Pp 2; Dhs 296 (cf. BMPE 78); Nett 15, 54, 60, 191.

-mānin one who prides himself in having perfect knowledge, one who imagines to be in possession of right insight A III 175f.; Thag 953.

:: Aññāta2 [a + ñāta] unknown, see ñāta.

:: Aññātaka1 [a + ñātaka, cf. Sanskrit ajñāti] he who is not a kinsman Dhp-a I 222.

:: Aññātaka2 (adjective) [denominative of aññāta2] unknown, unrecognisable, only in phrase °vesena in unknown form, in disguise Ja I 14; III 116; V 102.

:: Aññātar [agent noun to ājānāti] one who knows, a knower of D II 286; M I 169; S I 106 (Dhammassa); Kv 561.

:: Aññātāvin (adjective/noun) [from ājānāti] one who has complete insight As 291.

-indriya (°tāv'indriya) the faculty of one whose knowledge is made perfect Dhs 555 (cf. BMPE 139f.) and same passages as under aññ'indriya (see aññā).

:: Aññātukāma (adjective) [ā + jñātuṃ + kāma] desirous of gaining right knowledge A III 192. See ājānāti.

:: Aññāya [gerund of ājānāti, q.v. for detail] recognising knowing, in the conviction of S I 24; A III 41; Dhp 275, 411.

:: Aññoñña see añña B 2 commentary.

:: Añhamāna [Sanskrit aśnāna, present participle medium of aśnāti, aś to eat] eating, taking food; enjoying: only at Snp 240; all mss at 239 have asamāna. Pj II 284 explains by āhārayamāna.

:: Aṭaṭa [BHS aṭaṭa (e.g. Divy 67), probably to aṭ roam about. On this notion cf. description cf. roaming about in Niraya at Nidd I 405 bottom] name of a certain Hell or Niraya A V 173 = Snp p. 126.

:: Aṭaṇaka (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit aṭana, to aṭ] roaming about, wild Ja V 105 (°gāvī).

:: Aṭanī (feminine) a support a stand inserted under the leg of a bedstead Vin IV 168; Sp IV 773 on Pācittiya 14 (quoted Minayeff {15} Pr.S. 86 and Vin IV 357); Dhp-a I 234; Ja II 387, 425, 484 supports of a seat. Morris JPTS 1884, 69 compares Marāthi aḍaṇī a three-legged stand. See also Vinaya Texts II 53.

:: Aṭala (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit aṭṭa and aṭṭālaka stronghold] solid, firm, strong, only in phrase aṭaliyo upāhanā strong sandals M II 155 (vv.ll. paṭaliye and agaliyo) = S I 226 (vv.ll. āṭaliyo and āṭaliko). Spk I 346 explains gaṇaṅgaṇ-ūpāhanā, Mrs. Rh.D. (K.S. I 291) translates "buskined shoes".

:: Aṭavī (spelling aṭavi aṭavi) (feminine) [Sanskrit aṭavī: Non-Aryan, probably Dravidian
1. forest, woods Ja I 306; II 117; III 220; Dhp-a I 13; Pv-a 277.
2. inhabitant of the forest, man of the woods, wild tribe Ja VI 55 (= aṭavicorā commentary).

-rakkhika guardian of the forest Ja II 335;
-saṅkhepa at A I 178 = III 66 is probably faulty reading for v.l. °saṅkopa "inroad of savage tribes".

:: Aṭṭa1 [cf. see aṭṭaka] a platform to be used as a watchtower Vin I 140; Sv I 209.

:: Aṭṭa2 [cf. Sanskrit artha, see also attha 5 b] lawsuit, case, cause Vin IV 224; Ja II 2, 75; IV 129 (°ṃ vinicchināti to judge a cause), 150 (°ṃ tīreti to see a suit through); VI 336.

:: Aṭṭa3 [Sanskrit ārta, past participle of ardati, r̥d to dissolve, afflict etc.; cf. Sanskrit ārdra (= Pāli adda and alla); Greek ἄρδω to moisten, ἄρδα dirt. See also aṭṭīyati and aṭṭita] distressed, tormented, afflicted; molested, plagued, hurt Snp 694 (+ vyasanagata; Pj II 489 ātura); Thig 439 (= aṭṭita Thig-a 270), 441 (= pīḷita Thig-a 271); Ja IV 293 (= ātura commentary); Vv 809 (= attita upadduta Vv-a 311). Often °—°: iṇaṭṭa oppressed by debt M I 463; Miln 32; chāt° tormented by hunger Vv-a 76; vedan° afflicted by pain Vin II 61; III 100; Ja I 293; sūcik° (read for sūcikaṭṭha) pained by stitch Pv III 23.

-s-sara cry of distress Vin III 105; S II 255; Ja I 265; II 117; Miln 357; Pv-a 285.

:: Aṭṭaka [denominative of aṭṭa1] a platform to be used as a watch-house on piles, or in a tree Vin I 173; II 416; III 322, 372; Sv I 209.

:: Aṭṭāna at Vin II 106 is obscure, should it not rather be read with Buddhaghosa as aṭṭhāna? (cf. Buddhaghosa on page 315).

:: Aṭṭāla [from aṭṭa] a watch-tower, a room at the top of a house, or above a gate (koṭṭhaka) Thag 863; Ja III 160; V 373; Miln 1, 330; Dhp-a III 488.

:: Aṭṭālaka [Sanskrit aṭṭālaka] = aṭṭāla; Ja II 94, 220, 224; VI 390, 433; Miln 66, 81.

:: Aṭṭita (and occasionally addita, e.g. Pv II 62; Thig 77, 89; Thag 406) [Sanskrit ardita, past participle of ardayati, causative of ardati, see aṭṭa3] pained, distressed, grieved, terrified Thag 157; Ja II 436; IV 85 (v.l. addhita); V 84; Vv-a 311; Thig-a 270; Mhv 1, 25; 6, 21; Dīp I 66; II 23; XIII 9; Saddh 205. See remarks of Morris JPTS 1886, 104, and 1887. 47.

:: Aṭṭiyati and Aṭṭiyati [denominative from aṭṭa3, q.v.] to be in trouble or anxiety, to be worried, to be incommoded, usually combined with harāyati, e.g. D I 213 (+ jigucchati); S I 131; M I 423; Pv I 102 (= aṭṭā dukkhitā Pv-a 48), frequent in present participle aṭṭiyamāna harāyamāna (+ jigucchamāna) Vin II 292; Ja I 66, 292; It 43; Nidd II 566; Paṭis I 159. Spelling sometimes addiyāmi, e.g. Thig 140. — past participle aṭṭita and addita.

:: Aṭṭiyana (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit ardana, to aṭṭiyati] fright, terror, amazement Dhp-a II 179.

:: Aṭṭha1 Aṭṭha [Vedic aṣṭau, old dual, Indo-Germanic °octou, pointing to a system of counting by tetrads (see also nava); Avesta aśta, Greek ὸκτώ, Latin octo, Gothic ahtau = Old High German ahto, German acht, English eight] cardinal number, eight, declention like plural of adjective in-a.
A. The number in objective significance, based on natural phenomena: see compounds °aṅgula, °nakha, °pada, °pāda. {14}
B. The number in subjective significance.
(1) As mark of respectability and honour, based on the idea of the double square:
(a.) in meaning "a couple" aṭṭha matakukkuṭe aṭṭha jīva-k. gahetvā (with 8 dead and 8 live cocks; eight instead of 2 because gift intended for a king) Dhp-a I 213. saṅghassa a salākabhattaṃ dāpesi Vv-a 75 = Dhp-a III 104.
a. piṇḍapātāni adadaṃ Vv 348. a. vattha-yugāni (a double pair as offering) Pv-a 232, a therā Pv-a 32. — The highest respectability is expressed by 8 X 8 = 64, and in this sense is frequently applied to gifts, where the giver gives a higher potency of a pair (23). Thus a "royal" gift goes under the name of sabb'aṭṭhakaṃ dānaṃ (8 elephants, 8 horses, 8 slaves etc.) where each of 8 constituents is presented in 8 exemplars Dhp-a II 45, 46, 71. In the same sense aṭṭh- aṭṭha kahāpaṇā (as gift) Dhp-a II 41; aṭṭh'aṭṭhakā dibbā kaññā Vv 673 (= catusaṭṭhi Vv-a 290); aṭṭhaṭṭhaka Dīp VI 56. Quite conspicuous is the meaning of a "couple" in the phrase satt'aṭṭha 7 or 8 = a couple, e.g. satt'aṭṭha divasā, a weck or so Ja I 86; Ja II 101; Vv-a 264 (saṃvaccharā years). —
(b.) used as definite measure of quantity and distance, where it also implies the respectability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that may be given decently. Thus frequent as aṭṭha kahāpaṇā Ja I 483; IV 138; Vv-a 76; Miln 291.
In distances: a. karīsā Dhp-a II 80; IV 217; Pv-a 258; a. usabhā Ja IV 142. (commentary) in combination with 100 and 1000 it assumes the meaning of "a great many", hundreds, thousands. Thus aṭṭha sataṃ 800, Snp 227. As denotation of wealth (cf. below under 18 and 80): a-sata-sahassa-vibhava Dhp-a IV 7. But aṭṭhasata at S IV 232 means 108 (3 X 36), probably also at Ja V 377. — aṭṭha sahassaṃ 8000 Ja V 39 (nāgā). The same meaning applies to 80 as well as to its use as unit in combination with any other decimal (18, 28, 38 etc.):
(α) 80 (asīti) a great many. Here belong the 80 smaller signs of a Mahāpurisa (see anuvyañjana), besides the 32 main signs (see dvattiṃsa) Vv-a 213 etc. Frequently as measure of riches, e.g. 80 waggon loads Pv II 75; asīti-koṭivibhava Dhp-a III 129; Pv-a 196; asīti hatth'ubbedho rāsi (of gold) Vv-a 66, etc. See further references under asīti.
(β) The following are examples of 8 with other decimals: 18 aṭṭhādasa aṭṭhādasa (only M III 239: manopavicārā) and aṭṭhārasa (this the later form) Vv-a 213 (avenika-Buddha-dhammā: Bhagavant's qualities); as measure Ja VI 432 (18 hands high, of a fence); of a great mass or multitue: aṭṭhārasa koṭiyo or °koṭi, 18 koṭis Ja I 92 (of gold), 227; IV 378 (°dhana, riches); Dhp-a II 43 (of people); Miln 20 (the same); aṭṭhārasa-akkhohini-saṅkhāya Ja VI 395. a. vatthū Vin II 204. — 28 aṭṭhavīsati nakkhattāni Nidd I 382; paṭisallāṇaguṇā Miln 140. — 38 aṭṭhatiṃsā Miln 359 (rājaparisā). — 48 aṭṭhacattārīsaṃ vassāni Snp 289. — 68 aṭṭhasaṭṭhi Thag 1217 °sitā savitakkā, where the same passage at S I 187 however reads atha saṭṭhi-tasitā vitakkā); Ja I 64 (turiya-satasahassāni) — 98 aṭṭhanavuti (cf. 98 the age of Eli, 1 Sam. 4:15) Snp 311 (rogā, a higher set than the original 3 diseases, cf. navuti).
(2) As number of symmetry or of an intrinsic, harmonious, symmetrical set, aṭṭha denotes, like dasa (q.v.) a comprehensive unity. See especially the compounds for this application. °aṃsa and °aṅgika. Closely related to nos. 2 and 4 aṭṭha is in the geometrical progression of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, where each subsequent number shows a higher symmetry or involves a greater importance (cf. 8 X 8 under 1 a) — Ja V 409 (a. maṅgalena samannāgata, of Indra's chariot: with the 8 lucky signs); Vv-a 193 (aṭṭhahi akkhaṇehi vajjitaṃ manussabhāvaṃ: the 8 unlucky signs). In progression: Ja IV 3 (aṭṭha petiyo, following after 4, then followed by 16, 32); Pv-a 75 (a. kapparukkhā at each point of the compass 32 in all). Further: 8 expressions of bad language Dhp-a IV 3.

-aṃsa with eight edges, octagonal, octahedral, implying perfect or divine symmetry (see above B. 2), of a diamond D I 76 = M III 121 (maṇi veḷuriyo a.); Miln 282 (maṇiratanaṃ subhaṃ jātimantaṃ a.) of the pillars of a heavenly palace (Vimāna) Ja VI 127 = 173 = Vv 782 (a. sukatā thambhā); Vv 8415 (āyataṃsa = āyatā hutvā aṭṭha-soḷasa-dvattiṃsādi-aṃsavanto Vv-a 339). Of a ball of string Pv {16} IV 328 (gulaparimaṇḍala, cf. Pv-a 254). Of geometrical figures in general Dhs 617;
-aṅga (of) eight parts, eightfold, consisting of eight ingredients or constituents (see also next and above B 2 on significance of aṭṭha in this connection), in compounds with °upeta characterised by the eight parts (i.e. the observance of the first eight of the commandments or vows, see sīla and cf. aṅga 2), of uposatha, the fast-day A I 215; Snp 402 (Pj II 378 explains ekam pi divasaṃ apariccajanto aṭṭhaṅgupetaṃ uposathaṃ upavassa); cf. aṭṭhaṅguposathin (adjective) Mhv 36, 84. In BHS always in phrase aṣṭāṅga-samanvāgata upavāsa, e.g. Divy 398; Avadānaśataka I 338, 399; also vrata Avadānaśataka I 170. In the same sense aṭṭhaṅgupeta pāṭihāriyapakkha (cf sub voce pāṭihāriya) Snp 402, where Vv 156 has °susamāgata (explained at Vv-a 72 by pānāṭipātā veramaṇī-ādīhi aṭṭhah'aṅgehi samannāgata). °samannāgata endowed with the eight qualities (see aṅga 3), of rājā, a king D I 137f., of brahmassara, the supreme or most excellent voice (of the Buddha) D II 211; Ja I 95; Vv-a 217. Also in BHS aṣṭāṅgopeta svara of the voice of the Buddha, e.g. Avadānaśataka I 149;
-aṅgika having eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts, embracing eight items (see above B 2); of the uposatha (as in preceding aṭṭhaṅg'uposatha) Snp 401; of the "Eightfold Noble Path" (ariyo a. maggo). (Also in BHS as aṣṭāṅgika mārga, e.g. Lal 540, cf. aṣṭāṅgamārgadeśika of the Buddha, Divy 124, 265); D I 156, 157, 165; M I 118; It 18; Snp 1130 (magga uttama); Dhp 191, 273; Thig 158, 171; Khp IV; Vin I 10; Nidd II 485; Sv I 313; Dhp-a III 402;
-aṅgula eight finger-breadths thick, eight inches thick, i.e. very thick, of double thickness Ja II 91 (in contrast to caturaṅgula); Mhv 29, 11 (with sattaṅgula);
-aḍḍha (v.l. aḍḍhaṭṭha) half of eight, i.e. four (°pāda) Ja VI 354, see also aḍḍha1;
-nakha having eight nails or claws Ja VI 354 (ekekasmiṃ pāde dvinnaṃ dvinnaṃ khurānaṃ vasena commentary);
-nava eight or nine Dhp-a III 179;
-pada 1. a chequered board for gambling or playing drafts etc., literally having eight squares, i.e. on each side (Sv I 85: ekekāya pantiyā aṭṭha aṭṭha padāni assā ti), cf. dasapada D I 6. 2. eightfold, folded or plaited in eight, cross-plaited (of hair) Thag 772 (aṭṭhāpada-katā kesā); Ja II 5 (°ṭṭhapana = cross-plaiting);
-padaka a small square (⅛), i.e. a patch Vin I 297; II 150;
-pāda an octopod, a kind of (fabulous) spider (or deer?) Ja V 377; VI 538; cf. Sanskrit aṣṭapāda = śarabha a fabulous eight-legged animal;
-maṅgala having eight anspicious signs Ja V 409 (explained here to mean a horse with white hair on the face, tail, mane, and breast, and above each of the four hoofs);
-vaṅka with eight facets, literally eight-crooked, i.e. polished on eight sides, of a jewel Ja VI 388;
-vidha eightfold Dhs 219.

:: Aṭṭha2 see attha.

:: Aṭṭhaka (adjective) [Sanskrit aṣṭaka
1. eightfold Vin I 196 = Ud 59 (°vaggikāni); Vv-a 75 = Dhp-a III 104 (°bhatta).
2. °ā (feminine) the eight day of the lunar month (cf. aṭṭhamī), in phrase rattīsu antar'aṭṭhakāsu in the nights between the eighths, i.e. the 8th day before and after the full moon Vin I 31, 288 (see Vinaya Texts I 130n); M I 79; A I 136; Miln 396; Ja I 390.
3. °ṃ (neuter) an octad Vv 672 (aṭṭh° eight octads = 64); Vv-a 289, 290. On sabbaṭṭhaka see aṭṭha B 1 a. See also antara.

:: Aṭṭhama Aṭṭhama (ordinal number) [Sanskrit aṣṭama, see aṭṭha1] the eighth Snp 107, 230 (cf. Pj I 187), 437. — feminine °ī the eighth day of the lunar half month (cf. aṭṭhakā) A I 144; Snp 402; Vv 166 (in all three passages as pakkhassa cātuddasī pañcadasī ca aṭṭhamī); A I 142; Snp 570 (ito atthami, scilicet divase, locative).

:: Aṭṭhamaka = aṭṭhama the eighth.
1. literally Miln 291 (att° self-eighth).
2. as technical term the eighth of eight persons who strive after the highest perfection, reckoned from the first or Arahant. Hence the eighth is he who stands on the lowest step of the Path and is called a sotāpanna (q.v.) Kv 243-251 (cf. PtsC.46f.); Nett 19, 49, 50; Paṭis II 193 (+ sotāpanna).


:: Aṭṭhāna (neuter) [ā + ṭṭhāna] stand, post; name of the rubbing-post which, well cut and with incised rows of squares, was let into the ground of a bathing-place, serving as a rubber to people bathing Vin II 105, 106 (read aṭṭhāne with v.l.; cf. Vin II 315).
CPD: 2 a-ṭṭhāna, na [sa. asthāna], (a) wrong place, time, or occasion; (b) impossibility (with foll. yaṃ and potential, = it is impossible that ...), (c) locative ~e = on wrong object, or wrong person: (d) instrumental ~ena akāraṇena = without reason.

:: Aṭṭhi°1 Aṭṭhi [= attha (aṭṭha) in compounds with kar and bhū, as frequent in Sanskrit and Pāli with i for a, like citti-kata (for citta°), aṅgi-bhūta (for aṅga°); cf. the frequent combination (with similar meaning) manasi-kata (besides manasā-k.), also upadhikaroti and others. This combination is restricted to the past participal and derivatives (°kata and °katvā). Other explanations by Morris JPTS 1886, 107; Windisch, M. and B. 100], in combination with katvā: to make something one's attha, i.e. object, to find out the essence or profitableness or value of anything, to recognise the nature of, to realize, understand, know. Nearly always in stock phrase aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā D II 204; M I 325, 445; S I 112f. = 189, 220; V 76; A II 116; III 163; Ja I 189; V 151 (attano atthikabhāvaṃ katvā atthiko hutvā sakkaccaṃ suṇeyya commentary); Ud 80 (adhikicca, ayaṃ no attho adhigantabbo evaṃ sallakkhetvā tāya desanāya atthikā hutvā commentary); Saddh 220 (°katvāna).

:: Aṭṭhi2 (neuter) [Sanskrit asthi = Avesta asti, Greek ὄστεον, ὄστρακον, ὰστάγαλος; Latin os (°oss); also Greek ὅζος branch Gothic asts
1. a bone A I 50; IV 129; Snp 194 (°nahāru bones and tendons); Dhp 149, 150; Ja I 70; III 26, 184; VI 448 (°vedhin); Dhp-a III 109 (300 bones of the human body, as also at Suśruta III 5); Pj I 49; Pv-a 68 (°camma-nahāru), 215 (gosīs°); Saddh 46, 103.
2. the stone of a fruit Ja II 104.

-kaṅkala [Sanskrit °kaṅkāla] a skeleton M I 364; cf. °saṅkhalika;
-kadali a special kind of the plantain tree (Musa Sapientum) Ja V 406;
-kalyāṇa beauty of bones Dhp-a I 387;
-camma bones and skin Ja II 339; Dhp-a III 43; Pv-a 68
-taca the same Ja II 295;
-maya made of bone Vin II 115;
-miñjā marrow A IV 129; Dhp-a I 181; III 361; Pj I 52;
-yaka (Text aṭṭhīyaka) bones and liver S I 206;
-saṅkhalikā [BHS °śakalā Avadānaśataka I 274f., see also aṭṭhika°] a chain of bones, i.e. a skeleton Dhp-a III 479; Pv-a 152;
-saṅghāṭa conjunction of bones, i.e. skeleton Vism 21; Dhp-a II 28; Pv-a 206;
-sañcaya a heap of bones It 17;
-saññā the idea of bones (cf. aṭṭhika°) Thag 18;
-saṇṭhāna a skeleton Saddh 101. [BD]: Aṭṭhi-saññā: perception of bones

:: Aṭṭhika1 (neuter) [from aṭṭhi
1. = aṭṭhi1 a bone M III 92; Ja I 265, 428; VI 404; Pv-a 41.
2. = aṭṭhi2 kernel, stone Dhp-a II 53 (tāl°); Mhv 15, 42.

-saṅkhalikā a chain of bones, a skeleton A III 324 see also under kaṭaṭṭhika.

-saññā the idea of a skeleton S V 129f.; A II 17; Dhs 264.
[BD]: Aṭṭhika-saññā: perception of the skeleton

:: Aṭṭhika2 at Pv-a 180 (sūcik°) to be read aṭṭita (q.v.) for aṭṭika.

:: Aṭṭhita1 see ṭhita.

:: Aṭṭhita2 [ā + ṭhita] undertaken, arrived at, looked after, considered Ja II 247 (= adhiṭṭhita commentary).

:: Aṭṭhita3 see atthika.

:: Aṭṭhilla at Vin II 266 is explained by Buddhaghosa on page 327 by gojaṅghaṭṭika, perhaps more likely = Sanskrit aṣṭhīlā a round pebble or stone.

:: Aḍḍha1 (and addha) [etymology uncertain, Sanskrit ardha] one half, half; usually in compounds (see below), like diyaḍḍha 1½ (°sata 150) Pv-a 155 (see as to meaning Stede, GPv page 107). Note: aḍḍha is never used by itself, for "half" in absolute position upaḍḍha (q.v.) is always used.

-akkhika with furtive glance ("half an eye") Dhp-a IV 98;
-aṭṭha half of eight, i.e. four (cf. aṭṭhaḍḍha) S II 222 (°ratana); Ja VI 354 (°pāda quadruped; v.l. for aṭṭhaḍḍha);
-aḷhaka ½ an aḷhaka (measure) Dhp-a III 367;
-uḍḍha [cf. {17} Mahārāṣṭrī form cauṭṭha = Sanskrit caturtha] three and a half Ja I 82; IV 180; V 417, 420; Dhp-a I 87; Mhv 12, 53;
-ocitaka half plucked off Ja I 120;
-karīsa (-matta) half a k. in extent Vv-a 64 (cf. aṭṭha-karīsa);
-kahāpaṇa ½ kahāpaṇa A V 83;
-kāsika (or °ya) worth half a thousand kāsiyas (i.e. of Benares monetary standard) Vin I 281 (kambala, a woollen garment of that value; cf. Vinaya Texts II 195); II 150 (bimbohanāni, pillows; so read for aḍḍhakāyikāni in Text); Ja V 447 (-kāsigaṇikā for °kāsiya° a courtezan who charges that price, in phrase °k.-gaṇikā viya na bahunnaṃ piyā manāpā);
-kumbha a half (-filled) pitcher Snp 721;
-kusi (technical term of tailoring) a short intermediate cross-seam Vin I 287;
-kosa half a room, a small room Ja VI 81 (= a° kosantara commentary);
-gāvuta half a league Ja VI 55;
-cūḷa (°vāhā vīhi) ½ a measure (of rice) Miln 102, perhaps misread for aḍḍhāḷha (āḷha = āḷhaka, cf. A III 52), a half āḷha of rice;
-tiya the third (unit) less half, i.e. two and a half Vv-a 66 (māsā); Ja I 49, 206, 255 (°sata 250). Cf. next;
-teyya = °tiya 2½ Vin IV 117; Ja II 129 (°sata); Sv I 173 (v.l. for °tiya); Dhp-a I 95 (°sata), 279; Pv-a 20 (°sahassa);
-telasa [cf. BHS ardhatrayodaśa] twelve and a half Vin I 243, 247; D II 6 (°bhikkhusatāni, cf. tayo B 1 b); Dhp-a III 369;
-daṇḍaka a short stick M I 87 = A I 47; II 122 = Nidd II §604 = Miln 197;
-duka see °ruka;
-nāḷika (-matta) half a nāḷi-measure full Ja VI 366;
-pallaṅka half a divan Vin II 280;
-bhāga half a share, one half Vv 136 (= upaḍḍhabhāga Vv-a 61); Pv I 115;
-maṇḍala semi-circle, semi circular sewing Vin I 287;
-māna half a māna measure Ja I 468 (masculine = aṭṭhannaṃ nāḷinaṃ nāmaṃ commentary);
-māsa half a month, a half month, a fortnight Vin III 254 (ūnak°); A V 85; Ja III 218; Vv-a 66. Frequently in accusative as adverb for a fortnight, e.g. Vin IV 117; Vv-a 67; Pv-a 55;
-māsaka half a bean (as weight or measure of value, see māsaka) Ja I 111;
-māsika half-monthly Pp 55;
-muṇḍaka shaven over half the head (sign of loss of freedom) Mhv 6, 42;
-yoga a certain kind of house (usually with pāsāda) Vin I 58 = 96, 107, 139, 239, 284; II 146. According to Vinaya Texts 174 "a gold coloured Bengal house" (Buddhaghosa), an interpretation which is not correct: we have to read supaṇṇa vaṅkageha "like a Garuḷa bird's crooked wing", i.e. where the roof is bent on one side;
-yojana half a yojana (in distance) Ja V 410; Sv I 35 (in explanation of addhāna-magga); Dhp-a I 147; II 74;
-rattā midnight A III 40 (°aṃ adverb at m.); Vv 8116 (°rattāyaṃ adverb = aḍḍharattiyaṃ Vv-a 315); Ja I 264 (samaye); IV 159 (the same);
-ratti = °rattā Vv-a 255, 315 (= majjhimayāma-samaya); Pv-a 155;
-ruka (v.l. °duka) a certain fashion of wearing the hair Vin II 134; Buddhaghosa explanains (Sp VI 1211): aḍḍharukan ti udare lomarāji-ṭhapanaṃ "leaving a stripe of hair on the stomach";
-vivaṭa (dvāra) half open Ja V 293.

:: Aḍḍha2 (adjective) [Sanskrit āḍhya from r̥ddha past participle of r̥dh, r̥dhnote and r̥dhyate (see ijjhati) to thrive. Cf. Greek ἅλϑομαι thrive, Latin alo to nourish. Cf. also Vedic iḍā refreshment and Pāli iddhi power. See also āḷhiya] rich, opulent, wealthy, well-to-do; usually in combination with mahaddhana and mahābhoga of great wealth and resources (followed by pahūta-jātarūparajata pahūta vittūpakaraṇa etc.). Thus at D I 115, 134, 137; III 163; Pp 52; Dhp-a I 3; Vv-a 322; Pv-a 3, 78 etc. In other combinations Vv 314 (°kula); Nidd II §615 (Sakka = aḍḍho mahaddhano dhanavā); Sv I 281 (= issara); Dhp-a II 37 (°kula); Saddh 270 (satasākh°), 312 (guṇ°), 540f. (the same), 561.

:: Aḍḍhaka (adjective) wealthy, rich, influential Ja IV 495; Pv II 82 (= mahāvibhava Pv-a 107).

:: Aḍḍhatā (feminine) [abstract to aḍḍha] riches, wealth, opulence Saddh 316.

:: Aṇa [Sanskrit r̥ṇa; see etymology under iṇa, of which aṇa is a doublet. See also āṇaṇya] debt, only in negative anaṇa (adjective) free from debt Vin I 6 = S I 137, 234 = D II 39; Thig 364 (i.e. without a new birth); A II 69; Ja V 481; Thig-a 245.

:: Aṇu (adjective) [Sanskrit aṇu; as to etymology see Walde Latin Wtb. under ulna. See also āṇi] small, minute, atomic, subtle (opposite thūla, q.v.) D I 223; S I 136; V 96 (°bīja); Snp 299 (anuto aṇuṃ gradually); Ja III 12 (= appamattaka); IV 203; Dhs 230, 617 (= kisa); Thig-a 173; Miln 361. Note aṇu is frequently spelt anu, thus usually in compound °matta.

-thūla (aṇuṃthūla) fine and coarse, small and large Dhp 31 (= mahantañ ca khuddakañ ca Dhp-a I 282), 409 = Snp 633; Ja IV 192; Dhp-a IV 184;
-matta of small size, atomic, least Snp 431; Vibh 244, 247 (cf. M III 134; A II 22); Dīp IV 20. The spelling is anumatta at D I 63 = It 118; Dhp 284; Sv I 181; Saddh 347;
-sahagata accompanied by a minimum of, i.e. residuum Kv 81, cf. PtsC.6 note 3.


:: Aṇuka (adjective) = aṇu Snp 146, Pj I 246.

:: Aṇḍa (neuter) [Etymology unknown. Cf. Sanskrit aṇḍa
1. an egg Vin III 3; S II 258; M I 104; A IV 125f.
2. (plural) the testicles Vin III 106.
3. (in camm°) a water-bag Ja I 249 (see Morris JPTS 1884, 69).

-kosa shell of eggs Vin III 3 = M I 104; A IV 126, 176;
-cheda(ka) one who castrates, a gelder Ja IV 364, 366;
-ja 1. born from eggs S III 241 (of snakes); M I 73; Ja II 53 = V 85; Miln 267.] 2. a bird Ja V 189;
-bhārin bearing his testicles S II 258 = Vin III 100;
-sambhava the product of an egg, i.e. a bird Thag 599;
-hāraka one who takes or extirpates the testicles M I 383.

:: Aṇḍaka1 (neuter) = aṇḍa, egg Dhp-a I 60; III 137 (sakuṇ°).

:: Aṇḍaka2 (adjective) [Sanskrit? probably an inorganic form; the diæresis of caṇḍaka into c'aṇḍaka seems very plausible. As to meaning cf. As 396 and see BMPE 325, also Morris JPTS 1893, 6, who, not satisfactorily, tries to establish a relation to ard, as in aṭṭa3] only used of vācā, speech: harsh, rough, insolent M I 286; A V 265, 283, 293 (gloss kaṇṭakā); Ja III 260; Dhs 1343, cf. As 396.

:: Aṇṇa (food, cereal). See passages under aparaṇṇa and pubbaṇṇa.

:: Aṇṇava (neuter) [Sanskrit arṇa and arṇava to r̥, r̥ṇoti to move, Indo-Germanic °er to be in quick motion, cf. Greek ὄρνυμι; Latin orior; Gothic rinnan = English run; Old High German runs, river, flow.
1. a great flood (= ogha), the sea or ocean (often as mah°, cf. BHS mahārṇava, e.g. Jm 3175) M I 134; S I 214; IV 157 (mahā udak°); Snp 173 (figurative for saṃsāra see Pj II 214), 183, 184; Ja I 119 (°kucchi), 227 (the same); V 159 (mah°); Mhv 5, 60; 19, 16 (mah°).
2. a stream, river Ja III 521; V 255.

:: Aṇha [Sanskrit ahna, day, see ahan] day, only as °—° in apar°, pubb°, majjh°, sāy°, q.v.

:: Atakkaka (adjective) [a + takka2] not mixed with buttermilk Ja VI 21.

:: Ataccha (neuter) [a + taccha2] falsehood, untruth D I 3; Ja VI 207.

:: Atandita (adjective), Unwearied, unremitting. MN 131.

:: Ati (indeclinable) [Sanskrit ati = Greek ἔτι moreover, yet, and; Latin et and, Gothic iϸ; also connected with Greek ατάρ but, Latin at but (= over, outside) Gothic aϸϸan] adverb and preposition of direction (forward motion), in primary meaning "on, and further", then "up to and beyond".
I in abstract position adverbially (only as technical term in grammar): in excess, extremely, very (cf. II 3) Ja VI 133 (ati uggata commentary = accuggata Text), 307 (ati ahitaṃ commentary = accāhitaṃ Text).
II as prefix, meaning.
1. on to, up to, towards, until); as far as: accanta up to the end; aticchati to go further, passion; atipāta "falling onto"; attack slaying; atimāpeti to put damage on to, i.e. to destroy.
2. over, beyond, past, by, trans-; with verbs: (a.) transitive atikkamati to pass beyond, surpass atimaññati to put one's "manas" over, to despise; atirocati to surpassivein splendour. (b.) intransitive atikkanta passed by; atikkama traversing aticca transgressing; atīta past, gone beyond. — Also with {18} verbal derivations: accaya lapse, also sin, transgression ("going over"); atireka remainder, left over; atisaya overflow, abundance; atisāra stepping over, sin.
3. exceedingly, in a high or excessive degree either very (much) or too (much); in nominal compounds (a), rarely also in verbal compounds see (b). — (a) with nouns and adjective: °āsanna too near; °uttama the very highest; °udaka too much water; °khippa too soon; °dāna excessive alms giving; °dāruṇa very cruel; °dīgha extremely long; °dūra too near; deva a super-god °pago too early; °bāḷha too much; °bhāra a too heavy load; °manāpa very lovely; °manohara very charming; °mahant too great; °vikāla very inconvenient; °vela a very long time; °sambādha too tight, etc. etc. (b.) with verb: atibhuñjati to eat excessively.
III A peculiar use of ati is its function in reduplication-compounds, expressing "and, adding further, and so on, even more, etc." like that of the other comparing or contrasting prefixes a (ā), anu, ava, paṭi, vi (e.g. khaṇḍākhaṇḍa, seṭṭhānuseṭṭhi, chiddāvacchidda, aṅgapaccaṅga, cuṇṇavicuṇṇa). In this function it is however restricted to comparatively few expressions and has not by far the wide range of ā (q.v.), the only phrases being the following viz. cakkāticakkaṃ mañcātimañcaṃ bandhati to heap carts upon carts, couches upon couches (in order to see a procession) Vin IV 360 (Buddhaghosa); Ja II 331; IV 81; Dhp-a IV 61. °devātideva god upon god, god and more than a god (see atideva); mānātimāna all kinds of conceit; vaṅkātivaṅka crooked all over Ja I 160.
IV Semantically ati is closely related to abhi, so that in consequence of dialectical variation we frequently find ati in Pāli, where the corresponds expression in later Sanskrit shows abhi. See e.g. the following cases for comparison: accuṇha atijāta, °pīḷita °brūheti, °vassati, °vāyati, °veṭheti.
Note The contracted (assimilation-) form of ati before vowels is acc- (q.v.). See also for adverbial use atiriva, ativiya, atīva.

:: Ati-ambila (adjective) [ati + ambila] too sour Dhp-a II 85.

:: Ati-Arahant [ati + Arahant] a super-Arahant, one who surpassives even other Arahants Miln 277.

:: Ati-issara (adjective) very powerful(?) Ja V 441 (°bhesajja, medicin).

:: Ati-uṇha (adjective) too hot Pv-a 37 (°ātapa glow). See also accuṇha (which is the usual form).

:: Ati-uttama (adjective) by far the best or highest Vv-a 80.

:: Ati-udaka too much water, excess of water Dhp-a I 52.

:: Ati-ussura (adjective) only in locative °e (adverb) too soon after sunrise, too early Vv-a 65 (laddhabhattatā eating too early).

:: Ati-eti [ati + i] to go past or beyond, see gerund aticca and past participle atīta.

:: Atikata (past participle) more than done to, i.e. retaliated; paid back in an excessive degree A I 62.

:: Atikaḍḍhati [ati + kaḍḍhati] to pull too hard, to labour, trouble, drudge Vin III 17.

:: Atikaṇha (adjective) [ati + kaṇha] too black Vin IV 7.

:: Atikaruṇa (adjective) [ati + karuṇa] very pitiful, extremely miserable Ja I 202; IV 142; VI 53.

:: Atikassa (gerund) [from atikassati ati + kr̥̥ṣ; Sanskrit atikr̥ṣya] pulling (right) through Ja V 173 (rajjuṃ, a rope, through the nostrils; v.l. anti°).

:: Atikāla [ati + kāla] in instrumental atikālena adverb in very good time very early Vin I 70 (+ atidivā).

:: Atikkanta [past participle of atikamati] passed beyond, passed by, gone by, elapsed; passed over, passing beyond, surpassing Ja II 128 (tīṇi saṃvaccharāni); Dhp-a III 133 (tayo vaye passed beyond the 3 ages of life); Pv-a 55 (māse °e after the lapse of a month), 74 (kati divasā °ā how many days have passed).

-mānusaka superhuman It 100; Pp 60; cf. BHS atikrānta-mānuṣyaka Mvu III 321.

:: Atikkantikā (feminine) [abstract derived from preceding] transgressing overstepping the bounds (of good behaviour), lawlessness Miln 122.

:: Atikkama [Sanskrit atikrama] going over or further, passing beyond, traversing figurative overcoming of, overstepping, failing against, transgression Dhp 191; Dhs 299; Pv-a 154 (katipayayojan°), 159 (°caraṇa sinful mode of life); Miln 158 (dur° hard to overcome); Saddh 64.

:: Atikkamaṇaka (adjective) [atikkamaṇa + ka] exceeding Ja I 153.

:: Atikkamati Atikkamati [ati + kamati]
(1) to go beyond, to pass over, to cross, to passiveby.
(2) to overcome, to conquer, to surpass to be superior to. — Ja IV 141; Dhp 221 (potential °eyya, overcome); Pv-a 67 (maggena: passives by). gerundive atikkamanīya to be overcome D II 13 (an°); Pj II 568 (dur°). gerund atikkamma D II 12 (surpassing); It 51 (māradheyyaṃ, passing over), cf. vv.ll. under adhigayha; and atikkamitva going beyond, overcoming, transcending (Ja IV 139 (samuddaṃ); Pp 17; Ja I 162 (raṭṭhaṃ having left). Often to be translated as adverb "beyond", e.g. pare beyond others Pv-a 15; Vasabhagāmaṃ beyond the village of V. Pv-a 168. — past participle atikkanta (q.v.).

:: Atikkameti [causative of atikkamati] to make passive to cause to pass over Ja I 151.

:: Ati-k-khippaṃ (adverb) [ati + khippa] too soon Vin II 284.

:: Atikhaṇa (neuter) [ati + khaṇa(na)] too much digging Ja II 296.

:: Atikhāta (neuter) = preceding Ja II 296.

:: Atikhiṇa (adjective) [ati + khīṇa] in cāpātikhīṇa broken bow (?) Dhp 156 (explained at Dhp-a III 132 as cāpāto atikhīṇā cāpā vinimmuttā).


:: Atiga (—°) (adjective) [ati + ga] going over, overcoming, surmounting, getting over Snp 250 (saṅga°); Dhp 370 (the same); Snp 795 (sīma°, cf. Nidd I 99), 1096 (ogha°); Nidd I 100 (= atikkanta); Nidd II §180 (the same).

:: Atigacchati Atigacchati [ati + gacchati] to go over, i.e. to overcome, surmount, conquer, get the better of, only in preterit (preterit) 3rd singular accagā (q.v. and see gacchati 3) Snp 1040; Dhp 414 and accagamā (see gacchati 2) Vin II 192; D I 85; S II 205; Sv I 236 (= abhibhavitvā pavatta). Also 3rd plural accaguṃ It 93, 95.

:: Atigāḷeti [ati + gāḷeti, causative of galati, cf. Sanskrit vi-gālayati] to destroy, make perish, waste away Ja VI 211 (= atigālayati vināseti commentary page 215). Perhaps reading should be atigāḷheti (see atigāḷhita).

:: Atigāḷha (adjective) [ati + gāḷha1] very tight or close, intensive Ja I 62. Cf. atigāḷhita.

:: Atigāḷhita [past participle of atigāḷheti, denominative from atigāḷha; cf. Sanskrit atigāhate to overcome] oppressed, harmed, overcome, defeated, destroyed Ja V 401 (= atipīḷita commentary).

:: Atighora (adjective) [ati + ghora] very terrible or fierce Saddh 285.

:: Aticaraṇa (neuter) [from aticarati] transgression Pv-a 159.

:: Aticarati [ati + carati
1. to go about, to roam about Pv II 1215; Pv-a 57.
2. to transgress, to commit adultery Ja I 496. Cf. next.

:: Aticaritar [agent noun of aticarati] one who transgresses, especially a woman who commits adultery A II 61 (all mss read aticaritvā); IV 66 (Text aticarittā).


:: Aticariyā (feminine) [ati + cariyā] transgression, sin, adultery D III 190.

:: Aticāra [from aticarati] transgression Vv 158 (= aticca cāra Vv-a 72).

:: Aticārin (adjective/noun) [from aticarati] transgressing sinning, especially as feminine aticārinī an adulteress S II 259; IV 242; D III 190; A III 261; Pv II 1214; Pv-a 151 (v.l.), 152; Vv-a 110.

:: Aticitra (adjective) [ati + citra] very splendid, brilliant, quite exceptional Miln 28.

:: Aticca (gerundive) [gerund of ati + eti, ati + i
1. passing beyond, traversing overcoming, surmounting Snp 519, 529, 531. Used adverbially = beyond, in excess, more than usual, exceedingly Snp 373, 804 (= vassasataṃ atikkamitvā Nidd I 120).
2. failing, transgressing sinning, especially committing adultery Ja V 424; Vv-a 72,

:: Aticchati [Sanskrit ati-r̥cchati, ati + r̥, cf. aṇṇava] to go on, only occurring in imperative aticchatha (bhante) "please go on, Sir", asking a bhikkhu to seek alms elsewhere, thus refusing to give in a civil way. [The interpretation given by Trenckner, as quoted by Childers, is from ati + iṣ "go and beg further on". (Trenckner "Notes" 65) but this would entail a meaning like "desire in excess", since iṣ does not convey the notion of movement] Ja III 462; Dhp-a IV 98 (Text aticcha, vv.ll. °atha); Vv-a 101; Miln 8. — causative aticchāpeti to make go on, to ask to go further Ja III 462. Cf. icchatā.

:: Aticchatta [ati + chatta] a "super"-sunshade, a sunshade of extraordinary size and colours As 2.

:: Atitāta (adjective) [ati + jāta, perhaps ati in sense of abhi, cf. abhijāta] well-born, well behaved, gentlemanly It 14 (opposite avajāta). {BD]: high-born

:: Atitarati [ati + tarati] to pass over, cross, go beyond preterit accatari S IV 157 = It 57 (°āri).

:: Atituccha (adjective) [ati + tuccha] very, or quite empty Saddh 430.

:: Atituṭṭhi (feminine) [ati + tuṭṭhi] extreme joy Ja I 207.

:: Atitula (adjective) [ati + tula] beyond compare, incomparable Thag 831 = Snp 561 (= tulaṃ atīto nirupamo ti attho Pj II 455).

:: Atitta (adjective) [a + titta] dissatisfied, unsatisfied Ja I 440; Dhp 48.

:: Atittha (neuter) [a + tittha] "that which is not a fording-place". i.e. not the right way, manner or time; as °wrongly in the wrong way Ja I 343; IV 379; VI 241; Sv I 38.

-pakkhandana choosing a wrong foding place Dhp-a III 347

:: Atithi Atithi [Sanskrit atithi of at = aṭ, see aṭati; originally the wanderer, cf. Vedic atithin wandering] — a guest, stranger, newcomer D I 117 (= āgantuka-navaka pāhuṇaka Sv I 288); A II 68; III 45, 260; Ja IV 31, 274; V 388; Khp VIII 7 (= n'atthi assa ṭhiti yamhi vā tamhi vā divase āgacchatī ti atithi Pj I 222); Vv-a 24 (= āgantuka).

:: Atidāna (neuter) [ati + dāna] too generous giving, an excessive gift of alms Miln 277; Pv-a 129, 130.

:: Atidāruṇa (adjective) [Sanskrit atidāruṇa, ati + dāruṇa] very cruel, extremely fierce Pv III 73.

:: Atidiṭṭhi (feminine) [ati + diṭṭhi] higher doctrine, super knowledge (?) Vin I 63 = II 4 (+ adhisīla; should we read adhi-diṭṭhi?)

:: Atidivā (adverb) [ati + divā] late in the day, in the afternoon Vin I 70 (+ atikālena); S I 200; A III 117.

:: Atidisati [ati + disati] to give further explanation, to explain in detail Miln 304.

:: Atidīgha (adjective) [ati + dīgha] too long, extremely long Ja IV 165; Pv II 102; Vv-a 103 (opposite atirassa).

:: Atidukkha [ati + dukkha] great evil, exceedingly painful excessive suffering Pv-a 65; Saddh 95. In atidukkha-vāca Pv-a 15 ati belongs to the whole compound, i.e. of very hurtful speech.

:: Atidūra (adjective) [ati + dūra] very or too far Vin I 46; Ja II 154; Pv II 965 = Dhp-a III 220 (v.l. suvidūre); Pv-a 42 (opposite accāsanna).

:: Atideva [ati + deva] a super god, god above gods, usually epithet of the Buddha S I 141; Thag 489; Nidd II §307 (cf. adhi°); Miln 277. atidevadeva the same Miln 203, 209. devātideva god over the gods (of the Buddha) Nidd II §307 a.

:: Atidhamati [ati + dhamati] to beat a drum too hard Ja I 283; past participle atidhanta ibid.

:: Atidhātatā [ati + dhāta + ta] oversatiation Ja II 193.

:: Atidhāvati [ati + dhāvati 1] to run past, to outstrip or get ahead of S III 103; IV 230; M III 19; It 43; Miln 136; Pj II 21.

:: Atidhonacārin [ati + dhonacārin] indulging too much in the use of the "dhonas", i.e. the four requisites of the bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use or normal application of the requisites (explanained at Dhp-a III 344, cf. dhona) Dhp 240 = Nett 129.

:: Atināmeti [BHS atināmayati, e.g. Divy 82, 443; ati + nāmeti] to passatime A I 206; Miln 345.

:: Atiniggaṇhāti [ati + niggaṇhāti] to rebuke too much Ja VI 417.

:: Atinīcaka (adjective) [ati + nīcaka] too low, only in phrase cakkavāḷaṃ atisambādhaṃ Brahmaloko atinīcako the World is too narrow and heaven too low (to comprehend the merit of a person, as sign of exceeding merit) Dhp-a I 310; III 310 = Vv-a 68.

:: Atineti [ati + neti] to bring up to, to fetch, to provide with Vin II 180 (udakaṃ).

:: Atipaṇḍita (adjective) [ati + paṇḍita] too clever Dhp-a IV 38.

:: Atipaṇḍitatā (feminine) [abstract of atipaṇḍita] too much cleverness Dhp-a II 29.

:: Atipadāna (neuter) [ati + pa + dāna] too much alms-giving Pv II 943 (= atidāna Pv-a 130).

:: Atipapañca [ati + papañca] too great a delay, excessive tarrying Ja I 64; II 93.

:: Atipariccāga [ati + pariccāga] excess in liberality Dhp-a III 11.

:: Atipassati [ati + passati; cf. Sanskrit anupaśyati] to look for, catch sight of, discover M III 132 (nāgaṃ).

:: Atipāta [ati + pat] attack, only in phrase pāṇātipāta destruction of life, slaying, killing, murder D I 4 (pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, refraining from killing, the first of the dasa-sīla or decalogue); Sv I 69 (= pāṇavadha, pāṇaghāta); Snp 242; Khp II cf. Pj I 26; Pv-a 28, 33 etc.

:: Atipātin (adjective/noun) one who attacks or destroys Snp 248; Ja VI 449 (in war nāga-k-khandh° = hatthi-k-khande khaggena chinditvā commentary); Pv-a 27 (pāṇ°).

:: Atipāteti [denominative from atipāta] to destroy S V 453; Dhp 246 (v.l. for atimāpeti, q.v.). Cf. paripāteti.

:: Atipīṇita (adjective) [ati + pīṇita] too much beloved, too dear, too lovely Dhp-a V 70.

{20} {18}

:: Atipīḷita [ati + pīḷita, cf. Sanskrit abhipīḍita] pressed against, oppressed, harassed, vexed Ja V 401 (= atigāḷhita).

:: Atippago (adverb) [cf. Sanskrit atiprage] too early, usually elliptical = it is too early (with infinitive carituṃ etc.) D I 178; M I 84; A IV 35.

:: Atibaddha [past participle of atibandhati; cf. Sanskrit anubaddha] tied to, coupled Ja I 192 = Vin IV 5.

:: Atibandhati [ati + bandhati; cf. Sanskrit anubandhati] to tie close to, to harness on, to couple Ja I 191f. — past participle atibaddha q.v.

:: Atibahala (adjective) [ati + bahala] very thick Ja VI 365.

:: Atibāḷha (adjective) [ati + bāḷha] very great or strong Pv-a 178; neuter adverb °ṃ too much D I 93, 95; M I 253.

:: Atibāheti [ati + bāheti, causative to br̥h1; cf. Sanskrit ābr̥hati] to drive away, to pull out Ja IV 366 (= abbāheti).

:: Atibrahmā [ati + brahmā] a greater Brahmā, a super-god Miln 277; Dhp-a II 60 (Brahmuṇā a. greater than B.).

:: Atibrūheti [ati + brūheti, br̥h2, but by commentary taken incorrectly to brū; cf. Sanskrit abhi-br̥ṃhayati] to shout out, roar, cry Ja V 361 (= mahāsaddaṃ nicchāreti).

:: Atibhagini-putta [ati + bhagini-putta] a very dear nephew Ja I 223.

:: Atibhāra [ati + bhāra] too heavy a load Miln 277 (°ena sakaṭassa akkho bhijjati).

:: Atibhārita (adjective) [ati + bhārita] too heavily weighed, overloaded Vin IV 47.

:: Atibhāriya (adjective) too serious Dhp-a I 70.

:: Atibhuñjati [ati + bhuñjati] to eat too much, to overeat Miln 153.

:: Atibhutta (neuter) [ati + bhutta] overeating Miln 135.

:: Atibhoti [ati + bhavati, cf. Sanskrit atibhavati and abhibhavati] to excel, overcome, to get the better of, to deceive Ja I 163 (= ajjhottharati vañceti commentary).

:: Atimaññati [Sanskrit atimanyate; ati + man] to despise, slight, neglect Snp 148 (= Pj I 247 atikkamitvā maññati); Dhp 365, 366; Ja II 347; Pv I 76 (°issaṃ, v.l. °asiṃ = ati-k-kamitvā avamaññiṃ Pv-a 37); Pv-a 36; Saddh 609.

:: Atimaññanā (feminine) [abstract to preceding, cf. atimāna] arrogance, contempt, neglect Miln 122.

:: Atimanāpa (adjective) [ati + manāpa] very lovely Pv-a 77 (+ abhirūpa).

:: Atimanorama (adjective) [ati + manorama] very charming Ja I 60.

:: Atimanohara (adjective) [ati + manohara] very charming Pv-a 46.

:: Atimanda(ka) (adjective) [ati + manda] too slow, too weak Saddh 204, 273, 488.

:: Atimamāyati [ati + mamāyati, cf. Sanskrit atīmamāyate in different meaning = envy] — to favour too much, to spoil or fondle Ja II 316.

:: Atimahant (adjective) [ati + mahant] very or too great Ja I 221; Pv-a 75.

:: Atimāna [Sanskrit atimāna, ati + māna] high opinion (of oneself), pride, arrogance, conceit, M I 363; Snp 853 (see explained at Nidd I 233), 942, 968; Ja VI 235; Nidd I 490; Miln 289. Cf. atimaññanā.

:: Atimānin (adjective) [from atimāna] D II 45 (thaddha + a.); Snp 143 (an°) 244; Pj I 236.

:: Atimāpeti [ati + māpeti, causative of mī, mināte, original meaning "to do damage to"] to injure, destroy, kill; only in the stock phrase pāṇaṃ atimāpeti (with v.l. atipāteti) to destroy life, to kill D I 52 (v.l. °pāteti) = Sv I 159 (pāṇaṃ hanati pi parehi hanāpeti either to kill or incite others to murder); M I 404, 516; S IV 343; A III 205 (correct Text reading atimāteti; v.l. pāteti); Dhp 246 (v.l. °pāteti) = Dhp-a III 356 (parassa jīvitindriyaṃ upa-c-chindati).

:: Atimukhara (adjective) [ati + mukhara] very talkative, a chatterbox Ja I 418; Dhp-a II 70. atimukharatā (feminine abstract) ibid.

:: Atimuttaka [Sanskrit atimuktaka] name of a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa Vin II 256 = M I 32; Miln 338.

:: Atimuduka (adjective) [ati + muduka] very soft, mild or feeble Ja I 262.

:: Atiyakkha (ati + yakkha] a sorcerer, wizard, fortune-teller Ja VI 502 (commentary: bhūta-vijjā ikkhaṇīka).

:: Atiyācaka (adjective) [ati + yācaka] one who asks too much Vin III 147.

:: Atiyācanā (feminine) [ati + yācanā] asking or begging too much Vin III 147.

:: Atirattiṃ (adverb) [ati + ratti; cf. atidivā] late in the night, at midnight Ja I 436 (opposite atipabhāte).

:: Atirassa (adjective) [ati + rassa] too short (opposite atidīgha) Vin IV 7; Ja VI 457; Vv-a 103.

:: Atirājā [ati + rājā] a higher king, the greatest king, more than a king Dhp-a II 60; Miln 277.

:: Atiriccati [ati + riccati, see ritta] to be left over, to remain Saddh 23, 126.

:: Atiritta (adjective) [past participle of ati + rīc, see ritta] left over, only as negative an° applied to food, i.e. food which is not the leavings of a meal, fresh food Vin I 213 sq, 238; II 301; IV 82f., 85.

:: Atiriva (ati-r-iva) see ativiya.

:: Atireka (adjective) [Sanskrit atireka, ati + ric, rinakti; see ritta] surplus, too much; exceeding, excessive, in a high degree; extra Vin I 255; Ja I 72 (°padasata), 109; 441 (in higher positions); Miln 216; As 2; Dhp-a II 98.

-cīvara an extra robe Vin I 289;
-pāda exceeding the worth of a pāda, more than a pāda, Vin III 47.

:: Atirekatā (feminine) [abstract to preceding] excessiveness, surplus, excess Kv 607.

:: Atirocati [ati + ruc] to shine magnificently (transitive) to outshine, to surpassivein splendour D II 208; Dhp 59; Pv II 958; Miln 336 (+ virocati); Dhp-a I 446 (= atikkamitvā virocati); III 219; Pv-a 139 (= ativiya virocati).

:: Atilīna (adjective) [ati + līna] too much attached to worldly matters S V 263

:: Atilūkha (adjective) [ati + lūkha] too wretched, very miserable Saddh 409

:: Atiloma (adjective) [ati + loma] too hairy, having too much hair Ja VI 457 (opp. aloma).

:: Ativaṅkin (adjective) [ati + vaṅkin] very crooked Ja I 160 (vaṅkātivaṅkin crooked all over; cf. ati III).

:: Ativaṇṇati [ati + vaṇṇati] to surpass excel D II 267.

:: Ativatta [past participle of ativattati: Sanskrit ativr̥tta] passed beyond, surpassed, overcome (active and passive), conquered Snp 1133 (bhava°); Nidd II §21 (= atikkanta, vītivatta); Ja V 84 (bhaya°); Miln 146, 154.

:: Ativattati [ati + vr̥t, Sanskrit ativartate] to passive pass over, go beyond; to overcome, get over; conquer Vin II 237 (samuddo velaṃ n'); S II 92 (saṃsāraṃ); IV 158 (the same) It 9 (saṃsāraṃ) = A II 10 = Nidd II 172a; Thag 412; Ja I 58, 280; IV 134; VI 113, 114; Pv-a 276. — past participle ativatta (q.v.).

:: Ativattar1 [Sanskrit °ativaktr̥, agent noun to ati-vacati; cf. ativākya] one who insults or offends Ja V 266 (isīnaṃ ativattāro = pharusavācāhi atikkamitvā vattāro commentary).


:: Ativattar2 [Sanskrit ativartr̥, agent noun to ati-vattati] one who overcomes or is to be overcome Snp 785 (svātivattā = durativattā duttarā duppatarā Nidd I 76).

:: Ativasa (adjective) [ati + vasa from vas] being under somebody's rule, dependent upon (with genitive) Dhp 74 (= vase vattati Dhp-a II 79).

:: Ativassati [ati + vassati, cf. Sanskrit abhivarṣati] to rain down on, upon or into Thag 447 = Vin II 240.

:: Ativākya (neuter) [ati + vac, cf. Sanskrit ativāda, from ati + vad] abuse, blame, reproach Dhp 320, 321 (= aṭṭha-anariya-vohāra-vasena pavattaṃ vīti-k-kama-vacanaṃ Dhp-a IV 3); Ja VI 508.

:: Ativāta [ati + vāta] too much wind, a wind which is too strong, a gale, storm Miln 277.

:: Ativāyati [ati + vāyati] to fill (excessively) with an odour or perfume, to satiate, permeate, pervade Miln 333 (+ vāyati; cf. abhivāyati ibid 385).

:: Ativāha [from ati + vah, cf. Sanskrit ativahati and abhivāha] carrying, carrying over; a conveyance; one who conveys, i.e. a conductor, guide Thag 616 (said of sīla, good character); Ja V 433. — Cf. ativāhika.

:: Ativāhika [from ativāha] one who belongs to a conveyance, one who conveys or guides, a conductor (of a caravan) Ja V 471, 472 (°purisa).


:: Ativikāla (adjective) [ati + vikāla] at a very inconvenient time, much too late D I 108 (= suṭṭhu vikāla Sv I 277).

:: Ativijjhati [Sanskrit atividhyati, ati + vyadh] to pierce, to enter into (figurative), to see through, only in phrase paññāya ativijjha (gerund) passati to recognise in all details M I 480; S V 226; A II 178.

epenthesis: The interpolation in a word or word-group of a sound or letter which has no etymological justification for appearing there. (E.g., the b in doubt.)

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

:: Ativiya Ativiya (adverb) [Sanskrit atīva] = ati + iva, originally "much-like" like an excess = excessively. There are three forms of this expression, viz.
(1) ati + iva in contraction atīva (q.v.);
(2) ati + iva with epenthetic r: atiriva D II 264 (v.l. atīva); Snp 679, 680, 683; Pj II 486;
(3) ati + viya (the doublet of iva) = ativiya Ja I 61, 263; Dhp-a II 71 (a. upakāra of great service); Pv-a 22, 56, 139.

:: Ativisā (feminine) [Sanskrit ativiṣā] name of a plant Vin I 201; IV 35.

:: Ativissaṭṭha (adjective) [ati + vissaṭṭha] too abundant, in °vākya one who talks too much, a chatterbox Ja V 204.

:: Ativissāsika (adjective) [ati + vissāsika] very, or too confidential Ja I 86.

:: Ativissuta (adjective) [ati + vissuta] very famous, renowned Saddh 473.

:: Ativeṭheti [ati + veṣṭ, cf. Sanskrit abhiveṣṭate] to wrap over, to cover, to enclose; to press, oppress, stifle Vin II 101; Ja V 452 (-ativiya veṭheti pīḷeti commentary).

:: Ativela (adjective) [ati + vela] excessive (of time); neuter adverb °ṃ a very long time; excessively D I 19 (= atikālaṃ aticiran ti attho Sv I 113); M I 122; Snp 973 (see explained at Nidd I 504); Ja III 103 = Nidd I 504.

:: Atisañcara (°cāra?) [ati + sañcāra] wandering about too much Miln 277.

:: Atisaṇha (adjective) [ati + saṇha] too subtle Dhp-a III 326.

:: Atisanta (adjective) [ati + santa1] extremely peaceful Saddh 496.

:: Atisambādha (adjective) [ati + sambādha] too tight, crowded or narrow Dhp-a I 310; III 310 = Vv-a 68; cf. atinīcaka. — feminine abstract atisambādhatā the state of being too narrow Ja I 7.

:: Atisaya [cf. Sanskrit atiśaya, from ati + śī] superiority, distinction, excellence, abundance Vv-a 135 (= visesa); Pv-a 86; Dāṭh II 62.

:: Atisayati [ati + śī] to surpass excel; gerund atisayitvā Miln 336 (+ ati-k-kamitvā).

:: Atisara (adjective) [from atisarati; cf. accasara] transgressing sinning Ja IV 6; cf. atisāra.

:: Atisarati [ati + sr̥] to go too far, to go beyond the limit, to overstep, transgress, preterit accasari (q.v.) Snp 8f. (opposite paccasari; commentary atidhāvi); Ja V 70 and atisari Ja IV 6. gerund atisitvā (for °atisaritvā) D I 222; S IV 94; A I 145; V 226, 256; Snp 908 (= Nidd I 324 atikkamitvā etc.).

:: Atisāyaṃ (adverb) [ati + sāyaṃ] very late, late in the evening Ja V 94.

:: Atisāra [from ati + sr̥, see atisarati. Cf. Sanskrit atisāra in different meaning but BHS atisāra (sātisāra) in the same meaning) going too far, overstepping the limit, trespassing false step, slip, danger Vin I 55 (sātisāra), 326 (the same); S I 74; M III 237; Snp 889 (atisāraṃ diṭṭhiyo = diṭṭhi-gatāni Nidd I 297; going beyond the proper limits of the right faith), Ja V 221 (dhamm°), 379; Dhp-a I 182; As 28. See also atisara.

:: Atisithila (adjective) [ati + sithila] very loose, shaky or weak A III 375.

:: Atisīta (adjective) [ati + sīta] too cold Dhp-a II 85.

:: Atisītala (adjective) [ati + sītala] very cold Ja III 55.

:: Atihaṭṭha (adjective) [ati + haṭṭha] very pleased Saddh 323.

:: Atiharati [ati + hr̥] to carry over, to bring over, bring, draw over Vin II 209; IV 264; S I 89; Ja I 292; V 347. causative atiharāpeti to cause to bring over, bring in, reap, collective harvest Vin II 181; III 18; Miln 66; Dhp-a IV 77. See also atihita.

:: Atihita [ati + hr̥, past participle of atiharati, hita unusual for hata, perhaps through analogy with Sanskrit abhi + dhā] brought over (from the field into the house), harvested, borne home Thag 381 (vīhi).

:: Atihīna (adjective) [ati + hīna] very poor or destitute A IV 282, 287; 323 (opposite accogāḷha).

:: Atihīḷeti [ati + hīḍ] to despise Ja IV 331 (= atimaññati commentary).

:: Atīta (adjective/noun) [Sanskrit atīta, ati + ita, past participle of i. Cf. accaya and ati eti
1. (temporal) past, gone by (cf. accaya 1)
(a) adjective atītaṃ addhānaṃ in the time which is past S III 86; A IV 219; V 32. — Pv II 1212 (atītānaṃ, scilicet attabhāvāuaṃ, pariyanto na dissati); khaṇātīta with the right moment past Dhp 315 = Snp 333; atītayobbana he who is past youth or whose youth is past Snp 110.
(b) neuter the past: atīte (locative) once upon a time Ja I 98 etc. atītaṃ āhari he told (a tale of) the past, i.e. a Jātaka Ja I 213, 218, 221 etc. — S I 5 (atītaṃ nānusocati); A III 400 (a. eko anto); Snp 851, 1112. In this sense very frequently combined with or opposed to anāgata the future and paccuppanna the present, e.g. atītānāgate in past and future S II 58; Snp 373; Ja VI 364. Or all three in stereotypical combination atīt'anāgata-paccuppanna (this the usual order) D III 100, 135; S II 26, 110, 252; III 19, 47, 187; IV 4f.; 151f.; A I 264f., 284; II 171, 202; III 151; V 33; It 53; Nidd II 22; but also occasionally atīta paccuppanna anāgata, {22} e.g. Pv-a 100.
2. (modal) passed out of, having overcome or surmounted, gone over, free from (cf. accaya 2) S I 97 (maraṇaṃ an° not free from death), 121 (sabbavera-bhaya°); A II 21; III 346 (sabba-saṃyojana°); Snp 373 (kappa°), 598 (khaya°, of the moon = ūnabhāvaṃ atīta Pj II 463); Thag 413 (with ablative)
3. (the same) overstepping, having transgressed or neglected (cf. accaya 3) Dhp 176 (dhammaṃ).

-aṃsa the past (= atīta koṭṭhāse, ati-k-kanta-bhavesū ti attho Thig-a 233) D II 222; III 275; Thig 314;
-ārammaṇa state of mind arising out of the past Dhs 1041.

:: Atīradassin (adjective/noun) [a + tīra + dassin] not seeing the shore Ja I 46; V 75 (nāvā). Cf. D I 222.

:: Atīva (indeclinable) [ati + iva, see also ativiya] very much, exceedingly Ja II 413; Mhv 33, 2 etc.

:: Ato (adverb) [Sanskrit ataḥ] hence, now, therefore S I 15; M I 498; Miln 87; Ja V 398 (= tato commentary).

:: Atoṇa [etymology ?) a class of jugglers or acrobats(?) Miln 191.

:: Atta1 Atta [ā + d + ta; Sanskrit ātta] that which has been taken up, assumedium Atta-daṇḍa, he who has taken a stick in hand, a violent person, S I 236; IV 117; Snp 630, 935; Dhp 406. Attañjaha, rejecting what had been assumed, Snp 790. Attaṃ pahāya Snp 800. The opposite is niratta, that which has not been assumed, has been thrown off, rejected. The Arahant has neither atta nor niratta (Snp 787, 858, 919), neither assumption nor rejection, he keeps an open mind on all speculative theories. See Nidd I 82, 90, 107, 352; II 271; Pj II 523; Dhp-a IV 180 for the traditional exegesis. As legal technical term attādānaṃ ādīyati is to take upon oneself the conduct, before the Chapter, of a legal point already raised. Vin II 247 (quoted V 91).

:: Atta2 see attan.

:: Atta3 [Sanskrit akta, past participle of añjati] see upatta.

:: Attan (masculine) and atta (the latter is the form used in compounds) [Vedic ātman, not to Greek ἂνεμος = Latin animus, but to Greek ἀτμός steam, Old High German ātum breath, Anglo-Saxon aeϸm].
I Inflection.
(1) of attan- (noun stem); the following cases are the most frequent: accusative attānaṃ D I 13, 185; S I 24; Snp 132, 451. — genitive dative attano Snp 334, 592 etc., also as ablative A III 337 (attano ca parato ca as regards himself and others). — instrumental ablative attanā S I 24; Snp 132, 451; Dhp-a II 75; Pv-a 15, 214 etc. On use of attanā see below III 1 commentary — locative attani S V 177; A I 149 (attanī metri causā); II 52 (anattani); III 181; M I 138; Snp 666, 756, 784; Vibh 376 (an°).
(2) of atta- (a-stem) we find the following cases: accusative attaṃ Dhp 379. — instrumental attena S IV 54. — ablative attato S I 188; Paṭis I 143; II 48; Vibh 336.
1. The soul as postulated in the animistic theories held in North India in the sixth and seventh centuries B.C. It is described in the Upanishads as a small creature, in shape like a man, dwelling in ordinary times in the heart It escapes from the body in sleep or trance; when it returns to the body life and motion reappear. It escapes from the body at death, then continues to carry on an everlasting life of its own. For numerous other details see Rh.D. Theory of Soul in the Upanishads JRAS 1899. Buddhist India 251-255. Buddhism repudiated all such theories, thus differing {20} from other religions. Sixteen such theories about the soul D I 31. Seven other theories D I 34. Three others D I 186/7. A "soul" according to general belief was something permanent, unchangeable, not affected by sorrow S IV 54 = Kv 67; Vin I 14; M I 138. See also M I 233; III 265, 271; S II 17, 109; III 135; A I 284; II 164, 171; V 188; S IV 400. Cf. ātuman, tuma, puggala, jīva, satta, pāṇa and nāma-rūpa.
2. Oneself, himself, yourself. Nominative attā, very rare. S I 71, 169; III 120; A I 57, 149 (you yourself know whether that is true or false. Cf. Manu VIII 84. Here attā comes very near to the European idea of conscience. But conscience as a unity or entity is not accepted by Buddhism) Snp 284; Dhp 166, 380; Miln 54 (the image, outward appearance, of oneself). Accusative attānaṃ S I 44 (would not give himself away, commentary: as a slave) A I 89; Snp 709. Accusative attaṃ Dhp 379. Ablative attato as oneself S I 188; Paṭis I 143; II 48; Vibh 336. Locative attani A I 149; III 181; Snp 666, 784. Instrumental attanā S I 57 = Dhp 66; S I 75; II 68; A I 53; III 211; IV 405; Dhp 165. On one's own account, spontaneously S IV 307; V 354; A I 297; II 99, 218; III 81; Ja I 156; Pv-a 15, 20. In composition with numerals atta-dutiya himself and one other D II 147; °catuttha with himself as fourth M I 393; A III 36; °pañcama Dīp VIII 2; °sattama Ja I 233; °aṭṭhama Vv-a 149 (as atta-n'aṭṭhama Vv 3413), and °aṭṭhamaka Miln 291.
anattā (noun and predicative adjective) not a soul, without a soul. Most frequently in combination with dukkha and anicca
(1) as noun: S III 141 (°anupassin); IV 49; V 345 (°saññin); A II 52 = Paṭis II 80 (anattani anattā; opposed to anattani attā, the opinion of the micchā-diṭṭhi-gatā sattā); Dhp 279; Paṭis II 37, 45f. (°anupassanā), 106 (yaṃ aniccañ ca dukkhañ ca taṃ anattā); Dhp-a III 406 (°lakkhaṇa).
(2) as adjective (predicative): S IV 152f.; 166; 130f., 148f.; Vin I 13 = S III 66 = Nidd II §680 Q 1; S III 20f.; 178f., 196f.; sabbe dhammā anattā Vin V 86; S III 133; IV 28, 401.

-attha one's own profit or interest Snp 75; Nidd II §23; Ja IV 56, 96; otherwise as atta-d-attha, e.g. Snp 284;
-atthiya looking after one's own needs Thag 1097. ādhipaka master of oneself, self-mastered A I 150;
-adhipateyya self-dependence, self-reliance, independence A I 147. ādhīna independent D I 72. ānudiṭṭhi speculation about souls S III 185; IV 148; A III 447; Snp 1119; Paṭis I 143; Vibh 368; Miln 146. ānuyogin one who concentrates his attention on himself Dhp 209; Dhp-a III 275. ānuvāda blaming oneself A II 121; Vibh 376;
-uññā self-humiliation Vibh 353 (+ att-avaññā);
-uddesa relation to oneself Vin III 149 (= attano atthāya), also °ika ibid. 144;
-kata self-made S I 134 (opposite para°);
-kāma love of self A II 21; adjective a lover of "soul", one who cares for his own soul S I 75;
-kāra individual self, fixed individuality, oneself (cf. ahaṃ-kāra) D I 53 (opposite para°); A III 337 (the same) Sv I 160; as neuter at Ja V 401 in the sense of service ("self-doing", slavery) (attakārāni karonti bhattusu);
-kilamatha self-mortification D III 113; S IV 330; V 421; M III 230;
-garahin self-censuring Snp 778;
-gutta self-guarded Dhp 379;
-gutti watchfullness as regards one's self, self-care A II 72;
-ghañña self-destruction Dhp 164;
-ja proceeding from oneself Dhp 161 (pāpa);
-ññū knowing oneself A IV 113, cf. D III 252;
-(n)tapa self-mortifying, self-vexing D III 232 = A II 205 (opposite paran°); M I 341, 411; II 159; Pp 55, 56;
-daṇḍa see atta1;
-danta self-restrained, self-controlled Dhp 104, 322;
-diṭṭhi speculation concerning the nature of the soul Nidd I 107; Pj II 523, 527;
-dīpa relying on oneself, independent, founded on oneself (+ atta-saraṇa, opposite añña°) D II 100 = III 42; S V 154; Snp 501 (= attano guṇe eva attano dīpaṃ katvā Pj II 416);
-paccakkha only in instrumental °ena by or with his own presence, i.e. himself Ja V 119;
-paccakkhika eye-witness Ja V 119;
-paccatthika hostile to oneself Vin II 94, 96;
-paṭilābha acquisition of a personality D I 195 (tayo: oḷārika, manomaya manomaya, arūpa);
-paritāpana self-chastisement, mortification D III 232 = A II 205; M I 341; Pv-a 18, 30;
-parittā charm (protection) for oneself Vin II 110;
-paribhava disrespect for one's own person Vibh 353;
-bhāva one's own nature (1) person, personality, individuality, living creature; form, appearance [cf. BMPE lxxix and BHS ātmabhāva body Divy 70, 73 (°pratilambha), 230; Avadānaśataka I 162 (pratilambha), 167, 171] Vin II 238 (living beings, forms); S V 442 (bodily appearance); A I 279 (oḷārika a. substantial creature); II 17 (creature); Dhp-a II 64, 69 (appearance); Pj II 132 (personality). — (2) life, rebirth A I 134f.; III 412; {23} Dhp-a II 68; Pv-a 8, 15, 166 (atītā °ā former lives). °ṃ pavatteti to lead a life, to live Pv-a 29, 181. Thus in compound paṭilābha assumption of an existence, becoming reborn as an individual Vin II 185; III 105; D III 231; M III 46; S II 255, 272, 283; III 144; A II 159, 188; III 122f. — (3) character, quality of heart Snp 388 (= citta Pj II 374); Ja I 61;
-rūpa "of the form of self", self-like only in instrumental °ena as adverb by oneself, on one's own account, for the sake of oneself S IV 97; A II 120;
-vadha self-destruction S II 241; A II 73;
-vāda theory of (a persistent) soul D III 230; M I 66; D II 58; S II 3, 245f.; III 103, 165, 203; IV 1f., 43f., 153f.; Paṭis I 156f.; Vibh 136, 375. For various points of an "atta-vādic" doctrine see Index to Saṃyutta Nikāya;
-vyābādha personal harm or distress self-suffering, one's own disaster (opposite para°) M I 369; S IV 339 = A I 157; II 179;
-vetana supporting oneself, earning one's own living Snp 24;
-sañcetanā self-perception, self-consciousness (opposite para°) D III 231; A II 159;
-sambhava originating from one's self S I 70; A IV 312; Dhp 161 (pāpa); Thag 260;
-sambhūta arisen from oneself Snp 272;
-sammāpaṇidhi thorough pursuit or development of one's personality A II 32; Snp 260, cf. Pj I 132;
-saraṇa see °dipa;
-sukha happiness of oneself, self-success Dīp I 66, Cp II 11;
-hita personal welfare one's own good (opposite para°) D III 233; A II 95f.
-hetu for one's own sake, out of self-consideration Snp 122; Dhp 328.
[BD]: Attha-sañcetanā: through one's own intent

:: Attaniya (adjective) [from attā] belonging to the soul, having a soul, of the nature of soul, soul-like; usually neuter anything of the nature of soul M I 138 = Kv 67; M I 297; II 263; S III 78 (yaṃ kho anattaniyaṃ whatever has no soul), 127; IV 54 = Nidd II §680f; S IV 82 = III 33 = Nidd II §680 Q 3; S IV 168; V 6; Nidd II §680 D. Cf. BMPE xlif.

:: Attamana [atta1 + mano, having an upraised mind Buddhaghosa's explanation is saka-mano Sv I 255 = attā + mano. He applies the same explanation to attamanatā (at Dhs 9, see BMPE 10) = attano manatā mentality of one's self] delighted, pleased, enraptured D I 3, 90 (an°); II 14; A III 337, 343; IV 344; Snp 45 = Dhp 328 (= upaṭṭhita-sati Dhp-a IV 29); Snp 995; Nidd II §24 (= tuṭṭha-mano haṭṭha-mano etc.); Vv 14; Pp 33 (an°); Miln 18; Sv I 52; Dhp-a I 89 (an°-dhātuka displeased); Pv-a 23, 132; Vv-a 21 (where Dhammapāla gives two explanations, either tuṭṭha-mano or saka-mano).

:: Attamanatā (feminine) [abstract to preceding] satisfaction, joy, pleasure, transport of mind M I 114; A I 276; IV 62; Pp 18 (an°); Dhs 9, 86, 418 (an°); Pv-a 132; Vv-a 67 (an°).

:: Attāṇa (adjective) [a + tāṇa] without shelter or protection Ja I 229; Miln 148, 325; Thig-a 285.

:: Attha1 Attha (also aṭṭha, especially in combinations mentioned under 3) (masculine and neuter) [Vedic artha from r̥, arti and r̥ṇoti to reach, attain or to proceed (to or from), thus originally result (or cause), profit, attainment. Cf. semantically French chose, Latin causa
1. interest, advantage, gain; (moral) good, blessings welfare; profit, prosperity, well-being M I 111 (atthassa ninnetar, of the Buddha, bringer of good); S IV 94 (the same); S I 34 (attano a. one's own welfare), 55 (the same) 86, 102, 126 = A II 46 (atthassa patti); S I 162 (attano ca parassa ca); II 222 (the same); IV 347 (°ṃ bhañjati destroy the good or welfare, always with musāvādena by lying, cf. attha-bhañjanaka); A I 61 (°ṃ anubhoti to fare well, to have a (good) result); III 364 (samparāyika a. profit in the future life); V 223f. (anattho ca attho ca detriment and profit); It 44 (v.l. attā better); Snp {21} 37, 58 (= Nidd II 26, where the six kinds of advantages are enumerated as att° par° ubhay°, i.e. advantage, resulting for oneself, for others, for both; diṭṭha-dhammik° samparāyik° param° gain for this life, for a future life, and highest gain of all, i.e. Arahantship); Snp 331 (ko attho supitena what good is it to sleep = na hi sakkā supantena koci attho papuṇituṃ Pj II 338; cf. ko attho supinena te Pv II 61); Pv-a 30 (atthaṃ sādheti does good, results in good, 69 (samparāyikena atthena). — dative atthāya for the good, for the benefit of (genitive); to advantage, often combined with hitāya sukhāya, e.g. D III 211f.; It 79. — Khp VIII 1 (to my benefit); Pv I 43 (= upakārāya Pv-a 18), II 129 (to great advantage). See also below 6.
Sometimes in a more concrete meaning = riches, wealth, e.g. Ja I 256 (= vaḍḍhiṃ commentary); III 394 (the same); Pv IV 14 (= dhanaṃ Pv-a 219). — Often as °—°: att°, one's own wellfare, usually combined with par° and ubhay° (see above) S II 29; V 121; A I 158, 216; III 63f.; IV 134; Snp 75 (att-aṭṭha, v.l. attha Nidd II), 284 (atta-d-attha); uttam° the highest gain, the very best thing Dhp 386 (= Arahatta Dhp-a IV 142); Snp 324 (= Arahatta Pj II 332); param° the same Nidd II §26; sad° one's own weal D II 141; M I 4; S II 29; V 145; A I 144; sāttha (adjective) connected with advantage, beneficial, profitable (of the Dhamma; or should we take it as "with the meaning, in spirit"? see sāttha) D I 62; S V 352; A II 147; III 152; Nidd II §316.
2. need, want (with instrumental), use (for = instrumental) S I 37 (°jāta when need has arisen, in need); Ja I 254; III 126, 281; IV 1; Dhp-a I 398 (n'atthi eteh'attho I have no use for them); Vv-a 250; Pv-a 24 (yāvadattha, adjective as much as is needed, sufficient = anappaka).
3. sense, meaning, import (of a word), denotation, signification. In this application attha is always spelt aṭṭha in compounds aṭṭh'uppatti and aṭṭha-kathā (see below). On term see also Cpd. 4. — S III 93 (atthaṃ vibhajati explain the sense); A I 23 (the same), 60 (nīt° primary meaning, literal meaning; neyy° secondary or inferred meaning); II 189 (°ṃ ācikkhati to interpret); Snp 126 (°ṃ pucchita asked the (correct) sense, the literal meaning), 251 (°ṃ akkhāti); Thag 374; attho paramo the highest sense, the ultimate sense or intrinsic meaning It 98, cf. Cpd. 6, 81, 223; Miln 28 (paramatthato in the absolute sense); Miln 18 (atthato according to its meaning, opposite vyañjanato by letter, orthographically); Dhp-a II 82; III 175; Pj I 81 (pad° meaning of a word); Pj II 91 (the same); Pv-a 15 (°ṃ vadati to explain, interpret), 16, 19 (hitattha-dhammatā "fitness of the best sense", i.e. practical application), 71. Very frequent in commentary style at the conclusion of an explained passage as ti attho "this is the meaning", thus it is meant, this is the sense, e.g. Sv I 65; Dhp-a IV 140, 141; Pv-a 33, etc.
4. Contrasted with dhamma in the combination attho ca dhammo ca it (attha) refers to the (primary, natural) meaning of the word, while dhamma relates to the (interpreted) meaning of the text, to its bearing on the norm and conduct; or one might say they represent the theoretical and practical side of the text (pāḷi) to be discussed, the "letter" and the "spirit". Thus at A I 69; V 222, 254; Snp 326 (= bhāsitatthañ ca pāḷi-dhammañ ca Pj II 333); It 84 (duṭṭho atthaṃ na jānāti dhammaṃ na passati: he realizes neither the meaning nor the importance); Dhp 363 (= bhāsitatthañ c'eva desanā-dhammañ ca); Ja II 353; VI 368; Nidd II §386 (meaning and proper nature); Pv III 96 (but explained by Pv-a 211 as hita = benefit, good, thus referring it to above 1). For the same use see compounds °dhamma, °paṭisambhidā, especially in adverbal use (see under 6) Snp 430 (yen'atthena for which purpose), 508 (kena atthena v.l. for Text attanā), Ja I 411 (atthaṃ vā kāraṇaṃ vā reason and cause); Dhp-a II 95 (+ kāraṇa (; Pv-a 11 (ayaṃ h'ettha attho this is the reason why).
5. (in very wide application, covering the same ground as Latin res and French chose): (a) matter, affair, thing, often untranslatable and simply to be given as "this" or "that" S II 36 (ekena-padena sabbo attho vutto the whole matter is said with one word); Ja I 151 (taṃ atthaṃ the matter); II 160 (imaṃ a. this); VI 289 (taṃ atthaṃ pakāsento); Pv-a 6 (taṃ atthaṃ pucchi asked it), 11 (visajjeti explains it), 29 (vuttaṃ atthaṃ what had been said), 82 (the same). — (b) affair, cause, case (cf. aṭṭa2 and Latin causa) Dhp 256, 331; Miln 47 (kassa atthaṃ dhāresi whose cause do you support, with whom do you agree?). See also alamattha.
6. Adversative use of oblique cases in the sense of a preposition:
(a) dative atthāya for the {24} sake of, in order to, for Ja I 254 dhan'atthāya for wealth, kim° what for, why?), 279; II 133; III 54; Dhp-a II 82; Pv-a 55, 75, 78.
(b) accusative atthaṃ on account of, in order to, often instead of an infinitive or with another infinitive substitute Ja I 279 (kim°); III 53 (the same); I 253; II 128; Dīp VI 79; Dhp-a I 397; Pv-a 32 (dassan° in order to see), 78, 167, etc.
(c) ablative atthā Ja III 518 (pitu atthā = atthāya commentary).
(d) locative atthe instead of, for Vv-a 10; Pv-a 33; etc.
anattha (masculine and neuter)
1. unprofitable situation or condition, mischief, harm, misery, misfortune S I 103; II 196 (anatthāya saṃvattati); A IV 96 (°ṃ adhipajjati) It 84 (°janano doso ill-will brings discomfort); Ja I 63, 196; Pp 37; Dhs 1060, 1231; Saddh 87; Sv I 52 (anattha-janano kodho, cf. It 83 and Nidd II §420 Q2); Dhp-a II 73; Pv-a 13, 61, 114, 199.
2. (= attha 3) incorrect sense, false meaning, as adjective senseless (and therefore unprofitable, no good, irrelevant) A V 222, 254 (adhammo ca); Dhp 100 (= aniyyānadīpaka Dhp-a II 209); Snp 126 (explained at Pj II 180 as ahitaṃ).

-akkhāyin showing what is profitable D III 187;
-attha riches Ja VI 290 (= attha-bhūtaṃ atthaṃ commentary);
-antara difference between the (two) meanings Miln 158. At Thag 374, Oldenberg's reading, but the v.l. (also commentary reading) atthandhara is much better = he who knows the (correct) meaning, especially as it corresponds with dhamma-dhara (q.v.);
-abhisamaya grasp of the proficient S I 87 (see abhisamaya);
-uddhāra synopsis or abstract of contents ("matter") of the Vinaya Dīp V 37;
-upaparikkhā investigation of meaning, (+ dhamma-savanna) M II 175; A III 381f.; IV 221; V 126;
-uppatti (aṭṭh°) sense, meaning, explanation, interpretation Ja I 89; Sv I 242; Pj I 216; Vv-a 197, 203 (cf. pāḷito) Pv-a 2, 6, 78; etc;
-kāma (adjective) (a) well-wishing, a well-wisher, friend, one who is interested in the welfare of others (cf. Sanskrit artha-kāma, e.g. Bhagavadgītā II 5: gurūn artha-kāman) S I 140, 197, 201f.; A III 143; D III 164 (bahuno janassa a., + hitakāmo); Ja I 241; Pv IV 351; Pv A 25; Pj II 287 (an°). — (b) one who is interested in his own gain or good, either in good or bad sense (= greedy) S I 44; Pv-a 112;
-kathā (aṭṭha°) exposition of the sense, explanation, commentary Ja V 38, 170; Pv-a 1, 71, etc. frequent in name of commentary
-kara beneficial, useful Vin III 149; Miln 321;
-karaṇa the business of trying a case, holding court, giving judgment (v.l. aṭṭa°) D II 20; S I 74 (judgment hall?);
-kavi a didactic poet (see kavi) A II 230;
-kāmin = °kāma, well-wishing Snp 986 (devatā attha-kāminī);
-kāraṇā (ablative) for the sake of gain D III 186;
-kusala clever in finding out what is good or profitable Snp 143 (= atthacheka Pj I 236);
-cara doing good, busy in the interest of others, obliging S I 23 (narānaṃ = "working out man's salvation");
-caraka (adjective) one who devotes himself to being useful to others, doing good, one who renders service to others, e.g. an attendant, messenger, agent etc. D I 107 (= hitakāraka Sv I 276); Ja II 87; III 326; IV 230; VI 369;
-cariyā useful conduct or behaviour D III 152, 190, 232; A II 32, 248; IV 219, 364;
-ññu one who knows what is useful or who knows the (plain or correct) meaning of something (+ dhammaññū) D III 252; A III 148; IV 113f.
-dassin intent upon the (moral) good Snp 385 (= hitānupassīn Pj II 373);
-dassimant one who examines a cause (cf. Sanskrit arthadarśika) Ja VI 286 (but explained by commentary as "saṇha-sukhuma-pañña" of deep insight, one who has a fine and minute knowledge);
-desanā interpretation, exegesis Miln 21 (dhamm°);
-dhamma "reason and morality", see above no. 3. °anusāsaka one who advises regarding the meaning and application of the Law, a professor of moral philosophy Ja II 105; Dhp-a II 71;
-pada a profitable saying, a word of good sense, text, motto A II 189; III {22} 356; Dhp 100;
-paṭisambhidā knowledge of the meaning (of words) combined with dhamma° of the text or spirit (see above no. 3) Paṭis I 132; II 150; Vibh 293f.
-paṭisaṃvedin experiencing good D III 241 (+ dhamma°); A I 151; III 21;
-baddha expecting some good from (with locative) Snp 382;
-bhañjanaka breaking the welfare of, hurting Dhp-a III 356 (paresaṃ of others, by means of telling lies, musāvādena);
-majjha of beautiful waist Ja V 170 (= sumajjhā commentary; reading must be faulty, there is hardly any connection with attha; v.l. atta);
-rasa sweetness (or substance, essence) of meaning (+ dhamma°, vimutti°) Nidd II §466; Paṭis II 88, 89;
-vasa "dependence on the sense", reasonableness, reason, consequence, cause D II 285; M I 464; II 120; III 150; S II 202; III 93; IV 303; V 224; A I 61, 77, 98; II 240; III 72, 169, 237; Dhp 289 (= kāraṇa Dhp-a III 435); It 89; Snp 297; Ud 14;
-vasika sensible It 89; Miln 406;
-vasin bent on (one's) aim or purpose Thag 539;
-vādin one who speaks good, i.e. whose words are doing good or who speaks only useful speech, always in combination with kāla° bhūta° dhamma° D I 4; III 175; A I 204; II 22, 209; Pp 58; Sv I 76 (explained as "one who speaks for the sake of reaping blessings here and hereafter");
-saṃvaṇṇanā explanation, exegesis Pv-a 1;
-saṃhita connected with good, bringing good, profitable, useful, salutary D I 189; S II 223; IV 330; V 417; A III 196f., 244; Snp 722 (= hitena saṃhitaṃ Pj II 500); Pp 58;
-sandassana determination of meaning, definition Paṭis I 105;
-siddhi profit, advantage, benefit Ja I 402; Pv-a 63.

:: Attha2 Attha (neuter) [Vedic asta, of uncertain etymology] home, primarily as place of rest and shelter, but in Pāli phraseology abstracted from the "going home", i.e. setting of the sun, as disappearance, going out of existence, annihilation, extinction. Only in accusative and as °- in following phrases: atthaṅgacchati to disappear, to go out of existence, to vanish Dhp 226 (= vināsaṃ n'atthi-bhāvaṃ gacchati Dhp-a III 324), 384 (= parikkhayaṃ gacchati); past participle atthaṅgata gone home, gone to rest, gone, disappeared; of the sun (= set): Ja I 175 (atthaṅgate suriye at sunset); Pv-a 55 (the same) 216 (anatthaṅgate s. before sunset) figurative Snp 472 (atthagata). 475 (the same); 1075 (= niruddha ucchinṇa vinaṭṭha anupādi-sesāya Nibbāna-dhātuyā nibbuta); It 58; Dhs 1038; Vibh 195.

-atthagatatta (neuter abstract) disappearance Pj II 409.

-atthaṅgama (atthagama passim) annihilation, disappearance; opposed to samudaya (coming into existence) and synonymous with nirodha (destruction) D I 34, 37, 183; S IV 327; A III 326; Paṭis II 4, 6, 39; Pp 52; Dhs 165, 265, 501, 579; Vibh 105;
-atthagamana (neuter) setting (of the sun) Ja I 101 (suriyass'atthagamanā at sunset) Sv I 95 (= ogamana). — attha-gāmin, in phrase uday'atthagāmin leading to birth and death (of paññā): see udaya;
-atthaṃ paleti = atthaṅgacchati (figurative) Snp 1074 (= atthaṅgameti nirujjhati Nidd II §28). — Also atthamita (past participal of i) set (of the sun) in phrase anatthamite suriye before sunset (with anatthaṅgamite as v.l. at both passages) Dhp-a I 86; III 127. — Cf. also abbhattha.

:: Attha3 Attha present 2nd plural of atthi (q.v.).

:: Atthata [past participle of attharati] spread, covered, spread over with (—°) Vin I 265; IV 287; V 172 (also an°); A III 50; Pv-a 141.

:: Atthatta (neuter) [abstract from attha1] reason, cause; only in ablative atthattā according to the sense, by reason of, on account of Pv-a 189 (—°).

:: Atthara [from attharati] a rug (for horses, elephants etc.) D I 7.

:: Attharaka [= atthara] a covering Ja I 9; Sv I 87. — feminine °ikā a layer Ja I 9; V 280.

:: Attharaṇa (neuter) [from attharati] a covering, carpet, cover, rug Vin II 291; A II 56; III 53; Mhv 3, 20; 15, 40; 25, 102; Thig-a 22.

:: Attharati [ā + str̥] to spread, to cover, to spread out; stretch, lay out Vin I 254; V 172; Ja I 199; V 113; VI 428; Dhp I 272. — past participle atthata (q.v.). — causative attharāpeti to cause to be spread Ja V 110; Mhv 3, 20; 29, 7; 34, 69.


:: Atthavant (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit arthavant] full of benefit S I 30; Thag 740; Miln 172.

:: Atthāra [cf. Sanskrit āstāra, from attharati] spreading out Vin V 172 (see kaṭhina). atthāraka same ibid.; Vin II 87 (covering).

:: Atthi [Sanskrit asti, 1st singular asmi; Greek εἰμί-ἐστί; Latin sum-est; Gothic im-ist; Anglo-Saxon eom-is English am-is] to be, to exist. Present Indicative 1st singular asmi Snp 1120, 1143; Ja I 151; III 55, and amhi M I 429; Snp 694; Ja II 153; Pv I 102; II 82. 2nd singular asi Snp 420; Ja II 160 ('si); III 278; Vv 324; Pv-a 4. — 3rd singular atthi Snp 377, 672, 884; Ja I 278. Often used for 3rd plural (= santi), e.g. Ja I 280; II 2; III 55. — 1st plural asma [Sanskrit smaḥ] Snp 594, 595; asmase Snp 595, and amha Snp 570; Ja II 128. 2nd plural attha Ja II 128; Pv-a 39, 74 (āgat'attha you have come). 3rd plural santi Snp 1077; Nidd II §637 (= saṃvijjanti atthi upalabbhanti); Ja II 353; Pv-a 7, 22 — Imperative atthu Snp 340; Ja I 59; III 26. — potential 1st singular siyā [Sanskrit syām] Pv II 88, and assaṃ [conditional used as potential] Snp 1120; Pv I 125 (= bhaveyyaṃ Pv-a 64). — 2nd singular siyā [Sanskrit syāḥ] Pv II 87. — 3rd singular siyā [Sanskrit syāt] D II 154; Snp 325, 1092; Nidd II §105 (= jāneyya, nibbatteyya); Ja I 262; Pv-a 13, and assa D I 135, 196; II 154; A V 194; Snp 49, 143; Dhp 124, 260; Pv II 324; 924. — 1st plural assu Pv-a 27. 3rd plural assu [cf. Sanskrit syuḥ] Snp 532; Dhp 74; Pv IV 136 (= bhaveyyuṃ Pv-a 231). — preterit 1st singular āsiṃ [Sanskrit āsaṃ] Snp 284; Pv I 21 (= ahosiṃ Pv-a 83); II 34 (= ahosiṃ Pv-a 83). — 3rd singular āsi [Sanskrit āsīt] Snp 994. — 3rd āsuṃ [cf. Sanskrit Perfect āsuḥ] Pv II 321, 133 (ti pi pāṭho for su). Present participle sat only in locative sati (as locative absolute) Dhp 146; Ja I 150, 263, santa Snp 105; Nidd II §635; Ja I 150 (locative evaṃ sante in this case); III 26, and samāna (q.v.) Ja I 266; IV 138.

-bhāva state of being, existence, being Ja I 222, 290; II 415; Dhp-a II 5; IV 217 (atthibhāva vā n'atthibhāva vā whether there is or not).

:: Atthika (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit arthika 1. (to attha1) profitable, good, proper. In this meaning the mss show a variance of spelling either atthika or aṭṭhika or aṭṭhita; in all cases atthika should be preferred D I 55 (°vāda); M II 212 (aṭṭhita); A III 219f. (idaṃ atthikaṃ this is suitable, of good avail; Text aṭṭhitaṃ, vv.ll. as above); Snp 1058 (aṭṭhita; Nidd II §20 also aṭṭhita, which at this passage shows a confusion between aṭṭha and a-ṭhita); Ja V 151 (in definition of aṭṭhikatvā q.v.); Pp 69, 70 (Text aṭṭhika, v.l. aṭṭhita; explained by Pp-a 250, 24 by kalyāṇāya).
2. (to attha1 2) desirous of (—°), wanting, seeking for, in need of (with instrumental) A II 199 (uday° desirous of increase); Snp 333, 460, 487 (puññ°), 987 (dhan° greedy for wealth); Ja I 263 (rajj° coveting a kingdom); V 19; Pv II 228 (bhojan° in need of food); IV 11 (kāraṇ°), 121 (khiḍḍ° for play), 163 (puññ°); Pv-a 95 (sasena a. wanting a rabbit), 120; Sv I 70 (atthikā those who like to).

-anatthika one who does not care for, or is not satisfied with (with instrumental) Ja V 460; Pv-a 20; of no good Thag 956 ("of little zeal" Mrs. Rh.D.);
-bhāva (a) usefullness, profitableness Pp-a 250, 25 (b) state of need, distress Pv-a 120.

:: Atthikavant (adjective) [atthika + vant] one who wants something, one who is on a certain errand D I 90 (atthikaṃ assa atthī ti Sv I 255).

:: Atthitā (feminine) [feminine abstract from atthi cf. atthi-bhāva] state of being, existence, being, reality M I 486; S II 17 (°añ c'eva n'atthitañ ca to be and not to be); III 135; Ja V 110 (kassaci atthitaṃ vā n'atthitaṃ vā jānāhi see if there is anybody or not); As 394. — Often in ablative atthitāya by reason of, on account of, this being so Dhp-a III 344 (idam-atthitāya under this condition) Pv-a 94, 97, 143.

:: Atthin (adjective) (—°) [Vedic arthin] desirous, wanting anything; see mant°, vād°.

:: Atthiya (adjective) (—°) [= atthika] having a purpose or end S III 189 (kim° for what purpose?); A V 1f. (the same), 311f.; Thag 1097 (att° having one's purpose in oneself), 1274; Snp 354 (yad atthiyaṃ on account of which).

:: Atra (adverb) [Sanskrit atra] here; atra atra here and there Ja I 414 = IV 5 (in explanation of atriccha).


:: Atraja (adjective) [Sanskrit ātma-ja, corrupted form for attaja (see attā) through analogy with Sanskrit atra "here". This form occurs only in Ja and similar sources, i.e. popular lore] born from oneself, one's own, applied to sons, of which there are 4 kinds enumerated, viz. atraja, khettaja, dinnaka, antevāsika putta Nidd II §448. — Ja I 135; III 103 = Nidd I 504; Ja III 181; V 465; VI 20; Mhv 4, 12; 13, 4; 36, 57.

:: Atriccha (adjective) [the popular etymology suggested at JA IV 4 is atra atra icchamāna desiring here and there; but see atricchā] very covetous, greedy, wanting too much Ja I 414 = IV 4; III 206.

:: Atricchatā (feminine) [see atricchā] excessive lust Ja III 222.

:: Atricchā (feminine) [Sanskrit atr̥ptyā, a + tr̥pt + yā, influenced by desiderative titr̥psati, so that atricchā phonetically rather corresponds to a form *a.-tr̥psyā (cch = psy, cf. Pāli chāta Sanskrit psāta). For the simple Sanskrit tr̥pti see titti (from tappati2). According to Kern, but phonetically hardly justifiable it is Sanskrit atīccha = ati + icchā "too much desire", with r in dissolution of geminated tt, like atraja for attaja. See also atriccha adjective and cf. JPTS 1884, 69] great desire, greed, excessive longing, insatiability Ja IV 5, 327.

:: Atha (indeclinable) [Sanskrit atha, cf. atho] copulative and adversative particle
1. after positive clauses, in enumerations, in the beginning and continuation of a story: and, and also, or; and then, now D II 2; III 152, 199 (athāparaṃ etad avoca); M I 435; Snp 1006, 1007, 1017; Snp 126 (athaparaṃ etad avoca: and further, something else); Dhp 69, 119, 377; Ja II 158; Pv II 64; Pv-a 3, 8 (atha na and not), 70.
2. after negative clauses: but M I 430; Snp 990, 1047; Dhp 85, 136, 387; Pv-a 68. Often combined with other particles, e.g. atha kho (positive and negative) now, and then; but, rather, moreover Vin I 1; D I 141, 167, 174; A V 195; Pv-a 79, 221, 251. na + ā + atha kho na neither + ā + nor Pv-a 28. atha kho pana and yet D I 139. atha ca pana on the other hand Ja I 279. atha vā or (after preceding ca), nor (after preceding na) Snp 134; Dhp 140, 271; Pv I 41; II 14. athā vā pi Snp 917, 921.

:: Athabbaṇa [Vedic atharvan; as regards etymology see Walde, Latin Wtb. under ater]
(1) the Atharva Veda Sv I 247 = Pj II 447 (°veda).
(2) one who is familiar with the (magic formulas of the) Atharvaveda Ja VI 490 (sāthabbaṇa = sahatthivejja, with the elephant-healer or doctor). See also āthabbaṇa.

:: Atho (indeclinable) [Sanskrit atho, atha + u] copulative and adversative particle: and, also, and further, likewise, nay S I 106; Snp 43, 155, 647; Dhp 151, 234, 423; Ja I 83; II 185; IV 495; It 106; Khp VIII 7; Pv IV 315; Pv-a 251 (atho ti nipātamattaṃ avadhāraṇ-atthe vā). Also combined with other particles, like atho pi Snp 222, 537, 985; Pv II 320; Pj I 166.

:: Ada (adjective) (—°) [to ad, see adeti, cf. °ga, °ṭha, °da etc.] eating S IV 195 (kiṭṭhāda eating corn); Ja II 439 (vantāda = vantakhādaka commentary).

:: Adaka (adjective) = ada Ja V 91 (purisādaka man-eater).

:: Adana (neuter) [from adeti] eating, food Ja V 374 (v.l. modana).

:: Adasaka (adjective) see dasā.

:: Adāsa [probably = adaṃsa, from ḍasati to bite, cf. dāṭhā tooth; literal meaning "toothless" or "not biting"] a kind of bird Ja IV 466.


:: Adiṭṭhā [a + diṭṭhā, gerund of °dassati] not seeing, without seeing Ja IV 192 (Text adaṭṭhā, v.l. na diṭṭhā, commentary adisvā); V 219.

:: Adinna (past participle) [a + dinna] that which is not given, frequently in phrase adinn'ādāna (BHS adattādāna Divy 302) seizing or grasping that which is not given to one, i.e. stealing, is the 2nd of the ten qualifications of bad character or sīla (dasa-sīla see sīla II). Vin I 83 (°ā veramaṇī); D I 4 (= parassa haraṇaṃ theyyaṃ corikā ti vuttaṃ hoti Sv I 71); III 68f., 82, 92, 181f.; M I 361; It 63; Khp I, 16;, cf. Pj I 26. — adinnādāyin he who takes what is not given, a thief; stealing, thieving (cf. BSK. adattādāyika Divy 301, 418) Vin I 85; D I 138; Saddh 78.

:: Adu (or ādu) (indeclinable) [perhaps identical with aduṃ, neuter of pronoun asu] particle of affirmation: even, yea, nay; always in emphatic exclamations Vv 622 (= udāhu Vv-a 258; v.l. ādu) = Pv IV 317 (ādu) = Dhp-a I 31 (Text ādu, v.l. adu); Vv 631 (v.l. ādu); Ja V 330 (Text ādu, commentary adu; explained on page 331 fantastically as aduñ ca aduñ ca kammaṃ karohī ti). See also ādu.

:: Aduṃ neuter of pronoun asu.

:: Adūsaka (adjective) [a + dūsaka] innocent Ja V 143 (= nirapa-rādha commentary); VI 84, 552. feminine adūsikā Snp 312.

:: Adūsiya = adūsaka Ja V 220 (= anaparādha commentary).

:: Adeti [Sanskrit ādayati, causative of atti, ad to eat, 1st singular admi = Greek ἔδω, Latin edo; Gothic itan = Old High German ezzan = English eat] to eat. Present indicative ademi etc. Ja V 31, 92, 197, 496; VI 106. potential adeyya Ja V 107, 392, 493.

:: Adda1 [cf. Sanskrit ārdraka] ginger Ja I 244 (°singivera).

:: Adda2 and Addā 3rd singular preterit of dassati; see dassati 2. a.

:: Adda3 (adjective) [Sanskrit ārdra, from r̥dati or ardati to melt, cf. Greek ἄρδω to moisten, ἂρδα dirt; see also alla] wet, moist, slippery Ja IV 353; VI 309; Miln 346.

-āvalepana "smeared with moisture", i.e. shiny, glittering S IV 187 (kūṭāgāra); M I 86 = Nidd II 1996 (upakāriyo). See also addha2. The reading allāvalepana occus at Nidd II §40 (= S IV 187), and is perhaps to be preferred. The meaning is better to be given as "newly plastered".

:: Addakkhi 3rd singular preterit of dassati; see dassati 1 b.

:: Addasā 3rd singular preterit of dassati; see dassati 2 a.

:: Addā and Addāyanā at Vibh 371 in definition of anādariya is either faulty writing, or dialectical form or popular etymology for ādā and ādāyana; see ādariya.

:: Addāyate [v. denominative from adda] to be or get wet, figurative to be attached to Ja IV 351. See also allīyati.

:: Addi [Sanskrit ardri] a mountain Dāṭh II 13.

:: Addita (past participle) [see aṭṭita which is the more correct spelling] afflicted, smarted, oppressed Ja I 21; II 407; III 261; IV 295; V 53, 268; Thag 406; Mhv 1, 25; Pv-a 260; Saddh 37, 281.

:: Addha1 (numeral) [= aḍḍha, q.v.] one half, half (°-) D I 166 (°māsika); A II 160 (°māsa); Ja I 59 (°yojana); III 189 (°māsa).

:: Addha2 (adjective) [= adda3, Sanskrit ārdra] soiled, wet; figurative attached to, intoxicated with (cf. sineha) M II 223 (na anaddha-bhūtaṃ attānaṃ dukkhena addha-bhāveti he dirties the impure self with ill); S III 1 (addha-bhūto kāyo impure body); Ja VI 548 (°nakha with dirty nails, commentary pūtinakha).

:: Addhan (in compounds addha°) [Vedic adhvan, originally meaning "stretch, length", both of space and time. — Cases: nominative addhā, genitive dative addhuno, instrumental addhunā, accusative addhānaṃ, locative addhani; plural addhā. See also addhāna
1. (of space) a path, road, also journey (see compounds and derivations); only in one stereotypical phrase Ja IV 384 = V 137 (pathaddhuno paṇṇarase va cando, genitive for locative °addhani, on his course, in his orbit; explained at IV 384 by ākāsa-patha-saṅkhātassa addhuno majjhe ṭhito and at V 137 by pathaddhagato addha-pathe gaganamajjhe ṭhito); Pv III 31 (pathaddhani paṇṇarase va cando; locative same meaning as preceding, explained at Pv-a 188 by attano pathabhūte addhani gaganatala-magge). This phrase (pathaddhan) however is explained by Kern (Toev. sub voce pathaddu) as "gone half-way", i.e. on full-moon-day. He rejects the explanation of commentary.
2. (of time) a stretch of time, an interval of time, a period, also a lifetime (see compounds); only in two standard applications viz. (a) as mode of time (past, future and present) in tayo addhā three divisions of time (atita, anāgata, paccuppanna) D III 216; It 53, 70. (b) in phrase dīghaṃ addhānaṃ (accusative) a very long time A II 1, 10 (dighaṃ addhānaṃ saṃsāraṃ); Snp 740 (dīghaṃ addhāna saṃsāra); Dhp 207 (dīghaṃ addhāna socati); Ja I 137. genitive dīghassa addhuno Pv-a 148 (gatattā because a long time has elapsed), instrumental dīghena addhunā S I 78; A II 118; Pv-a 28.

-āyu duration of life A II 66 (dīghaṃ °ṃ a long lifetime;
-gata one who has gone the road or traversed the space or span of life, an old man [cf. BHS adhvagata Mvu II 150], always combined with vayo anuppatto, sometimes in stereotypical formula with jiṇṇa and mahallaka. {24} Vin II 188; D I 48 (cf. Sv I 143); M I 82; Snp past participle 50, 92; Pv-a 149;
-gū [Vedic adhvaga] a wayfarer, traveller, journeyman Thig 255 = S I 212 (but the latter has panthagu, v.l. addhagū); Ja III 95 (v.l. patthagu = panthagu); Dhp 302.

:: Addhaniya (adjective) [from addhan
1. belonging to the road, fit for travelling (of the travelling season) Thag 529.
2. belonging to a (long) time, lasting a long period, lasting, enduring D III 211; Ja I 393 (an°) VI 71. See also addhaneyya.

:: Addhaneyya (adjective) = adhaniya 2, lasting Ja V 507 (an°).

:: Addhariya [Vedic adhvaryu from adhvara sacrifice] a sacrificing priest, name of a class of brahmins D I 237 (brāhmaṇa).

:: Addhā (adverb) [Vedic addhā, cf. Avesta azdā certainty] particle of affirmation and emphasis: certainly, for sure, really, truly D I 143; Ja I 19 (a. ahaṃ Buddho bhavissāmi) 66 (a. tvaṃ Buddho bhavissasi), 203, 279; III 340; V 307, 410 (commentary explanation differs) Snp 47, 1057; Nidd II §30 = Paṭis II 21 (ekaṃsa-vacanaṃ nissaṃsaya-vacanaṃ etc.) addhā hi Ja IV 399; Pv IV 152.

:: Addhāna (neuter) [originally the accusative of addhan, taken as neuter from phrase dīghaṃ addhānaṃ. It occurs only in accusative which may always be taken as accusative of addhan; thus the assumption of a special form addhāna would be superfluous were it not for later forms like addhāne (locative) Miln 126; Pv-a 75 v.l., and for compounds] same meaning as addhan, but as simplex only used with reference to time (i.e. a long time, cf. Vv-a 117 addhānaṃ = ciraṃ). Usually in phrase atītaṃ (anāgataṃ etc.) addhānaṃ in the past (future etc.), e.g. D I 200; S I 140; A V 32; Miln 126 (anāgatam-addhāne for °aṃ); Pv-a 75 (v.l. addhāne). dīghaṃ addhānaṃ Pv I 105. Also in phrase addhānaṃ āpādeti to make out the length of time or period, i.e. to live out one's lifetime S IV 110; Ja II 293 (= jīvitaddhānaṃ āpādi āyuṃ vindi commentary).

-daratha exhaustion from travelling Sv I 287;
-magga a (proper) road for journeying, a long road between two towns, high road D I 1, 73, 79; M I 276 (kantār°); Sv I 35 (interpreted as "addhayojanaṃ gacchissāmī ti bhuñjitabban ti ādi vacanato addha-yojanam pi addhāna maggo hoti", thus taken to addha "half", from counting by ½ miles); Vv-a 40, 292. Cf. also antarāmagga;
-parissama "fatigue of the road", i.e. fatigue from travelling Vv-a 305;
-vemattatā difference of time or period Miln 285 (+ āyuvemattatā).


:: Addhika [from addhan] a wanderer, wayfarer, traveller Sv I 298 (= pathāvin), 270; Pv-a 78, 127 (°jana people travelling). Often combined with kapaṇa beggar, tramp, as kapaṇaddhikā (plural) tramps and travellers (in which connection also as °iddhika, q.v.), e.g. Ja I 6 (v.l. °iddhika 262; Dhp-a II 26.

:: Addhita at Pv II 62 is to be corrected to aṭṭita (sic v.l.).

:: Addhin (adjective) (—°) [from addhan] belonging to the road or travelling, one who is on the road, a traveller, in gataddhin one who has performed his journey (= addhagata) Dhp 90.

:: Addhuva see dhuva.

:: Adrūbhaka see dubbha.

:: Advejjhatā see dvejjhatā.

:: Adha° in compounds like adhagga see under adho.

:: Adhama (adjective) [Vedic adhama = Latin infimus, superlative of adho, q.v.] the lowest (literal and figurative), the vilest, worst Snp 246 (narādhama), 135 (vasalādhama); Dhp 78 (purisa°); Ja III 151 (miga°); V 394 (uttamādhama), 437 (the same), 397; Saddh 387.

:: Adhamma see dhamma.

:: Adhara (adjective) [Vedic adhara, comparative of adho] the lower Ja III 26 (adharoṭṭha the l. lip).

:: Adhi [Vedic adhi; base of demonstrative pronoun a° + suffix-dhi, corresponding in form to Greek ἔν-θα "on this" = here, cf. ὅθι where, in meaning equal to adverb of direction Greek δέ (toward) = Old High German zuo, English to].
A. Preposition and prefix of direction and place:
(a) as direction denoting a movement towards a definite end or goal = up to, over, toward, to, on (see commentary 1 a).
(b) as place where (preposition with locative or absolute) = on top of, above, over, in; in addition to. Often simply deictic "here" (e.g.) ajjhatta = adhi + ātman "this self here" (see commentary 1 b).
B. adhi is frequent as modification prefix, i.e. in loose compounds with noun or verb and as first part of a double prefix compound, like ajjhā° (adhi + ā), adhippa° (adhi + pra), but never occurs as a fixed base, i.e. as 2nd part of a prefix compound, like ā in paccā° (prati + ā), paryā°(pari + ā) or ava in paryava° (pari + ava) or ud in abhyud° (abhi + ud), samud° (sam + ud). As such (i.e. modification) it is usually intensifying, meaning "over above, in addition, quite, par excellence, super" ° (adhideva a super-god, cf. ati-deva), but very often has lost this power and become meaningless (like English up in "shut up, fill up, join up etc), especially in double prefix-compounds (ajjhāvasati "to dwell herein" = āvasati "to dwell in, to inhabit") (see commentary 2). — In the explanations of Pāli commentators adhi is often (sometimes far-fetchedly) interpreted by abhibhū "overpowering" see e.g. commentary on adhiṭṭhāti and adhiṭṭhita; and by virtue of this intensive meaning we find a close relationship between the prefixes ati, adhi and abhi, all interchanging dialectically so that Pāli adhi often represents Sanskrit ati or abhi; thus adhi > ati in adhikusala, °kodhita, °jeguccha, °brahmā; adhi < abhi in adhippatthita, °pāteti, °ppāya, °ppeta, °bādheti, °bhū, °vāha. Cf. also ati IV
C. The main applications of adhi are the following:
1. primary meaning (in verbs and verb derivations): either direction in which or place where, depending on the meaning of the verb determinate, either literal or figurative
(a) where to: adhiyita (adhi + ita) "gone onto or into" = studied; ajjhesita (adhi + esita) "wished for"; °kata "put to" i.e. commissioned; °kāra commission; °gacchati "to go on to and reach it" = obtain; °gama attainment; °gaṇhāti to overtake = surpass °peta (adhi + pra + ita) "gone into" = meant, understood; °pāya sense meaning, intention; °bhāsati to speak to = address; °mutta intent upon; °vacana "saying in addition" = attribute, metaphor, cf. French sur-nom; °vāsāna assent, °vāseti to dwell in, give in = consent.
(b) where: °tiṭṭhati (°ṭṭhāti) to stand by = look after, perform; °ṭṭhāna place where; °vasati to inhabit; °sayana "lying in", inhabiting.
2. secondary meaning (as emphatic modification):
(a) with nouns or adjectives: adhi-jeguccha very detestable; °matta "in an extreme measure", °pa supreme lord; °pacca lordship; °paññā higher, additional wisdom; °vara the very best; °sīla thorough character or morality.
(b) with verbs (in double prefix-compounds); adhi + ava: ajjhogāheti plunge into; ajjhoṭhapeti to bring down to (its destination); °otthata covered completely; °oharati to swallow right down. adhi + ā: ajjhappatta having reached (the end); ajjhapīḷita quite overwhelmed; °āvuttha inhabited; °ārūhati grown up over; °āsaya desire, wish (cf. German noun Anliegen and verb daranliegen). adhi + upa: ajjhupagacchati to reach, obtain; °upeti to receive; °upekkhati "to look all along over" = to superintend adhi + pra: adhippattheti to long for, to desire.
Note: The contracted (assimilation-)form of adhi before vowels is ajjh- (q.v.).

:: Adhika (adjective) [from adhi; cf. Sanskrit adhika] exceeding, extraordinary, superior, Pp 35; Vv-a 80 (= anadhivara, visiṭṭha); Sv I 141, 222; Dīp V 32 (an°); Dhp-a III 238; Pj I 193 (= anuttara); Saddh 337, 447. — comparative adhikatara Dhp-a II 7; III 176; neuter °ṃ as adverb extraordinarily Pv-a 86 (= adhimattaṃ). In combination with numerals adhika has the meaning of "in addition, with an additional, plus" (cf. ādi + ādika, with which it is evidently confused, adhika being constructed in the same way as ādika, i.e. preceding the noun-determination), e.g. catunahutādhikāni dve yojana-sahassāni 2000 yojanas and 4 nahutas Ja I 25; sattamāsa-dhikāni sattavassāni 7 years and 7 months Ja V 319; paññāsādhikāni pañca vassa-satani 500 + 50 (= 550) Pv-a 152. See also sādhika.

:: Adhikata (adjective) [adhi + kata; cf. Sanskrit adhikr̥ta 1. commissioned with, an overseer, Pv II 927 (dāne adhikata = ṭhapita Pv-a 124). {25}
2. caused by Miln 67 (kamma°).
3. affected by something, i.e. confused, puzzled, in doubt Miln 144 (+ vimātijāta).

:: Adhikaraṇa (neuter) [adhi + karaṇa
1. attendance, supervision, management of affairs, administration Pv-a 209.
2. relation, reference, reason, cause, consequence D II 59 (-°: in consequence of); S II 41; V 19. Especially accusative °ṃ as adverb (—°) in consequence of, for the sake of, because of, from M I 410 (rūpādhikaraṇaṃ); S IV 339 (rāga°); Miln 281 (mudda° for the sake of the royal seal, originally in attendance on the royal seal). Kimādhikaraṇaṃ why, on account of what Ja IV 4 (= kiṃkāraṇaṃ) yatvādhikaraṇaṃ (yato + adhi°) by reason of what, since, because (used as conjunction) D I 70 = III 225 = A I 113 = II 16.
3. case, question, cause, subject of discussion, dispute. There are 4 sorts of a. enumerated at various passages, viz. vivāda° anuvāda° āpatti° kicca° "questions of dispute, of censure, of misconduct, of duties" Vin II 88; III 164; IV 126, 238; M II 247. Often referred to: Vin II 74; S IV 63 = V 346 (dhamma° a question of the Dhamma); A I 53 (case), 79; II 239 (vūpasanta); V 71, 72; Pp 20, 55; Dhp-a IV 2 (°ṃ uppannaṃ tatth'eva tasmiṃ vūpasante), adhikaraṇaṃ karoti to raise a dispute M I 122 °ṃ vūpasameti to settle a question or difficulty Vin II 261.

-kāraka one who causes dispute discussions or dissent Vin IV 230 (feminine °ikā); A III 252;
-samatha the settlings of questions that have arisen. There are seven rules for settling cases enumerated at D III 254; M II 247; A I 99; IV 144.

:: Adhikaraṇika [from adhikaraṇa] one who has to do with the settling of disputes or questions, a judge A V 164, 167.

:: Adhikaraṇī (feminine) [to adhikaraṇa 1, originally meaning "serving, that which serves, i.e. instrument"] a smith's anvil Ja III 285; Dāṭh III 16f.; As 263.

:: Adhikāra [cf. Sanskrit adhikāra] attendance, service, administration, supervision, management, help Vin I 55; Ja I 56; {28} VI 251; Miln 60, 115, 165; Pv-a 124 (dāna°; cf. Pv II 927); Dhp-a II 41.

:: Adhikārika (adjective) (—°) [to adhikāra] serving as, referring to Vin III 274 (Buddhaghosa).

:: Adhikuṭṭanā (feminine) [adhi + koṭṭanā or koṭṭana] an executioner's block Thig 58; cf. Thig-a 65 (v.l. kuḍḍanā, should probably be read koṭṭana), 287.

:: Adhikusala (adjective) [adhi + kusala] in °ā dhammā "items of higher righteousness" D III 145.

:: Adhikodhita (adjective) [adhi + kodhita] very angry Ja V 117.

:: Adhigacchati [adhi + gacchati] to get to, to come into possession of, to acquire, attain, find; figurative to understand D I 229 (vivesaṃ) M I 140 (anvesaṃ nādhigacchanti do not find); S I 22 (Nibbānaṃ); II 278 (the same); A I 162 (the same); Dhp 187, 365; It 82 (santiṃ); Thig 51; Pp 30, 31; Pv I 74 (nibbutiṃ = labhati Pv-a 37); III 710 (amataṃ padaṃ). optative adhigaccheyya D I 224 (kusalaṃ dhammaṃ); M I 114 (madhu-piṇḍikaṃ); Dhp 61 and adhigacche Dhp 368. gerund °gantvā D I 224; Ja I 45 (ānisaṃse); and °gamma Pv I 119 (= vinditvā paṭilabhitvā Pv-a 60). gerundive °gantabba It 104 (Nibbāna). Conditional °gacchissaṃ Snp 446. 1st preterit 3 singular ajjhagā Snp 225 (= vindi paṭilabhi Pj I 180); Dhp 154; Vv 327; 3 plural ajjhagū Ja I 256 (vyasanaṃ) and ajjhāgamuṃ S I 12. 2nd preterit 3 singular adhigacchi Nidd I 457. past participle adhigata (q.v.).

:: Adhigaṇhāti [adhi + gaṇhāti] to surpass excel S I 87 = Sv I 32; D III 146; S IV 275; A III 33; It 19. Gerund adhigayha Pv II 962 = Dhp-a III 219 (v.l. at both passages atikkamma); and adhiggahetvā It 20. — past participle adhiggahīta (q.v.).

:: Adhigata [past participle of adhigacchati] got into possession of, conquered, attained, found Ja I 374; Vv-a 135.

:: Adhigatavant (adjective/noun) [from adhigata] one who has found or obtained Vv-a 296 (Nibbānaṃ).

:: Adhigama [from adhigacchati] attainment, acquisition; also figurative knowledge, information, study (the latter mainly in Miln) D III 255; S II 139; A II 148; IV 22, 332; V 194; Ja I 406; Nett 91; Miln 133, 215, 358, 362, 388; Pv-a 207.

:: Adhigameti [adhi + gameti, causative of gacchati] to make obtain, to procure Pv-a 30.

:: Adhiggahīta [past participle of adhigaṇhāti] excelled, surpassed; overpowered, taken by (instrumental), possessed Ja III 427 (= anuggahīta commentary); V 102; VI 525 = 574; It 103; Miln 188, 189; Saddh 98.

:: Adhiciṇṇa only at S III 12, where v.l. is aviciṇṇa, which is to be preferred. See viciṇṇa.

:: Adhicitta (neuter) [adhi + citta] "higher thought", meditation, contemplation, usually in combination with adhisīla and adhipaññā Vin I 70; D III 219; M I 451; A I 254, 256; Nidd I 39 = Nidd II §689 (°sikkhā); Dhp 185 (= aṭṭha-samāpatti-saṅkhāta adhika-citta Dhp-a III 238).

:: Adhiceto (adjective) [adhi + ceto] lofty-minded, entranced Thag 68 = Ud 43 = Vin IV 54 = Dhp-a III 384.

:: Adhicca1 [gerund of adhi + eti, see adhīyati] learning, studying, learning by heart Ja III 218, 327 = IV 301; IV 184 (vede = adhīyitvā commentary), 477 (sajjhāyitvā commentary); VI 213; Miln 164.

:: Adhicca2 (°-) [Sanskrit °adhr̥tya, a + °dhicca, gerund of dhr̥, cf. dhāra, dhāraṇa 3, dhāreti 4] unsupported, uncaused, fortuitous, without cause or reason; in following phrases: °āpattika guilty without intention M I 443; °uppatti spontaneous origin As 238; °laddha obtained without being asked for, unexpectedly Vv 8422 = Ja V 171 = VI 315 (explained at Ja V 171 by ahetunā, at VI 316 by akāraṇena) °samuppanna arisen without a cause, spontaneous, unconditioned D I 28 = Ud 69; D III 33, 138; S II 22-23 (sukha-dukkhaṃ); A III 440 (the same); Paṭis I 155; Sv I 118 (= akāraṇa°).

:: Adhicca3 (adjective) [= adhicca 2 in adjective function, influenced by, homonym abhabba] without a cause (for assumption), unreasonable, unlikely S V 457.

:: Adhijeguccha (neuter) [adhi + jeguccha] intense scrupulous regard (for others) D I 174, 176.

:: Adhiṭṭhaka (adjective) (—°) [from adhiṭṭhāti] bent on, given to, addicted to Ja V 427 (surā°).

:: Adhiṭṭhāti AdhiṭṭhatiAdhiṭṭhāti (adhiṭṭhahati) [Sanskrit adhitiṣṭhati, adhi + sthā
1. to stand on Ja III 278 (gerund °āya); Dhp-a IV 183 (gerund °hitvā); figurative to insist on Thag 1131 (preterit °āhi).
2. to concentrate or fix one's attention on (with accusative), to direct one's thoughts to, to make up one's mind, to wish Vin I 115 (infinitive °ṭhātuṃ), 297 (the same), 125 (gerundive °ṭhātabba) Ja I 80 (preterit °ahi); III 278; IV 134 (v.l. ati° commentary explains abhibhavitvā tiṭṭhati); Dhp-a I 34; IV 201 (gerund °hitvā); Pv-a 23 (preterit °ṭhāsi) 171 (the same), 75 (gerund °hitvā). On adhiṭṭheyya see Cpd. 209, note 2; 219, note 1.
3. to undertake, practice, perform, look after, to celebrate S II 17; A I 115f.; Ja I 50; Pv-a 209 (gerund °ṭhāya). — past participle adhiṭṭhita (q.v.).
[DPL]: Adhiṭṭhahati. To stand on; to stay, to remain firm in; to inhabit; to appoint, to fix; to determine, to resolve, to will, to command; to devote oneself to; to practise, to perform; to undertake; to be set upon, to fix the mind upon, dwell upon.

:: Adhiṭṭhāna (neuter) [from adhi + sthā
1. decision, resolution, self-determination, will (cf. on this meaning Cpd. 62) D III 229 (where 4 are enumerated, viz. paññā°, sacca° cāga° upasama°); Ja I 23; V 174; Paṭis I 108; II 171f., 207; As 166 (cf. BMPE 41 note 2).
2. mentioned in bad sense with abhinivesa and anusaya, obstinacy, prejudice and bias M I 136; III 31, 240; S II 17; III 10, 135, 194. — As adjective (—°) applying oneself to, bent on A III 363.
3. looking after, management, direction, power Miln 309 (devānaṃ); Pv-a 141 (so read for adhitaṭṭhāna). [adiṭṭhāna at Pv-a 89, used as explanatory for āvāsa, should perhaps be read adhiṭṭhāna in the sense of fixed, permanent, abode].

:: Adhiṭṭhāyaka (adjective) (—°) superintending, watching, looking after, in kamma° Mhv 5, 175; 30, 98; kammanta° Dhp-a I 393.

:: Adhiṭṭhita (adjective) [past participle of adhiṭṭhāti
1. standing on (with locative), especially with the idea of standing above, towering over Vv 6330 (hemarathe a. = sakalaṃ ṭhānaṃ abhibhavitvā ṭhita Vv-a 269).
(a) looked after, managed, undertaken, governed Vin I 57; S V 278 (svādhi- {26} ṭṭhita); Pv-a 141 (kammanta).
(b) undertaking, bent on (with accusative) Snp 820 (ekacariyaṃ).

:: Adhideva [adhi + deva] a superior or supreme god, above the gods M II 132; A IV 304; Snp 1148; Nidd II §§307b, 422 a. Cf. atideva.

:: Adhipa [Sanskrit adhipa, abbreviation of adhipati] ruler, lord, master Ja II 369; III 324; V 393; Pv II 86 (jan° king); Dāṭh III 52; Vv-a 314.

:: Adhipaka (adjective) (—°) [from preceding] mastering, ruling or governed, influenced by (cf. adhipati) A I 150 (atta° loka° dhamma°).

:: Adhipajjati [adhi + pajjati] to come to, reach, attain A IV 96 (anatthaṃ); past participle adhipanna.

:: Adhipaññā (feminine) [adhi + paññā] higher wisdom or knowledge, insight (cf. jhāna and paññā); usually in combination with adhicitta and adhisīla Vin I 70; D I 174; III 219 (°sikkhā); A I 240; II 92f., 239; III 106f., 327; IV 360; Nidd I 39 (the same); Paṭis I 20, 25f., 45f., 169; II 11, 244; Pp 61.


:: Adhipatati [adhi + patati] to fly past, vanish Ja IV 111 (= ativiya patati sīghaṃ atikkamati commentary). — causative adhipāteti (q.v.) in different meaning. Cf. also adhipāta.

:: Adhipatana (neuter) [from adhipatati] attack, pressing Thig-a 271.

:: Adhipati Adhipati (adjective/noun) [adhi + pati, cf. adhipa
1. ruler, master Ja IV 223; Vv 811; Miln 388; Dhp-a I 36 (= seṭṭha).
2. ruling over, governing, predominant; ruled or governed by Vibh 216f. (chandaṃ adhipatiṃ katvā making energy predominant); As 125, 126 (atta° autonomous, loka° heteronomous, influenced by society). See also BMPE 18 note 1, and Cpd. 60.

:: Adhipateyya (neuter) A I 147; III 33 = S IV 275 is probably misreading for ādhipateyya.
[DPL]: Influence, rule, supremacy. There are three adhipatteyyas or influences that induce men to follow virtue: Attādhipateyyaṃ, "the influence of self," that is, self-respect or pride; Lokādhipateyyaṃ, "the influence of the world,' that is, dread of censure, and Dhamm-ā-dhipateyyaḍṃ, "the influence of religion," or the love of virtue for its own sake (Man. B. 493). Dhp 362.]

:: Adhipatthita [past participle adhi + pattheti, cf. Sanskrit abhi + arthayati] desired, wished, begged for D I 120.

:: Adhipanna [cf. Sanskrit abhipanna, adhi + pad] gone into, affected with, seized by (—°), a victim of (with locative) S I 72, Thig 345 (kāmesu); Snp 1123 (taṇhā° = taṇhānugata Nidd II §32); Dhp 288; Ja III 38, 369; IV 396; V 91, 379 (= dosena ajjhotthaṭa); VI 27.

:: Adhipāṭimokkha (neuter) [adhi + pāṭimokkha] the higher, moral, code Vin V 1 (pāṭim° + a.); M II 245 (+ ajjhājīva).

:: Adhipāta1 [adhipāteti] splitting, breaking, only in phrase muddhā° head-splitting Snp 988f., 1004, 1025 (v.l. Nidd II °vipāta).

:: Adhipāta2 [from adhipatati = Sanskrit atipatati, to fly past, flit] a moth Snp 964; Ud 72 (explained by commentary as salabhā).

:: Adhipatikā (feminine) [from adhipāta2] a moth, a mosquito Snp 964.

:: Adhipāteti [causative from adhipatati, cf. Sanskrit abhipātayati and Pāli atipāteti] to break, split Ja IV 337 (= chindati). At Ud 8 probably to be read adhibādheti (v.l. avibādeti. Text adhipāteti).

:: Adhippagharati [adhi + ppa + gharati] to flow, to trickle Thig-a 284.

:: Adhippāgā 3 singular preterit of adhippagacchati to go to Ja V 59.

:: Adhippāya [adhi + ppa + i; Sanskrit abhiprāya
1. intention, wish desire S I 124; V 108; A II 81; III 363 (bhoga°); V 65; Ja I 79, 83; Saddh 62. As adjective (—°) desiring Pv-a 226 (hass° in play = khiḍḍatthika).
2. sense, meaning, conclusion, inference (cf. adhigama) Miln 148; Pv-a 8, 16, 48, 131 (the moral of a story). — adhippāyena (instrumental) in the way of, like Pv-a 215 (kīḷ for fun).

:: Adhippāyosa [adhi + pāyosa] distinction, difference, peculiarity, special meaning M I 46; S III 66; IV 208; A I 267; IV 158; V 48f.

:: Adhippeta [Sanskrit abhipreta, adhi + ppa + i, literally gone into, gone for; cf. adhippāya
1. desired, approved of, agreeable D I 120; II 236; Vv-a 312, 315. 2. meant, understood, intended as Ja III 263; Pv-a 9, 80, 120, 164.

:: Adhippetatta (neuter) [abstract from adhippeta] the fact of being meant or understood as, in ablative °ā with reference to, as is to be understood of Vv-a 13; Pv-a 52.

:: Adhibādheti [adhi + bādheti, cf. Sanskrit abhibādhayati] to vex, oppress, gore (to death) Ud 8 (Text adhipāteti, v.l. avibādeti).

:: Adhibrahmā [adhi + Brahmā, cf. atibrahmā] a superior Brahmā, higher than Brahmā M II 132.

:: Adhibhavati [adhi + bhavati, cf. Sanskrit and Pāli abhibhavati] to overcome, overpower, surpassiveS IV 185f. (cf. adhibhū); A V 248, 282 (°bhoti); Ja II 336; V 30. — preterit adhibhavi Ja II 80. 3. plural adhibhaṃsu S IV 185. See also ajjhabhavi and ajjhabhū past participle adhibhūta (q.v.).

:: Adhibhāsati [adhi + bhāsati] to address, to speak to; preterit ajjhabhāsi Vin II 195; S I 103; IV 117; Snp 87; Pv-a 56, 90.

:: Adhibhū (adjective) (—°) [from adhi + bhū, cf. adhibhavati and Sanskrit adhibhū] — overpowering, having power over; master conqueror, lord S IV 186 (anadhibhū not mastering. For adhibhūta the v.l. abhi° is to be preferred as more usual in this connection, see abhibhū); Snp 684 (miga°; v.l. abhi°).

:: Adhibhūta [cf. adhibhū] overpowered S IV 186.

:: Adhimatta (adjective) [adhi + matta of mā] extreme, exceeding, extraordinary; neuter adverb °ṃ extremely M I 152, 243; S IV 160; A II 150; IV 241; Ja I 92; Pp 15; Miln 146, 189, 274, 290; Pv II 36 (= adhikataraṃ Pv-a 86); Dhp-a II 85; cf. Pv-a 281.

:: Adhimattata (neuter) [abstract from preceding] preponderance A II 150; As 334 (cf. BMPE a84 note 1).

:: Adhimana (adjective/noun) [adhi + mano] (noun) attention, direction of mind, concentration Snp 692 (adhimanasā bhavātha). (adjective) directing one's mind upon, intent (on) Ja IV 433 (= pasanna-citta); V 29 (an°; v.l. °māna).

:: Adhimāna [adhi + māna] undue estimate of oneself M II 252; A V 162f.

:: Adhimānika (adjective) [from adhimāna] having undue confidence in oneself, conceited A V 162, 169, 317; Dhp-a III 111.

:: Adhimuccati [passive of adhi + muc
1. to be drawn to, feel attached to or inclined towards, to indulge in (with locative) S III 225; IV 185; A IV 24, 145f., 460; V 17; Pp 63.
2. to become settled, to make up one's mind as to (with locative), to become clear about Vin I 209 (preterit °mucci); D I 106; S I 116 (potential °mucceyya); It 43; Sv I 275.
3. to take courage, to have faith Snp 559; Miln 234; Sv I 214, 316; Ja IV 272; V 103; Dhp-a I 196; III 258; IV 170.
4. of a spirit, to possess, to enter into a body, with locative of the body. A late idiom for the older anvāvisati. Ja IV 172; V 103, 429; Dhp-a I 196; III 258; IV 170. past participle adhimuccita and adhimutta. — causative adhimoceti to incline to (transitive); to direct upon (with locative) S V 409 (cittaṃ devesu a.).

:: Adhimuccana (neuter) [from adhi + muc] making up one's mind, confidence As 133, 190.

:: Adhimuccita and Adhimucchita (past participle) [either adhi + muc or mūrch; it would seem more probable to connect it with the former (cf. adhimuccati) and consider all vv.ll. °mucchita as spurious; but in view of the credit of several passages we have to assume a regular analogy-form °mucchita, cf. mucchati and see also JPTS 1886, 109] drawn towards, attached to, infatuated, indulging in (with locative) M II 223 (an°); S I 113; Thag 732 (v.l. °muccita), 923 (-cch-), 1175; Ja II 437 (-cch-); III 242; V 255 (kāmesu °mucchita, v.l. °muccita). Cf. ajjhomucchita.

:: Adhimuccitar [agent noun of adhimuccati] one who is intent upon something, easily trusting, giving credence A III 165 (v.l. °mucchitā).

:: Adhimutta (adjective) [past participle of adhimuccati, cf. BHS adhimukta. Avadānaśataka I 8, 112; Divy 49, 302 etc.] intent upon (-° or with locative or accusative), applying oneself to, keen on, inclined to, given to Vin I 183; A V 34, 38; Dhp 226; Snp 1071, 1149 (°citta); Nidd II §33; Ja I 370 (dān°) Pp 26; Pv-a 134 (dān°).

:: Adhimutti (feminine) [adhi + mutti] resolve, intention, disposition D I 174; A V 36; Paṭis I 124; Miln 161, 169; Vibh 340, 341; Sv I 44, 103; Saddh 378.


:: Adhimuttika (adjective) [= adhimutta] inclined to, attached to, bent on S II 154, 158; It 70; Vibh 339f. + tā (feminine) inclination D I 2.


:: Adhimokkha [from adhi + muc] firm resolve, determination, decision M III 25f.; Vibh 165f., 425; As 145, 264. See BMPE 4 note 2; Cpd. 17, 40, 95.

:: Adhiyita see adhīyati.

:: Adhiroha [from adhi + ruh] ascent, ascending; in dur° hard to ascend Miln 322.

:: Adhivacana (neuter) [adhi + vacana] designation, term, attribute, metaphor, metaphorical expression D II 62; M I 113, 144, 460; A II 70, 124; III 310; IV 89, 285, 340; It 15, 114; Snp page 218; Ja I 117; Nidd II §34 = Dhs 1306 (= nāma saṅkhā paññatti etc.); Vibh 6; Pv-a 63. See on term BMPE 316 note 1.

-patha "process of synonymous nomenclature" (Mrs. Rh.D.) D II 68; S III 71; Dhs 1306; As 51.

:: Adhivattati [adhi + vattati] to come on, proceed, issue, result S I 101; A II 32.

:: Adhivattha (adjective) [past participle of adhivasati] inhabiting, living in (with locative) Vin I 28; S I 197; Ja I 223; II 385; III 327; Pv-a 17. The form adhivuttha occurs at Ja VI 370.

:: Adhivara (adjective) [adhi + vara] superb, excellent, surpassing Vv 163 (an° unsurpassed, unrivalled; Vv-a 80 = adhika, visiṭṭha).

:: Adhivasati Adhivasati [DPL]: To dwell in, to inhabit.

:: Adhivāsa [from adhi + vas] endurance, forbearance, holding out; only as adjective in dur° difficult to hold out Thag 111.

:: Adhivāsaka (and °ika) (adjective) [from adhivāsa] willing, agreeable, enduring, patient Vin IV 130; M I 10, 526; A II 118; III 163; V 132; Ja III 369 (an°); IV 11, 77.

:: Adhivāsana (nṭ.) [from adhi + vas] 1 assent A III 31; Dhp-a I 33.
2. forbearance, endurance M I 10; Ja II 237; III 263; IV 307; V 174.

:: Adhivāsanatā (feminine) [abstract from adhivāsana] patience, endurance, Dhs 1342; Vibh 360 (an°).

:: Adhivāseti [causative of adhivasati, cf. BHS adhivāsayati in meaning of 3
1. to wait for (with accusative) Ja I 254; II 352; III 277.
2. to have patience, bear, endure (with accusative) D II 128, 157; Ja I 46; III 281 (pahāre); IV 279, 407; V 51, 200; Vv-a 336, 337.
3. to consent, agree, give in Vin I 17; D I 109 (cf. Sv I 277); S IV 76; Dhp-a I 33; Pv-a 17, 20, 75 and passim. — causative adhivāsāpeti to cause to wait Ja I 254.

:: Adhivāha [from adhi + vah; cf. Sanskrit abhivahati] a carrier, bearer, adjective bringing S IV 70 (dukkha°); A I 6; Thag 494.

:: Adhivāhana (neuter-adjective) [from adhi + vah] carrying, bringing, bearing Snp 79; feminine °ī Thag 519.

:: Adhivimuttatta (neuter) = adhivimokkhatta and adhimutti, i.e. propensity, the fact of being inclined or given to Ja V 254 (Text kāmādhivimuttitā, v.l. °muttata).

:: Adhivimokkhatta (neuter) = adhimokkha; being inclined to As 261.

:: Adhivutti (feminine) [adhi + vutti, from adhi + vac, cf. Sanskrit abhivadati] expression, saying, opinion; only in technical term adhivuttipada (v.l. adhimutti-p. at all passages) D I 13 (explained by adhivacana-pada Sv I 103); M II 228; A V 36.

:: Adhivuttha see adhivattha.

:: Adhisayana (neuter-adjective) [from adhiseti] lying on or in, inhabiting Pv-a 80 (mañcaṃ).

:: Adhisayita [past participle of adhiseti] sat on, addled (of eggs) Vin III 3; S III 153.

:: Adhisīla Adhisīla (neuter) [adhi + sīla] higher morality, usually in threefold set of adhicitta-sikkha, adhipaññā° adhisïla° Vin I 70; D I 174; III 219; A III 133; IV 25; Dhp-a I 334; Pv-a 207. See also adhicitta, sikkhā and sīla.

:: Adhiseti [adhi + seti] to lie on, sit on, live in, to follow, pursue Dhp 41; Snp 671 (= gacchati commentary) — past participle adhisayita.
[DPL]: To lie down upon; to lie, to rest, to sleep; to inhabit. Present also adhisete. With acc. Paṭhavim adhisessati, adhisessati will lie upon the ground (Dh. 8)

:: Adhīna (adjective) (—°) [cf. Sanskrit adhīna] subject, dependent D I 72 (atta° and para°); Ja IV 112; Sv I 217; also written ādhīna Ja V 350. See also under para.

:: Adhīyati and adhiyati [Med. of adhi + i, 1st singular adhīye taken as base in Pāli] to study, literally to approach (cf. adhigacchati); to learn by heart (the Vedas and other Sacred Books) Vin I 270; S I 202 (dhammapadāni); Ja IV 184 (adhīyitvā), 496 (adhīyamāna); VI 458; Dhp-a III 446 (adhīyassu). — gerund adhīyitvā Ja IV 75; adhiyānaṃ Ja V 450 (= sajjhāyitvā commentary) and adhicca: see adhicca 2; past participle adhiyita D I 96.

:: Adhunā (adverb) [Vedic adhunā] just now, quite recently D II 208; Vin II 185 (kāḷakata); Miln 155; Dāṭh II 94.

-āgata a newcomer M I 457; Ja II 105;
-ābhisitta newly or just anointed D II 227;
-uppanna just arisen D II 208, 221.

:: Adhura (neuter) [a + dhura, see dhura 2] irresponsibility, indifference to oblihations Ja IV 241.

:: Adho (adverb) [Vedic adhaḥ; comparative adharaḥ = Latin inferus, Gothic undar, English under; = Latin infimus] below, usually combined. or contrasted with uddhaṃ "above" and tiriyaṃ "across", describing the 3 dimensions. — uddhaṃ and adho above and below, marking zenith and nadir. Thus with uddhaṃ and the 4 bearings (disā) and intermediate points (anudisā) at S I 122; III 124; A IV 167; with uddhaṃ and tiriyaṃ at Snp 150, 537, 1055, 1068. Explained at Pj I 248 by heṭṭhā and in detail (dogmatically and speculatively) at Nidd II §155. For further reference see uddhaṃ. The compound form of adho before vowels is adh°.

-akkhaka beneath the collar-bone Vin IV 213;
-agga with the points downward (of the upper row of teeth) Ja V 156 (+ uddh° explained by uparima-danta commentary);
-kata turned down, or upside down Ja I 20; VI 298;
-gata gone by, past. Adverb °ṃ since (cf. uddhaṃ adverb later or after) Ja VI 187 (ito māsaṃ adhogataṃ since one month ago);
-gala (so read for Text udho°) down the throat Pv-a 104;
-mukha head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned Vin II 78; M I 132, 234: Vv 161 (= heṭṭhā mukha Vv-a 78);
-bhāga the lower part (of the body) M I 473; Dhp-a I 148;
-virecana action of a purgative (opposite uddha° of an emetic) D I 12; Sv I 98 (= adho dosānaṃ nīharaṇaṃ); As 404;
-sākhaṃ (+ uddhamūlaṃ) branches down (and roots up, i.e. uprooted) Dhp-a I 75;
-sira (adjective) head downward Ja IV 194;
-siraṃ (adverb) with bowed head (cf. avaṃsiraṃ) Ja VI 298 (= siraṃ adhokatvā heṭṭhāmukho commentary);
-sīsa (adjective) head first, headlong Ja I 233; V 472 (°ka).

:: An- form of the negative prefix a-before vowels. For negatives beginning with an° see the positive.

:: Ana- negative prefix, contained in anappameyya, (Thag, 1089), anamatagga and anabhava. See Vinaya Texts II 113.

:: Anajjhiṭṭha (adjective) [an + ajjhiṭṭha] uncalled, unbidden, unasked Vin I 113; Pv I 123 (Text anabbhita, v.l. anijjhiṭṭha; Ja III 165 has anavhāta; Thig 129 ayācita; Pv-a 64 explains by anavhāta).

:: Anaṭi [an, Vedic aniti and anati] to breathe Pj I 124 (in definition of bāla); Sv I 244 (read "ananti" for "aṇanti"). Cf. pāṇa.

:: Anabbhita (adjective) [an + abbhita] not restored, not to be restored Vin IV 242; Pv I 123 (where reading probably faulty and due to a gloss; the same passage at Thig 129 has ayācita and at Ja III 165 anavhāta; Pv-a 64 explains by anavhāta, v.l. anabbhita).

:: Anabhuṇṇatatā (feminine) [an + abbhuṇṇata + tā] the state of not being erect, i.e. hanging down Ja V 156.

:: Anabhāva [ana + bhāva] the utter cessation of becoming. In the oldest Pāli only in adjective form anabhāvaṃ kata or gata. This again found only in a string of four adjectives together expressing the most utter destruction. They are used at Vin III 3 of bad qualities, at S II 63 of certain wrong opinions, at M I 487; S IV 62 = V 527 of the khandas, at M I 331 of the mental Intoxications (āsavas), at A IV 73 of certain tastes, of a bad kamma A I 135, of evil passions A I 137, 184, 218; II 214 of pride A II 41, {31} of craving A II 249, of the bonds A IV 8. In the supplement to the Dīgha (D III 326) and in It 115, a later idiom, anabhāvaṃ gameti, cause to perish, is used of evil thoughts. Buddhaghosa (Sp I 133) reports as v.l. anubhāva. Cf. Nidd I 90; and Nidd II sub voce pahīna.


:: Anabhijjhā (feminine) [an + abhijjhā] absence of covetousness or desire D III 229, 269; Dhs 32, 35, 277.

:: Anabhijjhālū (adjective) [an + abhijjhālū] not greedy or covetous D III 82; Pp 40.

:: Anabhijjhita (adjective) [an + abhijjhita] not desired Snp 40 (cf. Nidd II §38); Vv 474 (= na abhikaṅkhita Vv-a 201).

:: Anabhinandati etc. see abhi° etc.

:: Anabhirata (adjective) [an + abhirata] not taking delight in Ja I 61 (naccādisu).

:: Anabhirati (feminine) [an + abhirati] not delighting in, dissatisfaction, discontent D I 17 (+ paritassanā); III 289; Ja III 395; Sv I 111.

:: Anabhiraddha (adjective) [an + abhiraddha] in anger Vin IV 236.

:: Anabhiraddhi (feminine) [an + abhiraddhi] anger, wrath D I 3 (= kopassiveetaṃ adhivacanaṃ Sv I 52).

:: Anabhisambhuṇamāna (adjective) [present participle medium of an + abhisambhuṇāti] not obtaining, unable to get or keep up D I 101 (= asampāpuṇanto avisahamāno vā Sv I 268).

:: Anamatagga (adjective) [ana (= a negative) + mata (from man) + aggā (plural). So Dhammapāla (aviditagga Thig-a 289); Nāṇakitti in tīkā on As 11; Trenckner, "Notes" 64; Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts II 114. Childers takes it as an + amata + agga, and Jacobi (Erzähl. 33 and 89) and Pischel (Gram. §251) as a + namat (from nam) + agga. It is Sanskritized at Divy 197 by anavarāgra, doubtless by some mistake. Weber, Ind. Str. III 150 suggests an + āmr̥ta, which does not suit the context at all]. Especially of saṃsāra "whose beginning and end are alike unthinkable", i.e., without beginning or end. Found in two passages of the canon: S II 178, 187f. = III 149, 151 = V 226, 441 (quoted Kv 29, called Anamatagga-pariyāya at Dhp-a II 268) and Thig 495-96. Later references are Nidd II §664; Pv-a 166; Dhp-a I 11; II 13, 32; Saddh 505. [Cp. anāmata and amatagga, and cf. the English idiom "world without end". The meaning can best be seen, not from the derivation (which is uncertain), but from the examples quoted above from the Saṃyutta. According to the Yoga, on the contrary (see e.g., Woods, Yoga-system of Patañjali, 119), it is a possible, and indeed a necessary quality of the Yogī, to understand the beginning and end of saṃsāra].

:: Anamha (adjective) [according to Morris JPTS 1884, 70 = ana-mha "unlaughing" with ana = an (cf. anabhāva and anamatagga) and mha from smi, cf. vimhayati = Sanskrit vismayati] being in consternation or distress, crying Ja III 223 (°kāle = ārodana-kāle commentary).

:: Anaya [a + naya] misfortune, distress Miln 277, usually combined with vyasana (as also in BHS e.g. Jm 215) Vin II 199; S IV 159; A V 156; Miln 292; Vv-a 327; Saddh 362.

:: Anariya (adjective) [an + ariya, see also anāriya] not Aryan, ignoble, low Vin I 10; D III 232 (°vohāra, 3 sets of 4; the same at Vin V 125); Snp 664, 782 (°dhamma); Pp 13. — See ariya.

:: Anala (adjective) [an + ala
1. not sufficient, not enough; unable, impossible, unmanageable M I 455; Ja II 326 = IV 471.
2. dissatisfied, insatiated Ja V 63 (= atitta commentary).
3. °ṃ kata dissatisfied, satiated, S I 15 (kāmesu).

:: Anavaya (adjective) [derivation doubtful. See Trenckner Pāli Misc. 65] not lacking, complete in (locative), fulfilling D I 88 (= anūna paripūra-kārin Sv I 248); A III 152 (= samatta paripuṇṇa Mp quoted by Trenckner on Miln 10).

:: Anavosita (adjective) [an + avosita; or ana + avosita = avusita°] unfulfilled, undone Thag 101.

:: Anasana (neuter) [an + asana, cf. Sanskrit an-aśana] not eating, fasting, hunger D III 75 and in same context at Snp 311 (= khudā Pj II 324).

:: Anasitvāna [gerund of an + aśati] without eating, fasting Ja IV 371.

:: Anasuyyaṃ [Sanskrit anasūyan, present participle of an + asūyati] not grumbling Ja III 27 (v.l. for anusuyyaṃ Text).

:: Anasuropa [an + asuropa] absence of abruptness Dhs 1341.

:: Anasūyaka (adjective) [Sanskrit anasūyaka, cf. usūya] not grumbling, not envious Ja II 192.

:: Anassaka (adjective) either an-assaka or a-nassaka (q.v.).

:: Anassana (neuter) [a + nassana, naś; cf. Sanskrit naśana] imperishableness, freedom from waste Ja IV 168.

:: Anassāvin (adjective) [an + assāvin; cf. assāva + āsava] not intoxicated, not enjoying or finding pleasure in Snp 853 (sātiyesu a. = sātavatthusa kāmaguṇesu taṇha-santhava-virahita Pj II 549).

:: Anassāsika (adjective) [an + assāsa + ika; cf. Sanskrit āśvāsana and BHS anāśvāsika Divy 207] not consoling, discouraging, not comforting M I 514; S II 191.

:: Anassuṃ 1st sq, preterit of anusūyati (= Sanskrit anvaśruvaṃ) I have heard M I 393.

:: Anāgata (adjective) [an + āgata] not come yet, i.e. future. On usual combination with atīta: see sub voce D III 100f., 134f., 220, 275; M III 188f.; S I 5; II 283; A III 100f., 400; Snp 318, 373, 851; It 53; Ja IV 159; VI 364; Dhs 1039, 1416.

:: Anāgamana (neuter) [an + āgamana] not coming, not returning Ja I 203, 264.

:: Anāgāmitā (feminine) [Anāgāmin + tā] the state or condition of an Anāgāmin S V 129, 181, 285; A III 82; V 108, 300f.; Snp 140 = A III 143; It 1f., 39, 40.

:: Anāgāmin (adjective/noun) [an + āgāmin] one who does not return, a Never-Returner, as technical term designating one who has attained the 3rd stage out of four in the breaking of the bonds (saṃyojanas) which keep a man back from Arahantship. So near is the Anāgāmin to the goal, that after death he will be reborn in one of the highest heaven and there obtain Arahantship, never returning to rebirth as a man. But in the oldest passages referring to these 4 stages, the description of the third does not use the word Anāgāmin (D I 156; II 92; III 107; M II 146) and Anāgāmin does not mean the breaking of bonds, but the cultivation of certain specified good mental habits (S III 168, the anatta doctrine; S V 200-202, the five indriyas; A I 64, 120, cultivation of good qualities, II 160; V 86, 171 = S 149). We have only two cases in the canon of any living persons being called Anāgāmin. Those are at S V 177 and 178. The word there means one who has broken the lower five of the ten bonds, and the individuals named are laymen. At D II 92 nine others, of {32} whom eight are laymen, are declared after their death to have reached the third stage (as above) during life, but they are not called Anāgāmins. At It 96 there are only 3 stages, the worldling, the Anāgāmin, and the Arahant; and the saṃyojanas are not referred to. It is probable that already in the Nikāya period the older, wider meaning was falling into disuse. The Abhidhamma books seem to refer only to the saṃyojana explanation; the commentaries, so far as we know them, ignore any other. See Paṭis II 194; PtsC. 74; BMPE 278 note 1; Cpd 69.

-phala fruition of the state of an Anāgāmin; always in combination Sotāpatti° Sakadāgāmi° Anāgāmi° Arahatta° Vin I 293; II 240; IV 29; D I 229; II 227, 255; S III 168; V 411; A I 23, 44; III 272f.; IV 204, 276, 372 sq;
-magga the path of one who does not return (in rebirths) Nidd II §569 b.

:: Anāgāra and Anāgāriyā seeagāra and agāriā

:: Anāghāta [an + āghāta] freedom from anger or ill-will Vin II 249.

:: Anācāra [an + ācāra] misconduct, immorality Ja II 133; III 276; adjective anācārin Pp 57.

:: Anājāniya (adjective) [an + ājāniya] of inferior race, not of good blood M I 367.

:: Anādara [an + ādara] (a) (masculine) disrespect Pv-a 257. — (b.) (adjective) disrespectful Snp 247 (= ādaravirahita Pj II 290).

:: Anādaratā (feminine) [abstract from anādara] want of consideration, in explanation of dovacassatā at Dhs 1325 = Vibh 359 = Pp 30 (where reading is anādariyatā).

:: Anādariya (neuter) [from anādara] disregard, disrespect Vin I 176; IV 113 (where explained in extenso); Dhs 1325 = Pp 20 = Vibh 359.


:: Anādā [gerund of an + ādiyati] without taking up or on to oneself Vin IV 120 (= anādiyitvā commentary).

:: Anādāna (adjective) [an + ādāna] free from attachment (opposite sādāna) A II 10 = It 9 = 109 = Nidd II §172 a; Snp 620, 741, 1094; Nidd II §41 (where as neuter = taṇha); Dhp 352 (= khandhādisu niggahaṇa Dhp-a IV 70), 396, 406, 421.

:: Anāditvā [gerund of an + ādiyati] not taking up, not heeding Ja IV 352 (v.l. for Text anādiyitvā).

:: Anādiyitvā [gerund of an + ādiyati, Sanskrit anādāya] without assuming or taking up, not heeding Vin IV 120; Ja IV 352; Dhp-a I 41. See also ādiyati.

:: Anānu- represents the metrically lengthened form of ananu- (an + anu), as found e.g. in the following compounds: °tappaṃ (present participle) not regretting Ja V 492; °puṭṭha questioned Snp 782 (= apucchita Pj II 521); °yāyin not following or not defiled by evil Snp 1071 (explained at Nidd II §42 by both avedhamāna (?) avigacchamāna and by arajjamāna adussamāna); °loma not fit or suitable D II 273 (v.l. anu°).

:: Anāpāthagata (adjective) [an + āpātha + gata] not fallen into the way of (the hunter), escaped him M I 174.

:: Anāpāda (adjective) [an + āpāda] unmarried (of a woman) Ja IV 178 (āpāda = apādāna commentary; aññehi akata-pariggahā).

:: Anāpucchā see āpucchati.

:: Anābādha (adjective) [an + ābādha] safe and sound Vv-a 351.

:: Anāmata (adjective) [an + amata the ā being due to metrical lengthening] not affected by death, immortal Ja II 56 (= asusāna-ṭṭhāna commentary); Dhp-a II 99.

:: Anāmanta (°-) [an + āmanta] without asking or being asked; in °kata unasked, unpermitted, uninvited Ja VI 226; °cāra living uninvited Vin V 132; A III 259.

:: Anāmaya (adjective) [an + āmaya] free from illness, not decaying, healthy Vv 1510 (= aroga Vv-a 74), 177.

:: Anāmasita (adjective) [an + āmasita, past participle of āmasati] not touched, virgin- Vv-a 113 (°khetta).

:: Anāmassa (adjective) [gerund of an + āmassati, Sanskrit āmaśya] not to be touched Ja II 360 (commentary anāmāsitabba).

:: Anāyatana (neuter) [an + āyatana] non-exertion, not exerting oneself, sluggishness, indolence Ja V 121 (°sīla = dussīla commentary).

:: Anāyasa (adjective) [an + āya + sa, or should we read anāyāsa°] void of means, unlucky, unfortunate Vv 845 (= n'atthi ettha āyo sukhan ti anāyasaṃ Vv-a 335). [BD]: without influence

:: Anāyāsa (adjective) [an + āyāsa] free from trouble or sorrow, peaceful Thag 1008.

Moil: hard work; drudgery

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

:: Anārambha [an + ārambha] that which is without moil and toil Snp 745 (= Nibbāna Pj II 507).

:: Anārādhaka (adjective) [an + ārādhaka] one who fails, unsuccessful Vin I 70.

:: Anāriya (adjective) [doublet of anariya] not Aryan, ignoble, Snp 815 (v.l. anariya).

:: Anālamba (adjective) [an + ālamba] without support (from above), unsuspended, not held Snp 173 (+ appatiṭṭha; explained at Pj II 214 by heṭṭhā patiṭṭha-bhāvena upari ālambhāvena ca gambhīra).

:: Anālaya [an + ālaya] aversion, doing away with Vin I 10 (taṇhāya).

:: Anāḷhiya and Anāḷhika (adjective) [an + āḷhiya, Sanskrit āḍhya, see also addha] — not rich, poor, miserable, destitute, usually combined with daḷidda M I 450; II 178 (v.l. anāḷiya); A III 352f. (vv.ll. anāḷhika), 384; Ja V 96.

:: Anāvaṭa (°-) [an + āvaṭa] not shut; in °dvāratā (feminine) not closing the door against another, accessibility, open-handedness D III 191.

:: Anāvattin (adjective/noun) [an + āvattin] one who does not return, almost synonymous with Anāgāmin in phrase anāvatti-dhamma, one who is not destined to shift or return from one birth to another, D I 156 (cf. Sv I 313); III 132; Pp 16f., 62.

:: Anāvasūraṃ (adverb) [an + ava + sūra = suriya, with ava lengthened to āva in verse] as long as the sun does not set, before sun-down Ja V 56 (= anatthaṅgata-suriyaṃ commentary) cf. Sanskrit utsūra.

:: Anāvāsa (adjective/noun) [an + āvāsa] uninhabited, an uninhabited place Vin II 22, 33; Ja II 77.

:: Anāvikata etc. see āvikata.

:: Anāvila (adjective) [an + āvila] undisturbed, unstained, clean, pure D I 84 (= nikkaddama Sv I 226); III 269, 270; Snp 637 (= nikkilesa Pj II 469 = Dhp-a IV 192); Thig 369 (āvilacitta + a.); Dhp 82, 413; Thig-a 251; Saddh 479.

:: Anāvuttha (adjective) [an + āvuttha, past participle of āvasati] not dwelt in D II 50.

:: Anāsaka (adjective) [an + āsaka] fasting, not taking food S IV 118. feminine °ā [cf. Sanskrit anāśaka neuter] fasting, abstaining from food Dhp 141 (= bhatta-paṭikkhepa Dhp-a III 77).

:: Anāsakatta (neuter) [abstract of anāsaka] fasting Snp 249 (= abhojana Pj II 292).

:: Anāsava (adjective) [an + āsava] free from the 4 intoxications (see āsava) Vin II 148 = 164; D III 112; Snp 1105, 1133; Dhp 94, 126, 386; Nidd II §44; It 75; Pp 27, Dhs 1101, 1451; Vibh 426; Thag 100; Pv II 615; Vv-a 9. See āsava and cf. nirāsava.


:: Anāsasāna (adjective) [an + āsasāna] not longing after anything Snp 369 (Pj II 365 however reads anāsayāna and has anāsasāna as v.l. Cf. also vv.ll. to āsasāna. Explained by kañci rūpadi-dhammaṃ nāsiṃsati Pj II 365.

:: Anāhāra (adjective) [an + āhāra] being without food M I 487; Snp 985.

:: Anikkaḍḍhanā (feminine) [a + nikkaḍḍhanā] not throwing out or expelling Ja III 22.

:: Anikkasāva (adjective) [a + nikkasāva, cf. nikasāva] not free from impurity, impure, stained Dhp 9 = Thag 969 = Ja II 198 = V 50; Dhp-a I 82 (= rāgadīhi kasāvehi sakasāva).

:: Anikhāta (adjective) [a + nikhāta, past participle of nikhanati] not dug into, not dug down, not deep Ja VI 109 (°kūla; commentary agambhīrā).

:: Anigha see nigha1 and īgha.

:: Anicchā (feminine) [an + icchā] dispassion S V 6; adjective °a without desires, not desiring Snp 707.

:: Aniñjana (neuter) [an + iñjana] immobility, steadfastness Paṭis I 15.

:: Aniñjita (adjective) [an + iñjita] immoveable, undisturbed, unshaken Thag 386.

:: Aniṭṭhaṅgata see niṭṭhā2.

:: Aniṭṭhita see niṭṭhita.

:: Anitthi (feminine) [an + itthi] a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, a woman ceasingto be a woman, "non-woman" Ja II 126 (compared with anadī a river without water; interpreted by ucchiṭṭhitthi).

:: Anindi- [the compound form of nindā] in °locana (with) faultless eyes Ja VI 265.

:: Anindita (adjective) [a + nindita] blameless, faultless Ja IV 106 (°aṅgin of blameless body or limbs).

:: Anibbisaṃ [present participle of nibbisati, q.v.] not finding Thag 78 = Dhp 153 (= taṃ ñāṇaṃ avindanto Dhp-a III 128).

:: Animisa (adjective) [Vedic animeṣa, cf. nimisati] not winking, waking, watchful Dāṭh V 26 (nayana).

:: Aniyata (adjective) [a + niyata] not settled, uncertain, doubtful Vin I 112; II 287; D III 217.

:: Aniyamita (adjective) [past participle of a + niyameti] indefinite (as technical term gramatical) Vv-a 231.

:: Anirākata (adjective) [a + nirākata] see niraṅkaroti.

:: Anila [from an, cf. Sanskrit aniti to breathe, cf. Greek ἄνεμος wind; Latin animus breath, soul, mind] wind Ja IV 119 (°patha air, sky); Miln 181; Vv-a 237; Saddh 594.

:: Anissara (adjective) [an + issara] without a personal creator Thag 713.

:: Anissukin (adjective) [an + issukin, see also an-ussukin] not hard, not greedy, generous D III 47 (+ amaccharin; v.l. anussukin); Pj II 569 (see under niṭṭhurin).


:: Anīka (neuter) [Vedic anīka face, front, army to Indo-Germanic °og° (see), cf. Greek ὄμμα eye, Latin oculus, see also Sanskrit pratīka and Pāli akkhi] army, array, troops (original "front", i.e. of the battle-array) Vin IV 107 (where explained in detail); Snp 623 (bala° strong in arms, with strong array i.e. of khanti, which precedes; cf. Pj II 467).

-agga a splendid army Snp 421 (= balakāya senāmukha Pj II 384);
-ṭṭha a sentinel, royal guard D III 64, 148; Ja V 100; VI 15 ("men on horseback", horse-guard); Miln 234, 264;
-dassana troop-inspection D I 6 (aṇīka° at Sv I 85, q.v. interpretation); Vin IV 107 (senābyūha + a.).

:: Anīgha see nigha1 and cf. īgha.

:: Anīti (feminine) [an + īti] safety, soundness, sound condition, health A IV 238; Miln 323 (ablative °ito).

:: Anītika (adjective) [from anīti] free from injury or harm, healthy, secure Vin II 79 = 124 (+ anupaddava); III 162; S IV 371; Snp 1137 (ītī vuccanti kilesā etc. Nidd II 48); Miln 304.

:: Anītiha (adjective) [an + ītīha, the latter a compound derived from iti + ha = saying so and so, cf. itihāsa and itihītihaṃ] not such and such, not based on hearsay (itiha), not guesswork or (mere) talk A II 26; Thag 331 (cf. M I 520); Snp 1053 (= Nidd II §§49, 151); Ja I 456; Nett 166 (cf. It 28).

:: Anu1 Anu (indeclinable) [Vedic anu, Avesta anu; Greek ἄνω to ἄνα along, up; Avesta ana, Gothic ana, Old High German ana, Anglo-Saxon on, German an, Latin an (in anhelare etc.)] preposition and prefix
A. As preposition anu is only found occasionally, and here its old (vedic) function with accusative is superseded by the locative
(a) Traces of use with accusative may be seen in expressions of time like anu pañcāhaṃ by 5 days, i.e. after (every) 5 days (cf. Vedic anu dyūn day by day); a. vassaṃ for one year or yearly;
a. saṃvaccharaṃ the same
(b) More frequent with locative (= alongside, with, by) a. tīre by the bank S IV 177; pathe by the way Ja V 302; pariveṇiyaṃ in every cell Vin I 80; magge along the road Ja V 201; vāte with the wind Ja II 382.
B. As prefix:
(a) General character. anu is frequent as modifying (directional) element with well-defined meaning ("along"), as such also as 1st component of prefix-compounds, e.g. anu + ā (anvā°), anu + pra (anuppa°), + pari, + vi, + saṃ. — As base, i.e. 2nd part of a prefix-compound it is rare and only found in combination sam-anu°. The prefix saṃ is its nearest relation as modifying prefix. The opposite of anu is paṭi and both are often found in one compound (cf. °loma, °vāta).
(b) Meanings.
I. With verbs of motion: "along towards".
(a) the motion viewed from the front backward = after, behind; especially with verbs denoting to go, follow etc. E.g. °aya going after, connection; °āgacch° follow, °kkamati follow, °dhāvati run after, °patta received, °parivattati move about after, °bandhati run after, °bala rear-guard, °bhāsati speak after, repeat, °vāda speaking after, blame, °vicarati roam about °viloketi look round after (survey), °saṃcarati proceed around etc.
(b) the motion viewed from the back forward = for, towards an aim, onto, over to, forward. Especially in double prefix-compounds (especially with °ppa°), e.g. anu-ādisati design for, dedicate °kaṅkhin longing for, °cintana care for, °tiṭṭhati look after, °padinna given over to, °pavecchati hand over, °paviṭṭha entered into, °pasaṃkamati go up to, °rodati cry for, °socati mourn for.
II. With verbs denoting a state or condition:
(a) literal: along, at, to, combined with. Often resembling English be- or German be-, also Latin ad- and con-. Thus often transitiving or simply emphatic. E.g. °kampā com-passion, °kiṇṇa be-set, °gaṇhāti take pity on, °gāyati be-singen, °jagghati laugh at, belaugh, °ddaya pity with, °masati touch at, °yuñjati order along, °yoga devotion to, °rakkhati be-guard, °litta be-smeared or an-ointed, °vitakketi reflect over, °sara con-sequential; etc.
(b) applied: according to, in conformity with. E.g. °kūla being to will, °chavika befitting, °ñāta permitted, al-lowed, °mati con-sent, a-greement, °madati ap-preciate, °rūpa = con-form, °vattin acting according to, °ssavana by hearsay, °sāsati ad-vise, com-mand etc.
(a) (figurative) following after = second to, secondary, supplementary, inferior, minor, after, smaller; e.g. °dhamma lesser morality, °pabbajā discipleship, °pavattaka ruling after, °bhāga after-share, °majjha mediocre, °yāgin assisting in sacrifice, °vyañjana smaller marks, etc.; cf. paṭi in same sense.
(b) distributive (cf. A. a.) each, every, one by one, (one after one): °disā in each direction, °pañcāhaṃ every 5 days, °pubba one after the other.
IV. As one of the contrasting (-comparative) prefixes (see remarks on ati and cf. ā3) anu often occurs in reduplicative compounds after the style of khuddānukhuddaka "small and still smaller", i.e. all sorts of {34} small items or whatever is small or insignificant. More frequent combinations are the following: (q.v. under each heading) padānupadaṃ, pubbānupubbaka, poṅhānupoṅkhaṃ, Buddhānubuddha, vādānuvāda, seṭṭhānuseṭṭhi.
V. As regards dialectical differences in meanings of prefixes, anu is frequently found in Pāli where the Sanskrit variant presents apa (for ava), abhi or ava. For Pāli anu = Sanskrit (Vedic) apa see anuddhasta; = Sanskrit abhi see anu-gijjhati, °brūheti, °sandahati; = Sanskrit ava see anu-kantati, °kassati2, °kiṇṇa, °gāhati, °bujjhati °bodha, °lokin, °vajja.
Note (a) anu in compounds is always contracted to °ānu°, never elided like adhi = °dhi or abhi = °bhi. The rigid character of this rule accounts for forms isolated out of this sort of epds. (like maha-nubhāva), like ānupubbikathā (from °pubbānupubba°), ānubhāva etc. We find ānu also in combination with an- under the influence of metre. — (b) the assimilation (contracted) form of anu before vowels is anv°.

:: Anu2 (adjective) subtile; frequent spelling for aṇu, e.g. D I 223 Saddh 271, 346 (anuṃ thūlaṃ). See aṇu.

:: Anukaṅkhin (adjective) [from anu + kāṅkṣ] striving after, longing for Ja V 499 (piya°).

:: Anukantati [anu + kantati2] to cut Dhp 311 (hatthaṃ = phāleti Dhp-a III 484).

:: Anukampaka and °ika (adjective) [from anukampati] kind of heart, merciful, compassionate, full of pity (-° or with locative) D III 187; S I 105 (loka°), 197; V 157; A IV 265f.; It 66 (sabba-bhūta°); Pv I 33 (= kāruṅika Pv-a 16), 53 (= atthakāma, hitesin Pv-a 25), 88; II 14 (= anuggaṇhataka Pv-a 69), 27; Thig-a 174; Pv-a 196 (satthā sattesu a.).

:: Anukampati [anu + kampati] to have pity on, to commiserate, to pity, to sympathise with (with accusative) S I 82, 206; V 189. Imperative anukampa Pv II 16 (= anuddayaṃ karohi Pv-a 70) and anukampassive Pv III 28 (= anuggaṇha Pv-a 181). Medium present participle anukampamāna Snp 37 (= anupekkhamāna anugayhamāna Nidd II §50); Pv-a 35 (taṃ), 62 (pitaraṃ), 104. — past participle anukampita (q.v.).

:: Anukampana (neuter) [from last] compassion, pity Pv-a 16, 88.

:: Anukampā (feminine) [abstract from anukampati] compassion, pity, mercy D I 204; M I 161; II 113; S I 206; II 274 (loka°); IV 323; V 259f.; A I 64, 92; II 159; III 49; IV 139; Pp 35. — Often in ablative anukampāya out of pity, for the sake of D III 211 (loka° out of compassion for all mankind, + atthaya hitāya); Ja III 280; Pv-a 47, 147.

:: Anukampita (adjective) [past participle of anukampati] compassioned, gratified, remembered, having done a good deed (of mercy) Pv III 230.

:: Anukampin (adjective) [cf. anukampaka] compassionate, anxious for, commiserating. Only in following phrases: hita° full of solicitude for the welfare of S.V. 86; Snp 693; Pv III 76. sabbapāṇa-bhūta-hita° the same S IV 314; A II 210; III 92; IV 249; Pp 57, 68. sabba-bhūta° S I 25, 110; A II 9; It 102.

:: Anukaroti [anu + kr̥̥] to imitate, "to do after" A I 212; Ja I 491; II 162; Dhp-a IV 197. — present participle anukubbaṃ Vin II 201 (mama-°). — Medium anukubbati S I 19 = Ja IV 65. See also anukubba. On anvakāsi see anukassati 2.

:: Anukassati [anu + kassati, kr̥ṣ
1. [Sanskrit anukar̥ṣati] to draw after, to repeat, recite, quote D II 255 (silokaṃ).
2. [Sanskrit ava-kar̥ṣati] to draw or take of, to remove, throw down, Thag 869 (preterit anvakāsi = khipi, chaḍḍesi commentary).

:: Anukāma (adjective) [anu + kāma] responding to love, loving in return Ja II 157.


:: Anukāra [cf. anukaroti] imitation Dīp V 39.

:: Anukārin (adjective) imitating Dāṭh V 32.

:: Anukiṇṇa [past participle of anu + kirati] strewn with, beset with, dotted all over Pv IV 121 (bhamara-gaṇa°).

:: Anukubba (adjective) (—°) [= Sanskrit anukurvat, present participle of anukaroti] "doing correspondingly" giving back, retaliating Ja II 205 (kicca°).

:: Anukubbati see anukaroti.

:: Anukula frequent spelling for anukūla.

:: Anukulaka (adjective) = anukula Saddh 242 (iccha° according to wish).

:: Anukūla (adjective) [anu + kūla, opposite paṭikūla] favourable, agreeable, suitable, pleasant Vv-a 280; spelt anukula at Saddh 297, 312.

-bhava complaisance, willingness Vv-a 71;
-yañña a propitiative sacrifice D I 144 (explained at Sv I 302 as anukula° = sacrifice for the propagation of the clan).

:: Anukkaṇṭhati [an + ukkaṇṭhati] not to be sorry or not to lack anything, in present participle °anto Ja V 10; and past participle °ita without regret or in plenty Pv-a 13.

:: Anukkaṇṭhana (neuter) [an + ukkaṇṭhana] having no lack of anything, being contented or happy Ja VI 4.

:: Anukkama [to anukkamati 1. order, turn, succession, going along; only in instrumental anukkamena gradually, in due course or succession Ja I 157, 262, 290; Vv-a 157; Pv-a 5, 14, 35 etc. 2. that which keeps an animal in (regular) step, i.e. a bridle M I 446; Snp 622 (sandānaṃ saha°).

:: Anukkamati [anu + kram 1. to follow, go along (a path = accusative) A V 195; It 80 (maggaṃ). 2. to advance (not with Morris JPTS 1886, 111 as "abandon") S I 24, Thag 194.

:: Anukkhipati [anu + khipati] to throw out Co III 6 (vaṭṭaṃ).

:: Anukkhepa [anu + khepa, see anukkhipati] compensation Vin I 285.

:: Anukhaṇati [anu + khaṇati] to dig after or further Ja V 233.

:: Anukhuddaka (adjective) [anu + khuddaka] in compound khudda° whatever there is of minor things, all less important items Vin II 287 = D II 154 = Miln 142; Miln 144.

:: Anuga (—°) (adjective-suffix) [from anu + gam] following or followed by, going after, undergoing, being in or under, standing under the influence of Snp 332 (vasa° in the power of), 791 (ejā° = abhibhūta Snp 527), 1095 (Māra-vasa° = abhibhuyya viharanti Nidd II §507); It 91 (ejā°); Ja III 224 (vasa° = vasavattin commentary); Mhv 7, 3.

:: Anugacchati Anugacchati [anu + gacchati] to go after, to follow, to go or fall into (with accusative) Pj I 223; Pv-a 141 (°gacchanto); preterit °gamāsi Vin I 16, and anvagā Mhv 7, 10; 3rd plural anvagū Snp 586 (vasaṃ = vasaṃ gata Pj II 461). passive anugammati, present participle anugammamāna accompanied or followed by, surrounded, adorned with Ja I 53; V 370. past participle anugata (q.v.).

:: Anugata (adjective) [past participle of anugacchati] gone after, accompanied by, come to; following; figurative fallen or gone into, affected with (—°), being a victim of, suffering M I 16; D III 85, 173 (parisā); A II 185 (sota°, v.l. anudhata); Ja II 292 (samudda°); V 369; Nidd II §32 (taṇhā°); Pv-a 102 (nāmaṃ mayhaṃ mayhaṃ a. has been given to me), 133 (kammaphala°).

:: Anugati (feminine) (—°) [from anu + gam] following, being in the train of, falling under, adherence to, dependence on S I 104 (vas° being in the power). Usually in compound diṭṭhānugati a sign (literal belonging to) of speculation Vin II 108; S II 203; Pp 33; Dhp-a IV 39.


:: Anugama [from anu + gam] following after, only as adjective in dur° difficult to be followed Ja IV 65.

:: Anugāmika (adjective) going along with, following, accompanying; resulting from, consequential on Khp VIII 8 (nidhi, a treasure accusative a man to the next world); Ja IV 280 (°nidhi); Miln 159 (parisā); Pv-a 132, 253 (dānaṃ nāma °aṃ nidānan ti).

:: Anugāmin (adjective) [from anugacchati] following, attending on; an attendant, follower Pj II 453 (= anuyutta).

:: Anugāyati [anu + gāyati] to sing after or to, recite (a magic formula or hymn) praise, celebrate D I 104, 238; Snp 1131 (anugāyissaṃ); Miln 120.

:: Anugāhati [anu + gāhati] to plunge into, to enter (accusative) Saddh 611.

:: Anugijjhati [anu + gijjhati] to be greedy after, to covet Snp 769 (cf. Nidd I 12); Ja III 207; IV 4 (= giddhā gathitā hutvā allīyanti commentary). past participle °giddhā (q.v.). Cf. abhigijjhati.

:: Anugiddha [past participle of anugijjhati] greedy after, hankering after, desiring, coveting Snp 86 (anānu°), 144, 952; Thag 580.

:: Anuggaṇha (adjective) [cf. anuggaha] compassionate, ready to help Pv-a 42 °sīla.

:: Anuggaṇhataka (adjective) [= anuggaṇha] compassionate, commiserating, helping Pv-a 69 (= anukampaka).

:: Anuggaṇhana (neuter) anuggaha1 As 403.

:: Anu(g)gaṇhāti [anu + gaṇhāti] to have pity on, to feel sorry for, to help, give protection D I 53 (vācaṃ; cf. Sv I 160: sārato agaṇhaṇto); Ja II 74; Nidd II §50 (present participle medium °gayhamāna = anukampamāna); Pp 36; Pv-a 181 (imperative anuggaṇha = anukampassive). past participle anuggahīta (q.v.).

:: Anuggaha1 [anu + grah] "taking up", compassion, love for, kindness, assistance, help, favour, benefit S II 11; III 109; IV 104; V 162; A I 92, 114; II 145; IV 167; V 70; It 12, 98; Ja I 151; V 150; Pp 25; Pv-a 145; Thig-a 104.

:: Anuggaha2 (adjective) [an + uggaha] not taking up Snp 912 (= na gaṇhāti Nidd I 330).

:: Anuggahīta (and °ita) [past participle of anuggaṇhāti] commiserated, made happy, satisfied M I 457; S II 274; III 91; IV 263; A III 172; Ja III 428.

:: Anuggāhaka (adjective) [from anuggaha] helping, assisting S III 5; V 162; Miln 354 (neuter = help).

:: Anugghāṭeti [an + ugghāṭeti] not to unfasten or open (a door) Miln 371 (kavāṭaṃ).

:: Anugghāta [an + ugghāta] not shaking, a steady walk Ja VI 253.

:: Anugghātin (adjective) [from last] not shaking, not jerking, Ja VI 252; Vv 53 (read °ī for i); Vv-a 36.

:: Anughāyati [anu + ghāyati1] to smell, snuff, sniff up Miln 343 (gandhaṃ).

:: Anucaṅkamati [anu + caṅkamati] to follow (along) after, to go after D I 235; M I 227; Thag 481, 1044; causative °āpeti M I 253, cf. Lal 147, 3; Mvu I 350.

:: Anucaṅkamana (neuter) [from anucaṅkamati] sidewalk Ja I 7.

:: Anucarati [anu + cariti] to move along, to follow; to practice; past participle anuciṇṇa and anucarita (q.v.)

:: Anucarita (—°) [past participle of anucarati] connected with, accompanied by, pervaded with D I 16, 21 (vīmaṃsa° = anuvicarita Sv I 106); M I 68 (the same); Miln 226.

:: Anuciṇṇa (past participle) [past participle of anucarati 1. pursuing, following out, practising doing; having attained or practised Vin II 203 = It 86 (pamādaṃ); Ja I 20 (V 126); Thag 236; Thig 206; Dīp IV 9. 2. adorned with, accompanied by, connected with Ja IV 286.

:: Anucintana (neuter) [from anucinteti] thinking upon, intention, care for Pv-a 164.

:: Anucinteti [anu + cinteti] to think upon, to meditate, consider S I 203 (v.l. for anuvicinteti).

:: Anuccaṅgin see anujjaṅgin.

:: Anucchavika (and °ya) (adjective) [anu + chavi + ka] "according to one's skin", befitting, suitable, proper, pleasing fit for, Ja I 58, 62, 126, 218; II 5; IV 137, 138; Miln 358; Dhp-a I 203, 390; II 55, 56; Vv-a 68, 78; Pv-a 13, 26 (= kappiya), 66, 81, 286. anucchaviya at Vin II 7 (an°); III 120 (the same + ananulomika); Miln 13.

:: Anucchiṭṭha (adjective) [see ucchiṭṭha] (food) that is not thrown away or left over; untouched, clean (food) Ja III 257; Dhp-a II 3 (vv.ll. anucciṭṭha).


:: Anujagghati [anu + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock D I 91; Sv I 258 (cf. sañjagghati ibid 256).

:: Anujavati [anu + javati] to run after, to hasten after, to follow Ja VI 452 (= anubandhati).

:: Anujāta (adjective) [anu + jāta] "born after" i.e. after the image of, resembling, taking after; especially said of a son (putta), resembling his father, a worthy son It 64 (atijāta + a., opposite avajāta); Thag 827 (figurative following the example of), 1279; Ja VI 380; Dhp-a I 129; Dāṭh II 66.

:: Anujānāti [anu + jānāti 1. to give permission, grant, allow Vin IV 225; A II 197; Pv IV 167; Pv-a 55, 79, 142. 2. to advise, prescribe Vin I 83; II 301: Snp 982. gerundive anuññeyya that which is allowed A II 197; past participle anuññāta (q.v.) causative anujānāpeti Ja I 156.

:: Anujīvati [anu + jīvati] to live after, i.e. like (accusative), to live for or on, subsist by Ja IV 271 (= upajīvati, tassānubhāvena jīvitaṃ laddhaṃ (commentary). — past participle anujīvata (q.v.).

:: Anujīvita (neuter) [past participle of anujīvati] living (after), living, livelihood, subsistence, life Snp 836 (= jīvitaṃ Pj II 545).

:: Anujīvin (adjective/noun) [from anujīvati] living upon, another, dependent; a follower, a dependant A I 152; III 44; Ja III 485; Dāṭh V 43.

:: Anujju (adjective) [an + ujju] not straight, crooked, bent, in compounds °aṅgin (anujjaṅgin) with (evenly) bent limbs, i.e. with perfect limbs, graceful feminine °ī, especially of a beautiful woman Ja V 40 (= kañcana-sannibha-sarīrā commentary); VI 500 (Text anuccaṅgī, commentary aninditā agarahitaṅgī); °gāmin going crooked i.e. snake Ja IV 330; °bhūta not upright (figurative of citta) Ja V 293.

:: Anujjuka = anujju Ja III 318.

:: Anujjhāna (neuter) [anu + jhāna] meditation, reflection, introspection Miln 352 (°bahula).

:: Anuññāta (adjective) [past participle of anujānāti] permitted, allowed; sanctioned, given leave, ordained D I 88; Ja I 92; II 353, 416; Pv I 123 (na a. = ananuññāta at the same passage Thig 129; explained at Pv-a 64 by ananumata); Pp 28; Sv I 247, 248, 267; Pv-a 12, 81.

:: Anuññātatta (neuter) [abstract to anuññāta] being permitted, permission Ja II 353.

:: Anuṭṭhaka (adjective) [from an + uṭṭhahati] not rising not rousing oneself, inactive, lazy Thag 1033.


:: Anuṭṭhahati [anu + ṭhahati = °ṭhāti, see °tiṭṭhati] to carry out, look after, practise do Ja V 121. — past participle anuṭṭhita (q.v.).

:: Anuṭṭhahāna (adjective) [present participle of an + uṭṭhahati] one who does not rouse himself, not getting up, inactive Dhp 280 (= anuṭṭhahanto avāyāmanto Dhp-a III 409).

:: Anuṭṭhātar [agent noun to an + uṭṭhahati] one without energy or zeal Snp 96 (niddāsīlin sabhāsīlin + a.) Pj II 169 (= viriya-tejavirahita).

:: Anuṭṭhāna (neuter) [an + uṭṭhāna] "the not getting up", inactivity, want of energy Dhp 241 (sarīra-paṭijagganaṃ akaronto Dhp-a III 347).

:: Anuṭṭhita [past participle of anuṭṭhati = anutiṭṭhati] practising effecting or effected, come to, experienced, done D II 103; S IV 200; A III 290f.; IV 300; Ja II 61; Miln 198; Pv-a 132 (cf. anugata).

:: Anuṭṭhubhati [formally Sanskrit anuṣṭobhati, but in meaning = °anuṣṭīvati; anu + ṭṭhubhati, the etymology of which see under niṭṭhubhati] — to lick up with one's saliva Sv I 138.

:: Anuṭṭhurin v.l. at Pj II 569, see niṭṭhurin.

:: Anuḍasati [anu + ḍasati] to bite Ja VI 192.

:: Anuḍahati [anu + ḍahati] to burn over again, burn thoroughly, figurative to destroy, consume Ja II 330; VI 423. passive °ḍayhati Ja V 426. — Also spelt °dahati, e.g. at S IV 190 = V 53; Thig 488.

:: Anuḍahana (neuter) [from anuḍahati] conflagration, burning up, consumption Ja V 271; Thig-a 287 (-d-).

:: Anuṇṇata (adjective) [uṇṇata] not raised, not elated, not haughty, humble Snp 702 (care = uddhaccaṃ nāpajjeyya Pj II 492).

:: Anutappati [anu + tappati1; Sanskrit anutapyate, passive of anutapati] to be sorry for, to regret, repent, feel remorse Ja I 113; IV 358; V 492 (present participle an-anutappaṃ); Dhp 67, 314; Pv II 942; Dhp-a II 40. gerundive anutappa to be regretted A I 22, 77; III 294, and anutāpiya A III 46 (an°).

:: Anutāpa [from anu + tāpa] anguish, remorse, conscience Vv 405 (= vippaṭisāra Vv-a 180); As 384.

:: Anutāpin (adjective) [from anutāpa] repenting, regretting Thig 57, 190; Vv 21; Vv-a 115.

:: Anutāpiya gerund of anutappati, q.v.

:: Anutāḷeti [anu + taḷeti] to beat Ja II 280.

:: Anutiṭṭhati [anu + tiṭṭhati see also anuṭṭhahati] to look after, to manage, carry on Ja V 113 (= anugacchati); Pv-a 78.

:: Anutīre (adverb) [anu + tīre, locative of tīra] along side or near the bank (of a river) Snp 18 (= tīra-samīpe Pj II 28). Cf. anu A b.

:: Anuttara (adjective) [an + uttara] "nothing higher", without a superior, incomparable, second to none, unsurpassed, excellent, preeminent Snp 234 (= adhikassa kassaci abhāvato Pj I 193), 1003; Dhp 23, 55 (= asadisa appaṭibhāga Dhp-a I 423); Pv IV 352 (dhamma); Dhs 1294; Sv I 129; Pv-a 1, 5, 6, 18, etc.

:: Anuttariya (neuter) [abstract from anuttara] preeminence, superiority, excellency; highest ideal, greatest good. They are mentioned as sets of 3 (viz. dassana°, paṭipadā°, vimutti°) at D III 219, or of 6 (viz. dassana°, savana°, lābha°, sikkhā°, pāricariyā°, anussata°) at D III 250, 281; A I 22; III 284, 325f., 452; Paṭis I 5. Cf. M I 235; A V 37. See also ānuttariya.

:: Anuttāna (adjective) [an + uttāna] not (lying) open, not exposed; figurative unexplained, unclear Ja VI 247.

:: Anutthunā (feminine) [from anutthunāti] wailing, crying, lamenting Nidd I 167 (= vācāpalāpa vippalāpa etc.).

:: Anutthunāti [anu + thunati (thunāti); anu + stan] to wail, moan, deplore, lament, bewail D III 86; Snp 827 (cf. Nidd I 167); Dhp 156; Ja III 115; V 346, 479; Dhp-a III 133; Pv-a 60 (wrongly applied for ghāyati, of the fire of conscience).

:: Anutrāsin (adjective) [an + utrāsin] not terrified, at ease Thag 864.

:: AnuThera [anu + Thera] an inferior Thera, one who comes next to the elder Vin II 212 (therānutherā Th. and next in age).

:: Anudadāti [anu + dadāti] to concede, grant, admit, future anudassati Miln 276, 375.

:: Anudayati (to sympathise with) see under anuddā.

:: Anudassita [past participle of anudasseti] manifested Miln 119.

:: Anudahati see anuḍahati.

:: Anudiṭṭha [past participle of anudisati] pointed out, appointed, dedicated, neuter consecration, dedication Ja V 393 (anudiṭṭha = asukassa nāma dassatī ti commentary); Pv I 107 (= uddiṭṭha Pv-a 50).

:: Anudiṭṭhi (feminine) [anu + diṭṭhi] an "after-view", sceptical view, speculation, heresy D I 12; M II 228; S III 45f.; Thag 754; Miln 325; Sv I 103. attānudiṭṭhi (q.v.) a soul-speculation. [BD]: second thought; corrolary

:: Anudisati [anu + disati] to point out, direct, bid, address Pv-a 99 (preterit anudesi + anvesi). — past participle anudiṭṭha (q.v.).

:: Anudisā (feminine) [anu + disā] an intermediate point of ihe compass often collectively for the usual 4 intermediate points D I 222; S I 122; III 124.

:: Anudīpeti [anu + dīpeti] to explain Miln 227 (dhamma-dhammaṃ).

:: Anudūta [anu + dūta] a person sent with another, a travelling companion Vin II 19, 295; Dhp-a II 76, 78.

:: Anudeva see anvadeva.

:: Anuddayatā (feminine) [abstract to anuddayā] sympathy with (—°) compassion, kindness, favour, usually as par° kindness to or sympathy with other people S II 218; V 169 (Text anudayatā); A III 184; It 72; Vibh 356.
[Iti.80-Woodward n.]: 'centered on worry about other folk'.

:: Anuddayā (and anudayā) (feminine) [anu + dayā] compassion, pity, mercy, care Vin II 196; S I 204; II 199; IV 323; A II 176; III 189; Pp 35 (anukampā); Ja I 147, 186, 214; Pv-a 70, 88, 181 (= anukampā). In compounds anudaya° e.g. °sampanna full of mercy Ja I 151, 262; Pv-a 66.


:: Anuddā (feminine) [contracted form of anuddayā] = anuddayā Dhs 1056, where also the other abstract formations anuddāyanā and anuddāyitattaṃ "care, forbearance and consideration"; As 362 (anudayatī ti anuḍdā).

:: Anuddhaṃseti [anu + dhaṃseti] to spoil, corrupt, degrade Vin IV 148 (explanained here in slightly different meaning = codeti vā codāpeti vā to reprove, scold, bring down); It 42. Usually in stereotype phrase rāgo cittaṃ a. lust degrades the heart Vin III 111; M I 26; S I 186; A I 266; II 126; III 393f. — past participle anuddhasta (q.v.).

:: Anuddhata (adjective) [an + uddhata] not puffed up, not proud, unconceited calm, subdued Snp 850 (= uddhacca-virahita Pj II 549, cf. anuṇṇata); It 30; Dhp 363 (= nibbutacitta Dhp-a IV 93); Vv 648; Pp 59.

:: Anuddharin (adjective) [an + uddharin] not proud Snp 952 (= anussukin Pj II 569) see niṭṭhurin.


:: Anuddhasta (adjective) [anu + dhasta, past participle of anuddhaṃseti, cf. Sanskrit apadhvasta] spoilt, corrupt, degraded M I 462 (citta); A II 126 (the same).

:: Anudhamma [anu + dhamma 1. in compounds with dhamma as dhammānudhamma to be judged as a reduplicated compound after the manner of compounds mentioned under anu IV and meaning "the Law in all its parts, the dhamma and what belongs to it, the Law in its fullness". For instances see dhamma commentary IV Frequently in phrase dhammānudhamma-paṭipanna "one who masters the completness of the of the Dh.", e.g. S II 18; III 163; It 81; Paṭis II 189. 2. conformity or accordance with the Law, lawfullness, relation, essence, consistency, truth; in phrase dhammassa anudhammaṃ vyākaroti to explain the truth of the Dhp Vin I 234; D I 161; M I 368, 482; S II 33; III 6; IV 51; V 7. See further M III 30; Snp 963 (cf. Nidd I 481 for exegesis). Also in compound °cārin living according to the Dhamma, living in truth S II 81, 108; A II 8; Dhp 20 (cf. Dhp-a I 158); Vv 317; Snp 69 (see Nidd II 51). [BD]: Following the Dhamma within the Dhamma, practicing the instructions within the teachings.

:: Anudhammatā (feminine) [abstract to anudhamma) lawfullness, conformity to the Dhamma A II 46; Paṭis I 35, 36.

:: Anudhāreti [anu + dhāreti] to hold up Sv I 61 (chattaṃ), cf. Ja I 53, dhariyamāna.

:: Anudhāvati [anu + dhāvati] to run after, to chase, follow, persecute, pursue M I 474; S I 9; Dhp 85; Thag 1174; Miln 253, 372.

:: Anudhāvin (adjective/noun) [from anudhāvati] one who runs after S I 9, 117.

:: Anunadī (-tire) along the bank of the river S IV 177 should be read anu nadītīre (= anu preposition with locative; see under anu A).

:: Anunamati [anu + namati] to incline, bend (intransitive), give way Miln 372 (of a bow).

:: Anunaya [from anuneti] "leading along", friendliness, courtesy, falling in with, fawning D III 254 (°saṃyojana); A IV 7f. (the same) M I 191; Dhs 1059; Vibh 145; Nett 79; combined with opposite paṭigha (repugnance) at Miln 44, 122, 322.

:: Anunayana (neuter) [from anuneti] fawning As 362.

Apocope: (/əˈpɒkəpi/) is the loss (elision) of one or more sounds from the end of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

:: Anunāsika (adjective) [anu + nāsā + ika] nasal; as technical term gramatical the sound ṃ; in °lopa apocope of the nasal ṃ Vv-a 114, 253, 275, 333.

:: Anunāyako Anunāyako [DPL]: Sub-chief, vice-president.

:: Anunīta (adjective) [past participle of anuneti] led, induced S IV 71; Snp 781.

:: Anunetar [agent noun from anuneti] one who reconciles or conciliates Paṭis II 194 (netā vinetā anunetā).

:: Anuneti [anu + neti] to conciliate, appease, win over, flatter S I 232 (present participle anunayamāna); past participle anunīta (q.v.).

:: Anupa see anūpa.

:: Anupakampati [anu + pakampati] to shake, move, to be unsteady Thag 191 = Ud 41.

:: Anupakkama [an + upakkama] not attacking, instrumental °ena not by attack (from external enemies) Vin II 195.

:: Anupakkuṭṭha (adjective) [an + upak°] blameless, irreproachahle D I 113; Vin IV 160; Snp page 115; Sv I 281.

:: Anupakkhandati [anu + pa + khandati] to push oneself forward, to encroach on D I 122 (= anupavisati Sv I 290); gerund anupakhajja pushing oneself in, intruding Vin II 88 (= anto pavisati), 213; IV 43 (= anupavisati); M I 151, 469; S III 113; Vism 18.

:: Anupakhajjati [denominative from anupakhajja, gerund of anupakkhandati] to encroach, intrude Vin V 163.

:: Anupagacchati [anu + pa + gacchati] to go or return into (with accusative) D I 55 (anupeti + a.).

:: Anupaghāta [an + upaghāta] not hurting Dhp 185 (anūpa° metri causa; explained by anupahananañ c'eva anupaghātanañ ca Dhp-a III 238).

:: Anupacita (adjective) [anu + pa + cita, past participle of anupacināti] heaped up, accumulated Thig-a 56.

:: Anupacināti [an + upacināti] not to observe or notice Ja V 339 (= anoloketi commentary; v.l. anapaviṇāti).

:: Anupajagghati [anu + pa + jagghati] to laugh at, to deride, mock over A I 198 (v.l. anusaṃ°).

:: Anupajjati [anu + pad] to follow, accompany Ja IV 304. — past participle anupanna (q.v.).

:: Anupañcāhaṃ (adverb) [anu + pañcā + ahaṃ] every five days Pv-a 139 (+ anudasāhaṃ).

:: Anupaññatti (feminine) [anu + paññatti] a supplementary regulation or order Vin II 286; V 2 f. [BD]: amendment

:: Anupaṭipāti (feminine) [anu + paṭipāti] succession; as adverb in order, successively Sv I 277 (kathā = anupubbikathā); Dhp-a III 340 (anupaṭipāṭiyā = anupubbena); Vism 244.

:: Anupaṭṭhita (adjective) [anu + pa + ṭhita] setting out after, following, attacking Ja V 452.

:: Anupatati [anu + patati 1. to follow, go after, Ja VI 555 anupatiyāsi subjunctive). 2. to fall upon, to befall, attack Vin III 106 = M I 364; S I 23 (read °patanti for °patatanti) = Dhp 221 (dukkhā); Thag 41 = 1167 (of lightning). past participle anupatita (q.v.). Cf. also anupāta and anupātin.

:: Anupatita [past participle of anupatati] "befallen", affected with, oppressed by (—°) S II 173 (dukkha°); III 69 (the same); Snp 334 (pamāda°).

:: Anupatitatta (neuter) [abstract of anupatita] the fact of being attacked by, being a victim of (—°) Pj II 339.

:: Anuppatta Anupatta [past participle of anupāpuṇāti; cf. Sanskrit anuprāpta] (having) attained, received, got to (with accusative), reached D I 87-111; II 2; It 38; Snp 627, 635; Dhp 386, 403; Pv IV 166; Pv-a 59 (dukkhaṃ), 242. In phrase addhagata vayo-anuppatta having reached old age, e.g. Vin II 188; D I 48; Snp past participle 50, 92; Pv-a 149.

:: Anupatti (anuppatti) (feminine) [anu + patti] attainment, accomplishment, wish, desire (fulfilled), ideal S I 46, 52.

:: Anupathe at Ja V 302 should be read as anu pathe by the way at the wayside; anu to be taken as preposition with locative (see anu A). commentary explains as jaṅghamagga-mahāmaggānaṃ antare.

:: Anupada [cf. Sanskrit anupadaṃ adverb, anu + pada 1. the "afterfoot", i.e. second foot a verse, also a mode of reciting, where the second foot is recited without the first one Vin IV 15 (cf. 355); Miln 340 (anupadena anupadaṃ katheti). 2. (adjective) (following) on foot, at every, step, continuous, repeated, in °dhamma-vipassanā uninterrupted contemplation M III 25; °vaṇṇanā word-by-word explanation As 168. As neuter adverb °ṃ close behind, immediately after (with genitive) Ja II 230 (tassānupadaṃ agamāsi); VI 422. Especially frequent in combination padānupadaṃ (adverb) foot after foot, i.e. in the footsteps, immediately behind Ja III 504; VI 555; Dhp-a I 69; II 38.

:: Anupadātar (anuppadātar) [agent noun of anupadeti] one who gives, or one who sets forth, effects, designs D I 4 (cf. Sv I 74); A II 209.

:: Anupadāna (anuppadāna) (neuter) [anu + pa + dāna, cf. anupadeti] giving, administering, furnishing, the giving of (—°) D I 12 (cf. Sv I 98; both read anuppādāna); Ja III 205; Miln 315.


:: Anupadinna (anuppadinna) [past participle of anupadeti] given, handed over, furnished, dedicated Pv I 512.

:: Anupadeti (anuppadeti) [anu + pa + dadāti] to give out, give as a present, hand over; to design, set forth, undertake S III 131 (potential anuppadajjuṃ); M I 416 (potential anupadajjeyya. see dadāti I.3); {34} Miln 210 (°deti). future °dassati (see dadāti I 1); D III 92; S IV 303 (v.l. for Text anusarissati); A III 43; Snp 983. gerund °datvā Pj II 35. infinitive °dātuṃ A I 117. past participle °dinna (q.v.).

:: Anupaddava (adjective) [an + upaddava] free from danger, uninjured, safe Vin II 79 = 124 (+ anītika); III 162; Dhp 338; Dhp-a IV 48; Pv-a 250 (explanation. for siva).

:: Anupadhāreti [an + upadhār°] to disregard, to heed not, to neglect Dhp-a IV 197; Vv-a 260.

:: Anupadhika (adjective) [an + upadhi + ka] free from attachment (see upadhi) Vin I 36 (anupadhīka); D. III 112 (anupadhika as opposed to sa-upadhika); Snp 1057 (anūpadhīka Text, but Nidd II § anūpadhika. with ū for u metri causā).

:: Anupanna, [past participle of anupajjati] gone into, reached, attained Snp 764 (māradheyya°).

:: Anupabandhati (anuppa°) [anu + pa + bandhati] to follow immediately, to be incessant, to keep on (without stopping), to continue Miln 132. — causative °āpeti ibid.

:: Anupabandhanatā (anuppa°) (feminine) [abstract to preceding] non-stopping, not ceasing Miln 132.

:: Anupabandhanā (anuppa°) (feminine) [abstract from anupabandhati] continuance, incessancy, Pp 18 = Vibh 357 (in exegesis of upanāha).

:: Anupabbajjā (feminine) [anu + pabbajjā, cf. BHS anupravrajati Divy 61] giving up worldly life in imitation of another S V 67 = It 107.

:: Anupaya (adjective) [an + upaya] unattached, "aloof" S I 181 (akaṅkha apiha + a.).

:: Anuparigacchati [anu + pari + gacchati] to walk round and round, to go round about (with accusative) Vin III 119; S I 75 (gerund °gamma); Snp 447 (preterit °pariyagā = parito parito agamāsi Pj II 393); Ja IV 267.

:: Anuparidhāvati [anu + pari + dhāvati] to run up and down or to move round and round (cf. anuparivattati) S. III 150 (khīlan).

:: Anupariyāti [auu + pari + yāti] to go round about, to go about, to wander or travel all over (with accusative) Vin II 111; S I 102, 124; Thag 1235 (°pariyeti), 1250 (the same to search); Pv III 34 (= anuvicarati); Miln 38; Pv-a 92 (°yāyitvā, gerund) 217.

:: Anupariyāya (adjective) [adjectivised gerund of anupariyāti] going round, encircling, in °patha the path leading to or going round the city D II 83 = S IV 194 = A V 195; A IV 107.

:: Anuparivattati [anu + pari + vr̥t] to go or move round, viz. 1. to deal with, be engaged in, perform, worship Vin III 307 (ādiccaṃ); D I 240; Pv-a 97. 2. to meet Miln 204 (Devadatto ca Bodhisatto ca ekato anuparivattanti). 3. to move round and round, move on and on, keep on rolling (with accusative), evolve S. III 150 (anuparidhāvati + a.) Miln 253 (anudhāvati + kāya).

:: Anuparivatti (feminine) (—°) [anu + parivatti] dealing with, occupation, connection with S III 16.

:: Anuparivāreti [anu + pari + vāreti] to surround, stand by, attend on (with accusative) Vin I 338; M I 153; Dhp-a 1.55.

:: Anupariveṇiyaṃ [anu + pariveṇiyaṃ = locative of pariveṇi] should be written anu pariveṇiyaṃ ("in every cell, cell by cell"), anu here functioning as preposition with locative (see anu A) Vin I 80, 106.

:: Anuparisakkati [anu + pari + sakkati] to move round, to be occupied with, take an interest in (with accusative) S IV 312 (v.l. °vattati).

:: Anuparisakkana (neuter) [from anuparisakkati] dealing with, interest in S IV 312 (v.l. °vattana).

:: Anupariharati [anu + pari + harati] to surround, enfold, embrace M I 306.

:: Anupalitta (adjective) [an + upalitta] unsmeared, unstained, free from taint M I 319, 386 (in verse); as °ūpalitta in verse of Snp and Dhp: Snp 211 (= lepānaṃ abhāvā Pj II 261), 392, 468, 790, 845; Dhp 353.

:: Anupavajja (adjective) [gerund of an + upavadati] blameless, without fault, Miln 391.

:: Anupavattaka (anuppa°) (adjective) to anupavatteti] one who succeeds (another) King or Ruler in the ruling of an empire (cakkaṃ) Miln 342, 362; Pj II 454. See also anuvattaka.

:: Anupavatteti (anuppa°) [anu + pa + vatteti, from vr̥t] to keep moving on after, to continue rolling, with cakkaṃ to wield supreme power after, i.e. in succession or imitation of a predecessor S I 191; Miln 362. See also anuvatteti.

:: Anupavāda [an + upavāda] not blaming or finding fault, abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dhp 185 (anūpa° in metre; explained at Dhp-a III 238 as anupavādanañ c'eva anupavādāpanañ ca "not scolding as well as not inciting others to grumbling"); adjective °vādaka Pp 60, and °vādin M I 360.

:: Anupaviṭṭha (anuppa°) [past participle of anupavisati] entered, gone or got into, fallen into (with accusative) Miln 270, 318f., 409 (coming for shelter); Pv-a 97, 152 (Gaṅgānadiṃ a. nadī: flowing into the G.).

:: Anupaviṭṭhatā (feminine) [abstract to anupaviṭṭha] the fact of having entered Miln 257.

:: Anupavisati [anu + pa + visati] to go into, to enter Dhp I 290; Vv-a 42 (= ogāhati). — past participle °paviṭṭha (q.v.) causative °paveseti (q.v.).

:: Anupavecchati (anuppa°) [see under pavecchati] to give, give over to, offer up, present, supply Vin I 221 (°pavacchati); D I 74 (= pavesati Sv I 218); II 78; M I 446; III 133; A II 64; III 26 (v.l. °vacch°); Ja V 394; Snp 208 (v.l. °vacch°); Pj II 256 (= anupavesati); Pv-a 28.

:: Anupaveseti [anu + pa + viś, cf. BHS anupraveśayati Divy 238] — to make enter, to give over, to supply Pj II 256 (= °pavecchati).

:: Anupasaṅkamati1 [anu + pa + saṅkamati] to go along up to (with accusative) Pv-a 179.

:: Anupasaṅkamati2 [an + upasaṃk°] not to go to. not to approach Dhp-a II 30 (+ apayirupāsati).

:: Anupasaṇṭhapanā (feminine) [an + upasaṇṭhapanā] not stopping, incessance, continuance Pp 18 (but the same passage at Vibh 357 has anusaṃ-sandanā instead); cf. anupabandhanā.

:: Anupassiveka (adjective) [from anupassati] observing, viewing, contemplating Thag 420.

:: Anupassati [anu + passati] to look at, contemplate, observe Snp 477; Paṭis I 57, 187; Pj II 505.


:: Anupassanā (feminine) [abstract of anupassati, cf. Sanskrit anudarśana] looking at, viewing, contemplating, consideration, realization S V 178f., Snp page 140; Paṭis I 10, 20, 96; II 37, 41f., 67f.; Vibh 194. See anicca°, anatta°, dukkha°.

:: Anupassin (—°) (adjective) [from anupassati] viewing, observing, realizing S II 84f. V 294f. 311f. 345; Dhp 7, 253; Snp 255, 728; Paṭis I 191f. 236; Saddh 411.

:: Anupahata1 [anu + pa + hat, past participle of anu + pa + han] thrown up, blown up Mil 274.

:: Anupahata2 (adjective) [an + upahata] not destroyed, not spoilt Dhp-a II 33 (°jivhāpasāda)

:: Anupāta [of anupatati] attack in speech, contest, reproach A I 161 (vāda°)

:: Anupātin (adjective) [from anupāta 1. following, indulgin in Ja III 523 (khaṇa°) 2. attacking, hurting Ja V 399.

:: Anupādaṃ (adjective) [anu + pāda] at the foot Vism 182 (opposite anusīsaṃ at the head).

:: Anupādā [gerund of an + upādiyati ° anupādāya] anupādāniya, anupādāya, anupādiyāna, anupādiyitvā, see upādiyati.

:: Anupādāna and Anupādi see upādāna and upādi

:: Anupāpita [past participle of anupāpeti] having been led to or made to reach, attained, found Mil 252.

:: Anupāpuṇāti (anuppā°) [anu + pāpuṇāti] to reach, attain, get to, find S I 105; gerund anuppatvāna Pv II 924 (= °pāpuṇitvā Pv-a 123). — past participle anupatta (q.v.). — causative anupāpeti (q.v.).


:: Anupāpeti [causative of anupāpuṇāti] to make reach or attain, to lead to, to give or make find Ja VI 88; Cp III 11.4 (preterit anupāpayi); Miln 276. — past participle anupāpita (q.v.).

:: Anupāya [an + upāya] wrong means Ja I 256; Saddh 405.

:: Anupāyāsa see upāyāsa.

:: Anupālaka (adjective) [anu + pālaka] guarding, preserving Saddh 474.

:: Anupālana (neuter) [from anupāleti] maintenance, guarding, keeping Dīp III 2.

:: Anupāleti [anu + pāleti] to safeguard, warrant, maintain Miln 160 (santatiṃ).

:: Anupāhana (adjective) [an + upāhana] without shoes Ja VI 552.

:: Anupiya (anuppiya) (adjective) [anu + piya] flattering, plessant, neuter pleasantness, flattery, in °bhāṇin one who flatters I) III 185; Ja II 390; V 360; and °bhāṇitar the same Vibh 352.

:: Anupīḷaṃ at Pv-a 161 is to be read anuppīḷaṃ (q.v.).

:: Anupucchati [anu + pucchati] to ask or inquire after (with accusative) Snp 432, 1113. — past participle anupuṭṭha (q.v.).

:: Anupuṭṭha [past participle of anupucchati] asked Snp 782 (= pucchita Pj II 521).

:: Anupubba Anupubbaṃ (adjective) [anu + pubba] following in one's turn, successive, gradual, by and by, regular Vin II 237 (mahāsamuddo °ninno etc.); D I 184; Snp 511; Ja V 155 (regularly formed, of ūrū). Cases adverbially: anupubbena (instrumental) by and by, in course of time, later, gradually Vin I 83; Dhp 239 (= anupaṭipāṭiyā Dhp-a III 340); Pp 41, 64; Ja II 2, 105; III 127; Miln 22; Pv-a 19. anupubbaso (ablative cf. Sanskrit anupūrvaśaḥ) in regular order Snp 1000. In compounds both anupubba° and anupubbi° (q.v.).

-kāraṇa gradual performance, graded practice M I 446;
-nirodha successive passing away, fading away in regular succession, i.e. in due course. The nine stages of this process are the same as those mentioned under °vihāra, and are enumerated as such at D III 266, 290; A IV 409, 456; Paṭis I 35;
-vihāra a state of gradually ascending stages, by means of which the highest aim of meditation and trance is attained, viz. complete cessation of all consciousness. These are 9 stages, consisting of the 4 jhānas, the 4 āyatanāni and as the crowning phrase "saññā-vedayita-nirodha" (see jhāna1). Enumerated as such in various places, especially at the following: D II 156; III 265, 290; A IV 410; Nidd II under jhāna; Paṭis I 5; Miln 176;
-sikkhā regular instruction or study (dhamma-vinaye) M I 479; III 1 (+ °kiriyā °paṭipadā).

:: Anupubbaka (adjective) = anupubba, in compound pubbānupubbaka all in succession or in turn, one by one (on nature of this kind of compound see anu B IV) Vin I 20 (°ānaṃ kulānaṃ puttā the sons of each clan, one by one).

:: Anupubbata (neuter) [from anupubba] acting in turn, gradation, succession Vv 6414 (= anukūla kiriyā i.e. as it pleases Vv-a 280) cf. ānupubbatā.

:: Anupubbi-kathā (feminine) [anupubba + kathā, formation like dhammi-kathā] a gradual instruction, graduated sermon, regulated exposition of the ever higher values of four subjects (dāna-kathā, sīla°, sagga°, magga°) i.e. charity, righteousness, the heavens, and the Path. Buddhaghosa explains the term as anupubbikathā nāma dānānantaraṃ sīlaṃ sīlanantaro saggo saggānantaro maggo ti etesaṃ dīpana-kathā" (Sv I 277). Vin I 15, 18; II 156, 192; D I 110; II 41; M I 379; Ja I 8; Vv-a 66, 197, 208; Sv I 308; Dhp-a I 6; Miln 228. — The spelling is frequently ānupubbikathā (as to lengthening of anu see anu Note (a)), e.g. at D I 110; II 41; M I 379; Ja I 8; Miln 228.

:: Anupekkhati [anu + pekkhati 1. to concentrate oneself on, to look carefully A III 23. 2. to consider, to show consideration for, Nidd II §50 (present participle °amāna = anukampamāna). — causative anupekkheti to cause some one to consider carefully Vin II 73.

:: Anupekkhanatā (feminine) [abstract from anupekkhana, see anupekkhatī] — concentration (of thought) Dhs 8, 85, 284, 372.

:: Anupeti [anu + pa + i] to go into D I 55 (+ anupagacchati) S III 207; Sv I 165.

:: Anupeseti [anu + pa + iṣ] to send forth after Miln 36.

:: Anuposathikaṃ see anvaḍḍhamāsaṃ.

:: Anuposiya (adjective) [gerund of anu + puṣ] to be nourished or fostered Saddh 318.

:: Anuppa° in all combinations of anu + ppa see under headings anupa°.

:: Anuppadajjuṃ (S III 131) see anupadeti.

:: Anuppanna (°uppāda, °uppādeti) see uppanna etc.

:: Anuppīḷa (adjective) [an + uppīḷa] not molested, not oppressed (by robbers etc.) not ruined, free from harm Ja III 443; V 378; Vv-a 351; Pv-a 161.

:: Anupharaṇa (neuter) [anu + pharaṇa] flashing through, pervading Miln 148.

:: Anuphusīyati [anu + phusīyati, cf. Sanskrit pruṣāyati, causative of pruṣ] to sprinkle, moisten, make wet Ja V 242 (himaṃ; commentary pateyya).

:: Anubajjhati at Pv-a 56 is faulty reading for anubandhati (q.v.).

:: Anubaddha [past participle of anubandhati] following, standing behind (piṭṭhito) D I 1, 226.

:: Anubandha [anu + bandh] bondage M III 170; It 91.

:: Anubandhati [anu + bandhati] to follow, run after, pursue Ja I 195; II 230; VI 452 (= anujavati); Pv-a 56 (substitute {40} for anubajjhanti!), 103, 155. preterit °bandhi Ja II 154, 353; III 504; Pv-a 260 (= anvāgacchi). gerund °bandhitvā Ja I 254. gerundive °bandhitabba M I 106. — past participle anubaddha (q.v.).

:: Anubandhana (neuter) [from anubandhati] that which connects or follows, connection, consequence Ja VI 526 (°dukkha).

:: Anubala (neuter) [anu + bala] rear-guard, retinue, suite, in °ṃ bhavati to accompany or follow somebody Miln 125.

:: Anubujjhati [anu + bujjhati, medium of budh, cf. Sanskrit avabudhyate] to remember, recollectJa III 387 (with avabujjhati in preceding verse).

:: Anubujjhana (neuter) [from anubujjhati] awakening, recognition Paṭis I 18 (bujjhana + a.).

:: Anubuddha [past participle of anu + bodhati 1. awakened (active and passive), recognised, conceived, seen, known D II 123 (°ā ime dhammā); S I 137 (dhammo vimalenānubuddho) II 203; IV 188; A II 1; III 14; IV 105; Pj II 431. In phrase buddhānubuddha (as to nature of compound see anu B IV) either "fully awakened (enlightened)" or "wakened by the wake" (Mrs. Rh.D.) Thag 679 = 1246. 2. a lesser Buddha, inferior than the Buddha Sv I 40. Cf. buddhānubuddha.

:: Anubodha [anu + budh] awakening; perception, recognition, understanding S I 126 (?) = A V 46 (anubodhiṃ as preterit of anubodhati?); Pp 21; Miln 233. Frequently in compounds ananubodha (adjective) not understanding, not knowing the truth S II 92; III 261; V 431; A II 1; IV 105; Dhs 390, 1061; Vv-a 321 (= anavabodha) and duranubodha duranubodha (adjective) hard to understand, difficult to know D I 12, 22; S I 136.

:: Anubodhati [anu + budh] to wake up, to realize, perceive, understand; preterit anubodhiṃ A V 46 (?) = S I 126 (anubodhaṃ). — causative °bodheti to awaken, figurative to make see to instruct Ja VI 139 (°ayamāna) — past participle anubuddha (q.v.).

:: Anubodhana (neuter) [from anubodhati] awakening, understanding, recognition Paṭis I 18 (bodhana + a.).

:: Anubbajati [anu + vr̥aj] to go along, wander, follow, tread (a path) Ja IV 399 (maggaṃ = pabbajati commentary).

:: Anubbata (adjective) [Vedic anuvrata, anu + vata] subject to the will of another, obedient, faithful, devoted Ja III 521; VI 557.

:: Anubbillāvitatta see ubbill°.

:: Anubyañjana see anuvyañjana.

:: Anubrūhita [past participle of anubrūheti] strengthened with (—°), full of Paṭis I 167.

:: Anubrūheti [brūheti] to do very much or often, to practice, frequent, to be fond of (with accusative), foster S I 178 (anubrūhaye); M III 187 (the same, so read for manu°), Thig 163 (°ehi); Cp III 1, 2 (saṃvegaṃ {36} anubrūhayiṃ preterit); Ja III 191 (suññāgāraṃ). Often in phrase vivekaṃ anubrūheti to devote oneself to detachment or solitude, e.g. Ja I 9 (infinitive °brūhetuṃ); III 31 (°brūhessāmi), Dhp 75 (°brūhaye = °brūheyya vaḍḍheyya Dhp-a II 103). — past participle anubrūhita (q.v.) cf. also brūhana.

:: Anubhaṇanā (feminine) [anu + bhaṇana] talking to, admonition, scolding Vin II 88 (anuvadanā + a.).

:: Anubhavati and Anubhoti [anu + bhavati] to come to or by, to undergo, suffer (feel), get, undertake, partake in, experience D I 129; II 12 (°bhonti); M II 204; A I 61 (atthaṃ °bhoti to have a good result); Ja VI 97 (°bhoma); Pv I 1011 (°bhomi vipākaṃ); Pv-a 52 (°issati = vedissati); Saddh 290. Especially frequent with dukkhaṃ to suffer pain, e.g. Pv-a I 1110 (°bhonti); Pv-a 43, 68, 79 etc. (cf. anubhavana). — present participle medium °bhavamāna Ja I 50; preterit °bhavi Pv-a 75 (sampattiṃ); gerund °bhavitvā Ja IV 1; Pv-a 4 (sampattiṃ), 67 (dukkhaṃ), 73 (sampattiṃ); gerundive °bhaviyāna (in order to receive) Pv II 85 (= anubhavitvā Pv-a 109). passive anubhūyati and °bhavīyati to be undergone or being experienced; present participle °bhūyamāna Pv-a 8, 159 (mayā a. = anubhūta), 214 (attanā by him) and °bhavīyamāna Pv-a 33 (dukkhaṃ). — past participle anubhūta (q.v.).

:: Anubhavana (neuter) [from anubhavati] experiencing, suffering; sensation or physical sensibility (cf. Cpd. 229, 232 note 1) Nett 28 (iṭṭhāniṭṭhānubhavana-lakkhanā vedanā "feeling is characterised by the experiencing of what is pleasant and unpleasant"); Miln 60 (vedayita-lakkhaṇā vedanā anubhavana-lakkhaṇā ca); Pv-a 152 (kamma-vipāka°). Especially in combination with dukkha° suffering painful sensations, e.g. at Ja IV 3; Miln 181; Dhp-a IV 75; Pv-a 52.

:: Anubhāga [anu + bhāga] a secondary or inferior part, (after-)share, what is left over Vin II 167.

:: Anubhāyati [anu + bhāyati] to be afraid of Ja VI 302 (kissa nvānubhāyissaṃ, so read for kissānu°).

:: Anubhāva [from anubhavati] original meaning "experience, concomitance" and found only in compounds as °—°, in meaning "experiencing the sensation of or belonging to, experience of, accordance with", e.g. maha° sensation of greatness, rāja° s. belonging to a king, what is in accordance with kingship, i.e. majesty. Through preponderance of expressions of distinction there arises the meaning of anubhāva as "power, majesty, greatness, splendour etc." and as such it was separated from the 1st component and taken as ānubhāva with ā instead of a, since the compositional character had obliterated the character of the a. As such (ānubhāva absolute) found only in later language. 1. anubhāva (—°): mahānubhāva (of) great majesty, eminence, power S I 146f.; II 274; IV 323; Snp page 93; Pv II 112; Pv-a 76. deva° of divine power or majesty D II 12; devatā° the same Ja I 168; dibba° the same Pv-a 71, 110. rājā° kingly splendour, pomp D I 49; Ja IV 247; Pv-a 279 etc. — anubhāvena (instrumental °—°) in accordance with, by means of Ja II 200 (aṅgavijjā°); Pv-a 53 (iddh°), 77 (kamma°), 148 (the same), 162 (rāja°), 184 (dāna°), 186 (puñña°). yathānubhāvaṃ (adverb) in accordance with (me), as much as (I can); after ability, according to power S I 31; Vv 15 (= yathābalaṃ yathābalaṃ Vv-a 25). 2. ānubhāva majesty power, magnificence, glory, splendour Ja V 10, 456; Pv II 811; Vv-a 14; Pv-a 43, 122, 272. See also ānu°.

:: Anubhāvatā (feminine) [= anubhāva + tā] majesty, power S I 156 (maha-°).

:: Anubhāsati [anu + bhāsati] to speak after, to repeat D I 104; Miln 345; Sv I 273.

:: Anubhūta [past participle of anubhavati] (having or being) experienced, suffered, enjoyed Pv-a II 1218. neuter suffering, experience Ja I 254; Miln 78, 80.

:: Anubhūyamānatta (neuter) [abstract from present participle passive of anubhavati] the fact of having to undergo, experiencing Pv-a 103.

:: Anuma (-dassika) see anoma°.

:: Anumagge at Ja V 201 should be read anu magge along the road, by the way; anu here used as preposition with locative (see anu A b).

:: Anumajjati [anu + majjati 1. to strike along, to stroke, to touch Sv I 276 (= anumasati). 2. to beat, thresh, figurative to thresh out Ja VI 548; Miln 90. — passive anumajjīyati Miln 275 (cf. page 428).

:: Anumajjana (neuter) [abstract from anumajjati] threshing out, pounding up (BMPE 9 note 4), always used with reference to the term vicāra (q.v.) Miln 62; As 114; Sv I 63, 122.

:: Anumajjha (adjective) [anu + majjha] mediocre, without going to extremes Ja IV 192; V 387.

:: Anumaññati [anu + maññati] to assent, approve, give leave Thag 72. — past participle anumata (q.v.).


:: Anumata [past participle of anumaññati] approved of, given consent to, finding approval, given leave D I 99 (= anuññāta Sv I 267); Ja V 399 (= muta); Miln 185, 212, 231, 275; Pv-a 64 (= annuññāta).

:: Anumati (feminine) [from anumaññati] consent, permission, agreement, assent, approval Vin II 294, 301, 306; D. I 137, 143; Dīp IV 47, cf. V 18; Sv I 297; Vv-a 17, Pv-a 114.

:: Anumatta see aṇu°.

:: Anumasati [anu + masati] to touch D I 106 (= anumajjati Sv I 276).

:: Anumāna [from anu + man] inference Miln 330 (naya + a.), 372, 413; Saddh 74.

:: Anumitta [anu + mitta] a secondary friend, a follower, acquaintance Ja V 77.

:: Anumināti [cf. Sanskrit anumāti, anu + mināti from mi, Sanskrit minoti, with confusion of roots mā and mi] — to observe, draw an inference M I 97; Pv-a 227 (°anto + nayaṃ nento). See also anumīyati.

:: Anumīyati [Sanskrit anumīyate, passive of anu + mā, measure, in sense of mededium] to observe, conclude or infer from S III 36. Cf. anumināti.

:: Anumodaka (adjective) [from anumodati] one who enjoys, one who is glad of or thankful for (with accusative) Vin V 172; Pv-a 122; Saddh 512.

:: Anumodati [anu + modati] to find satisfaction in (accusative), to rejoice in, be thankful for (with accusative), appreciate, benefit from, to be pleased, to enjoy Vin II 212 (bhattagge a. to say grace after a meal); S II 54; A III 50 (°modanīya); IV 411; Dhp 177 (present participle °modamāna); It 78; Pv II 919 (dānaṃ °modamāna = enjoying, gladly receiving); 1,54 (anumodare = are pleased; piti-somanassa-jātā honti Pv-a 27); Ja II 112; Pv-a 19, 46, 81, 201) imperative modāhi); Saddh 501f. — past participle anumodita (q.v.).

:: Anumodana (neuter) [from anumodati] "according to taste", i.e. satisfaction, thanks, especially after a meal or after receiving gifts = to say grace or benediction, blessings thanksgiving. In latter sense with dadāti (give thanks for = locative), karoti (= Latin gratias agere) or vacati (say or tell thanks): °ṃ datvā Pv-a 89; °ṃ katvā Ja I 91; Dhp-a III 170, 172; Vv-a 118; Pv-a 17, 47; °ṃ vatvā Vv-a 40 (pānīyadāne for the gift of water), 295, 306 etc. °ṃ karoti also "to do a favour" Pv-a 275. Cf. further Dhp-a I 198 (°gāthā verses expressing thanks, benediction); II 97 (satthāraṃ °ṃ yāciṃsu asked his blessings; Pv-a 23 (°atthaṃ in order to thank), 26 (the same), 121, 141 (katabhatta°), 142; Saddh 213, 218, 516.

:: Anumodita [past participle of anumodati] enjoyed, rejoiced in Pv-a 77.

:: Anummatta (adjective) [an + ummatta] not out of mind, sane, of sound mind Miln 122; Saddh 205.

:: Anuyanta at A V 22 is doubtful reading (v.l. anuyutta). The meaning is either "inferior to, dependent on, a subject of, a vassal" or "attending on". The explanation may compare Sanskrit anuyātaṃ attendance [anu + yā, cf. anuyāyin] or Sanskrit yantr̥ ruler [yam], in which latter case anu-yantr̥ would be "an inferior ruler" and Pāli yanta would represent the agent noun yantā as a-stem. The v.l. is perhaps preferable as long as other passages with anuyanta are not found (see anuyutta 2). [MO: see SN 5.45.145]; 'are subject to']

:: Anuyāgin (adjective) [from anu + yaj] offering after the example of another D I 142.

:: Anuyāta [past participle of anuyāti] gone through or after, followed, pursued S II 105 (magga); A V 236; It 29; Miln 217.


:: Anuyāti (and anuyāyati) [anu + yā 1. to go after, to follow Ja VI 49 (future anuyissati), 499 (yāyantaṃ anuyāyati = anugacchati commentary). 2. to go along by, to go over, to visit Miln 391 (°yāyati). — past participle anuyāta (q.v.). See also anusaṃyāyati.

:: Anuyāyin (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit anuyāyin, anu + yā] going after, following, subject to (genitive) Snp 1017 (ananuyāyin); Ja VI 309; Miln 284.

:: Anuyuñjati [anu + yuñjati 1. to practice, give oneself up to (accusative), attend, pursue S I 25, 122 (°yuñjaṃ "in loving self-devotion" Mrs. Rh.D.); III 154; IV 104, 175; Dhp 26 (pamādaṃ = pavatteti Dhp-a I 257), 247 (surāmeraya-pānaṃ = sevati bahulīkaroti Dhp-a III 356); Pv-a 61 (kammaṭṭhānaṃ). 2. to ask a question, to call to account, take to task Vin II 79; Vv 335; present participle passive °yuñjiyamāna Pv-a 192. — past participle anuyutta (q.v.). — causative anuyojeti "to put to", to address, admonish, exhort Dhp-a IV 20.

:: Anuyuñjanā (feminine) (and °yuñjana neuter) [abstract from anuyuñjati] application or devotion to (—°) Miln 178; Vv-a 346 (anuyujjanaṃ wrong spelling?)

:: Anuyutta [past participle of anuyuñjati 1. applying oneself to, dealing with, practising given to, intent upon D I 166, 167; III 232 = A II 205 (attaparitāpanānuyogaṃ a.); S III 153; IV 104; Snp 663 (lobhaguṇe), 814 (methunaṃ = samāyutta Pj II 536), 972 (jhān°); Pp 55; Pv-a 163 (jāgariya°), 206. 2. following, attending on; an attendant, inferior, vassal, in expression khattiya or rājā anuyutta a prince royal or a smaller king (see khattiya 3 b) A V 22 (v.l. for Text anuyanta, q.v.); Snp 553 (= anugāmin, sevaka Pj II 453).

:: Anuyoga [Sanskrit anuyoga, from anu + yuj 1. application, devotion to (—°), execution, practice of (—°); often combined with anuyutta in phrase °anuyogaṃ anuyutta = practising e.g. Vin I 190 (maṇḍanānuyogaṃ anuyutta); D III 113 (attakilamathānuyogaṃ a.); A II 205 (attaparitāpanānuyogaṃ a.). — As adjective (—°) doing, given to, practising (cf. anuyutta). D I 5; III 107; M I 385; S I 182; III 239; IV 330; V 320; A I 14; III 249; IV 460f.; V 17f., 205; Ja I 90 (padhānānuyogakiccaṃ); Vv 8438 (dhamma°); Miln 348; Sv I 78, 104. 2. invitation, appeal, question (cf. anuyuñjati 2) Miln 10 (ācariyassa °ṃ datvā).

:: Anuyogavant (adjective) [anuyoga + vant] applying oneself to, full of application or zeal, devoted Pv-a 207.

:: Anuyogin (adjective) [from anuyoga] applying oneself to, devoted to (—°) Dhp 209 (atta° given to oneself, self-concentrated).

:: Anurakkhaka (adjective) [from anurakkhati, cf. °rakkhin] preserving, keeping up Ja IV 192 (vaṃsa°); VI 1 (the same).

:: Anurakkhaṇa (neuter) and °ā (feminine) [abstract from anurakkhati] guarding, protection, preservation D III 225f.; A II 16f.; Ja I 133; Pp 12; Dīp IV 24 (adjective); Vv-a 32 (citta°); Saddh 449.

:: Anurakkhati [anu + rakkhati] to guard, watch over (accusative), preserve, protect, shield Snp 149; Dhp 327; Ja I 46; Pp 12. — present participle medium° rakkhamāna(ka) as adjective Saddh 621.

:: Anurakkhā (feminine) [= anurakkhaṇā] guarding, protection, preservation S IV 323 (anuddayā a. anukampā).

:: Anurakkhin (adjective) [from anurakkhati] guarding, preserving, keeping Ja V 24.

:: Anurakkhiya (adjective) [feminine anurakkhati] in dur° difficult to guard Vin III 149.

:: Anurañjita [past participle of anu + rañjeti, causative of rañj] illumined, brightened, beautified Bv I 45 (byāmapabhā° by the shine of the halo); Vv-a 4 (sañjhātapa° for sañjhāpabhā°).


:: Anuratta (adjective) past participle of anu + rañj] attached or devoted to, fond of, faithful Thig 446 (bhattāraṃ); Ja I 297; Miln 146.

:: Anuravati [anu + ravati] to resound, to sound after, linger (of sound) Miln 63.

:: Anuravanā (feminine) [abstract from anuravati] lingering of the sound, resounding Miln 63.

:: Anurājā Anurājā [DPL]: (m.) Following king, successor.

:: Anuraho (adverb) [anu + raho] in secret, face-to-face, private M I 27.

:: Anurujjhati [Sanskrit anurudhyate, passive of anu + rudh] to conform oneself to, have a regard for, approve, to be pleased A IV 158; As 362. — past participle anuruddha (q.v.).

:: Anuruddha [past participle of anurujjhati] enggaged in, devoted to; compliant or complied with, pleased S IV 71, (anānuruddha).

:: Anurūpa (adjective) [anu + rūpa] suitable, adequate, seeming, fit, worthy; adapted to, corresponding, conform with (—°) Ja I 91; VI 366 (tad°); Pv-a 61 (ajjhāsaya° according to his wish), 128 (the same) 78, 122, 130, 155; etc. Cf. also paṭirūpa in same meaning.

:: Anurodati [anu + rodati] to cry after, cry for Ja III 166 = Pv I 127 (dārako candaṃ a.).

:: Anurodha [from anu + rudh] compliance, consideration satisfaction (opposite virodha) S I 111; IV 210; Snp 362; Dhs 1059; Vibh 145; As 362.

:: Anulapanā (feminine) [anu + lapanā, lap] scolding, blame, accusation Vin II 88 (spelt anullapanā; combined with anuvadana and anubhaṇanā).

:: Anulitta (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit anulipta, past participle of anulimpati] anointed, besmeared Ja I 266; Pv-a 211.

:: Anulimpati [anu + limpati] to anoint, besmear, Miln 394 (°limpitabba). causative °limpeti in same meaning Miln 169, and °lepeti Milm 169 (gerundive °lepanīya to be treated with ointment). — past participle anulitta (q.v.).

:: Anulimpana (neuter) [from anulimpati] anointing Miln 353, 394.

:: Anulepa [from anu + lip] anointing Miln 152.

:: Anulokin (adjective) [from anu + loketi, cf. Sanskrit and Pāli avalokin and anuviloketi] looking (up) at, seeing (—°) M I 147 (sīsa°).

:: Anuloma (adjective) [Sanskrit anu + loma] "with the hair or grain", i.e. in natural order, suitable, fit, adapted to, adaptable, straight forward D II 273 (anānuloma, q.v.) S IV 401; Paṭis II 67, 70; Dhp-a II 208. — neuter direct order, state of fitting in, adaptation Miln 148.

-ñāṇa insight of adaptation (cf. Cpd. 66, 68) Dhp-a II 208;
-paṭiloma in regular order and reversed, forward and backward (especially of paṭicca-samuppāda, also in BHS) Vin I 1; A IV 448.

:: Anulomato Anulomato[DPL]: (adv.) In accordance with.

:: Anulomika (and °ya) (adjective) [from anuloma] suitable, fit, agreeable; in proper order, adapted to (—°) Vin II 7 (an°); III 120 (an° = ananucchaviya); IV 239; A I 106; III 116f.; It 103 (sāmaññassa°); Snp 385 (pabbajita°); Pj I 243 (ananulomiya); As 25; Saddh 65.

:: Anulometi [verbal diminutive from anuloma] to conform to, to be in accordance with Miln 372.

:: Anuḷāratta (neuter) [abstract from an + uḷāra] smallness, littleness, insignificance Vv-a 24.

:: Anuvajja (adjective) [gerund of anu + vadati, cf. anuvāda and Sanskrit avavadya] — to be blamed, censurable, worthy of reproach Snp 78 (an° = anuvādavimutta Pj II 396).

:: Anuvattaka (adjective) [from anuvatteti 1. = anupavattaka (q.v.) Thag 1014 (cakka°). 2. following, siding with (—°) Vin IV 218 (ukkhittānuvattikā feminine).

:: Anuvattati [Sanskrit anuvartati, anu + vattati 1. to follow, imitate, follow one's example (with accusative), to be obedient D II 244; Vin II 309 (Buddhaghosa); IV 218; Ja I 125, 300; Sv I 288; Pv-a 19. 2. to practice, execute Pv IV 712. — causative °vatteti (q.v.).

:: Anuvattana (neuter) [abstract from anuvattati] complying with, conformity with (—°), compliance, observance, obedience Ja I 367 (dhamma°); V 78.

:: Anuvattin (adjective) [from anuvattati] following, acting according to or in conformity with (—°), obedient Ja II 348 (feminine °inī); III 319 (the same); Dhp 86 (dhamma°); Vv 155 (vasa° = anukūlabhāvena vattana-sīla Vv-a 71); Dhp-a II 161.

:: Anuvatteti [anu + vatteti] = anupavatteti (q.v.) Thag 826 (dhammacakkaṃ: "after his example turn the wheel" Mrs. Rh.D.).

:: Anuvadati [Sanskrit ava°; anu + vadati] to blame, censure, reproach Vin II 80, 88. — gerundive anuvajja (q.v.).

:: Anuvadanā (feminine) [from anuvadati] blaming, blame, censure Vin II 88 (anuvāda + a.).


:: Anuvasati [anu + vasati] to live with somebody, to dwell, inhabit Ja II 421. causative °vāseti to passive spend (time) Ja VI 296. — past participle °vuttha (q.v.).

:: Anuvassaṃ (adverb) [anu + vassa] for one rainy season; every rainy season or year, i.e. annually (Thag-a 85).

:: Anuvassika (adjective) [from anuvassaṃ] one who has (just) passed one rainy season Thag 24 ("scarce have the rains gone by" Mrs. Rh.D.; see Ps.B. page 29 note 2).

:: Anuvāceti [anu + causative of vac] to say after, to repeat (words), to recite or make recite after or again D I 104 (= tehi aññesaṃ vācitaṃ anuvācenti Sv I 273); Miln 345. Cf. anubhāseti.

:: Anuvāta1 [anu + vā to blow] a forward wind, the wind that blows from behind, a favourable wind; °ṃ adverb with the wind, in the direction of the wind (opposite paṭivātaṃ). A I 226 (°paṭivātaṃ); Saddh 425 (paṭivāta°). In anuvāte (anu + vāte) at Ja II 382 "with the wind, facing the w., in front of the wind" anu is to be taken as preposition with locative and to be separated from vāte (see anu A b.).

:: Anuvāta2 [anu + vā to weave (?) in analogy to vāta from vā to blow] only in connection with the making of the bhikkhus' garments (cīvara) "weaving on, supplementary weaving, or along the seam", i.e. hem, seam, binding Vin I 254, 297; II 177; IV 121 (aggala + a.); Pv-a 73 (anuvāte appabhonte since the binding was insufficient).

:: Anuvāda [from anuvadatī, cf. Sanskrit anuvāda in meaning of "repetition" 1. blaming, censure, admonition Vin II 5, 32; A II 121 (atta°, para°); Vibh 376. 2. in combination vādānuvāda: talk and lesser or additional talk, i.e. "small talk" (see anu B IV) D I 161; M I 368.

-adhikaraṇa a question or case of censure Vin II 88f.; III 164 (one of the 4 adhikaraṇāni, q.v.).

:: Anuvāsana (neuter) [from anuvāseti] an oily enema, an injection Miln 353.

:: Anuvāseti [anu + vāseti, causative of vāsa3 odour, perfume] to treat with fragrant oil, i.e. to make an injection or give an enema of salubrious oil Miln 169; gerundive °vāsanīya ibid.; past participle °vāsita Miln 214.

:: Anuvikkhitta (adjective) [anu + vi + khitta, past participle of anu + vikkhipati vikkhipati] dispersed over S V 277f. (+ anuvisaṭa).

:: Anuvigaṇeti [anu + vi + gaṇeti] to take care of, regard, heed, consider Thag 109.


:: Anuvicarati [anu + vi + carati] to wander about, stroll roam through, explore D I 235; Ja II 128; III 188; Pv-a 189 (= anupariyāti). — causative °vicāreti to think over (literal to make one's mind wander over), to meditate, ponder (cf. anuvicinteti); always combined with anuvitakketi (q.v.) A I 264 (cetasā), III 178 (dhammaṃ cetasā a.). — past participle anuvicarita (q.v.).

:: Anuvicarita [past participle of anuvicāreti] reflected, pondered over, thought out S III 203 (manasā); Sv I 106 (= anucarita).

:: Anuvicāra [anu + vicāra, cf. anuvicāreti] meditation, reflexion, thought Dhs 85 (= vicāra).

:: Anuvicinaka [from anu + vicināti] one who examines, an examiner Miln 365.

:: Anuvicinteti [anu + vi + cinteti] to think or ponder over, to meditate D II 203; S I 203 (yoniso °cintaya, imperative "marshall thy thoughts in ordered governance" Mrs. Rh.D.; v.l. anucintaya); Thag 747; Dhp 364; It 82 (dhammaṃ °ayaṃ); Ja III 396; IV 227; V 223 (dhammaṃ °cintayanto).

:: Anuvicca [gerund of anuvijjati, for the regular from anuvijja probably through influence of anu + i (anu-v-icca for anvicca), cf. anveti and adhicca; and see anuvijjati] having known or found out, knowing well or thoroughly, testing, finding out M I 301, 361 (v.l. °vijja); A II 3, 84; V 88; Dhp 229 (= jānitvā Dhp-a III 329); Snp 530 (= anuviditvā Pj II 431); Ja I 459 (= jānitvā commentary); III 426; Pp 49.

-kāra a thorough investigation, examination, test Vin I 236 (here spelt anuvijja) = M I 379 (= °viditvā commentary) = A IV 185.

:: Anuvijjaka [from anuvijja, gerund of anuvijjati] one who finds out, an examiner Vin V 161.

:: Anuvijjati [anu + vid, with fusion of Vedic vetti to know, and passive of vindati to find (= vidyate)] — to know thoroughly, to find out, to trace, to come to know; infinitive °vijjituṃ Ja III 506; gerund °viditvā Pj II 431, also °vijja and vicca (see both under anuvicca); gerundive ananuvejja not to be known, unfathomable, unknowable M I 140 (Tathāgato ananuvejjo). — causative anuvijjāpeti to make some one find out Ja V 162. — past participle anuvidita (q.v.).

:: Anuvijjhati [anu + vyadh 1. to pierce or be pierced, to be struck or hurt with (instrumental) Ja VI 439 2. to be affected with, to fall into, to incur Dhp-a III 380 (aparādhaṃ). — past participle anuviddha (q.v.).

:: Anuvitakketi [anu + vi + takketi] to reflect, think, ponder over, usually combined with anuvicāreti D I 119; III 242; S V 67 = It 107 (anussarati + a.); A III 383.

:: Anuvidita [past participle of anuvijjati] found out, recognised; one who has found out or knows well Snp 528, 530 (= anubuddha Pj II 431). Same in BHS, e.g. Mvu III 398.

:: Anuviddha (adjective) [past participle of anuvijjhati] pierced, intertwined or set with (—°) Vv-a 278.

:: Anuvidhīyati [cf. Sanskrit anuvidhīyate and adjective anuvidhāyin; passive of anu + vi + dhā, cf. vidahati] to act in conformity with, to follow (instruction) M II 105 = Thag 875; S IV 199; Ja II 98; III 357.

:: Anuvidhīyanā (feminine) [abstract from anuvidhīyati] acting according to, conformity with M I 43.

:: Anuviloketi [anu + vi + loketi; BHS anuvilokayati] to look round at, look over, survey, master M I 339; Snp page 140; Ja I 53; Miln 7 (lokaṃ a°), 21 (parisaṃ), 230.

:: Anuvivaṭṭa [anu + vivaṭṭa] an "after-evolution", devolution; as part of a bhikkhu's dress: a type of vivaṭṭa (q.v.) Vin I 287 (vivaṭṭa + a.).

:: Anuvisaṭa (anu + visaṭa, past participle of anu + vi + sr̥] spread over S V 277f.; Ja IV 102.

:: Anuvuttha [past participle of anuvasati, cf. Sanskrit anūṣita] living with, staying, dwelling Ja II 42 (cira°); V 445 (the same).

:: Anuvejja (adjective) in an° see anuvijjati.

:: Anuvyañjana and anubyañjana (e.g. Vin IV 15; Ja I 12) (neuter) [anu + vyañjana] — accompanying (i.e. secondary) attribute, minor or inferior characteristic, supplementary or additional sign or mark (cf. Mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇa) Vin I 65 (ablative anuvyañjanaso "in detail"); M III 126; S IV 168; A IV 279 (ablative); V 73f.; Pp 24, 58; Miln 339; Vv-a 315; As 400.

-gāhin taking up or occupying oneself with details, taken up with lesser or inferior marks D I 70 (cf. Mvu III 52); III 225; S IV 104; A I 113; II 16, 152f.; Dhs 1345 (cf. BMPE 326 note 4).

:: Anusaṃyāyati [anu + saṃ + yāyati] to traverse; to go up to, surround, visit (accusative) M I 209 (Bhagavantaṃ °itvā), Ja IV 214 (v.l. anuyāyitvā). See also anuyāti and anusaññāti.

:: Anusaṃvacchara (adjective) [anu + saṃv°] yearly Dhp-a I 388 (nakkhattaṃ). Usually neuter °ṃ as adverb yearly, every year Ja I 68; V 99. On use of anu in this combination see anu A a.

:: Anusañcarati [anu + saṃ + carati] to walk along, to go round about, to visit M I 279; S V 53, 301; Ja I 202; III 502; Pv-a 279 (nagaraṃ). — past participle anusañcarita (q.v.).

:: Anusañcarita [past participle of anusañcarati] frequented, visited, resorted to Miln 387.

:: Anusañceteti [anu + saṃ + ceteti] to set ones mind on, concentrate, think over, meditate Pp 12.

:: Anusaññāti [either anu + saṃ + jñā (jānāti) or (preferably) = anusaṃyāti as short form of anusaṃyāyati, like anuyāti < anuyāyati of anu + saṃ + yā, cf. Sanskrit anusaṃyāti in same meaning] to go to, to visit, inspect, control; present participle medium °saññāyamāna Vin III 43 (kammante); infinitive °saññātuṃ A I 68. (janapade).

:: Anusaṭa [Sanskrit anusr̥ta, past participle of anu + sr̥] sprinkled with (—°), bestrewn, scattered Vv 53 (paduma° magga = vippakiṇṇa Vv-a 36).


:: Anusatthar [agent noun to anu + sās, cf. Sanskrit anuśāsitr̥ and Pāli satthar] instructor, adviser Ja IV 178 (ācariya + a.). Cf. anusāsaka.

:: Anusatthi (feminine) [Sanskrit anuśāsti, anu + śās, cf. anusāsana] admonition, rule, instruction Ja I 241; Miln 98, 172, 186 (dhamma°), 225, 227, 347.

:: Anusandati [Vedic anusyandati, anu + syad] to stream along after, to follow, to be connected with. Thus to be read at Miln 63 for anusandahati (anuravati + , of sound), while at A IV 47 the reading is to be corrected to anusandahati.

:: Anusandahati [anu + saṃ + dhā, cf. Vedic abhi + saṃ + dhā] to direct upon, to apply to A IV 47f. (cittaṃ samāpattiyā; so to be read with v.l. for anusandati); Miln 63 (but here probably to be read as anusandati, q.v.).

:: Anusandhanatā (feminine) [= anusandhi] application, adjusting Dhs 8 (cittassa).

:: Anusandhi (feminine) [from anu + saṃ + dhā] connection, (logical) conclusion, application Sv I 122 (where 3 kinds are enumerated, viz. pucchā°, ajjhāsayā°, yathā°); Nett 14 (pucchato; Hardy, in Index "complete cessation"?!). Especially frequent in (Jātaka) phrase anusandhiṃ ghaṭeti "to form the connection", to draw the conclusion, to show the application of the story or point out its maxim Ja I 106; 308; Dhp-a II 40, 47; etc.


:: Anusampavaṅkatā (feminine) [anu + saṃ + pavaṅkatā; is reading correct?] disputing, quarrelling(?) Vin II 88 (under anuvādādhikaraṇa).

:: Anusaya [anu + śī, seti Sanskrit anuśaya has a different meaning] (see PtsC. 234 note 2 and Cpd. 172 note 2). Bent, bias, proclivity, the persistance of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. So Sn 14 = 369, 545; M III 31; S III 130, IV 33, V 28 236; A I 44; II 157; III 74, 246, 443. Or in the triplet obstinacy, prejudice and bias (adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā) S II 17; III 10, 135, 161; A. V III Occasionally a source of the bias is mentioned. Thus pride at S. I 188; II 252ff., 275; III 80, 103, 169, 253; IV 41, 197; A I 132, IV 70 doubt at M I 486 — ignorance lust and hatred at S IV 205, M III 285. At D III 254, 282; S V 60; and A IV 9. we have a list of seven anusayas, the above five and delusion and craving for rebirth. Hence-forward these lists govern the connotation of the word; but it would be wrong to put that connotation back into the earlier passages. Later references are Paṭis I 26, 70ff., 123, 130, 195; II 36, 84, 94, 158; Pp 21; Vibh 340, 383, 356; Kv 405ff. Dīp I 42.

:: Anusayita [past participle of anuseti, anu + śī] dormant, only in combination dīgha-ratta° latent so long Thag 768; Snp 355, 649. Cf. anusaya and anusayin.

:: Anusayin (adjective) [from anusaya] D II 283 (me dīgha-ratta°), "for me, so long obsessed (with doubts)". The reading is uncertain.

:: Anusarati [anu + śr̥] to follow, conform oneself to S IV 303 (phalaṃ anusarissati, but balaṃ anupadassati Sinhalese mss perhaps to be preferred). — causative anusāreti to bring together with, to send up to or against Miln 36 (aññamaññaṃ a. anupeseti).

:: Anusavati at S II 54 (āsavā na a.; v.l. anusayanti) and IV 188 (akṣalā dhammā na a.; v.l. anusenti) should preferably be read anusayati: see anuseti 2.

:: Anusahagata (adjective) having a residuum, accompanied by a minimum of + ā + S III 130; Kv 81, see aṇu°.

:: Anusāyika (adjective) [from anusaya] attached to one, i.e. inherent, chronic (of disease) M II 70 (ābādha, v.l. anussāyika); Dhp-a I 431 (roga).

:: Anusāra [from anu + sr̥] "going along with", following, conformity. Only in oblique cases (—°) anusārena (instrumental) in consequence of, in accordance with, according to Ja I 8; Pv-a 187 (tad), 227; and anusārato (ablative) the same Saddh 91.

:: Anusārin (—°) (adjective) [from anu + sarati] following, striving after, acting in accordance with, living up to or after. Frequently in formula dhamm-ā-nusārin saddh-ā-nusārin living in conformity with the Norm and the Faith D III 254; M I 142, 479; S III 225; V 200f.; A I 74; IV 10; Pp 15. — Cf. also S I 15 (bhavasota°); IV 128 (the same); Ja VI 444 (paṇḍitassa° = veyyāvaccakara commentary); Saddh 528 (attha°).

:: Anusāreti see anusarati.

:: Anusāsaka [from anusāsati] adviser, instructor, counsellor Ja II 105; Miln 186, 217, 264. Cf. anusatthar.

:: Anusāsati [Vedic anuśāsati, anu + śās 1. to advise, admonish, instruct in or give advice upon (with accusative) to exhort to Vin I 83; D I 135; II 154; Dhp 77, 159 (aññaṃ); Ja VI 368; Cp I 103; Pv II 68; Pv-a 148. — gerundive anusāsiya Vin I 59; and °sāsitabba Dhp-a III 99. — passive °sāsiyati Vin II 200; Miln 186. 2. to rule, govern (accusative) administer to (dative) S I 236 = Snp 1002 (paṭhaviṃ dhammena-m-anusāsati, of a Cakkavattin); Ja II 2; VI 517 (rajjassa = rajjaṃ commentary, i.e. take care of) Sv I 246 (read °sāsantena); Pv-a 161 (rajjaṃ). — past participle anusiṭṭha (q.v.); cf. anusatthar, anusatthi and ovadati.

:: Anusāsana (neuter) [Vedic anuśāsana, from anu + śās] advice, instruction, admonition D III 107; A I 292 (°pāṭihāriya, cf. anusāsanī); Miln 359.

:: Anusāsanī (feminine) [from anusāsati, cf. anusāsana] instruction, teaching, commandment, order S V 108; A II 147; III 87; V 24f., 49, 338; Ja V 113; Thig 172, 180; Pv III 76; Thig-a 162; Vv-a 19, 80, 81.

-pāṭihāriya (anusāsani°) the miracle of teaching, the wonder worked by the commandments (of the Buddha) Vin II 200; D I 212, 214; III 220; A I 170; V 327; Ja III 323; Paṭis II 227f.

:: Anusikkhati [Vedic anuśikṣati; anu + desiderative of śak] to learn of somebody (genitive); to follow one's example, to imitate Vin II 201 (present participle medium °amāna); S I 235; A IV 282, 286, 323; Snp 294 (vattaṃ, cf. R̥V III 59, 2: vratena śikṣati), 934; Ja I 89; II 98; III 315; V 334; VI 62; Thag 963; Miln 61. — Causative anusikkhāpeti to teach [= Sanskrit anuśikṣayati] Miln 352.

:: Anusikkhin (adjective) [from anusikhati] studying, learning M I 100; Dhp 226 (ahoratta° = divā ca rattiñ ca tisso sikkhā sikkhamāna Dhp-a III 324).

:: Anusiṭṭha (Vedic anuśiṣṭa, past participle of anusāsati] instructed, admonished, advised; ordered, commanded M II 96; Ja I 226; Pv II 811; Miln 284, 349.

:: Anusibbati [anu + sibbati, siv to sew] to interweave Vin III 336 (Sp I 94).

:: Anusuṇāti [anu + śru] to hear; preterit anassuṃ [Sanskrit anvaśruvaṃ] — I heard M I 333.

:: Anusumbhati [anu + sumbhati (sobhati); śubh or (Vedic) śumbh] — to adorn, embellish, prepare Ja VI 76.

:: Anusuyyaṃ [cf. Sanskrit anasūyaṃ] reading at Ja III 27, see anasuyyaṃ.

:: Anusuyyaka (adjective) [an + usuyyaka] not envious, not jealous Snp 325 (= usuyyāvigamena a. Pj II 332); Ja II 192 (v.l. anussuyyaka); V 112.

:: Anuseṭṭhi [anu + seṭṭhi 1. an under-seṭṭhi (banker, merchant) Ja V 384 (see anu B III a.). 2. in reduplicated compound seṭṭhānuseṭṭhi (see anu B IV) "bankers and lesser bankers", i.e. all kinds of well-to-do families Ja VI 331.

:: Anuseti [anu + seti. Cf. Sanskrit anuśayate or° śete, from śī] to "lie down with", i.e. 1. transative to dwell on, harp on (an idea) S II 65; III 36; IV 208. 2. (of the idea) to obsess, to fill the mind persistently, to lie dormant and be continually cropping up. M I 40, 108, 433; S II 54 (so read with v.l. for anusavanti) IV 188; A I 283; III 246; Pp 32, 48. — past participle anusayita (q.v.).

:: Anusocati [anu + socati] to mourn for, to bewail Snp 851 (atītaṃ na a.; cf. Nidd I 222); Pv I 127; II 68; Pv-a 95.

:: Anusocana (neuter) [abstract from anusocati] bewailing, mourning Pv-a 65.

:: Anusota° [anu + sota, in °ṃ as adverb or according to explanation under anu A a.] — in anusotaṃ (adverb) along the stream or current, down-stream A II 12; Ja I 70 (opposite paṭisotaṃ against the stream); Pv-a 169 (Gaṅgāya a. āgacchanto). {40}

-gāmin "one who follows the stream", i.e. giving way to ones inclinations, following ones will A II 5, 6 (opposite paṭi°); Sn 319 (= sotaṃ anugacchanto Pj II 330); Pp 62.


:: Anussati (feminine) [Sanskrit anusmr̥ti, from anu + smr̥̥, cf. sati] remembrance, recollection, thinking of, mindfullness. A late list of subjects to be kept in mind comprises six anussati-ṭ-ṭhānāni, viz. Buddha°, Dhamma°, Saṅgha°, sīla°, cāga°, devatā°, i.e. proper attention to the Buddha, the Doctrines, the Church, to morality, charity, the gods. Thus at D III 250, 280 (cf. A I 211); A III 284, 312f., 452; V 329f.; Paṭis I 28. Expanded to 10 subjects (the above plus ānāpāna-sati, maraṇa-sati, kāyagatā-sati, upasamānussati) at A I 30, 42 (cf. Lal 34). For other references see D I 81; S V 67 = It 107 (anussaraṇa at latter passage); A III 284, 325, 452. Paṭis I 48, 95, 186; Pp 25, 60; Dhs 14, 23, 1350 (anussati here to be corrected to asati, see BMPE 326); Saddh 225, 231, 482. See also anuttariya (anussatānuttariya).

:: Anussada (adjective) [an + ussada without haughtiness Snp 624 (vv.ll. anusaddha and anussuda; Pj II 467 explanained by taṇhā ussadābhāva) = Dhp 400 (which passage has anussuta; v.l. anussada; Dhp-a IV 165 explains with taṇhā-ussāvābhāva, vv.ll. °ussada°); It 97 (vv.ll. anussata and anussara).

:: Anussaraṇa (neuter) [abstract to anussarati] remembrance, memory, recollection It 107 (= anussati at the same passage S V 67); Pv-a 25, 29.

:: Anussarati [Vedic anusmarati, anu + smr̥̥] to remember, recollect have memory of (accusative), bear in mind; be aware of D II 8, 53, 54 (jātito etc.); S III 86f. (pubbe nivāsaṃ); V 67 (dhammaṃ a. anuvitakketi), 303 (kappasahassaṃ); A I 25, 164 (pubbe nivāsaṃ), 207 (Tathāgataṃ, Dhammaṃ etc.); III 285 (the same), 323 (nivāsaṃ), 418; V 34, 38, 132, 199, 336 (kalyāṇamitte); It 82 (dhammaṃ), 98 (pubbe nivāsaṃ); Ja I 167; II 111; Dhp 364; Pv I 59; Pp 60; Saddh 580, 587; Sv I 257; Pj I 213; Dhp-a II 84; IV 95; Pv-a 29, 53, 69, 79, 107. — past participle anussarita (see anussaritar). — Causative anussarāpeti to remind someone, to call to mind Ja II 147.

:: Anussaritar [agent noun to anussarita, past participle of anussarati] one who recollect or remembers S V 197, 225 (saritar + a.); A V 25, 28.

:: Anussava [anu + sava from śru, cf. Vedic śravas neuter] hearsay, report, tradition M I 520; II 211; S II 115; IV 138; A I 26; Ja I 158 (with reference to particle kira = annussavatthe nipāto; so also at Vv-a 322, cf. anussavana); II 396, 430 (the same); IV 441; instrumental °ena from hearsay, by report A II 191 (cf. itihītihaṃ).

:: Anussavana (neuter) [anu + savana from śru] = anussava Pv-a 103 (kira-saddo anussavane, from hearsay).

:: Anussavika (adjective) [from anussava] "belonging to hearsay", traditional; one who is familiar with tradition or who learns from hearsay M I 520; II 211. Cf. anussutika.

:: Anussāvaka [from anussāveti] one who proclaims or announces, a speaker (of a kammavācā) Vin I 74.

:: Anussāvana (neuter) and °ā (feminine) [from anussāveti] a proclamation Vin I 317, 340; V 170, 186, 202f.

:: Anussāvita [past participle of anussāveti] proclaimed, announced Vin I 103.

:: Anussāveti [anu + sāveti, causative of śru, cf. BHS anuśrāvayati "to proclaim aloud the guilt of a criminal" Avś I 102; II 182] to cause to be heard or to cause to sound; to proclaim, utter, speak out Vin I 103 (°ssāviyamāna present participle passive); II 48 (saddaṃ a.). — past participle anussāvita.

:: Anussuka (adjective) [an + ussuka] free from greed Dhp 199; cf. anussukin v.l. D III 47, also anissukin and apalāsin.

:: Anussukita [an + ussuk°] Vv-a 74 and anussukin Pp 23 = anussuka.

:: Anussuta1 (adjective) [an + ussuta, ud + sr̥] free from lust Dhp 400 (= ussāvāvena anussuta commentary). See also anussada.

:: Anussuta2 [anu + suta, past participle of śru] heard of; only in compound ananussuta unheard of S II 9; Pp 14.

:: Anussutika (adjective) [from anu + śru, cf. anussavika] according to tradition or report, one who goes by or learns from hearsay Sv I 106, 107.

:: Anussuyyaka see anusuyyaka.

:: Anuhasati [anu + hasati] to laugh at, to ridicule Sv I 256.

:: Anuhīrati [for °hariyati, anu + hr̥] to be held up over, present participle anuhīramāna D II 15 (v.l. anubhiram°; glosses K.B. anudhāriyam°, cf. Trenckner, "Notes" 79).

:: Anūna (adjective) [Vedic anūna, an + ūna] not lacking, entire, complete, without deficiency Ja VI 273; Dīp V 52; Miln 226; Sv I 248 (+ paripūra, explained by anavaya).

:: Anūnaka = anūna Dīp IV 34.

:: Anūnatā (feminine) [abstract from anūna] completeness Cp III 611.

:: Anūpa (adjective) [Vedic anūpa, anu + ap: see āpa, original alongside of water] — watery, moist; watery land, lowland Ja IV 358 (anopa Text; anupa commentary page 359), 381 (°khetta); Miln 129 (°khetta).

:: Anūpaghāta [metrically for anupa°] not killing, not murdering. Dhp 185 (= anupahananañ c'eva anupaghātanañ ca Dhp-a III 238).

:: Anūpadhika for anu° in metre Snp 1057, see upadhi.

:: Anūpanāhin (adjective) [an + upanāhin, with ū metri causā] not bearing ill-will, not angry with Ja IV 463.

:: Anūpama at It 122 is metri causā reading for anupama (see upama).

:: Anūpalitta (adjective) [an + upalitta, with ū in metre] free from taint, unstained, unsmeared Snp 211, 392, 468, 790, 845; Dhp 353; cf. Nidd I 90 and Dhp-a IV 72.

:: Anūpavāda [an + upavāda, with metrically lengthened u] not grumbling, not finding fault Dhp 185 (= anupavādanañ c'eva anupavadāpanañ ca Dhp-a III 238).

:: Anūhata (adjective) [past participle of an + ūhaññati, ud + han] not rooted out, not removed or destroyed Thag 223 = Nidd II §974; Dhp 338 (= asamucchinna Dhp-a IV 48).

:: Aneka (adjective) (usually °-) [an + eka] not one, i.e. many, various; countlcss, numberless It 99 (saṃvaṭṭakappā countless æons); Snp 688 (°sākhā); Dhp 153 (°jātisāra); Ja IV 2; VI 366.

-pariyāyena (instrumental) in many ways Vin I 16; Snp 15;
-rūpa various, manifold Snp 1049, 1079, 1082; Nidd II §54 (= anekavidha);
-vidha manifold Nidd II §54; Sv I 103;
-vihita various, manifold D I 12, 13, 178; It 98; Pp 55; Sv I 103 (= anekavidha).

:: Anekaṃsā (feminine) [an + ekaṃsā] doubt Nidd II §1.

:: Anekaṃsikatā (feminine) [abstract from anekaṃsa + kata] uncertainty, doubtfullness Miln 93.

:: Aneja (adjective) [an + ejā] free from desires or lust D II 157; Snp 920, 1043, 1101, 1112; It 91 (opposite ejānuga Nidd I 353 = Nidd II §55; Dhp 414 (= taṇhāya abhāvena Dhp-a IV 194), 422; Pv IV 135 (nittaṇha Pv-a 230).

:: Anedha (adjective) [an + edha] without fuel Ja IV 26 (= anindhana).

:: Aneḷa (adjective) [an + eḷa = ena, see neḷa and cf. BHS eḍa (mūka); Vedic anena] — faultless, pure; only in following compounds: °gala free from the dripping or oozing of impurity (thus {46} explained at Sv I 282, viz. eḷagalaṃa-virahita), but more likely in literal meaning "having a pure or clear throat" or, of vācā speech: "clearly enunciated" (thus Mrs. Rh.D. at K.S. I 241) Vin I 197 = D I 114 = S I 189; A II 51, 97; III 114, 195. Cf. also Mvu III 322. — °mūga same as preceding "having a clear throat", i.e. not dumb, figurative clever, skilled D III 265; Snp 70 (= alālāmukha Pj II 124), cf. Nidd II §259.

:: Aneḷaka (adjective) [cf. BHS aneḍaka, e.g. Avś I 187, 243; Mvu I 339; III 322] = aneḷa, pure, clear M II 5; Ja VI 529.

:: Anesanā (feminine) [an + esanā] impropriety S II 194; Ja II 86; IV 381; Miln 343, 401; Sv I 169; Dhp-a IV 34; Saddh 392, 427.

:: Ano- is a frequent form of compounds an-ava, see ava.

:: Anoka (neuter) [an + oka] houselessness, a houseless state, figurative freedom from worldliness or attachment to life, singleness S V 24 = A V 232 = Dhp 87 (okā anokaṃ āgamma). — adjective homeless, free from {41} attachment S I 176; Dhp 87 (= anālaya Dhp-a II 162); Snp 966 (adjective; explained at Nidd I 487 by abhisaṅkhāra-sahagatassa viññāṇassa oksaṃ na karoti, and at Pj II 573 by abhisaṅkhāra-viññānādīnaṃ anokāsabhūta).

-sārin living in a houseless state, figurative being free from worldly attachment S III 10 = Nidd I 197; Snp 628 (= anālaya-cārin Pj II 468); Ud 32; Dhp 404 (v.l. anokka°); Dhp-a IV 174 (= anālaya-cārin); Miln 386.

:: Anogha in anogha-tiṇṇa see ogha.

:: Anojaka = anojā Vv 354 (= Vv-a 161, where classed with yodhikā bandhujīvakā).

:: Anojagghati at D I 91 is v.l. for anujagghati.

:: Anojā (feminine) [Sanskrit anujā] a kind of shrub or tree with red flowers Ja VI 536 (koranḍaka + a.); usually in compound anojapuppha the a. flower, used for wreaths etc. Ja I 9 (°dāma, a garland of a flowers); VI 227 (the same); Dhp-a II 116 (°cangoṭaka).

:: Anottappa (neuter) [an + ottappa] recklessness, hardness D III 212; It 34 (ahirika + a.); Pp 20; Dhs 365. Cf. anottāpin.

:: Anottāpin and Anottappin (adjective) [from anottappa] not afraid of sin, bold, reckless, shameless D III 252, 282 (pp; ahirika); Snp 133 (-p-) ahirika + a.); It 27, 115 (anatāpin anottappin, vv.ll. anottāpin); Pp 20, 24.

:: Anodaka (adjective) [an + udaka] without water, dry Ja I 307; Dhp-a I 52; Saddh 443.

:: Anodissaka (adjective) [an + odissa + ka] unrestricted, without exception, general, universal; only in compound °vasena universally, thoroughly (with reference to mettā) Ja I 81; II 146; Vv-a 97 (in general; opposite odissaka-vasena). See also Mrs. Rh.D. Ps.B. page 5 note 1.

:: Anonamati [an + onamati] not to bend, to be inflexible, in following expressions: anonamaka (neuter) not stooping Dhp-a II 136; auonamanto (present participle) not bending D II 17 = III 143; anonami-daṇḍa (for anonamiya°) an inflexible stick Miln 238 (anoṇami° Text but anonami° v.l., see Miln 427).

:: Anopa see anūpa.

:: Anoma (adjective) (only °-) [an + oma] not inferior, superior, perfect, supreme, in following compounds
-guṇa supreme virtue Sv I 288;
-dassika of superior beauty Vv 207, Vv-a 103 (both as v.l.; Text anuma°); Vv 437;
-dassin one who has supreme knowledge; of unexcelled wisdom (name of a Buddha) Ja I 228;
-nāma of perfect name S I 33 ("by name the Peerless" Mrs. Rh.D.), 235; Snp 153, 177 (cf. Pj II 200);
-nikkama of perfect energy Vv 6427 (= paripuṇṇa-viriyatāya a. Vv-a 284);
-pañña of lofty or supreme wisdom (epithet of the Buddha) Snp 343, 352 (= mahāpañña Pj II 347); Thig 522 (= paripuṇṇa-pañña Thig-a 296), Dhp-a I 31;
-vaṇṇa of excellent colour Snp 686 Ja VI 202;
-viriya of supreme exertion or energy Snp 353.

:: Anomajjati [anu + ava + majjati, mr̥j] to rub along over, to stroke, only in phrase gattāni pāṇinā a. to rub over one's limbs with the hand M I 80, 509; S V 216.

:: Anorapāra (adjective) [an + ora + pāra] having (a shore) neither on this side nor beyond Miln 319.

:: Anoramati [an + ava + ram] not to stop, to continue Ja III 487; Dhp-a III 9 (gerund °itvā continually).

:: Anovassa (neuter) [an + ovassa; cf. Sanskrit anavavarṣaṇa] absence of rain, drought Ja V 317 (v.l. for anvāvassa Text; q.v.).

:: Anovassaka (adjective) [an + ovassaka] sheltered from the rain, dry Vin II 211; IV 272; Ja I 172; II 50; III 73; Dhp-a II 263; Thig-a 188.

:: Anosita (adjective) [an + ava + sita, past participle of sā] not inhabited (by), not accessible (to) Snp 937 (= anajjhositaṃ Nidd I 441; jarādīhi anajjhāvutthaṃ ṭhānaṃ Pj II 566).

:: Anta1 [Vedic anta; Gothic andeis = Old High German anti = English end; cf. also Latin antiae forehead (English antler), and the preposition anti opposite, antika near = Latin ante; Greek ἀντί and ἄντα opposite; Gothic, Anglo-Saxon and; German ant-; originally the opposite (i.e. what stands against or faces the starting-point)]. 1. end, finish, goal S IV 368 (of Nibbāna); Snp 467; Ja II 159. antaṃ karoti to make an end (of) Snp 283, 512; Dhp 275, cf. antakara, °kiriyā. — locative ante at the end of, immediately after Ja I 203 (vijay°). 2. limit, border, edge Vin I 47; Dhp 305 (van°); Ja III 188. 3. side: see ekamantaṃ (on one side, aside). 4. opposite side, opposite, counterpart; plural parts, contrasts, extremes; thus also used as "constituent, principle" (in tayo and cattāro antā; or does it belong to anta2 2. in this meaning? Cf. ekantaṃ extremely, under anta2): dve antā (two extremes) Vin I 10; S II 17; III 135. ubho antā (both sides) Vin I 10; S II 17; Ja I 8; Nidd I 109. eko, dutiyo anto (contrasts) Nidd I 52. As tayo antā or principles (?), viz. sakkāya, s.-samudaya, s.-nirodha D III 216, cf. A III 401; as cattāro, viz. the 3 mentioned plus s.-nirodhagāmini-paṭipadā at S III 157. Interpreted by Morris as "goal" JPTS 1894, 70).

Pleonasm: the use of more words or parts of words than are necessary or sufficient for clear expression

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

5. Often pleonastically, to be explained as a "pars pro toto" figure, like kammanta (q.v.) the end of the work, i.e. the whole work (cf. English sea-side, country-side); vananta the border of the wood = the woods Dhp 305; Pv II 310 (explained by vana Pv-a 86; same use in BHS, vanānta e.g. at Jm VI 21; cf. also grāmānta Avś I 210); suttanta (q.v.), etc. Cf. ākāsanta Ja VI 89 and the pleonastic use of patha. — ananta (noun) no end, infinitude; (adjective) endless, corresponds either to Sanskrit anta or antya, see anta2.

-ānanta end and no end, or finite and endless, D I 22; Sv I 115;
-ānantika (holding views of, or talking about) finiteness and infinitude D I 22 (see explained at Sv I 115); S III 214, 258f.; Paṭis I 155;
-kara putting an end to, (noun) a deliverer, saviour; usually in phrase dukkhass'a. (of the Buddha) M I 48, 531; A II 2; III 400f.; Thag 195; It 18; Snp 32, 337, 539; Pp 71. In other combinations A II 163 (vijjāy-); Snp 1148 (pañhān-);
-kiriyā putting an end to, ending, relief, extirpation; always used with reference to dukkha S IV 93; lt 89; Snp 454, 725; Dhp-a IV 45;
-gata = antagū Nidd II §436 (+ koṭigata);
-gāhikā (feminine), viz. diṭṭhi, is an attribute of micchā-diṭṭhi, i.e. heretical doctrine. The meaning of anta in this combination is not quite clear: either "holding (wrong) principles (goals, Morris)", viz. the 3 as specified above 4 under tayo antā (thus Morris JPTS 1884, 70), or "taking extreme sides, i.e. extremist", or "wrong, opposite (= antya, see anta2)" (thus Kern, Toev. sub voce) Vin I 172; D III 45, 48 (an°); S I 154; A I 154; II 240; III 130; Paṭis I 151 sq;
-gū one {47} who has gone to the end, one who has gone through or overcome (dukkha) A IV 254, 258, 262; Snp 401 (= vaṭṭadukkhassa antagata); 539;
-ruddhi at Ja VI 8 is doubtful reading (antaruci ?);
-vaṭṭi rimmed circumference Ja III 159;
-saññin being conscious of an end (of the world) D I 22, cf. Sv I 115.

:: Anta2 (adjective) [Vedic antya 1. having an end, belonging to the end; only in negative ananta endless, infinite, boundless (opposite antavant); which may be taken as equal to anta1 (corresponds with Sanskrit anta (adjective) or antya; also in doublet anañca, see ākāsānañca and viññāṇānañca); D I 23, 34 = D III 224, 262f.; Snp 468 (°pañña); Dhp 179, 180 (°gocara having an unlimited range of mental vision, cf. Dhp-a III 197); Ja I 178. 2. extreme, last, worst Ja II 440 (commentary hīna, lāmaka); see also anta1 4. — accusative as adverb in ekantaṃ extremely, very much, "utterly" Dhp 228 etc. See eka.

:: Anta3 (neuter) [Vedic āntra, contraction from antara inner = Latin interus, Greek ἔντερα (entrails) intestines] — the lower intestine, bowels, mesentery It 89; Ja I 66, 260 (°vaddhi-maṃsa etc.); Vism 258; Dhp-a I 80.

-gaṇṭhi twisting of the bowels, literally "a knot in the intestines" Vin I 275 (°ābādha);
-guṇa [see guṇa2 = guḷa1] the intestinal tract, the bowels S II 270; A IV 132; Khp III = Miln 26; Vism 42; Pj I 57;
-mukha the anus Ja IV 402;
-vaṭṭi = °guṇa Vism 258.

:: Antaka [Vedic antaka] being at the end, or making an end, especially of death or Māra Vin I 21; S I 72; Thig 59 (explained by Thig-a 65 as lāmakācāra Māra, thus taken = anta2); Dhp 48 (= maraṇa-saṅkhāto antako Dhp-a II 366), 288 (= maraṇa Dhp-a III 434).

:: Antamaso (adverb) [original ablative of antama, Sanskrit antamaśaḥ; cf. BHS antaśaḥ as same formation from anta, in same meaning ("even") Avś I 314; Divy 161] — even Vin III 260; IV 123; D I 168; M III 127; A V 195; Ja II 129; Sv I 170; Pj II 35; Vv-a 155.


:: Antara (adjective) [Vedic antara, cf. Greek ἔντερα (entrail) = Sanskrit antra (see anta3), Latin interus from preposition inter. See also ante and anto]. — Primary meanings are "inside" and "in between"; as adjective "inner"; in preposition use and in compounds "inside, in between". Further development of meaning is with a view of contrasting the (two) sides of the inside relation, i.e. having a space between, different from; thus neuter antaraṃ difference. I. (adjective/noun) 1. (a) inner, having or being inside It 83 (tayo antarā malā three inward stains); especially as °—° in compounds āmis° with greed inside, greedy, selfish Vin I 303; dos° with anger inside, i.e. angry Vin II 249; D III 237; M I 123; Pv-a 78 (so read for des°). Ablative antarato from within It 83. (b) in between, distant; dvādasa yojanantaraṃ ṭhānaṃ Pv-a 139. 2. In noun-function (neuter): (a) spatial: the inside (of) Vv 361 (pītantara a yellow cloak or inside garment = pītavaṇṇa uttariya Vv-a 116); Dāṭh I 10 (dīpantara-vāsin living on the island); Dhp-a I 358 (kaṇṇa-chidd° the inside of the ear; Vv-a 50 (kacch° inner room or apartment). Therefore also "space in between", break Ja V 352 (= chidda commentary), and obstacle, hindrance, in general what stands in between: see compounds and antara-dhāyati (for antaraṃ dhāyati). (b) temporal: an interval of time, hence time in general, and also a specified time, i.e. occasion. As interval in Buddh'antaraṃ the time between the death of one Buddha and the appearance of another, Pv-a 10, 14, 21, 47, 191 etc. As time: It 121 (etasmiṃ antare in that time or at this occasion); Pv I 1011 (dīghaṃ antaraṃ = dīghaṃ kālaṃ Pv-a 52); Pv-a 5 (etasmiṃ antare at this time, just then). As occasion: Ja V 287; Pp 55 (eḷaka-m-antaraṃ occasion of getting rain). S I 20, quoted Sv I 34, (mañ ca tañ ca kiṃ antaraṃ what is there between me and you?) commentary explains kiṃ kāraṇā. Mrs. Rh.D. in K.S. I 256 "of me it is and thee (this talk) — now why is this"; Ja VI 8 (assa antaraṃ na passaṃsu they did not see a difference in him). 3. phrases: antaraṃ karoti (a) to keep away from or at a distance (transitive and intransitive), to hold aloof, literally "to make a space in between" M III 14; Ja IV 2 (°katvā leaving behind); Pp-a 231 (ummāraṃ a. katvā staying away from a threshold); also adverbially: dasa yojanāni a. katvā at a distance of 10 yojana Pv-a 139. (b.) to remove, destroy Ja VI 56 (v.l. antarāyaṃ karoti). II. In preposition use (°-) with accusative (direction) or locative (rest): inside (of), in the midst of, between, during (cf. III use of cases). (a) with accusative: antaragharaṃ paviṭṭha gone into the house Miln 11. (b) with locative: antaraghare nisīdanti (inside the house) Vin II 213; °dīpake in the centre of the island Ja I 240; °dvāre in the door Ja V 231; °magge on the road (cf. antarāmagge) Pv-a 109; °bhatte in phrase ekasmiṃ yeva a. during one meal Ja I 19 = Dhp-a I 249; °bhattasmiṃ the same Dhp-a IV 12; °vīthiya in the middle of the road Pv-a 96. °satthīsu between the thighs Vin II 161 (has antarā satthīnaṃ) = Ja I 218. III. Adverbial use of cases, instrumental antarena in between D I 56; S IV 59, 73; Ja I 393; Pv-a 13 (kāl° in a little while, na kālantarena ibid. 19). Often in combination antarantarena (with genitive) right in between (literally in between the space of) Dhp-a I 63, 358. — locative antare in, inside of, in between (-° or with genitive Pj I 81 (sutt° in the Sutta); Dhp-a III 416 (mama a.); Pv-a 56, 63 (rukkh°). Also as antarantare right inside, right in the middle of (with genitive) Pj I 57; Dhp-a I 59 (vanasaṇḍassa a.). — ablative antarā (see also seperate article on antarā) in combination antarantarā from time to time, occasionally; successively time after time Snp page 107; Dhp-a II 86; IV 191; Pv-a 272. IV. anantara (adjective) having or leaving nothing in between i.e. immediately following, incessant, next, adjoining Ja IV 139; Miln 382 (solid) Dhp-a I 397; Pv-a 63 (tad antaraṃ immediately hereafter), 92 (immediately preceding), 97 (next in caste). See also abbhantara.

-atīta gone past in the meantime Ja II 243;
-kappa an intermediary kappa (q.v.) D I 54;
-kāraṇa a cause of impediment, hindrance, obstacle Pp-a 231
-cakka "the intermediate round", i.e. in astrology all that belongs to the intermediate points of the compassMiln 178;
-cara one who goes in between or inside, i.e. a robber S IV 173;
-bāhira (adjective) inside and outside Ja I 125;
-bhogika one who has power (wealth, influence) inside the kings dominion or under the king, a subordinate chieftain (cf. antara-raṭṭha) Vin III 47;
-raṭṭha an intermediate kingdom, rulership of a subordinate prince Ja V 135;
-vāsa an interregnum Dīp V 80;
-vāsaka "inner or intermediate garment", one of the 3 robes of a Buddhist bhikkhu (viz. the saṅghāṭī, uttarāsaṅga and a.) Vin I 94, 289; II 272. Cf. next;
-sāṭaka an inner or lower garment [cf. Sanskrit antarīya the same], undergarment, i.e. the one between the outer one and the body Vv-a 166 (q.v.).

:: Antaraṃsa [BHS antarāṃsa; antara + aṃsa] "in between the shoulders", i.e. the chest Ja V 173 = VI 171 (phrase lohitakkho vihatantaraṃso).

:: Antaraṭṭhaka (adjective) [antara + aṭṭhaka] only in phrases rattisu antaraṭṭhakāsu and antaraṭṭhake hima-pātasamaye (in which antara functions as preposition with locative, according to antara II b.) i.e. in the nights (and in the time of the falling of snow) between the eighths (i.e. the eighth day before and after the full moon: see aṭṭhaka2). First phrase at Vin I 31, 288; III 31; second at M I 79 (cf. page 536 where Trenckner divides anta-raṭṭhaka); A I 136 (in nominative); Ja I 390; Miln 396.

:: Antaradhāna (neuter) [from antaradhāyati] disappearance A I 58 (saddhammassa); II 147; III 176f.; Miln 133; Dhs 645, 738, 871. Cf. °dhāyana.

:: Antaradhāyati [antara + dhāyati] to disappear Snp 449 (°dhāyatha 3rd singular medium); Vv 8128 (the same); Ja I 119 = Dhp-a I 248; Dhp-a IV 191 (present participle °dhāyamāna and preterit dhāyi) Pv-a 152, 217, (°dhāyi), 245; Vv-a 48. — present participle antarahita (q.v.). — causative antaradhāpeti to cause to disappear, to destroy Ja I 147; II 415; Pv-a 123.


:: Antaradhāyana (neuter) [from antaradhāyati] disappearance Dhp-a IV 191. (v.l. °adhāna).

:: Antarayati [cf. denominative from antara] to go or step in between, gerund antaritvā (= antarayitvā) Ja I 218.

:: Antarahita (adjective) [past participle of antaradhāyati 1. disappeared, gone, left D I 222. M I 487. Miln 18. Pv-a 245. 2. in phrase anantarahitāya bhūmiyā (locative) on the bare soil (literal on the ground with nothing put in between it and the person lying down, i.e. on an uncovered or unobstructed ground) Vin I 47; II 209; M II 57.

:: Antarā (adverb) [ablative or adverb formation from antara; Vedic antarā.] preposition (with genitive accusative or locative), prefix (°-) and adverb "in between" (of space and time), midway, inside; during, meanwhile, between. On interpretation of term see Sv I 34f. 1. (preposition) with accusative (of the two points compared as termini; cf. BHS antarā ca Divy 94 etc.) D I 1 (antarā ca Rājagahaṃ antarā ca Nāḷandaṃ between R. and N.). — with genitive and locative Vin II 161 (satthīnaṃ between the thighs, where the same passage at Ja I 218 has antara-satthīsu); A II 245 (satthīnaṃ. but v.l. satthimhi). 2. (adverb) meanwhile Snp 291, 694; It 85; Dhp 237. — occasionally Miln 251. 3. (prefix) see compounds
-kathā "in between talk, talk for pastime, chance conversation, D II 1, 8, 9; S I 79; IV 281; A III 167; Snp 115; Sv I 49 and frequent passim;
-gacchati to come in between, to prevent Ja VI 295;
-parinibbāyin an Anāgāmin who passives away in the middle of his term of life in some particular heaven D III 237; A I 233; Pp 16;
-magge (locative) on the road, on the way Ja I 253; Miln 16; Dhp-a II 21; III 337; Pv-a 151, 258, 269, 273 (cf. antara°);
-maraṇa premature death Dhp-a I 409; Pv-a 136;
-muttaka one who is released in the meantime Vin II 167.

:: Antarāpaṇa (neuter) [antarā + paṇa "in between the shopping or trading"] place where the trading goes on, bazaar Ja I 55; VI 52; Miln 1, 330; Dhp-a I 181.

:: Antarāya1 [antara + aya from i, literally "coming in between"] obstacle, hindrance, impediment to (—°); prevention, bar; danger, accident to {43} (-). There are 10 dangers (to or from) enumerated at Vin I 112, 169 etc., viz. rāja°, cora°, aggi°, udaka°, manussa°, amanussa°, vāḷa°, siriṃsapa°, jīvita°, brahmacariya°. In BHS 7 at Divy 544, viz. rājā-caura-manuṣy-amanuṣya-vyāḍ-agny-udakaṃ. — D I 3, 25, 26; A III 243, 306; IV 320; Snp 691, 692; Dhp 286 (= jīvit° Dhp-a III 431); Ja I 62, 128; Pj I 181; Dhp-a II 52; Vv-a 1 = Pv-a 1 (hat° removing the obstacles) °antarāyaṃ karoti to keep away from, hinder, hold back, prevent, destroy Vin I 15; Ja VI 171; Vism 120; Pv-a 20.

-kara one who causes impediments or bars the way, an obstructor D I 227; S I 34; A I 161; Pv IV 322.

:: Antarāya2 (adverb) [dative of antara or formation from antara + gerund of i?) in the meantime Snp 1120 (cf Nidd II §58) = antarā Pj II 603.

:: Antarāyika (adjective) [from antarāya1] causing an obstacle, forming an impediment Vin I 94 = II 272; M I 130; S II 226; Thig-a 288.

:: Antarāyikin (adjective/noun) [cf. antarāyika] one who meets with an obstacle, finding difficulties Vin IV 280 (an° = asati antarāye).

:: Antarāḷa (neuter) [Sanskrit antarāla] interior, interval Dāṭh I 52; III 53 (nabh°).

:: Antarika (adjective) [from antara] "being in between", i.e. 1. intermediate, next, following: see an°. 2. distant, lying in between Pv-a 173 (aneka-yojan° ṭhāna). See also feminine antarikā. 3. inside: see antarikā. — anantarika with no interval, succeeding, immediately following, next Vin II 165, 212 (ān°); IV 234.

:: Antarikā (feminine) [abstract from antarika] "what lies in between or near", i.e. 1. the inside of Vin IV 272 (bhājan°). 2. the neighbourhood, region of (—°), sphere, compassVin III 39 (ur°, aṅgul°); Ja I 265 (yakkhassa sīm° inside the y.'s sphere of influence). 3. interval, interstice Vin II 116 (sutt° in lace); A I 124 (vijj° the interval of lightning).

:: Antalikkha (neuter) [Vedic antarikṣa = antari-kṣa (kṣi), literally situated in between sky and earth] — the atmosphere or air D II 15; A III 239; IV 199; Snp 222, 688; Dhp 127 = Miln 150 = Pv-a 104; Pv I 31 (= vehāyasa-saññita a. Pv-a 14); Pj I 166.

-ga going through the air A I 215;
-cara walking through the air Vin I 21; D I 17; S I 111; Ja V 267; Sv I 110.

:: Antavant (ādj.) [anta1 + °vant] having an end, finite D I 22, 31, 187; Paṭis I 151f.; 157; Dhs 1099, 1117, 1175; Miln 145. — anantavant endless, infinite A V 193 (loka). See also loka.

:: Anti (indeclinable) [Vedic anti = Lat ante, Greek ἀντί, Gothic and; Anglo-Saxon and-, German ant-, ent-] adverb and preposition with genitive: opposite, near Ja V 399 (tav'antiṃ āgatā, read as tav'anti-m-āgatā; commentary santikaṃ), 400, 404; VI 565 (sāmikass'anti = antike commentary). — Cf. antika.

:: Antika (adjective/noun) 1. [derived from anti] near Pj I 217; neuter neighbourhood Khp VIII 1. (odak°); Ja VI 565 (antike locative = anti near). 2. [derived from anta = Sanskrit antya] being at the end, final, finished, over S I 130 (purisā etad-antikā, v.l. antiyā: men are (to me) at the end for that, i.e. men do not exist any more for me, for the purpose of begetting sons.

:: Antima Antima (adjective) [Cf. superlative of anta] last, final (used almost exclusively with reference to the last and final reincarnation; thus in combination with deha and sarīra, the last body) D II 15; Dhp 351; It 50 (antimaṃ dehaṃ dhāreti), 53 (the same); Vv 512; Snp 478 (sarīraṃ antimaṃ dhāreti) 502; Miln 122, 148; Vv-a 106 (sarīr'antima-dhārin); Saddh 278.

-dehadhara one who wears his last body It 101 (dhāra Text °dhara v.l.); Vv-a 163;
-dhārin = preceding S I 14, 53 (+ khīṇāsava); II 278; It 32, 40; Snp 471;
-vatthu "the last thing", i.e. the extreme, final or worst (sin) Vin I 121, 135, 167, 320;
-sarīra the last body; (adjective) having ones last rebirth S I 210 (Buddho °sarīro); A II 37; Snp 624; Dhp 352, 400; Dhp-a IV 166 (= koṭiyaṃ ṭhito attabhāvo).

:: Ante° (prefix) [Sanskrit antaḥ, with change of °aḥ to °e, instead of the usual °o, probably through interpreting it as locative of anta] near, inside, within; only in following compounds: °pura (neuter) "inner town", the king's palace, especially its inner apartments, i.e. harem [Sanskrit antaḥpura, cf. also Pāli antopura] Vin I 75, 269; A V 81; Ja II 125; IV 472; Miln 1; Pv-a 23, 81, 280; °purikā harem woman As 403; °vāsika Antevāsika one who lives in, i.e. lodges or lives with his master or teacher, a pupil Vin I 60; III 25; S I 180; IV 136; Ja I 166; II 278; III 83, 463; Pv-a 12; Vv-a 138; °vāsin = °vāsika Vin III 66; D I 1, 45, 74, 78, 88, 108, 157; M III 116; Sv I 36.

:: Anto (indeclinable) [Sanskrit antaḥ; Av antara Latin inter, Old-Irish etar between, Old High German untar; Indo-Germanic °entar, comparative of °en (in) = inner, inside] preposition inside, either with accusative denoting direction = into, or with locative denoting place where = in. As prefix (°-) in, within, inside, inner (see compounds) 1. preposition with accusative anto nivesanaṃ gata gone into the house Ja I 158; anto jālaṃ pavisati go into the net Dhp-a III 175; anto gāmaṃ pavisati to go into the village Dhp-a II 273; anto nagaraṃ pavisati Dhp-a II 89; Pv-a 47. 2. with locative anto gabbhe Ja II 182; gāme Dhp-a II 52; gehe Dhp-a II 84; nadiyaṃ Ja VI 278; nivesane Ja II 323; vasse in the rainy season Ja IV 242; vimānasmiṃ Pv I 101; sattāhe inside of a week Pv-a 55. {49}

-koṭisanthāra "house of the Golden Pavement" Ja IV 113;
-gadha (°gata° Kern Toev.) in phrase °hetu, by inner reason or by reason of its intensity Pv-a 10; Vv-a 12;
-jana "the inside people", i.e. people belonging to the house, the family (= Latin familia) D III 61 (opposed to servants); A I 152; Ja VI 301; Sv I 300;
-jāla the inside of the net, the net Dhp-a IV 41;
-jālikata "in-netted", gone into the net D I 45; Sv I 127;
-nijjhāna inner conflagration Pv-a 18;
-nimugga altogether immersed D I 75; A III 26;
-parisoka inner grief Paṭis I 38;
-pura = antepura Ja I 262;
-mano "turning ones mind inside", thoughtful, melancholy Vin III 19;
-bhavika being inside Miln 95;
-rukkhatā being among trees Ja I 7;
-vasati to inhabit, live within S IV 136;
-vaḷañjanaka (parijana) indoor people Ja V 118;
-vassa the rainy season (literal the interval of the r.s.) Vv-a 66;
-vihāra the inside of the v. Dhp-a I 50 (°abhimukhī turning towards etc.),
-samorodha barricading within Dhs 1157 (so read for anta°, cf. BMPE 288 note 6);
-soka inner grief Paṭis I 38.

:: Andu [cf. Sanskrit andu, andū and anduka] a chain, fetter Vin I 108 = III 249 (tiṇ°); D I 245; Ja I 21 (°ghara prison house); Dhp-a IV 54 (°bandhana).

:: Andha (adjective) [Vedic andha, Latin andabata (see Walde, Latin Wtb. sub voce), other etymology doubtful 1. (literal) blind, blinded, blindfolded Ja I 216 (dhūm°); Pv IV 148; Pv-a 3. — dark, dull, blinding M III 151 (°andhaṃ adverb dulled); Snp 669 (especially of timisa, like Vedic andhaṃ tamaḥ); Dhp-a II 49 (°vana dark forest). 2. (figurative) mentally blinded, dull of mind, foolish, not seeing D I 191 (+ acakkhuka), 239 (°veṇi, reading and meaning uncertain); A I 128; Thig 394 (= bāla Thig-a 258). See compounds °karaṇa, °kāra, °bāla, °bhūta.

-ākula blinded, foolish Vv 849 (= paññācakkhuno abhāvena Vv-a 337);
-karaṇa blinding, making blind, causing bewilderment (figurative), confusing It 82 (+ acakkhukaraṇa); Miln 113 (pañha, + gambhīra);
-kāra blindness (literal and fig), darkness, dullness, bewilderment Vin I 16; D II 12; A I 56; II 54; III 233; Ja III 188; Thag 1034; Dhp 146; Snp 763; Vv 214 (= avijj° Vv-a 106); Pp 30; Dhs 617; Sv I 228; Vv-a 51, 53, 116, 161; Pv-a 6; Saddh 14, 280;
-tamo deep darkness (literal and figurative) S V 443; It 84 (v.l.; Text andhaṃ tamaṃ); Ja VI 247;
-bāla blinded by folly, foolish, dull of mind, silly Ja I 246, 262; VI 337; Dhp-a II 43, 89; III 179; Vv-a 67; Pv-a 4, 264;
-bhūta blinded (figurative), mentally blind, not knowing, ignorant S IV 21; A II 72; Ja VI 139 (spelled °būta); Dhp 59, 174 (= paññā-cakkhuno abhāvena Dhp-a III 175);
-vesa "blind form", disguise Ja III 418;
-vane dark-woods

:: Andhaka [from andha] "blind fly", i.e. dark or yellow fly or gad-fly Snp 20 (= kāṇa-makkhikānaṃ adhivacanaṃ Pj II 33).

:: Anna (neuter) [Vedic anna, original past participle of adati to eat] "eating", food, especially boiled rice, but includes all that is eaten as food, viz. odana, kummāsa, sattu, maccha, maṃsa (rice, gruel, flour, fish, meat) Nidd I 372 = 495. Anna is spelt aṇṇa in combinations aparaṇṇa and pubbaṇṇa. Under dhañña (Nidd II §314) are distinguished 2 kinds, viz. raw, natural cereals (pubbaṇṇaṃ: sāli, vīhi, yava, godhūma, {44} kaṅgu, varaka, kudrūsaka) and boiled, prepared food (apar'aṇṇaṃ: sūpeyya curry). Pj II 378 (on Snp 403) explains anna by yāgubhattadi. — D I 7; A I 107, 132; II 70, 85, 203; Snp 82, 240, 403, 924; Ja III 190; Pp 51; Saddh 106, 214.

-āpa food and water Saddh 100;
-da Anna-da giving food Snp 297;
-pāna food and water, eating and drinking, to eat and to drink Snp 485, 487; Pv I 52, 82; Pj I 207, 209; Pv-a 7, 8, 30, 31, 43.

:: Annaya in dur° see anvaya.

:: Anvakāsi 3rd singular preterit of anukassati 2: drew out, removed, threw down Thag 869 (= khipi, chaḍḍesi commentary).

:: Anvakkhara (adjective) [anu + akkhara] "according to the syllable", syllable after syllable, also a mode of reciting by syllables Vin IV 15, cf. 355. Cf. anupadaṃ.

:: Anvagā 3rd singular preterit of anugacchati Mhv 7, 10. Also in assimalated form annagā Ja V 258.

:: Anvagū 3rd plural preterit of anugacchati S I 39; Snp 586.

:: Anvaḍḍhamāsaṃ (adverb) [anu + aḍḍha + māsa] every fortnight, twice a month M II 8; Vin IV 315 (= anuposathikaṃ); Dhp-a I 162; II 25.

:: Anvattha (adjective) [anu + attha] according to the sense, answering to the matter, having scnse Thig-a 6 (°saññābhāva).

:: Anvadeva (adverb) [anva-d-eva with euphonic d.; like samma-d-eva corresponding to Sanskrit anvag-eva] behind, after, later D I 172; M III 172; S V 1 (spelt anudeva); A I 11; V 214; It 34.

:: Anvaya (adjective/noun) [Vedic anvaya in different meaning; from anu + i, see anveti and anvāya 1. (noun) conformity, accordance D II 83 = III 100; M I 69 (dhamm° logical conclusion of); S II 58; D III 226 (anvaye ñāṇaṃ); Pv II 113 (tassa kammassa anvāya, v.l. anvaya and anvāya; accordingly, according to = paccayā Pv-a 147); Pv-a 228 (anvayato, adverb in accordance). 2. (adjective) following, having the same course, behaving according to, consequential, in conformity with (—°) D I 46 (tad°); M I 238 (kāyo citt° acting in conformity to the mind, obeying the mind); Snp 254 (an° inconsistent); It 79 (tass°). — dur° spelt durannaya conforming with difficulty, hard to manage or to find out Dhp 92 (gati = na sakkā paññāpetuṃ Dhp-a II 173); Snp 243, 251 (= duviññāpaya Pj II 287 dunneyya 293).

:: Anvayatā (feminine) [abstract to anvaya] conformity, accordance M I 500 (kāy° giving in to the body).

:: Anvahaṃ (adverb) [anu + aha] every day, daily Dāṭh IV 8.

:: Anvāgacchati [anu + ā + gacchati 1. to go along after, to follow, run after, pursue; preterit anvāgacchi Pv IV 56 (= anubandhi Pv-a 260). 2. to come back again Ja I 454 (gerund °gantvāna). — past participle anvāgata (q.v.).

:: Anvāgata [past participle of anvāgacchati] having pursued, attained; endowed with Thag 63; Ja IV 385; V 4.

:: Anvādisati [anu + ā + disati] to advise, dedicate, assign; imperative °disāhi Pv II 26 (= uddissa dehi Pv-a 80); III 28 (= ādisa Pv-a 181).

:: Anvādhika (adjective) [derivation uncertain] a tailoring term. Only at Vin I 297. Rendered (Vinaya Texts II 232) by "half and half"; that is a patchwork, half of new material, half of old. Buddhaghosa's note (see the text, page 392) adds that the new material must be cut up.

:: Anvāmaddati [anu + ā + maddati] to squeeze, wring Ja III 481 (galakaṃ anvāmaddi wrung his neck; vv.ll. anvānumaṭṭi and anvāvamaddi; commentary gīvaṃ maddi).

:: Anvāya [gerund of anveti; cf. anvaya] undergoing, experiencing, attaining; as preposition (with accusative) in consequence of, through, after D I 13 (ātappaṃ by means of self-sacrifice), 97 (saṃvāsaṃ as a result of their cohabitation); Ja I 56 (buddhiṃ), 127 (piyasaṃvāsaṃ), 148 (gabbhaparipākaṃ). Often in phrase vuddhiṃ anvāya growing up, e.g. Ja I 278; III 126; Dhp-a II 87.

:: Anvāyika (adjective/noun) [from anvāya] following; one who follows, a companion D III 169; Nidd II §59; Ja III 348.

:: Anvārohati [anu + ā + rohati] to go up to, visit, ascend Ja IV 465 (preterit anvāruhi).


:: Anvāvassa at Ja V 317 should be read with v.l. as anovassa absence of rain.

:: Anvāviṭṭha [past participle of anvāvisati] possessed (by evil spirits) S I 114.

:: Anvāvisati [anu + ā + visati] to go into, to take possession of, to visit M I 326; S I 67; Miln 156. — past participle anvāviṭṭha (q.v.). Cf. adhimuccati.

:: Anvāsatta [past participle of anu + ā + sañj, cf. anusatta = Sanskrit anusakta] clung onto, befallen by (instrumental), attached to A IV 356 (v.l. anvāhata), cf. Ud 35 (anvāsanna q.v.). See also next.

:: Anvāsattatā (feminine) [abstract from anvāsatta] being attacked by, falling a prey to (instrumental), attachment to Dhp-a I 287 (in same context as anvāsatta A IV 356 and anvāsanna Ud 35).

:: Anvāsanna [past participle of anu + ā + sad] endowed with, possessed of, attacked by, Ud 35 (doubtfull; v.l. ajjhāpanna), = A IV 356 which has anvāsatta.

:: Anvāssavati [anu + ā + savati, sru] to stream into, to attack, befall D I 70; A III 99; Pp 20, 58.

:: Anvāhata [past participle of anu + ā + han] struck, beaten; perplexed Dhp 39 (°cetasa).

:: Anvāhiṇḍati [anu + ā + hiṇḍati] to wander to (accusative) A IV 374, 376 [BHS same, e.g. Divy 68 etc.].

:: Anveti [cf. anu + eti, from i] to follow, approach, go with Snp 1103 (= anugacchati anvāyiko hoti Nidd II §59); Dhp I (= kāyikaṃ — dukkhaṃ anugacchati Dhp-a I 24), 2, 71, 124; perhaps at Pv II 620 (with v.l. at Pv-a 99) for anvesi (see anvesati; explained by anudesi = was anxious for, helped, instructed).

:: Anvesa [from next] seeking, searching, investigation, M I 140 (°ṃ nādhigacchanti do not find).

:: Anvesati [anu + esati] to look for, search, seek S I 112 (present participle anvesaṃ = pariyesamāna commentary); Cp III 11, 7 (present participle anvesanto). — preterit anvesi [Sanskrit anveṣi from icchati] Pv II 620 (? perhaps better with v.l. Pv-a 99 as anventi of anveti).

:: Anvesin [anu-esin] (adjective) striving after, seeking, wishing for Snp 965 (kusala°).

:: Anha [Vedic ahan] see pubbanha, sāyanha. Cf. aha.

:: Apa° Apa [Vedic apa; Indo-Germanic °apo = Greek ἀπό, Avesta apa, Latin ab from °ap (cf. aperio); Gothic af, German ab, Anglo-Saxon English of. A comparative form from apa is apara "futher away"] Well defined directional prefix, meaning "away from, off". Usually as base-prefix (except with ā), and very seldom in compounds with other modifying prefixes (like sam, abhi etc.). 1. apa = Vedic apa (Indo-Germanic °apo): apeti to go away = Greek ἄκειμι, Latin abeo, Gothic afiddja; apeta gone away, rid; °kaḍḍhati to draw away, remove; °kamati walk away; °gacchati go away; °nidhāti put away; °nudati push away; °neti lead away; °vattati turn away (= āverto); °sakkati step aside; °harati take away. 2. apa = Vedic ava (Indo-Germanic °aue; see ava for details). There exists a widespread confusion between the two prepositions apa and ava, favoured both by semantic (apa = away, ava = down, cf. English off) and phonetic affinity (p softened to b, especially in B mss., and then to v, as b > v is frequent, e.g. bya° > vya° etc.). Thus we find in Pāli apa where Vedic and later literary Sanskrit have ava in the following instances: apakanti, °kassati, °kirati, °gata, °cāra, °jhāyati, °thaṭa, °dāna, °dhāreti, °nata, °nāmeti, °nīta, °lekhana, °loketi, °vadati.

:: Apakaḍḍhati [apa + kaḍḍhati, cf. Sanskrit apa-karṣati] to draw away, take off, remove D I 180; III 127; Dhp-a II 86. causative apakaḍḍhāpeti Ja I 342; IV 415; Miln 34. — Cf. apakassati; and see pakattheti.

:: Apakata [past participle of apakaroti] put off, done away, in ājīvikāpakata being without a living M I 463 (the usual phrase being °apagata); Miln 279 (the same). At It 89 the reading of same phrase is ājīvikā pakatā (v.l. ā° vakatā).

:: Apakataññu (adjective) [a + pa + kataññu] ungrateful Vin II 199.

:: Apakantati [apa + kantati, Sanskrit ava + kr̥̥ntati] to cut off Thig 217 (gale = gīvaṃ chindati Thig-a 178; Kern, Toev. corrects to kabale a.).

:: Apakaroti [apa + karoti, cf. Sanskrit apakaroti and apakr̥ta in same meaning] to throw away, put off; hurt, offend, slight; possibly {45} in reading Text apakiritūna at Thig 447 (q.v.). — past participle apakata (q.v.). Cf. apakāra.

:: Apakassati [Sanskrit apa- and ava-kar̥ṣati, cf. apakaḍḍhati] to throw away, remove Snp 281 (v.l. and Pj II ava°; explained by niddhamati and nikkaḍḍhati Pj II 311). — gerund apakassa Snp II 198 = Miln 389. See also apakāsati.

:: Apakāra and °ka [cf. Sanskrit apakāra and apakaroti] injury, mischief; one who injures or offends Dhp-a III 63; Saddh 283.

:: Apakāsati at Vin II 204 is to be read as apakassati and interpreted as "draw away, distract, bring about a split or dissension (of the Saṅgha)". The v.l. on page 325 justifies the correction (apakassati) as well as Buddhaghosa's explanation "parisaṃ ākaḍḍhanti". — Cf. A III 145 and see avapakāsati. The reading at the same passage at A V 74 is avakassati (combined with vavakassati, where Vin II 204 has avapakāsati), which is much to be preferred (see vavakassati).

:: Apakiritūna at Thig 447 Text (reading of commentary is abhi°) is explained Thig-a 271 to mean apakiritvā chaḍḍetvā throwing away, slighting, offending. The correct etymology = Sanskrit avakirati (ava + kr̥̥ to strew, cast out) in sense "to cast off, reject", to which also belongs kirāta in meaning "cast off" i.e. man of a so-called low tribe. See also avakirati 2.

:: Apakkamati [cf. Sanskrit apakramati, apa + kram] to go away, depart, go to one side Ja III 27; Saddh 294. — preterit apakkami Pv IV 75; gerund apakkamitvā Pv-a 43, 124, and apakkamma Pv II 928.

:: Apagacchati Apagacchati [apa + gam] to go away, turn aside Dhp-a I 401 (°gantvā). — past participle apagata (q.v.).

:: Apagata [past participle of apagacchati 1. gone, gone away from (with ablative), removed; deceased, departed It 112; Pv-a 39, 63 (= peta), 64 (= gata). 2. (°-) frequent as prefix, meaning without, literally having lost, removed from; free from Vin II 129 (°gabbhā having lost her fœtus, having a miscarriage); Ja I 61 (°vattha without clothes); Pv-a 38 (°soka free from grief), 47 (°lajja not shy), 219 (°viññāṇa without feeling). — Cf. apakata.

:: Apagabbha (adjective) [a + pa + gabbha] not entering another womb, i.e. not destined to another rebirth Vin III 3.

:: Apagama [Sanskrit apagama] going away, disappearance Saddh 508.

:: Apaṅga (apāṅga) [Sanskrit apāṅga] the outer corner of the eye Ja III 419 (asitapaṅgin black-eyed); IV 219 (bahi°). Spelt avaṅga at Vin II 267, where the phrase avaṅgaṃ karoti, is explained by Buddhaghosa ibid page 327 as "avaṅgadese adhomukhaṃ lekhaṃ karonti". According to Kern, Toev. 20, Buddhaghosa's explanation is not quite correct, since avaṅga stands here in the meaning of "a coloured mark upon the body" (cf. PW apāṅga).

:: Apacaya [from apa + ci] falling off, diminution (opposite ācaya gathering, heaping up), unmaking, especially loss (of wordliness), decrease (of possibility of rebirth Vin II 2 = III 21 = IV 213; cf. Ja III 342; S II 95 (kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi); A IV 280 = Vin II 259 (opposite ācaya); Ja III 342 (sekho °ena na tappati); Vibh 106, 319, 326, 330. {51}

-gāmin going towards decrease, "making for the undoing of rebirth" (BMPE 74) A V 243, 277; Dhs 277, 339, 505, 1014; Vibh 12, 16f.; Nett 87 (cf. Kv 156).

:: Apacāyati [from apa + ci, cf. cināti and cayati, with different meaning in Sanskrit; better explained perhaps as denominative from *apacāya in meaning of apacāyana, cf. apacita] to honour, respect, pay reverence D I 91 (pūjeti + a.); Ja III 82. potential apace (for apaceyya, may be taken to apacināti 2) A IV 245; Thig-a 72 (here to apacināti 1). — past participle apacita (q.v.).

:: Apacāyana (neuter) [abstract from apa + cāy, which is itself a derived from ci, cināti] — honouring, honour, worship, reverence Ja I 220; V 326; Sv I 256 (°kamma); Vv-a 24 (°ṃ karoti = añjalikaṃ karoti); Pv-a 104 (°kara, adjective), 128 (+ paricariya).

:: Apacāyika (adjective) [from *apacāya, cf. BHS apacāyaka Mvu I 198; Divy 293] — honouring, respecting Ja IV 94 (vaddha°, cf. vaddhapacāyin); Pv II 78 (jeṭṭha°); IV 324 (the same). In BHS the corresponding phrase is jyeṣṭhapacayaka.

:: Apacāyin (adjective) [from *apacāya; cf. apacāyika] honouring, paying homage, revering Snp 325 (vaddha° = vaddhānaṃ apaciti karaṇena Pj II 332) = Dhp 109; Ja I 47, 132, 201; II 299; V 325; Miln 206; Saddh 549.

:: Apacāra [from apa + car, cf. Sanskrit apa- and abhi-carati] falling off, fault, wrong doing Ja VI 375.

:: Apacita [past participle of apacayati or apacināti] honoured, worshipped, esteemed Thag 186; Ja II 169; IV 75; Vv 510 (= pūjita Vv-a 39); 3511 (cf. Vv-a 164); Miln 21.

:: Apaciti (feminine) [Vedic apaciti in different meaning, viz. expiation] honour, respect, esteem, reverence Thag 589; Ja I 220; II 435; III 82; IV 308; VI 88; Miln 180, 234 (°ṃ karoti), 377 (pūjana + a.); Pj II 332 (°karaṇa). Cf. apacāyana.

:: Apacināti [apa + cināti 1. [in meaning of Sanskrit apacīyate cf. Pāli upaciyyati passive of upacināti] to get rid of, do away with, (cf. apacaya), diminish, make less S III 89 (opposite ācināti); Thag 807; Ja IV 172 (apacineth'eva kāmāni = viddhaṃseyyatha commentary). Here belong probably preterit 3rd plural apaciyiṃsu (to be read for upacciṃsu) at Ja VI 187 (akkhīni a. "the eyes gave out") and potential present apace Thig-a 72 (on verse 40). 2. [= apacayati] to honour, esteem; observe, guard Vin I 264 (apacinayamāna cīvaraṃ (?) v.l. apacitiyamāna; translated guarding his claim is, Vinaya Texts); M I 324 (see detail under apaviṇāti) Thag 186 (gerundive apacineyya to be honoured); Ja V 339 (anapacinanto for Text anupacinanto, v.l. anapavinati). — past participle apacita (q.v.).

:: Apacca [Vedic apatya neuter; derived from apa] offspring, child D I 90 (bandhupāda° cf. muṇḍaka), 103 (the same); S I 69 (an°) Snp 991; Sv I 254.

:: Apaccakkha (adjective) [a + paṭi + akkha] unseen; in instrumental feminine apaccakkhāya as adverb without being seen, not by direct evidence Miln 46 f.

:: Apacchapurima (adjective) [a + paccha + purima] "neither after nor before", i.e. at the same time, simultaneous Ja III 295.

:: Apajaha (adjective) [a + pajaha] not giving up, greedy, miserly A III 76 (v.l. apānuta; commentary explains (a)vaḍḍhinissita mānatthaddha).

:: Apajita (neuter) [past participle of apa + ji] defeat Dhp 105.

:: Apajjhāyati [apa + jhāyati1; cf. Sanskrit abhi-dhyāyati] to muse, meditate, ponder, consider M I 334 (nijjhāyati + a.); III 14 (the same).

:: Apaññaka (adjective) = apañña, ignorant Dīp VI 29.

:: Apaṭṭhapeti [causative from apa-tiṭṭhati, cf. Sanskrit apa + sthā to stand aloof] — to put aside, leave out, neglect Ja IV 308; V 236.

:: Apaṇṇaka (adjective) [a + paṇṇaka; see paṇṇaka; Weber Ind. Str. III 150 and Kuhn, Beitr. page 53 take it as *a-praśna-ka] certain, true, absolute M I 401, 411; A V 85, 294, 296; Ja I 104 (where explained as ekaṃsika aviruddha niyyānika).

:: Apanṇṇakatā (feminine) [abstract of apaṇṇaka] certainty, absoluteness S IV 351f.

:: Apatacchika only in khārāpatācch° (q.v.) a kind of torture.

:: Apattha1 (adjective) [Sanskrit apāsta, past participle of apa + as2] thrown away Dhp 149 (= chaḍḍita Dhp-a III 112).

:: Apattha2 2nd plural preterit of pāpuṇāti (q.v.).

:: Apatthaṭa = avatthaṭa covered Thag 759.

:: Apatthita and Apatthiya see pattheti.

:: Apadāna (neuter) 1. [= Sanskrit apadāna] removing, breaking off, D III 88. 2. [= Sanskrit avadāna cf. ovāda] advice, admonition, instruction, morals Vin II 4 (an° not taking advice), 7 (the same) M I 96; A V 337f. (saddhā°) Thag 47. 3. legend, life history. In the title Mahāpadāna suttanta it refers to the 7 Buddhas. In the title Apadānaṃ, that is "the stories" , it refers almost exclusively to Arahants. The other, (older), connotation seems to have afterwards died out. See D.B. II 3. — Cf. also pariyāpadāna.

:: Apadisa [from apa + diś] reference, testimony, witness Dhp-a II 39.


:: Apadisati [apa + disati] to call to witness, to refer to, to quote Vin III 159; Ja I 215; III 234; IV 203; Miln 270; Dhp-a II 39; Nett 93.

:: Apadesa [cf. Sanskrit apadeśa 1. reason, cause, argument M I 287 (an°). 2. statement, designation Pv-a 8. 3. pretext Ja III 60; IV 13; Pv-a 154. Thus also apadesaka Ja VI 179.

:: Apadhāreti [causative of apa + dhr̥, cf. Sanskrit ava-dhārayati, but also BHS apadhārayati Divy 231] to observe, request, ask Thig-a 16.

:: Apanata [past participle of apanamati] "bent away", drawn aside, in stereotype combination abhinata + apanata ("strained forth and strained aside" Mrs Rh.D. K.S. I 39) M I 386; S I 28.

:: Apanamati [semantically doubtful] to go away Snp 1102 (apanamissati, v.l. apalām° and apagam°; explained at Nidd II §60 by vajissati pakkhamissati etc. — past participle apanata (q.v.) — causative apanāmeti.

:: Apanāmeti [causative from apanamati
1. to take away, remove M I 96 = A I 198 (kathaṃ bahiddhā a. carry outside); Khp VIII 4 (= aññaṃ ṭhānaṃ gameti Pj I 220).
2. [= Sanskrit ava-namati] to bend down, lower, put down Vin II 208 (chattaṃ); S I 226 (the same); Ja II 287 (the same, v.l. apanetvā); D I 126 (hatthaṃ, for salute).

:: Apanidahati (and apanidheti) [apa + ni + dhā, cf. Vedic apadhā hiding-place; Sanskrit apadadhāti = Greek ἀποτἱϧημι = Latin abdo "do away"] to hide, conceal Vin IV 123 (°dheti, °dheyya, °dhessati); Pv-a 215 (°dhāya gerund). — past participle apanihita. — causative apanidhāpeti to induce somebody to conceal Vin IV 123.

:: Apanihita [past participle of apanidahati] concealed, in abstract °ttaṃ (neuter) hiding, concealing, theft Pv-a 216.

:: Apanīta [Sanskrit apanīta, past participle of apa + nī, see apaneti and cf. also onīta = apanīta] taken away or off, removed, dispelled Pv-a 39.

:: Apanudati and Apanudeti [apa + nud, cf. Vedic apanudati and causative Sanskrit apanodayati] to push or drive away, remove, dispel; present apanudeti Miln 38. preterit apānudi Pv I 86 (= apanesi Pv-a 41); II 314 (= avahari aggahesi Pv-a 86); Dāṭh I 8. gerund apanujja D II 223. See also derivation apanudana.


:: Apanudana and Apanūdana (neuter) [Sanskrit apanodana, from apanudati] — taking or driving away, removal Vin II 148 = Ja I 94 (dukkha°); Snp 252 (the same); Pv-a 114 (the same).

:: Apanuditar [agent noun from apanudati, Sanskrit apanoditr̥] remover, dispeller D III 148.

:: Apaneti [apa + nī] to lead away, take or put away, remove Ja I 62, 138; II 4, 155 (preterit apānayi) III 26; Miln 188, 259, 413; Pv-a 41, 74, 198 (= harati) Saddh 63. passive apanīyati S I 176. — past participle apanīta (q.v.).

:: Apapibati [apa + pibati] to drink from something Ja II 126 (preterit apāpāsi).

:: Apabbūhati and Apabyūhati [apa + vi + ūh] to push off, remove, scrape away A III 187 (apaviyūhitvā, vv.ll. °bbūhitvā); Ja I 265 (paṃsuṃ). — causative °byūhāpeti to make remove or brush Ja IV 349 (paṃsuṃ).

:: Apabyāma see apavyāma.

:: Apamāra [Sanskrit apasmāra] epilepsy Vin I 93. Cf. apasmāra.

:: Apamārika (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit apasmārin] epileptic Vin IV 8, 10, 11.

:: Apayāti [Sanskrit apayāti, apa + yā] to go away Ja VI 183 (apāyāti metri causa; explained by commentary as apagacchati palāyati). — causative apayāpeti [Sanskrit apayāpayati] to make go, drive away, dismiss M III 176; S II 119.

:: Apayāna (neuter) [Sanskrit apayāna, from apayāti] going away, retreat D I 9 (opposite upa°); Sv I 95.

:: Apara Apara (adjective) [Vedic apara, derived from apa with comparative suffix °ra = Indo-Germanic °aporos "further away, second"; cf. Greek ἆπϖτέρϖ farther, Latin aprilis the second month (after March, i.e. April). Gothic afar = after] another, i.e. additional, following, next, second (with pronoun inflexion, i.e. nominative plural apare) D III 190 (°pajā another, i.e. future generation); Snp 791, 1089 (n'); Ja I 59 (aparaṃ divasaṃ on some day following); III 51 (apare tayo sahāyā "other friends three", i.e. three friends, cf. similarly French nous autres Francais); IV 3 (dīpa); Pv-a 81 (°divase on another day), 226; with other particles like aparo pi D III 128. — neuter aparaṃ what follows i.e. future state, consequence; future Vin I 35 (nāparaṃ nothing more); Snp 1092 (much the same as punabbhava, cf. Nidd II §61). Cases adverbially; aparaṃ (accusative) further, besides, also Ja I 256; III 278; often with other particles like athaparaṃ and further, moreover Snp 974; and puna c'aparaṃ It 100; Miln 418 (so read for puna ca paraṃ) and passim; aparam pi Vism 9. — aparena in future D III 201. — Repeated (reduplicative formation) aparāparaṃ (local) to and fro Ja I 265, 278; Pv-a 198; (temporal) again and again, off and on Ja II 377; Miln 132 Vv-a 271; Pv-a 176 (= punappunaṃ).

-anta (aparanta) = aparaṃ, with anta in same function as in compounds vananta (see anta1 5): (a.) further away, westward Ja V 471; Miln 292 (janapada). (b.) future D I 30 (°kappika, cf. Sv I 118); M II 228 (°ānudiṭṭhi thought of the future); S III 46 (the same);
-āpariya (from aparāpara) ever-following, successive, continuous, everlasting; used with reference to kamma Ja V 106; Miln 108;
-bhāga the future, literally a later part of time, only in locative aparabhāge at a future date, later on Ja I 34, 262; IV 1; Vv-a 66.

:: Aparajju (adverb) [Sanskrit apare-dyus] on the following day Vin II 167; S I 186; Miln 48.

:: Aparajjhati [Sanskrit aparādhyate, apa + rādh] to sin or offend against (with locative) Vin II 78 = III 161; Ja V 68; VI 367; Miln 189; Pv-a 263. — past participle aparaddha and aparādhita (q.v.).

:: Aparaṇha Aparaṇha [DPL]: The afternoon or evening.

:: Aparaṇṇa (neuter) [apara + aṇṇa = anna] "the other kind of cereal", prepared or cooked cereals, pulse etc. Opposed to pubbaṇṇa the unprepared or raw corn (= āmakadhañña Vin IV 265; Vin III 151 (pubb° + a.); IV 265, 267; A IV 108, 112 (tila-mugga-māsā°; opposite sāli-yavaka etc.); Nidd II §314 (aparaṇṇaṃ nāma sūpeyyaṃ); Ja V 406 (°jā = hareṇukā, pea); Miln 106 (pubbaṇṇa°). See also dhañña and harita.

:: Aparaddha [past participle of aparajjhati] missed (with accusative), gone wrong, failed, sinned (against = locative) D I 91, 103, 180; S I 103 (suddhi-maggaṃ); Thag 78; Snp 891 (suddhiṃ = viraddha khalita Nidd I 300); Pv-a 195.

:: Aparapaccaya (adjective) [a + para + paccaya] not dependent or relying on others Vin I 12 (vesārajja-p-patta + a.); D I 110 (the same); M II 41; M I 491; S III 83; Sv I 278 (= nāssa paro paccayo).

:: Aparājita (adjective) [Vedic aparājita; a + parājita] unconquered Snp 269; Ja I 71, 165.

:: Aparādha [from apa + rādh] sin, fault, offence, guilt Ja I 264 (nir°); III 394; IV 495; Vv-a 69; Pv-a 87, 116.

:: Aparādhika (adjective) [from aparādha, cf. Sanskrit aparādhin] guilty, offending, criminal Ja II 117 (vāja°); Miln 149 (issara°), 189 (aparādhikatā).

:: Aparādhita [past participle of aparādheti, causative of apa + rādh; cf. aparaddha] transgressed, sinned, failing Ja V 26 (so read for aparadh'ito).

:: Aparāyin (adjective) [a + parāyin, cf. parāyana] having no support Ja III 386 (feminine °ī; commentary appatiṭṭhā appaṭisaraṇā).

:: Apalāpin see apalāsin [Sanskrit apalāpin "denying, concealing" different].

:: Apalāyin (adjective) [a + palāyin] not running away, steadfast, brave, fearless Nidd II §13 (abhīru anutrāsin apalāyin as explanation of acchambhin and vīra); Ja IV 296; V 4 (where commentary gives variant "apalāpinī ti pi pāṭho", which latter has v.l. apalāsinī and is explained by commentary as palāpa-rahite anavajjasarīre page 5). See also apalāsin.

:: Apalāḷeti [apa + lāḷeti] to draw over to Vin I 85.

:: Apalāsin (adjective) [apaḷāsin; but spelling altogether uncertain. There seems to exist a confusion between the forms apalāyin, apalāpin and apalāsin, owing to frequent miswriting of s, y, p in mss (cf. Nidd II introduction page xix.). We should be inclined to give apalāsin, as the lectio difficilior, the prefix. The explanation at Pp 22 as "yassa puggalassa ayaṃ paḷāso pahīno ayaṃ vuccati puggalo apaḷāsī" does not help us to clear up the etymology nor the vv.ll.] either "not neglectful, pure, clean" (= apalāpin from palāsa chaff, cf. apalāyin at Ja V 4), or "not selfish, not hard, generous" (as inferred from combination with amakkhin and amaccharin), or "brave, fearless, energetic" (= apalāyin) D III 47, cf. Pp 22. See palāsin.


:: Apalibuddha and Apalibodha [a + palibuddha, past participle of pari + br̥h, see palibujjhati] unobstructed, unhindered, free Ja III 381 (°bodha); Miln 388; Dhp-a III 198.

:: Apalekhati [apa + lekhati in meaning of Sanskrit avalihati] to lick off Pp-a 231 (hatthaṃ).

:: Apalekhana (neuter) [apa + lekhana from likh in meaning of lih, corresponding to Sanskrit ava-lehana] — licking off, in compound hatthāpalekhana "hand-licking" (i.e. licking one's hand after a meal, the practice of certain ascetics) M 177 (with v.l. hatthāvalekhana M I 535; Trenckner compares BHS hastapralehaka Lal 312 and hastāvalehaka ibid. 323), 412; Pp 55 (explained at Pp-a 231 as hatthe piṇḍamhe niṭṭhite jivhāya hatthaṃ apalekhati).

:: Apalepa in "so'palepapatito jarāgharo" at Thig 270 is to be read as "so palepa°". Morris's interpretation JPTS 1886, 126 therefore superfluous.

:: Apalokana (neuter) [from apaloketi] permission, leave, in °kamma proposal of a resolution, obtaining leave (see kamma I 3) Vin II 89; IV 152.

:: Apalokita [past participle of apaloketi; Sanskrit avalokita 1. asked permission, consulted S III 5. 2. (neuter) permission, consent, M I 337 (Nāgāpalokitaṃ apalokesi). 3. (neuter) an especially of Nibbāna S IV 370.


:: Apalokin (adjective) [Sanskrit avalokin] "looking before oneself", looking at, cautious Miln 398.

:: Apaloketi [BHS ava-lokayati 1. to look ahead, to look before, to be cautious, to look after M I 557 (v.l. for apaciṇāti, where Ja V 339 commentary has avaloketi); Miln 398. 2. to look up to, to obtain permission from (accusative), to get leave, to give notice of Vin III 10, 11; IV 226 (anapaloketvā = anāpucchā), 267 (+ āpucchitvā); M I 337; S III 95 (bhikkhusaṅghaṃ anapaloketvā without informing the Saṅgha); Ja VI 298 (vājānaṃ); Dhp-a I 67. — past participle apalokita (q.v.). See also apalokana and °lokin.

:: Apavagga [Sanskrit apavarga] completion, end, final delivery, Nibbāna; in phrase saggāpavagga Dāṭh II 62; III 75.

:: Apavattati [apa + vr̥t, cf. Latin āverto] to turn away or aside, to go away Ja IV 347 (v.l. apasakkati).

:: Apavāda Apavāda [DPL]: Blame, abuse.

:: Apavadati [apa + vadati] to reproach, reprove, reject, despise D I 122 (= paṭikkhipati Sv I 290); S V 118 (+ paṭikkāsati).

:: Apavahati [apa + vahati] to carry or drive away; causative apavāheti to remove, give up Miln 324 (kaddamaṃ).

:: Apaviṭṭha at Pv III 82 is to be read apaviddha (q.v.).

:: Apaviṇāti is probably misreading for apaciṇāti (see apac° 2). As v.l. at Ja V 339 (anapavinanto) for Text anupacinanto (explained by avaloketi commentary). Other vv.ll. are anuvi° and apavī°; meaning "not paying attention". The positive form we find as apavīṇati "to take care of, to pay attention to" (with accusative) at M I 324, where Trenckner unwarrantedly assumes a special root veṇ (see "Notes" page 781), but the vv.ll. to this passage (see M. I 557) with apavīṇāti and apacinati confirm the reading apaciṇāti, as does the gloss apaloketi.

:: Apaviddha [past participle of apavijjhati, Vedic apa + vyadh] thrown away, rejected, discarded, removed S I 202; III 143; Snp 200 (susānasmiṃ = chaḍḍita Pj II 250); Thag 635 = Dhp 292 (= chaḍḍita Dhp-a III 452); Pv III 82 (susānasmiṃ; so read for Text apaviṭṭha); Ja I 255; III 426; VI 90 (= chaḍḍita commentary). Saddh 366.

:: Apaviyūhati see appabbūhati.

:: Apavīṇati see apaviṇāti (= apaciṇāti).

:: Apavyāma [apa + vyāma] disrespect, neglect, in phrase apavyāmato (apaby°) karoti to treat disrespectfully, to insult, defile S I 226 (v.l. abyāmato; commentary explains apabyāmato karitvā abyāmato katvā); Kv 472 (vv.ll. asabyākato, abyāto, apabyāto; PtsC. 270 note 1 remarks: "B. trslation: abyāsakato. The Burmese scholar U. Pandi, suggests we should read apabyākato, by which he understands blasphemously"; it is here combined with niṭṭhubhati, as at Dhp-a II 36); Dhp-a II 36 ("want of forbearance" ed.; doubtful reading; vv.ll. appabyāyakamma and apasāma). For further detail see apasavya.

:: Apasakkati [apa + sakkati] to go away, to go aside Ja IV 347 (v.l. for apavattati); Vv-a 101; Pv-a 265 (preterit °sakki = apakkami).

:: Apasavya (adjective) [apa + savya] right (i.e. not left), contrary Ud 50 (Text has niṭṭhubhitvā abyāmato karitvā; vv.ll. are apabhyāmāto, abhyāmato and commentary apasabyāmato), where commentary explains apasabyāmato karitvā by apasabyaṃ katvā, "which latter corresponds in form but not in meaning to Sanskrit apasavyaṃ karoti to go on the right side" (Morris JPTS 1886, 127). — See apavyāma.

:: Apasāda [from apa + sad] putting down, blame, disparagement M III 230.

:: Apasādita [past participle of apasādeti] blamed, reproached, disparaged S II 219; Pj II 541.

:: Apasādeti [causative of apa + sad 1. to refuse, decline Vin IV 213, 263; Ja V 417 (= uyyojeti). 2. to depreciate, blame, disparage Vin III 101; M III 230 (opposite ussādeti); Sv I 160. — past participle apasādita (q.v.).

:: Apasmāra [Sanskrit apasmāra, literally want of memory, apa + smr̥] epilepsy, convulsion, fit Ja IV 84. Cf. apamāra.

:: Apassinto etc. see passati.

:: Apassiveya [cf. Sanskrit apāśraya, from apassati 1. support, rest Thig-a 258. 2. bed, bolster mattress, in kaṇṭak° a mattress of thorns, a bolster filled with thorns (as cushion for asceties) M I 78; Ja I 493; III 235.

-sāppassiveya with a head rest Ja IV 299;
-pīṭhaka a chair with a headrest Ja III 235.

:: Apassiveyika (adjective) [from apassiveya; cf. Sanskrit apāśrayin] reclining on, in kaṇṭaka° one who lies on a bed of thorns (see kaṇṭaka) M I 78; Ja IV 299 (v.l. kaṇḍikṣayika); Pp 55.

:: Apassita [past participle of apassati 1. leaning against Ja II 69 (tālamūlaṃ = nissāya ṭhita commentary). 2. depending on, trusting in (with accusative or locative) Vv 101 (parāgāraṃ = nissita Vv-a 101); Ja IV 25 (balamhi = balaṃissita). See also avassita.

:: Apassati [Sanskrit apāśrayati, apa + ā + sr̥i] to lean against, have a support in (accusative), to depend on. 1. (literal) lean against Vin II 175 (bhitti apassitabbo the wall to be used as a head-rest). 2. (figurative) mostly in gerund apassiveya dependent upon, depending on, trusting in (locative or accusative or °—°) Vin III 38; Ja I 214; Pv-a 189. — past participle apassita (q.v.). — See also avasseti.

:: Apassena (neuter) [from apassati] a rest, support, dependence M III 127 (°ka); D III 224 (cattāri apassanāni); as adjective caturāpassena one who has the fourfold support viz. saṅkhāy'ekaṃ paṭisevati, adhivāseti, parivajjeti, vinodeti A V 30.

-phalaka (cf. Morris JPTS 1884, 71) a bolster-slab, headrest Vin I 48; II 175, 209.

:: Apahattar [agent noun to apaharati] one who takes away or removes, destroyer M I 447 = Kv 528.

:: Apahara [Sanskrit apahāra, from apaharati] taking away, stealing, robbing Ja II 34.

:: Apaharaṇa (neuter) = apahara Miln 195.

:: Apaharati [apa + hr̥] to take away, remove, captivate, rob Ja III 315 (preterit apahārayiṃ); Miln 413; Sv I 38.

:: Apākaṭatā (feminine) [a + pākaṭa + tā] unfitness Miln 232 (v.l. apākatatta perhaps better).

:: Apākatika (adjective) [a + pākata + ika] not in proper or natural shape, out of order, disturbed Dhp-a II 7. Cf. appakāra.

:: Apācīna (adjective) [Vedic apācīna; cf. apāca° and apāka, western; to Latin opācus, original turned away (from the east or the sun) i.e. opposite, dark] westerly, backward, below S III 84; It 120 (apācīnaṃ used as adverb and taking here the place of adho in combination with uddhaṃ tiriyaṃ; the reading is a conjecture of Windisch's, the vv.ll. are apācinaṃ; apācini, apāci and apāminaṃ, commentary explains by heṭṭhā).

:: Apāṭuka (adjective) [a + pātu + ka (?), according to Morris JPTS 1893, 7 derived from apaṭu not sharp, blunt, uncouth. This is hardly correct. See pātur] not open, sly, insidious Thag 940 (as v.l. for Text avāṭuka, translated by Mrs. Rh.D. as "unscrupulous", by Neumann, LMN as "ohne {48} Redlichkeit"). Context suggests a meaning similar to the preceding nekatika, i.e. fraudulent See also next.

:: Apāṭubha (adjective) [a + pātu + bha (?), at the only passage changed by Morris JPTS 1893, 7 to apāṭuka but {54} without reason] = apāṭuka, i.e. sly, fraudulent Ja IV 184 (in context with nekatika; commentary explains apāṭubhāva dhanuppāda-virahita, in which latter virahita does not fit in; the passive seems corrupt).

:: Apāda (?) [apa + ā + dā] giving away in marriage Ja IV 179 (in explanation of anāpāda unmarried; reading should probably be āpāda = pariggaha).

:: Apādaka (adjective) [a + pāda + ka] not having feet, footless, creeping, especially of snakes and fishes Vin II 110 = Ja II 146 (where see explanation.). Spelt apada(ka) at It 87 (v.l. apāda).

:: Apāna (neuter) breathing out, respiration (so Childers; no reference in Pāli Canon?) On prāṇa and apāna see G.W. Brown in JAOS 39, 1919 past participle 104-112. See ānāpāna.

:: Apānakatta (neuter) [a + pānaka + ttaṃ] "waterless state", living without drinking water Ja V 243.

:: Apāpaka (adjective) [a + pāpaka] guiltless, innocent feminine °ikā Vv 314; 326.

:: Apāpata (adjective) [apa + ā + pata] falling down into (with accusative) Ja IV 234 (aggiṃ).

:: Apāpuraṇa (neuter) [from apāpurati] a key (to a door) Vin I 80; III 119; M III 127. See also avāpuraṇa.

:: Apāpuṇati Apāpurati and Apāpuṇati [Sanskrit apāvr̥ṇoti, apa + ā + vr̥, but Vedic only apa-vr̥ṇoti corresponding to Latin aperio = °apa-°erio. On form see Trenckner, "Notes" 63] to open (a door) Vin I 5 (apāpur'etaṃ amatassa dvāraṃ: imperative; where the same passage S I 137 has avāpur°, Text, but v.l. apāpur°); Vv 6427 (apāpuranto amatassa dvāraṃ, explained at Vv-a 284 by vivaranto); It 80 (apāvuṇanti A. dv. as Text conj., with v.l. apānumanti, apāpurenti and apāpuranti). — past participle apāruta (q.v.). — passive apāpurīyati [cf. BHS apāvurīyati Mvu II 158] to be opened M III 184 (v.l. avā°); Ja I 63 (avā°); Thig 494 (apāpuṇitvā). See also avāpurati.

:: Apābhata [past participle of apa + ā + bhr̥ cf. Vedic apa-bharati, but Latin aufero to ava°] taken away, stolen Ja III 54.

:: Apāya [Sanskrit apāya, from apa + i, cf. apeti] "going away" viz. 1. separation, loss Dhp 211 (piya° = viyoga Dhp-a III 276). 2. loss (of property) D III 181, 182; A II 166; IV 283; Ja III 387 (atth°). 3. leakage, out flow (of water) D I 74; A II 166; IV 287. 4. lapse, falling away (in conduct) D I 100. 5. a transient state of loss and woe after death. Four such states are specified Hell (Niraya), rebirth as an animal, or as a ghost, or as a Titan (Asura). Analogous expressions are vinipāta and duggati. All combined at D I 82; III 111; A I 55; It 12, 73; Nidd II under kāya; and frequent elsewhere. — apāya-duggati-vinipāta as attribute of saṃsāra S II 92, 232; IV 158, 313; V 342; opposed to khīṇāpāya-duggati-vinipāta of an Arahant A IV 405; V 182f. — See also following passive: M III 25 (anapāya); Snp 231; Thig 63; Ja IV 299; Pp 51; Vv-a 118 (opposite sugati); Pv-a 103; Saddh 43, 75 and cf. Niraya, duggati, vinipāta.

-gāmin going to ruin or leading to a state of suffering Dhp-a III 175; cf. °gamanīya the same Paṭis I 94, °gamanīyatā Ja IV 499;
-mukha "facing ruin", leading to destruction (= vināsa-mukha Sv I 268), usually as neuter "cause of ruin" D I 101 (cattāri apāya-mukhāni); III 181, 182 (cha bhogānaṃ a°-mukhāni, i.e. causes of the loss of one's possessions); A II 166; IV 283, 287;
-samudda the ocean of distress Dhp-a III 432;
-sahāya a spendthrift companion D III 185.

:: Apāyika (adjective) [also as āpāyika (q.v.); from apāya] belonging to the apāyas or states of misery D I 103; III 6, 9, 12; It 42; Pv-a 60 (dukkha).

:: Apāyin (adjective) [from apāya] going away Ja I 163 (aḍḍharattāvapāyin = aḍḍharatte apāyin commentary). °an° not going away, i.e. constantly following (chāyā anapāyinī, the shadow) Dhp 2; Thag 1041; Miln 72.

:: Apāra (neuter) [a + pāra 1. the near bank of a river Ja III 230 (+ atiṇṇaṃ, commentary paratīraṃ atiṇṇaṃ). 2. (figurative) not the further shore (of life), the world here, i.e. (opposite pāraṃ = Nibbāna) Snp 1129, 1130; Nidd II §62; Dhp 385 (explained as bāhirāni cha āyatanāni Dhp-a IV 141). See pāra and cf. avara.

:: Apāraṇeyya (adjective) [gerund of paraneti + a°] that which cannot be achieved, unattainable Ja VI 36 (= apāpetabba).

:: Apāruta [Sanskrit apāvr̥ta, past participle of apāpurati] open (of a door) Vin I 7 = M I 169 (apārutā tesaṃ amatassa dvārā); D I 136 (= vivaṭa-dvāra Sv I 297); Ja I 264 (°dvāra).

:: Apālamba ["a Vedic term for the hinder part of a carriage" Morris JPTS 1886, 128; the "Vedic" unidentified] a mechanism to stop a chariot, a safeguard "to prevent warriors from falling out" (commentary) S I 33 (Mrs Rh.D. translates "leaning board"); Ja VI 252 (v.l. upā°; Kern translates "remhout", i.e. brake).

:: Apāhata [past participle of apa + hr̥] driven off or back, refuted, refused Snp 826 (°smiṃ = apasādite vade Pj II 541).

:: Api Api (indeclinable) [Sanskrit api and pi; Indo-Germanic °epi °pi °opi; cf. Greek έπι on to, όπι ('όπιϧϵν behind, ὀπίσσαί back = close at one's heels); Latin ob. in certain functions; Gothic iftuma. The assimilated form before vowels is app° (= Sanskrit apy°). See further details under pi.] both preposition and conjunction, originally meaning "close by", then as preposition "towards, to, on to, on" and as adverb "later, and, moreover". 1. (preposition and prefix) (a) preposition with locative: api ratte later on in the night (q.v.) (b) prefix: apidhāna apidhāna putting onto; apiḷahati bind onto, apihita (= Greek ἐπιϧετός, epithet) put onto, (q.v.). 2. (conjunctive and particle). (a) in affirmative sentences meaning primarily "moreover, further, and then, even": (α)(single) prothetic: api dibbesu kāmesu even in heavenly joys Dhp 187; ko disvā na pasīdeyya api kaṇhābhijātiko even an unfortunate born Snp 563 api yojanāni gacchāma, even for leagues we go Pv IV 107 (= anekāni yojanāni pi g. Pv-a 270. Epithetic (more frequent in the form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dhp 106, 107; aham api daṭṭhukāmo I also wish to see Snp 685. Out of prothetic use (= even = even if) develops the conditional meaning of "if", as in api sakkuṇemu (and then we may = if we may) Ja V 24 (with = api nāma sakkuṇeyyāma; see further under β appeva nāma). — api ... api in correlation corresponds to Latin et ... et Sanskrit ca ... ca, meaning both ... and, and ... as well as, and is especially frequent in combination appekacce ... appekacce (and) some ... and others, i.e. some ... others [not with Kern Toev. sub voce to appa!], e.g. at D I 118; Thig 216; Vv-a 208, etc. °appekadā "morever once" = sometimes Vin IV 178; S I 162; IV 111; Ja I 67; Dhp-a III 303, etc. (β) (in combination with other emphatic or executive particles) api ca further, and also, moreover D I 96; Miln 25, 47. — api ca kho moreover, and yet, still, all the same It 89 (+ pana v.l.); Miln 20, 239. — api ca kho pana all the same, never mind, nevertheless Ja I 253. — api ssu so much so Vin II 76. — appeva nāma (with potential) (either) surely, indeed, yes, I reckon, (or) I présumé, it is likely that, perhaps Vin I 16 (surely); II 85 (the same); cf. pi D I 205 (sve pi upasaṅkameyyāma tomorrow I shall surely come along), 226 (siyā thus shall it be); M I 460 = It 89 (moreover, indeed); Ja I 168 (surely) Vin II 262 (perhaps) Ja V 421 (the same, piyavācaṃ labheyyāma). (b) in interrogative-dublet sentences as particle of interrogative (with indicatuve or potential) corresponding to Latin nonne, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer ("not, not then"): api Yasaṃ kulaputtaṃ passeyya do you not see ... Vin I 16; api samaṇa balivadde addasā have you not then seen ... S I 115; api kiñci labhāmase shall we then not get anything? Ja III 26; api me pitaraṃ passivetha do you then not see my father? Pv-a 38. — Also combined with other interrogative particle e.g. api nu Ja II 415.

:: Apitika (adjective) [a + pitika] fatherless Ja V 251.


:: Apithīyati [for apidhīyati; api + dhā] passive of apidahati to be obstructed, covered, barred, obscured Ja II 158. See also pithīyati.

:: Apidahati [api + dhā, cf. Greek ἐπιτἱϧημι to put on (see api 1 b), to cover up, obstruct, Ja V 60 (infinitive apidhetuṃ). past participle apihita, passive apithīyati, derived apidhāna (q.v.).


:: Apidhāna Apidhāna (neuter) [Vedic apidhāna in same meaning] cover, lid Vin I 203, 204; II 122. See apidahati.

:: Apiratte [read api ratte, see api 1 a] later in the night Ja VI 560.

:: Apilāpana (neuter) [from api + lap] counting up, repetition [Kern, Toev, sub voce gives derivation from a + plāvana] Nett 15, 28, 54; Miln 37.

:: Apilāpanatā (feminine) in the passage at Dhs 14 = Nidd II §628 is evidently meant to be taken as a + pilāpana + tā (from pilavati, plu), but whether the derivation and interpretation of As is correct, we are unable to say. On general principles it looks like popular etymology Mrs. Rh.D. translates (p. 16) "opposite of superficiality" (lit "not floating"); see her detailed note BMPE 14 note 3.

:: Apilāpeti [api + lap] "to talk close by", i.e. to count up, recite, or: talk idly, boast of Miln 37 (sāpateyyaṃ).

:: Apiḷandha (adjective) at Vv 361 should be read as apiḷaddha (= Sanskrit apinaddha) past participle of apiḷandhati (apinandhati) "adorned with", or (with v.l.) as apiḷandhana; Vv-a 167 explains by analaṅkata, mistaking the a of api for a negation.

Parure: Matching jewelry. A set of various items of matching jewelry, which rose to popularity early 19th-century Europe. Wikipedia

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

:: Apiḷandhana (neuter) [from apiḷandhati, also in shorter (and more usual) form piḷandhana, q.v.] — that which is tied on, i.e. band, ornament, apparel, parure Vv 6410, 6418 (explained inacurately at Vv-a 279 by; a-kāro nipātamattaṃ, pilandhanaṃ = ābhāraṇaṃ); Ja VI 472 (commentary pilandhituṃ pi ayuttaṃ?).

:: Apiḷahati and Apiḷandhati [Sanskrit apinahyati, on n: ḷ see note on gala, and cf. guṇa: guḷa, veṇu: veḷu etc. On ndh for yh see avanandhati] to tie on, fasten, bind together; to adorn oneself with (accusative) Ja V 400 (gerund apiḷayha = piḷandhitvā commentary) — Cf. apiḷandhana and past participle apiladdha sub voce apiḷandha.

:: Apiha (adjective) [apihālu? a + piha, uncertain origin, see next. Morris JPTS 1886 takes it as a + spr̥ha] "unhankering" (Mrs Rh.D.) S I 181 (+ akaṅkha; v.l. asita).

:: Apihālu (adjective) [a + pihālu, analysed by Fausbøll Sn. Gloss. page 229 as a-spr̥hayālu, but Buddhaghosa evidently different (see below)] — not hankering, free from craving, not greedy S I 187 = Thag 1218 (akuhako nipako apihālu); Snp 852 (+ amaccharin, explained at Pj II 549 as apihana-sīlo, patthanātaṇhāya rahito ti vuttaṃ hoti, thus perhaps taking it as a + pi (= api) + hana (from dhā, cf. pidahati and pihita); cf. also Nidd II §227).

:: Apihita [past participle of apidahati] covered Ja IV 4.

:: Apuccaṇḍatā (feminine) [a + pūti + aṇḍa + tā] "not being a rotten egg," i.e. normal state, healthy birth, soundness M I 357.

:: Apuccha (adjective) [a + pucchā] "not a question", i.e. not to be asked Miln 316.

:: Apekkha (adjective) [= apekkhā] waiting for, looking for S I 122 (otāra°).

:: Apekkhati 1. [Sanskrit apīkṣate, apa + īkṣ] to desire, long for, look for, expect Snp 435 (kāme nāpekkhate cittaṃ), 773 (present participle apekkhamāna); Ja IV 226 (the same); As 365. anapekkhamāna paying no attention to (accusative) Snp 59; Ja V 359. 2. [Sanskrit avīkṣate, ava + īkṣ; see avekkhati] to consider, refer to, look at, gerund apekkhitvā (cf. Sanskrit avīkṣya) with reference to Vv-a 13. — past participle apekkhita (q.v.).

:: Apekkhavant (adjective) [from apekkhā] full of longing or desire, longing, craving Vin IV 214; S III 16; Thag 558; Ja V 453 (= sataṇha); Pj II 76.

:: Apekkhā and Apekhā (feminine) [Sanskrit apekṣā, from apa + īkṣ. The spelling is either kkh or kh, they are both used promiscuously, a tendency towards kh prevailing, as in upekhā, sekha] — attention, regard, affection for (locative); desire, longing for (with locative) S I 77; III 132; V 409 (mātā-pitusu); Vin IV 214; Snp 38 (= vuccati taṇhā etc. Nidd II §65; = taṇhā sineha Pj II 76); Ja I 9, 141; Thag 558; Dhp 345 (puttesu dāresu ca = taṇhā Dhp-a IV 56); Dhs 1059, 1136 (= ālayakaraṇa-vasena apekkhatī ti apekkhā As 365, cf. BMPE 257 note 3). Frequently as adjective (-°or in combination with sa° and an°), viz. Vin III 90 (visuddha°); S I 122 (otara°); sa° A III 258, 433; IV 60f.; an° without consideration, regardless, indifferent S V 164; A III 252, 347, 434; Snp 200 (anapekkhā honti ñātayo); Ja I 9. Cf. anapekkhin and apekkhavant; also BHS avekṣatā.

:: Apekkhita [past participle of apekkhati] taken care of, looked after, considered Ja VI 142, 149 (= olokita commentary).

:: Apekkhin (adjective) [Sanskrit apekṣin, but BHS avekṣin, e.g. Jm 215; from apa + īkṣ] considering, regarding, expecting, looking for; usually negative an° indifferent (against = locative) S I 16, 77; II 281; III 19, 87; Snp 166 (kāmesu), 823 (the same), 857; Dhp 346. Cf. apekkhavant.

:: Apeta (adjective) [past participle of apeti] gone away; (medium) freed of, rid of, deprived of (instrumental, ablative or °-) Dhp 9 (damasaccena); Pv-a 35 (dukkhato); usually °- in sense of "without, °less", e.g. apeta-kaddama free from mud, stainless Dhp 95; °vattha without dress Ja V 16; °viññāṇa without feeling, senseless Dhp 41; Thig 468; °viññāṇattaṃ senselessness, lack of feeling Pv-a 63.

:: Apetatta (neuter) [abstract to apeta] absence (of) Pv-a 92.

:: Apeti [apa + i, cf. Greek ἄπειμι, Latin abeo, Gothic af-iddja] to go away, to disappear D I 180 (upeti pi apeti pi); Ja I 292; Snp 1143 (= n'apagacchanti na vijahanti Nidd II §66). — past participle apeta (q.v.).

:: Apetteyyatā (feminine) [a + petteyyatā, abstract from °paitr̥ya fatherly] in combination with amatteyyatā irreverence towards father and mother D III 70 (cf. Dhp 332 and Dhp-a IV 34).

:: Apeyya (adjective) [a + peyya, gerund of pā] not to be drunk, not drinkable Ja VI 205 (sāgara).

:: Apesiya (neuter) [? of uncertain origin] a means of barring a door Vin II 154 (Buddhaghosa explanains on page 321: apesī ti dīgha-dārumhi khāṇuke pavesetvā kaṇḍaka-sākhāhi vinandhitvā kataṃ dvāra-tthakanakaṃ).

:: Apesiyamāna (adjective) [present participle from a + peseti (q.v.)] not being in service Vin II 177.

:: App in appekacce etc. see api.

:: Appa Appa (adjective) [Vedic alpa, cf. Greek ἀλαπάζω (λαπάζω) to empty (to make little), ἀλαπαδνός weak; Lithuanian alpnas weak, alpstś to faint] small, little, insignificant, often in the sense of "very little = (next to) nothing" (so in most compounds); thus explained at Vv-a 334 as equivalent to a negative particle (see appodaka) D I 61 (opposite mahant, Sv I 170 = parittaka); Snp 713, 775, 805, 896 (= appaka, omaka, thoka, lāmaka, jatukka, parittaka Nidd I 306); Dhp 174; Ja I 262; Pp 39. — neuter appaṃ a little, a small portion, a trifle; plural appāni small things, trifles A II 26 = It 102; A II 138; Dhp 20 (= thokaṃ eka-vagga-dvi-vagga-mattam pi Dhp-a I 158), 224 (°smiṃ yācito asked for little), 259.

-aggha of little value (opposite mahaggha priceless) Ja I 9; Pp 33; Dhp-a IV 184;
-assāda [BHS alpasvāda, cf. Divy 224 = Dhp 186; alpa + ā + svād] of little taste or enjoyment, affording little pleasure (always used of kāmā) Vin II 25 = M I 130 = A III 97 = Nidd II §71; Snp 61; Dhp {56} 186 (= supina-sadisatāya paritta-sukha Dhp-a III 240); Thig 358 (= Thig-a 244); Ja II 313; Vism 124;
-ātaṅka little (or no) illness, freedom from illness, good health (= appābādha with which often combined.) [BHS alpātaṅka and alpātaṅkatā] D I 204 (+ appābādha); III 166; A III 65, 103; Miln 14;
-ābādha same as appātaṅka (q.v.) D I 204; III 166, 237; M II 125; A I 25; II 88; III 30, 65f., 103, 153; Pv IV 144; °ābādhatā the same [cf. BHS alpābādhatā good health] A I 38;
-āyuka short lived D I 18; Pv-a 103, also as °āyukin Vv 416;
-āhāra taking little or no food, fasting M II 5; Snp 165 (= ekāsana-bhojitāya ca parimita-bhojitāya ca Pj II 207), also as °āhāratā M I 245; II 5;
-odaka having little or no water, dry Snp 777 (macche va appodake khīṇasote = parittodake Nidd I 50); Vv 843 (+ appabhakkha; explained at Vv-a 334 as "appa-saddo h'ettha abhāvattho appiccho appanigghoso ti ādisu viya"); Ja I 70; Dhp-a IV 12;
-kasira in instrumental °kasirena with little or no difficulty D I 251; S V 51; Thag 16;
-kicca having few duties, free from obligations, free from care Snp 144 (= appaṃ kiccaṃ assā ti Pj I 241);
-gandha not smelling or having a bad smell Miln 252 (opposite sugandha);
-ṭṭha "standing in little"; i.e. connected with little trouble D I 143; A I 169;
-thāmaka having little or no strength, weak S IV 206;
-dassa having little knowledge or wisdom Snp 1134 (see Nidd II §69; explained by paritta-pañña Pj II 605);
-nigghosa with {50} little sound, quiet, still, soundless (cf. Vv-a 334, as quoted above under °odaka) A V 15 (+ appasadda); Snp 338; Nidd I 377; Miln 371. °pañña, of little wisdom Ja II 166; III 223, 263;
-puñña of little merit M II 5;
-puññatā having little merit, unworthiness Pv IV 107;
-phalatā bringing little fruit Pv-a 139;
-bhakkha having little or nothing to eat Vv 843;
-bhoga having little wealth, i.e. poor, indigent Snp 114 (= sannicitānaṃ ca bhogānaṃ āyamukhassa ca abhāvato Pj II 173);
-maññati to consider as small, to underrate: see separately;
-matta little, slight, mean, (usually as °ka; not to be confused with appamatta2) A III 275; Ja I 242; also meaning "contented with little" (of the bhikkhu) It 103 = A II 27; feminine °ā trifle, smallness, insignificance D I 91; Sv I 55;
-mattaka small, insignificant, trifling, neuter a trifle (cf. °matta) Vin I 213; II 177 (°vissajjaka the distributor of little things, cf. A III 275 and Vin IV 38, 155); D I 3 (= appamattā etassā ti appamattakaṃ Sv I 55); Ja I 167; III 12 (= aṇu); Pv-a 262;
-middha "little slothful", i.e. diligent, alert Miln 412;
-rajakkha having little or no obtuseness D II 37; M I 169; Saddh 519;
-ssaka having little of one's own, possessing little A I 261; II 203;
-sattha having few or no companious, lonely, alone Dhp 123;
-sadda free from noise, quiet M II 2, 23, 30; A V 15; Snp 925 (= appanigghosa Nidd I 377); Pp 35; Miln 371;
-siddhika bringing little success or welfare, dangerous Ja IV 4 (= mandasiddhi vināsabahula commentary); VI 34 (samuddo a. bahu-antarāyiko);
-ssuta possessing small knowledge, ignorant, uneducated D I 93 (opposite bahussuta); III 252, 282; S IV 242; It 59; Dhp 152; Pp 20, 62; Dhs 1327;
-harita having little or no grass S I 169; Snp 15 (= paritta-harita-tiṇa Pj II 154).

:: Appaka (adjective) [appa + ka] little, small, trifling; plural few. neuter °ṃ adverb a little D II 4; A V 232f., 253f.; Snp 909 (opposite bahu); Dhp 85 (appakā = thokā na bahū Dhp-a II 160); Pv I 102 (= paritta Pv-a 48); II 939; Pp 62; Pv-a 6, 60 (= paritta). feminine appikā Ja I 228. — instrumental appakena by little, i.e. easily Sv I 256. — anappaka not little, i.e. much, considerable, great; plural many S IV 46; Dhp 144; Pv I 117 (= bahū Pv-a 58); Pv-a 24, 25 (read anappake pi for Text °appakeci; so also Pj I 208).

:: Appakāra (adjective) [a + pakāra] not of natural form, of bad appearance, ugly, deformed Ja V 69 (= sarīrappakāra-rahita dussaṇṭhāna commentary). Cf. apākatika.

:: Appakiṇṇa [appa + kiṇṇa, although in formation also + ā + pakiṇṇa] little or not crowded, not overheaped A V 15 (commentary anākiṇṇa).

:: Appagabbha (adjective) [a + pagabbha] unobtrusive, free from boldness, modest S II 198 = Miln 389, Snp 144, 852 (cf. Nidd I 228 and Pj I 232); Dhp 245.

:: Appaccaya [a + paccaya 1. (no) discontent, dissatisfaction, dejection, sulkiness D I 3 (= appatītā honti tena atuṭṭhā asomanassitā ti appacayo; domanass'etaṃ adhivacanaṃ Sv I 52); III 159; M I 442; A I 79, 124, 187; II 203; III 181f.; IV 168, 193; Ja II 277; Snp page 92 (kopa + dosa + appacaya); Vv 8331 (= domanassaṃ Vv-a 343); Pj II 423 (= appatītaṃ domanassaṃ). 2. (adjective) unconditioned Dhs 1084, 1437.

:: Appaṭi° [a + paṭi°] see in general under paṭi°.

:: Appaṭikārika (adjective) [a + paṭikārika] "not providing against", i.e. not making good, not making amends for, destructive Ja V 418 (spelling here and in commentary appati°).

:: Appaṭikuṭṭha [CPD]: not contradicted, not despised, uncensured, not condemned. AN 3.61.

:: Appaṭikopeti [a + paṭikopeti] not to disturb, shake or break (figurative) Ja V 173 (uposathaṃ).

:: Appaṭikkhippa (adjective) [a + paṭikkhippa, gerund of paṭikkhipati] not to be refused Ja II 370.

:: Appaṭigandhika and °iya (adjective) [a + paṭi + gandha + ika] not smelling disagreeable, i.e. with beautiful smell, scented, odorous Ja V 405 (°ika, but commentary °iya; explained by sugandhena udakena samannāgata); VI 518; Pv II 120; III 226.

:: Appaṭigha (adjective) [a + paṭigha] (a) not forming an obstacle, not injuring, unobstructive Snp 42 (see explination at Nidd II §239; Pj II 88 explains "katthaci satte vā saṅkhāre vā bhayena na paṭihaññatī ti a."). — (b) psychological technical term applied to rūpa: not reacting or impinging (opposite sappaṭigha) D III 217; Dhs 660, 756, 1090, 1443.

:: Appaṭicchavi (adjective) at Pv II 113 is faulty reading for sampatitacchavi (v.l.).

:: Appaṭibhāga (adjective) [a + paṭibhāga] not having a counterpart, unequalled, incomparable Dhp-a I 423 (= anuttara).

:: Appaṭibhāṇa (adjective) [a + paṭibhāṇa] not answering back, bewildered, cowed down Vin III 162; A III 57; °ṃ karoti to intimidate, bewilder Ja V 238, 369.

:: Appaṭima (adjective) [a + paṭima from preposition paṭi but cf. Vedic apratimāna from prati + mā] matchless, incomparable, invaluable Thag 614; Miln 239.

:: Appaṭivattiya (adjective) [a + paṭi + vattiya = vr̥tya, gerundive or vr̥t] (a) not to be rolled back Snp 554 (of dhammacakka, may however be taken in meaning of b.). — (b) irresistable Ja II 245 (sīhanada). Note: The spelling with ṭ is only found as v.l. at Ja II 245; otherwise as t.

:: Appaṭivāṇa (neuter) [a + paṭivāṇa, for °vrāṇa, the guṇa-form of vr̥, cf. Sanskrit prativāraṇa] non-obstruction, not hindering, not opposing or contradicting A I 50; III 41; V 93f.; adjective Ja I 326.

:: Appaṭivāṇitā (feminine) [abstract from (ap)paṭivāṇa] not being hindered, non-obstruction, free effort; only in phrase "asantuṭṭhitā ca kusalesu dhammesu appaṭivāṇitā ca padhānasmiṃ" (discontent with good states and the not shrinking back in the struggle BMPE 332f.) A I 50, 95 = D III 214 = Dhs 1367.

:: Appaṭivāṇī (feminine) [almost identical with appaṭivāṇitā, only used in different phrase] — non-hindrance, non-restriction, free action, impulsive effort; only in stock phrase chando vāyāmo ussāho ussoḷhī appaṭivāṇī S II 132; V 440; A II 93, 195; III 307f.; IV 320; Nidd II under chanda commentary [cf. similarly Divy 654].

:: Appaṭivāṇīya (adjective) [gerund of a + paṭi + vr̥; cf. BHS aprativāṇiḥ Divy 655; Mvu III 343] — not to be obstructed, irresistible S I 212 (applied to Nibbāna; Mrs. Rh.D. K.S. I page 274 translation "that source from whence there is no turning back"), Thig 55.


:: Appaṭividdha (adjective) [a + paṭi + viddha] "not shot through" i.e. unhurt Ja VI 446.

:: Appaṭivibhatta (°bhogin) (adjective) [a + paṭi + vibhatta] (not eating) without sharing with others (with omission of another negative: see Trenckner, Miln page 429, where also Buddhaghosa's explanation.) A III 289; Miln 373; cf. Q.K.M. II 292.

:: Appaṭivekkhiya [gerund of a + paṭi + avekkhati] not observing or noticing Ja IV 4 (= apaccavekkhitvā anavekkhitvā commentary).

:: Appaṭisaṅkhā (feminine) [a + paṭisaṅkhā] want of judgment Pp 21 = Dhs 1346.

:: Appaṭisandhika (and °iya) (adjective) [a + paṭisandhi + ka (ya) 1. what cannot be put together again, unmendable, irreparable (°iya) Pv I 129 (= puna pākatiko na hoti Pv-a 66) = Ja III 167 (= paṭipākatiko kātuṃ na sakkā commentary). 2. incapable of reunion, not subject to reunion, i.e. to rebirth Ja V 100 (°bhāva).

:: Appaṭisama (adjective) [a + paṭi + sama; cf. BHS apratisama Mvu I 104] — not having it's equal, incomparable Ja I 94 (Baddha-sirī).

:: Appaṭissavatā (feminine) [a + paṭissavatā] want of deference Pp 20 = Dhs 1325.

:: Appaṇihita (adjective) [a + paṇihita] aimless, not bent on anything, free from desire, usually as neuter aimlessness, combined with animittaṃ Vin III 92, 93 = IV 25; Dhs 351, 508, 556. See on term Cpd. 67; BMPE 85, 133 and cf. paṇihita.

:: Appatiṭṭha (adjective) [a + patiṭṭha 1. not standing still S I 1. 2. without a footing or ground to stand on, bottomless Snp 173.

:: Appatissa (and appaṭissa) (adjective) [a + paṭi + śru] not docile, rebellious, always in combination with agārava A II 20; III 7f., 14f., 247, 439. Appatissa-vāsa an unruly state, anarchy Ja II 352. See also paṭissā.

:: Appatīta (adjective) [a + patīta, of prati + i, Sanskrit pratīta] dissatisfied, displeased, disappointed (cf. appaccaya) Ja V 103 (at this passage {51} preferably to be read with v.l. as appatika = without husband, commentary explains assāmika), 155 (cf. commentary on page 156); Sv I 52; Pj II 423.

:: Appaduṭṭha (adjective) [a + paduṭṭha] not corrupt, faultless, of good behaviour Snp 662 (= padosa-bhāvena a. Pj II 478); Dhp 137 (= niraparādha Dhp-a III 70).

:: Appadhaṃsa (adjective) [= appadhaṃsiya, Sanskrit apradhvaṃsya] not to be destroyed Ja IV 344 (v.l. duppadhaṃsa).

:: Appadhaṃsika (and °iya) (adjective) [gerund of a + padhaṃseti] — not to be violated or destroyed, inconquerable, indestructible D III 175 (°ika, v.l. °iya); Ja III 159 (°iya); Vv-a 208 (°iya); Pv-a 117 (°iya). Cf. appadhaṃsa.

:: Appadhaṃsita (adjective) [past participle of a + padhaṃseti] not violated, unhurt, not offended Vin IV 229.

:: Appaṇā Appanā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit arpaṇa, abstract from appeti = arpayati from of r̥, to fix, turn, direct one's mind; see appeti] application (of mind), ecstasy, fixing of thought on an object, conception (as psychological technical term) Ja II 61 (°patta); Miln 62 (of vitakka); Dhs 7, 21, 298; Vism 144 (°samādhi); As 55, 142 (defined by Buddhaghosa as "ekaggaṃ cittaṃ ārammaṇe appeti"), 214 (°jhāna). See on term Cpd. past participle 56f., 68, 129, 215; BMPE xxviv, 9, note 2; 49, note 1; 74, notes 2, 322.

:: Appabhoti (Appahoti) see pahoti.

:: Appamaññati [appa + maññati] to think little of, to underrate, despise Dhp 121 (= avajānāti Dhp-a III 16; v.l. avapamaññati).

:: Appamaññā (feminine) [a + pamaññā, abstract from pamāṇa = Sanskrit °pramānya] boundlessness, infinitude, as psychological technical term applied in later books to the four varieties of philanthropy, viz. mettā karuṃā muditā upekkhā i.e. love, pity, sympathy, desinterestedness, and as such enumerated at D III 223 (q.v. for detailed reference as to various passages); Paṭis I 84; Vibh 272f.; As 195. By itself at Snp 507 (= metta-j-jhāna-saṅkhātā a. Pj II 417). See for further explanation BMPE 59 note 1, and mettā.

:: Appamatta1 (adjective) [appa + matta] see appa.

:: Appamatta2 (adjective) [a + pamatta, past participle of pamadati] not negligent, i.e. diligent, careful, heedful, vigilant, alert, zealous M I 391-92; S I 4; Snp 223 (cf. Pj I 169), 507, 779 (cf. Nidd I 59); Dhp 22 (cf. Dhp-a I 229); Thig 338 = upaṭṭhitasati Thig-a 239).

:: Appamāṇa (frequently spelled appamāna) (adjective) [a + pamāṇa 1. "without measure", immeasurable, endless, boundless, unlimited, unrestricted all-permeating S IV 186 (°cetaso); A II 73; V 63; Snp 507 (mettaṃ cittaṃ bhāvayaṃ appāmāṇaṃ = anavasesa-pharaṇena Pj II 417; cf. appamaññā); It 21 (mettā), 78; Ja II 61; Paṭis II 126f.; Vibh 16, 24, 49, 62, 326f.; Dhs 182, 1021, 1024, 1405; As 45, 196 (°gocara, cf. anantagocara). See also on term BMPE 55. 2. "without difference", irrelevant, in general (in commentary style) Ja I 165; II 323.

:: Appamāda Appamāda [a + pamāda] thoughtfullness, carefullness, conscientiousness, watchfullness, vigilance, earnestness, zeal D I 13 (a. vuccati satiyā avippavāso Sv I 104); III 30, 104f., 112, 244, 248, 272; M I 477 (°phala); S I 25, 86, 158, 214; II 29, 132; IV 78 (°vihārin), 97, 125, 252f.; V 30f. (°sampadā), 41f., 91, 135, 240, 250, 308, 350; A I 16, 50. (°adhigata); III 330, 364, 449; IV 28 (°gāravatā) 120 (°ṃ garu-karoti); V 21, 126 (kusalesu dhammesu); Snp 184, 264, 334 (= sati-avippavāsa-saṅkhāta a. Pj II 339); It 16 (°ṃ pasaṃsanti puññakiriyāsu paṇḍitā), 74 (°vihārin); Dhp 57 (°vihārin, cf. Dhp-a I 434); 327 (°rata = satiyā avippavāse abhirata Dhp-a IV 26); Dāṭh II 35; Pj I 142.

:: Appameyya (adjective) [a + pameyya = Sanskrit aprameya, gerund of a + pra + mā] — immeasurable, infinite, boundless M I 386; S V 400; A I 266; Thag 1089 (an°); Pp 35; Miln 331; Saddh 338.

:: Appavattā (feminine) [a + pavattā] the state of not going on, the stop (to all that), the non-continuance (of all that) Thag 767; Miln 326.

:: Appasāda see pasāda.

:: Appasseda see appa.

:: Appahīna (adjective) [a + pahīna, past participle of pahāyati] not given up, not renounced M I 386; It 56, 57; Nidd II §70 D1; Pp 12, 18.

:: Appāṇaka (adjective) [a + pāṇa + ka] breathless, i.e. 1. holding one's breath in a form of ecstatic meditation (jhāna) M I 243; Ja I 67 [cf. BHS āsphānaka Lal 314, 324; Mvu II 124; should the Pāli form be taken as °a + prāṇaka?]. 2. not holding anything breathing, i.e. inanimate, lifeless, not containing life Snp page 15 (of water).

:: Appikā (feminine) of appaka.

:: Appiccha (adjective) [appa + iccha from iṣ, cf. icchā] desiring little or nothing, easily satisfied, unassuming, contented, unpretentious S I 63, 65; A III 432; IV 2, 218f., 229; V 124f., 130, 154, 167; Snp 628, 707; Dhp 404; Pv IV 73; Pp 70.

:: Appicchatā (feminine) [abstract from preceding] contentment, being satisfied with little, unostentatiousness Vin III 21; D III 115; M I 13; S II 202, 208f.; A I 12, 16f.; III 219f., 448; IV 218, 280 (opposite mahicchatā); Miln 242; Pj II 494 (catubbidhā, viz. paccaya-dhutaṅga-pariyatti-adhigama-vasena); Pv-a 73. As one of the 5 dhutaṅga-dhammā at Vism 81.


:: Appita (adjective) [past participle of appeti, cf. BHS arpita, e.g. prītyarpitaṃ cakṣuḥ Jm 3169 1. fixed, applied, concentrated (mind) Miln 415 (mānasa) Saddh 233 (citta). 2. brought to, put to, fixed on Ja VI 78 (maraṇamukhe); visappita (an arrow to which) poison (is) applied, so read for visap(p)īta at Ja V 36 and Vism 303.

:: Appiya and Appiyatā see piya etc.

:: Appekadā (adverb) see api 2 a α.

:: Appeti [Vedic arpayati, causative of r̥, r̥ṇoti and r̥cchati (cf. icchati2), Indo-Germanic °ar (to insert or put together, cf. also °er under aṇṇava) to which belong Sanskrit ara spoke of a wheel; Greek ἀραρίσκω to put together, ἅρμα chariot, ἄρϧρον limb, ἀρετή virtue; Latin arma = English arms (i.e. weapon), artus fixed, tight, also limb, ars = article For further connections see aṇṇava 1. (*er) to move forward, rush on, run into (of river) Vin II 238; Miln 70. 2. (*ar) to fit in, fix, apply, insert, put on to (literal and figurative) Vin II 136, 137; Ja III 34 (nimba-sūlasmiṃ to impale, commentary āvuṇāti); VI 17 (Text sūlasmiṃ acceti, vv.ll. abbeti = appeti and upeti, commentary āvuṇati); Miln 62 (dāruṃ sandhismiṃ); Vv-a 110 (saññāṇaṃ). Cf. Trenckner, "Notes" 64 note 19, who defends reading abbeti at Text passages.

:: Appesakkha (adjective) [according to Childers = Sanskrit °alpa + īśa + ākhya, the latter from ā + khyā "being called lord of little"; Trenckner on Miln 65 (see page 422) says: "appesakkha and mahesakkha are traditionally explained appaparivāra and mahāparivāra, the former, I suppose, from appe and sakkha (Sanskrit sākhya), the latter an imitation of it". Thus the etymology would be "having little association or friendship" and resemble the term appasattha. The BHS forms are alpeśākhya and maheśākhya, e.g. at Avś II 153; Divy 243] — of little power, weak, impotent S II 229; Miln 65; Saddh 89.

:: Appoti [the contracted form of āpnoti, usually pāpuṇāti, from āp] to attain, reach, get Vism 350 (in etymology of āpo).

:: Appodaka see appa.

:: Appossukka (adjective) [appa + ussuka, Sanskrit alpotsuka, e.g. Lal. 509; Divy 41, 57, 86, 159. It is not necessary to assume a hypothetic form of °autsukya as derived from ussuka] — unconcerned, living at ease, careless, "not bothering", keeping still, inactive Vin II 188; M III 175, 176; S I 202 (in stock phrase appossukka tuṇhībhūta saṅkasāya "living at ease, given to silence, resigned" Mrs. Rh.D. K.S. I 258, see also JPTS 1909, 22); II 177 (the same); IV 178 (the same); Thig 457 (= nirussukka Thig-a 282); Snp 43 (= abyāvaṭa anapekkha Nidd II §72); Dhp 330 (= nirālaya Dhp-a IV 31); Ja I 197; IV 71; Miln 371 (a. tiṭṭhati to keep still); Sv I 264.

:: Appossukkatā (feminine) [abstract from preceding] inaction, reluctance, carelessness, indifference Vin I 5; D II 36; Miln 232; Dhp-a II 15.

:: Apphuta (and apphuṭa) [Sanskrit °ā-sphr̥ta for a-sphārita past participle of sphar, cf. phurati; phuṭa and also phusati] — untouched, unpervaded, not penetrated. D I 74 = M I 276 (pīti-sukhena).

:: Apphoṭā (feminine) [from appoṭeti to blossom] name of a kind of Jasmine Ja VI 336.

:: Apphoṭita [past participle of apphoṭeti] having snapped one's fingers or clapped one's hands Ja II 311 (°kāle).


:: Apphoṭeti [ā + phoṭeti, sphuṭ] to snap the fingers or clap the hands (as sign of pleasure) Miln 13, 20. past participle apphoṭita.

:: Aphusa [Sanskrit °aspr̥śya, a + gerund of phusati to touch] not to be touched Miln 157 (translation unchangeable by other circumstances; Trenckner on page 425 remarks "aphusāni kiriyāni seems wrong, at any rate it is unintelligible to me").

:: Aphegguka (adjective) [a + pheggu + ka] not weak, i.e. strong Ja III 318.

:: Abaddha [a + baddha] not tied, unbound, unfettered Snp 39 (v.l. and Nidd II abandha; explained by rajju-bandhanādisu yena kenaci abaddha Pj II 83).

:: Abandha (adjective/noun) [a + bandha] not tied to, not a follower or victim of It 56 (mārassa; v.l. abaddha).

:: Abandhana (adjective) [a + bandhana] without fetters or bonds, unfettered, untrammelled Snp 948, cf. Nidd I 433.

:: Ababa [of uncertain origin, probably onomatopoetic]. Name of a certain Hell, enumerated with many other similar names at A V 173 = Snp page 126 (cf. aṭaṭa, abbuda and also Avś I 4, 10 and see for further explanation of term Pj II 476 f.

:: Abala (adjective) [a + bala] not strong, weak, feeble Snp 1120 (= dubbala, appabala, appathāma Nidd II §73); Dhp 29 (°assa a weak horse = dubbalassa Dhp-a I 262; opposite sīghassa a quick horse).

:: Abbaje Text reading at A II 39, evidently interpreted by editor as ā + vr̥aje, potential of ā + vraj to go to, come to (cf. pabbajati), but is preferably with v.l. to be read aṇḍaje (corresponding with vihaṅgama in preceding line).

:: Abbaṇa (adjective) [a + vaṇa, Sanskrit avraṇa] without wounds Dhp 124.

:: Abbata (adjective/noun) [a + vata, Sanskrit avrata] (a) (neuter) that which is not "vata" i.e. moral obligation, breaking of the moral obligation Snp 839 (asīlata + a.); Nidd I 188 (v.l. abhabbata; explained again as a-vatta). Pj II 545 (= dhutaṅgavataṃ vinā. — (b) (adjective) one who offends against the moral obligation, lawless Dhp 264 (= sīlavatena ca dhutavatena ca virahita Dhp-a III 391; vv.ll. k. adhūta and abhūta; abbhuta, commentary abbuta).

:: Abbaya in uday° at Miln 393 stands for avyaya.

:: Abbahati (and abbuhati) [the first more frequent for present, the second often in preterit forms; Sanskrit ābr̥hati, ā + br̥h1, past participle br̥ḍha (see abbūḷha)] — to draw off, pull out (a sting or dart); imperative present abbaha Thag 404; Ja II 95 (v.l. appuha = abbuha; commentary explains by uddharatha). — preterit abbahi Ja V 198 (v.l. abbuhi), abbahī metri causā Ja III 390 (v.l. dhabbuḷi = abbuḷhi) = Pv I 86 (which reads Text abbūḷha, but Pv-a 41 explains nīhari) = Dhp-a I 30 (vv.ll. sabbahi, sabbamhi; gloss K. B abbūḷhaṃ) = Vv 839 (Text abbuḷhi; v.l. abbuḷhaṃ, avyahi; Vv-a 327 explains as uddhari), and abbuhi A III 55 (v.l. abbahi, commentary abbahī ti nīhari), see also vv.ll. under abbahi. — gerund abbuyha Snp 939 (= abbuhitvā uddharitvā Nidd I 419; v.l. abbuyhitvā; Pj II 567 reads avyuyha and explains by uddharitvā); S I 121 (taṇhaṃ); III 26 (the same.; but spelt abbhuyha). — past participle abbuḷha (q.v.). — causative abbāheti [Sanskrit ābarhayati] to pull out, drag out Ja IV 364 (satthaṃ abbāhayanti; v.l. abbhā°); Dhp-a II 249 (asiṃ). gerund abbāhitvā (= °hetvā) Vin II 201 (bhisa-muḷālaṃ) with v.l. aggahetvā, abbūhitvā, cf. Vin I 214 (vv.ll. aggahitvā and abbāhitvā). past participle abbūḷhita (q.v.).

:: Abbāhana (neuter) [abstract from abbahati] pulling out (of a sting) Dhp-a III 404 (sic. Text; v.l. abbūhana; Fausbøll aḍahana; glosses commentary aṭṭhaṅgata and aṭṭhaṅgika, K. nibbāpana). See also abbuḷhana and abbhāhana.

:: Abbuda (neuter) [etymology unknown, original meaning "swelling", the Sanskrit form arbuda seems to be a translation of Pāli abbuda 1. the fœtus in the 1st and 2nd months after conception, the 2nd of the five prenatal stages of development, viz. kalala, abbuda, pesi, ghana, pasākha Nidd I 120; Miln 40; Vism 236. 2. a tumour, canker, sore Vin III 294, 307 (only in Samantapāsādikā; both times as sāsanassa a.). 3. a very high numeral, applied exclusively to the denotation of a vast period of suffering in Hell; in this sense used as adjective of Niraya (abbudo Nirayo the "vast-period" {59} hell, cf. nirabbuda). S I 149 = A II 3 (chattiṃsati pañca ca abbudāni); S I 152 = A V 173 = Snp page 126 (cf. Pj II 476: abbudo nāma koci pacceka-Nirayo n'atthi, Avīcimhi yeva abbuda-gaṇanāya paccanokāso pana abbudo Nirayo ti vutto; see also K.S. I 190); Ja III 360 (sataṃ ninnahuta-sahassānaṃ ekaṃ abbudaṃ). 4. a term used for "hell" in the riddle S I 43 (kiṃsu lokasmiṃ abhudaṃ "who are they who make a hell on earth" Mrs. Rh.D. The answer is "thieves"; so we can scarcely take it in meaning of 2 or 3. The commentary has vināsa-karaṇaṃ.

:: Abbuḷhati (?) and Abbuhati see abbahati.

:: Abbuḷhana (neuter) [from abbahati = abbuhati (abbuḷhati)] the pulling out (of a sting), in phrase taṇhā-sallassa abbuḷhanaṃ as one of the 12 achievements of a Mahesi Nidd I 343 = Nidd II §503 (editors of Nidd I have abbūhana, v.l. abbussāna; editors of Nidd II abbuḷhana, vv.ll. abbahana, abbuhana). Cf. abbāhana.

:: Abbūḷha (adjective) [Sanskrit ābr̥ḍha, past participle of a + br̥h1, see abbahati] drawn out, pulled (of a sting or dart), figurative removed, destroyed. Most frequent in combination °salla with the sting removed, having the sting (of craving thirst, taṇhā) pulled out D II 283 (v.l. asammūḷha); Snp 593, 779 (= abbūḷhita-salla Nidd I 59; rāgādi-sallānaṃ abbūḷhattā a. Pj II 518); Ja III 390 = Vv 8310 = Pv I 87 = Dhp-a I 30. — In other connections: M I 139 = A III 84 (°esika = taṇhā pahīnā; see esikā); Thag 321; Pj I 153 (°soka).

:: Abbūḷhatta (neuter) [abstract of abbūḷha] pulling out, removal, destroying Pj II 518.

:: Abbūḷhita (and abbūhitta at Ja III 541) [past participle of abbāheti causative of abbāhati] pulled out, removed, destroyed Nidd I 59 (abbūḷhita-sallo + uddhaṭa° etc. for abbūḷha); Ja III 541 (uncertain reading; vv.ll. appahita, abyūhita; commentary explains pupphakaṃ ṭhapitaṃ appaggharakaṃ kataṃ; should we explain as ā + vi + ūh and read abyūhita?).

:: Abbeti [ Trenckner, "Notes" 64 note 19] at Ja III 34 and VI 17 is probably a mistake in mss for appeti.

:: Abbokiṇṇa [= abbhokiṇṇa, abhi + ava + kiṇṇa, cf. abhikiṇṇa] 1. filled M I 387 (paripuṇṇa + a.); Dhp-a IV 182 (pañca jāti-satāni a.). 2. [seems to be misunderstood for abbocchinna, a + vi + ava + chinna] uninterrupted, constant, as °ṃ adverb in combination with satataṃ samitaṃ A IV 13 = 145; Kv 401 (v.l. abbhokiṇṇa), cf. also PtsC. 231 note 1 (abbokiṇṇa undiluted?); Vibh 320. 3. doubtful spelling at Vin III 271 (Buddhaghosa on Pārāj. III 1, 3).

:: Abbocchinna see abbokiṇṇa 2 and abbhochinna.

:: Abbohārika (adjective) [a + vi + ava + hārika of voharati] not of legal or conventional status, i.e. — (a) negligible, not to be decided Vin III 91, 112 (see also PtsC. 361 note 4). — (b) uncommon, extraordinary Ja III 309 (v.l. abbho); V 271, 286 (Kern: ineffective).

:: Abbha (neuter) [Vedic abhra neuter and later Sanskrit abhra masculine "dark cloud"; Indo-Germanic °ṃbhro, cf. Greek ἀϕρὸς scum, froth, Latin imber rain; also Sanskrit ambha water, Greek ὄμβρος rain, Oir ambu water]. A (dense and dark) cloud, a cloudy mass A II 53 = Vin II 295 = Miln 273 in list of 4 things that obscure moon- and sunshine, viz. abbhaṃ, mahikā (mahiyā A), dhūmarajo (megho Miln), Rāhu. This list is referred to at Pj II 487 and Vv-a 134. S I 101 (°sama pabbata a mountain like a thunder-cloud); Ja VI 581 (abbhaṃ rajo acchādesi); Pv IV 39 (nīl° = nīla-megha Pv-a 251). As feminine abbhā at Dhs 617 and As 317 (used in sense of adjective "dull"; As explained by valāhaka); perhaps also in abbhāmatta.

-kūṭa the point or summit of a storm-cloud Thag 1064; Ja VI 249, 250; Vv I1 (= valāhaka-sikhara Vv-a 12);
-ghana a mass of clouds, a thick cloud It 64; Snp 348 (cf. Pj II 348);
-paṭala a mass of clouds As 239;
-mutta free from clouds Snp 687 (also as abbhāmutta Dhp 382);
-saṃvilāpa thundering S IV 289.

:: Abbhakkhāti [abhi + ā + khyā, cf. Sanskrit ākhyāti] to speak against to accuse, slander D I 161 = A I 161 (an-abbhakkhātu-kāma); IV 182 (the same); Ja IV 377. Cf. Intensive abbhācikkhati.


:: Abbhakkhāna (neuter) [from abbhakkhāti] accusation, slander, calumny D III 248, 250; M I 130; III 207; A III 290f.; Dhp 139 (cf. Dhp-a III 70).

:: Abbhacchādita [past participle of abhi + ā + chādeti] covered (with) Thag 1068.

:: Abbhañjati [abhi + añj] to anoint; to oil, to lubricate M I 343 (sappi-telena); S IV 177; Pp 56; Dhp-a III 311 = Vv-a 68 (sata-pāka-telena). causative abbhañjeti same Ja I 438 (telena °etvā); V 376 (sata-pāka-telena °ayiṃsu); causative II abbhanjāpeti to cause to anoint Ja III 372.

:: Abbhañjana (neuter) [from abbhañjati] anointing, lubricating, oiling; unction, unguent Vin I 205; III 79; Miln 367 (akkhassa a.); Vism 264; Vv-a 295.

:: Abbhatika (adjective) [ā + bhata + ika, bhr̥] brought (to), procured, got, Ja VI 291.

:: Abbhatikkanta [past participle of abhi + ati + kram, cf. atikkanta] one who has thoroughly, left behind Ja V 376.

:: Abbhatīta [past participle of abhi + ati + i, cf. atīta and atikkanta] emphatic of atīta in all meanings, viz. 1. passed, gone by S II 183 (+ atikkanta); neuter °ṃ what is gone or over, the past Ja III 169. 2. passed away, dead M I 465; S IV 398; Thag 242, 1035. 3. transgressed, overstepped, neglected Ja III 541 (saṃyama).

:: Abbhattha (neuter) [abhi + attha2 in accusative abhi + atthaṃ, abhi in function of "towards" = homeward, as under abhi I.1.a; cf. Vedic abhi sadhasthaṃ to the seat R̥V IX. 21.3] = attha2, only in phrase abbhatthaṃ gacchati "to go towards home", i.e. setting; figurative to disappear, vanish, M I 115, 119; III 25; A IV 32; Miln 305; past participle abhhatthaṅgata "set", gone, disappeared Dhs 1038 (atthaṅgata + a.); Kv 576.

:: Abbhatthatā (feminine) [abstract from abbhattha] "going towards setting", disappearance, death Ja V 469.

:: Abbhanumodati [abhi + anu + modati] to be much pleased at to show great appreciation of Vin I 196; D I 143, 190; S IV 224; Miln 29, 210; Dhp-a IV 102 (v.l. °ānu°).

:: Abbhanumodana (neuter) (and °ā feminine) [from abbhanumodati] being pleased, satisfaction, thanksgiving Sv I 227; Vv-a 52 (°ānu°); Saddh 218.

:: Abbhantara (adjective) [abhi + antara; abhi here in directive function = towards the inside, in there, within, cf. abhi I.1.a] = antara, i.e. internal, inner, being within or between; neuter °ṃ the inner part, interior, interval (also as °-) Vin I 111 (satt° with interval of seven); A IV 16 (opposite bāhira); Dhp 394 (the same); Thag 757 (°āpassiveya lying inside); Ja III 395 (°amba the inside of the Mango); Miln 30 (°e vāyo jivo), 262, 281 (bāhir-abbhantara dhana); Dhp-a II 74 (adjective with genitive being among; v.l. abbhantare). Cases used adverbially: instrumental abbhantarena in the meantime, in between Dhp-a II 59. locative abbhantare in the midst of, inside of, within (with genitive or °—°) Ja I 262 (rañño), 280 (tuyhaṃ tuyhaṃ); Dhp-a II 64 (v.l. antare), 92 (sattavass°); Pv-a 48 (= anto).

:: Abbhantarika (adjective/noun) [from abbhantara, cf. Sanskrit abhyantara in same meaning] — intimate friend, confidant, "chum" Ja I 86 (+ ativissāsika), 337 ("insider", opposite bāhiraka).

:: Abbhantarima (adjective) [superlative formation from abbhantara in contrasting function] internal, inner (opposite bāhirima) Vin III 149; Ja V 38.


:: Abbhākuṭika (adjective) [a + bhākuṭi + ka; Sanskrit bhrakuṭi frown] not frowning, genial Vin III 181 (but here spelt bhākuṭikabhākuṭika); D I 116, cf. Sv I 287; Dhp-a IV 8 (as v.l.; Text has abbhokuṭika).

:: Abbhakkhānaṃ [DPL]: Accusation, slander, calumny. Abhidhānappadipikā 116 explains this word to mean 'a groundless charge ...' Compare Abbhācikkhati.

:: Abbhāgata [abhi + ā + gata] having arrived or come; (masculine) a guest, stranger Vv 15 (= abhi-āgata, āgantuka Vv-a 24).

:: Abbhāgamana (neuter) [abhi + ā + gamana; cf. Sanskrit abhyāgama] coming arrival, approach Vin IV 221.

:: Abbhāghāta [abhi + āghāta] slaughtering-place Vin III 151 (+ āghāta).

:: Abbhācikkhati [Intensive of abbhākkhāti] to accuse, slander, calumniate D I 161; III 248, 250; M I 130, 368, 482; III 207; A I 161.

:: Abbhāna (neuter) [abhi + āyana of ā + yā (i)] coming back, rehabilitation of a bhikkhu who has undergone a penance for an expiable offence Vin I 49 (°āraha), 53 (the same), 143, 327; II 33, 40, 162; A I 99. — Cf. abbheti.

:: Abbhāmatta (adjective) [abbhā + matta (?) according to the Pāli commentary; but more likely = Vedic abhva huge, enormous, monstrous, with ā metri causā. On abhva (a + bhū what is contradictory to anything that is) cf. abbhuta and abbhuṃ, and see Walde, Latin Wtb. under dubius] — monstrous, dreadful, enormous, "of the size of a large cloud" (thus Spk I on S I 205 and Ja III 309) S I 205 = Thag 652 (v.l. abbha° and abbhāmutta) = Ja III 309 (v.l. °mutta).

:: Abbhāhata [abhi + ā + hata, past participle of han] struck, attacked, afflicted S I 40 (maccunā); Thag 448; Snp 581; Ja VI 26, 440; Vism 31, 232; Sv I 140, 147; Dhp-a IV 25.

:: Abbhāhana (neuter) [either = abbāhana or āvāhana] in udaka° the pulling up or drawing up of water Vin II 318 (Buddhaghosa on Cullavagga V 16, 2, corresponding to udaka-vāhana on page 122).

:: Abbhita [past participle of abbheti 1. come back, rehabilitated, reinstated Vin III 186 = IV 242 (an°). 2. uncertain reading at Pv I 123 in sense of "called" (an° uncalled), where the same passage at Ja III 165 reads anavhāta and at Thig 129 ayācita.

:: Abbhu [a + bhū most likely = Vedic abhva and Pāli abbhuṃ, see also abbhāmatta] unprofitableness, idleness, nonsense Ja V 295 (= abhūti avaḍḍhi commentary).

:: Abbhuṃ (interjection) [Vedic abhvaṃ, neuter of abhva, see explanation under abbhāmatta. Not quite correct Morris JPTS 1889, 201: abbhuṃ — ā + bhuk; cf also abbhuta] — alas! terrible, dreadful, awful (exclamation of fright and shock) Vin II 115 (Buddhaghosa explains as "utrāsa-vacanam-etaṃ"); M I 448. See also abbhu and abbhuta.

:: Abbhukkiraṇa (neuter) [abhi + ud + kr̥] drawing out, pulling, in daṇḍa-sattha° drawing a stick or sword Nidd II §5764 (cf. abbhokkiraṇa). Or is it abbhuttīraṇa (cf. uttiṇṇa outlet).

:: Abbhukkirati [abhi + ud + kirati] to sprinkle over, to rinse (with water) D II 172 (cakkaratanaṃ; neither with Morris JPTS 1886, 131 "give up", nor with translation of Ja II 311 "roll along"); Ja V 390; Pv-a 75. Cf. abbhokkirati.

:: Abbhuggacchati [abhi + ud + gacchati] to go forth, go out, rise into D I 112, 127; A III 252 (kitti-saddo a.); Pp 36. gerund °gantvā Ja I 88 (ākāsaṃ), 202; Dhp-a IV 198. preterit °gañchi M I 126 (kittisaddo); Ja I 93. — past participle abbhuggata.

:: Abbhuggata [past participle of abbhuggacchati] gone forth, gone out, risen D I 88 (kitti-saddo a., cf. Dhp-a I 146: sadevakaṃ lokaṃ ajjhottharitvā uggato), 107 (saddo); Snp page 103 (kittisaddo).

:: Abbhuggamana (neuter-adjective) [from abbhuggacchati] going out over, rising over (with accusative) Pv-a 65 (candaṃ nabhaṃ abbhuggamanaṃ; so read for Text abbhuggamānaṃ).

:: Abbhujjalaṃa (neuter) [abhi + ud + jalana, from jval] breathing out fire, i.e. carrying fire in one's month (by means of a charm) D I 11 (= mantena mukhato aggi-jala-nīharaṇaṃ Sv I 97).

:: Abbhuṭṭhāti (°ṭṭhahati) [abhi + ud + sthā] to get up to, proceed to, D I 105 (caṅkamaṃ).

:: Abbhuṇṇata [past participle of abbhunnamati] standing up, held up, erect Ja V 156 (in abbhuṇṇatatā state of being erect, stiffness), 197 (°unnata; v.l. abbhantara, is reading correct?).

:: Abbhuṇha (adjective) [ahhi + uṇha] (a) very hot Dhp-a II 87 (v.l. accuṇha). (b) quite hot, still warm (of milk) Dhp-a II 67.

:: Abbhuta1 (adjective neuter) [Sanskrit adbhuta which appears to be constructed from the Pāli and offers like its companion °āścarya (acchariya abbhuta see below) serious difficulties as to etymology. The most probable solution is that Pāli abbhuta is a secondary adjective-formation from abbhuṃ which in itself is neuter of abbha = Vedic abhva (see etymology under abbhāmatta and cf. abbhu, abbhuṃ and JPTS 1889, 201). In meaning abbhuta is identical with Vedic abhva contrary to what usually happens, i.e. striking, abnormal, gruesome, horrible etc.; and that its significance as a + bhū ("unreal?") is felt in the background is also evident from the traditional etymology of the Pāli commentators (see below). See also acchariya] — terrifying, astonishing; strange, exceptional, puzzling, extraordinary, marvellous, supernormal. Described as a term of surprise and consternation (vimhayāvahass' {54} adhivacanaṃ Sv I 43 and Vv-a 329) and explained as "something that is not" or "has not been before", viz. abhūtaṃ Thig-a 233; abhūta-pubbatāya abbhutaṃ Vv-a 191, 329; abhūta-pubbaṃ Sv I 43. 1. (adjective) wonderful, marvellous etc. Snp 681 (kiṃ °ṃ, combined with lomahaṃsana); Ja IV 355 (the same); Thig 316 (abbhutaṃ vata vācaṃ bhāsasi = acchariyaṃ Thig-a 233); Vv 449 (°dassaneyya); Saddh 345, 496. 2. (neuter) the wonderful, a wonder, marvel S IV 371, also in °dhamma (see Cpd.). Very frequent in combination with acchariyaṃ and a particle of exclamation, viz, acchariyaṃ bho abbhutaṃ bho wonderful indeed and beyond comprehension, strange and stupefying D I 206; acch. vata bho abbh. vata bho D I 60; acch. bhante abbh. A II 50; aho acch. aho abbh. Ja I 88; acch. vata abbh. vata Vv 8316. — Thus also in phrase acchariyā abbhutā dhammā wonderful and extraordinary signs or things M III 118, 125; A II 130; IV 198; Miln 8; and in acchariya-abbhutacitta-jāta dumbfounded and surprised Ja I 88; Dhp-a IV 52; Pv-a 6, 50.

-dhamma mysterous phenomenon, something wonderful, supernormal; designation of one of the nine aṅgas or divisions of the Buddhist scriptures (see nava B 2) Vin III 8; M I 133; A II 103; III 86, 177; Pp 43; Miln 344; Pv-a 2, etc.

:: Abbhuta2 (neuter) [= abbhuta1 in the sense of invoking strange powers in gambling, thus being under direct spell of the "unknown"] a bet, a wager, only in phrase abbhutaṃ karoti (sahassena) to make a bet or to bet (a thousand, i.e. kahāpaṇa's or pieces of money) Vin III 138; IV 5; Ja I 191; V 427; VI 192; Pv-a 151; and in phrase pañcahi sahassehi abbhutaṃ hotu Ja VI 193.

:: Abbhudāharati [abhi + ud + ā + harati] to bring towards, to fetch, to begin or introduce (a conversation) M II 132.

:: Abbhudīreti [abhi + ud + īreti] to raise the voice, to utter Thig 402; Sv I 61; Saddh 514. [BD]: high dudgeon, ire

:: Abbhudeti [abhi + ud + eti] to go out over, to rise A II 50, 51 (opposite atthaṃ eti, of the sun). — present participle abbhuddayaṃ Vv 6417 (= abhiuggacchanto Vv-a 280; abbhusayaṃ ti pi pāṭho).

:: Abbhuddhunāti [abhi + ud + dhunāti] to shake very much Vv 649 (= adhikaṃ uddhunāti Vv-a 278).


:: Abbhunnadita [past participle of abhi + ud + nadati] resounding, resonant Thag 1065).

:: Abbhunnamati [abhi, + ud + namati] to, spring up, burst forth D II 164. — past participle abbhuṇṇata (and °unnata), q.v. causative abbhunnāmeti to stiffen, straighten out, hold up, erect D I 120 (kāyaṃ one's body); A II 245 (the same); D I 126 (patodalaṭṭhiṃ; opposite apanāmeti to bend down).

:: Abbhuyyāta [past participle of abbhuyyāti] marched against, attacked Vin I 342; M II 124.

:: Abbhuyyāti [abhi + up + yāti of yā] to go against, to go against, to march (an army) against, to attack S I 82 (preterit °uyyāsi). — past participle abbhuyyāta (q.v.).

:: Abbhusūyaka (adjective) [abhi + usūyā + ka] zealous, showing zeal, endeavouring in (—°) Pañca-g 101.

:: Abbhussakati and °usukkati [abhi + ud + ṣvaṣk, see sakkati] to go out over, rise above (accusative), ascend, frequent in phrase ādicco nabhaṃ abbhussakkamāno M I 317 = S III 156 = It 20. — See also S I 65; V 44; A I 242 (same simile); V 22 (the same).

:: Abbhussahanatā (feminine) [abstract from abhi + °utsahana, cf. ussāha] instigation, incitement Vin II 88.

:: Abbhusseti [abhi + ud + seti of śī] to rise; v.l. at Vv 6417 according to Vv-a 280: abbhuddayaṃ (see abbhudeti) abbhussayan ti pi pāṭho.

:: Abbheti [abhi + ā + i] to rehabilitate a bhikkhu who has been suspended for breach of rules Vin II 7 (abbhento), 33 (abbheyya); III 112 (abbheti), 186 = IV 242 (abbhetabba) — past participle abbhita (q.v.). See also abbhāna.

:: Abbhokāsa [abhi + avakāsa] the open air, an open and unsheltered space D I 63 (= alagganatthena a. viya Sv I 180), 71 (= acchanna Sv I 210), 89; M III 132; A II 210; III 92; IV 437, V 65; Snp page 139 (°e nissinna sitting in the open) Ja I 29, 215; Pp 57.

:: Abbhokāsika (adjective) [from abbhokāsa] belonging to the open air, one who lives in the open, the practice of certain ascetics. D I 167; M I 282; A III 220; Vin V 131, 193; Ja IV 8 (+ nesajjika); Pp 69; Miln 20, 342. (One of the 13 dhutaṅgas). See also Nidd I 188; Nidd II §587.

-aṅga the practice or system of the "campers-out" Nidd I 558 (so read for abbhokāsi-kaṅkhā, cf. Nidd I 188).

:: Abbhokiṇṇa [past participle of abbhokirati] see abbokiṇṇa.

:: Abbhokirati [abhi + ava + kirati] to sprinkle over, to cover, bedeck Vv 59 (= abhi-okirati abhippakirati), 3511 (v.l. abbhuk°). Cf. abbhukkirati and abbhokkiraṇa past participle abbhokiṇṇa see under abbokiṇṇa.

:: Abbhokuṭika spelling at Dhp-a IV 8 for abbhākuṭika.

:: Abbhokkiraṇa (neuter) [from abbhokirati] in naṭānaṃ a. "turnings of dancers" Sv I 84 in explanation of sobha-nagarakaṃ of D I 6.

:: Abbhocchinna (besides abbocch°, q.v. under abbokiṇṇa2) [a + vi + ava + chinna] — not cut off, uninterrupted, continuous Ja I 470 (v.l. abbo°); VI 254, 373; Cp I 6, 3; Miln 72; Vism 362 (-bb-), 391 (-bb-).

:: Abbhohārika see abbo.

:: Aby° see avy°.

:: Abhabba (adjective) [a + bhavya. The Sanskrit abhavya has a different meaning] — impossible, not likely, unable D III 13f., 19, 26f., 133; It 106, 117; Snp 231 (see Pj I 189); Dhp 32; Ja I 116; Pp 13.

-ṭṭhāna a (moral) impossibility of which there are 9 enumerated among things that are not likely to be found in an Arahant's character: see D III 133 and 235 (where the five first only are given as a set).

:: Abhabbatā (feminine) [abstract from abhabba] an impossibility, unlikelihood Snp 232, cf. Pj I 191.

:: Abhaya (adjective) [a + bhaya] free from fear or danger, fearless, safe Dhp 258. — neuter abhayaṃ confidence, safety Dhp 317, cf. Dhp-a III 491. For further references see bhaya.

:: Abhi- [prefix, Vedic abhi, which represents both Idg °m °bhi, as in Greek ἀμϕί around, Latin ambi, amb round about, Old-Irish imb, Gallic ambi, Old High German umbi, Anglo-Saxon ymb, cf. also Vedic (Pāli) abhita- on both sides; and Indo-Germanic °obhi, as in Latin ob towards, against (cf. obsess, obstruct), Gothic bi, Old High German Anglo-Saxon bī = English be-. I Meaning. 1. The primary meaning of abhi is that of taking possession and mastering, as contained in English coming by and over-coming, thus literally having the function of (a) facing and aggressing = towards, against, on to, at (see II 1, a); and (b) mastering = over, along over, out over, on top of (see II 1, b). 2. Out of this is developed the figurative meaning of increasing i.e., an intensifying of the action implied in the verb (see III 1). Next to saṃ- it is the most frequent modification preflx in the meaning of "very much, greatly" as the first part of a double-prefix compound (see III 2), and therefore often seemingly superfluous, i.e., weakened in meaning, where the second part already denotes intensity as in abhi-vi-ji (side by side with vi-ji), abhi-ā-kkhā (side by side with ā-kkhā), abhi-anu-mud (side by side with anu-mud). In these latter cases abhi shows a purely deictic character corresponding to German her-bei-kommen (for bei-kommen), English fill up (for fill); e.g., abbhatikkanta (= ati° commentary), abbhatīta ("vorbei gegangen"), abbhantara ("with-in", b-innen or "in here"), abbhudāharati, abhipūreti ("fill up"), etc. (see also II 1, c). II Literal Meaning. 1. As single prefix: (a) against, to, on to, at-, e.g., abbhatthaṅgata gone towards home, abhighāta striking at, °jjhā think at, °mana thinking on, °mukha facing, turned towards, °yāti at-tack, °rūhati ascend, °lāsa long for, °vadati ad-dress, °sapati ac-curse, °hata hit at. (b) out, over, all around: abbhudeti go out over, °kamati exceed, °jāti off-spring, °jānāti know all over, °bhavati overcome, °vaḍḍhati increase, °vuṭṭha poured out or over, °sandeti make overflow, °siñcati sprinkle over. (c) abhi has the function of transitivising intransitive verbs after the manner of English be- (con-) and {55} German er-, thus resembling in meaning a simple causative formation, like the following: abhigajjati thunder on, °jānāti "er-kennen" °jāyati be-get, °tthaneti = °gajjati, °nadati "er-tönen", °nandati approve of (cf. anerkennen), °passati con-template, °ramati indulge in, °ropeti honour, °vuḍḍha increased, °saddahati believe in. 2. As base in compounds (2nd part of compound) abhi occurs only in combination sam-abhi (which is, however, of late occurrence and a peculiarity of later texts, and is still more frequent in BHS: see under sam-). III Figurative Meaning (intensifying). 1. A single prefix: abhikiṇṇa strewn all over, °jalati shine forth, °jighacchati be very hungry, °tatta much exhausted, °tāpa very hot, °toseti please greatly, °nava quite fresh, °nipuṇa very clever, °nīla of a deep black, °manāpa very pleasant, °maṅgala very lucky, °yobbana full youth, °rati great liking, °ratta deep red, °ruci intense satisfaction, °rūpa very handsome (= adhika-rūpa commentary), °sambuddha wide and fully-awake, cf. abbhuddhunāti to shake greatly (= adhikaṃ uddh° commentary). — As 1st part of a preposition-compound (as modification-prefix) in following combinations: abhi-ud (abbhud-) °ati, °anu, °ava, °ā, °ni, °ppa, °vi, °saṃ. See all these sub voce and note that the contraction (assimilation before vowel) form of abhi is abbh°. — On its relation to pari, see pari°, to ava see ava°. IV D.B.ectal Variation. — There are dialect variations in the use and meanings of abhi. Vedic abhi besides corresponding to abhi in Pāli is represented also by ati°, adhi° and anu°, since all are similar in meaning, and psychologically easily fused and confused (cf. meanings: abhi = onto, towards; ati = up to and beyond; adhi = up to, towards, over; anu = along towards). For all the {62} following verbs we find in Pāli one or other of these three prefixes. So ati in °jāti, °pīḷita, °brūheti, °vassati, °vāyati, °veṭheti; also as vv.ll. with abhi-kīrati, °pavassati, °roceti, cf. atikkanta abhikkanta (Sanskrit abhikrānta); adhi in °patthita, °pāteti, °ppāya, °ppeta, °bādheti, °bhū, °vāha (vice versa Pāli abhi-ropeti compared with Sanskrit adhiropayati); anu in °gijjhati, °brūheti, °sandahati.

:: Abhikaṅkhati [abhi + kaṅkhati] to desire after, long for, wish for S I 140, 198 (Nibbānaṃ); Ja II 428; IV 10, 241; Vv-a 38, 283; Thig-a 244. — past participle abhikaṅkhita. Cf. BHS abhikāṅkṣati, e.g. Jm page 221.

:: Abhikaṅkhanatā (feminine) [abhi + kaṅkhana + tā] wishing, longing, desire Sv I 242.

:: Abhikaṅkhita [past participle of abhikaṅkhati] desired, wished, longed for Vv-a 201 (= abhijjhita).

:: Abhikaṅkhin (adjective) cf. wishing for, desirous (of °—°) Thig 360 (sītibhāva°).

:: Abhikiṇṇa [past participle of abhikirati 1. strewn over with (—°), adorned, covered filled Pv II 112 (puppha°).
2. overwhelmed, overcome, crushed by (—°) It 89 (dukkh°; vv.ll. dukkhātiṇṇa and otiṇṇa) = A I 147 (which reads dukkhotiṇṇa). See also avatiṇṇa.

:: Abhikirati
1. [Sanskrit abhikirati] to sprinkle or cover over: see abhikiṇṇa 1.
2. [Sanskrit avakirati, cf. apakiritūna] to overwhelm, destroy, put out, throw away, crush S I 54; Thag 598; Thig 447 (gerund abhikiritūna, reading of commentary for Text apa°, explained by chaḍḍetvā); Dhp 25 (abhikīrati metri causa; dīpaṃ abhikīrati = viddhaṃseti vikirati Dhp-a I 255; v.l. atikirati); Ja IV 121 (abhikīrati; = viddhaṃseti commentary); VI 541 (nandiyo m° abhikīrare = abhikiranti abhikkamanti commentary); Dhp-a I 255 (infinitive °kirituṃ). — past participle abhikiṇṇa see abhikiṇṇa 2.

:: Abhikīḷati [abhi + kīḷati] to play (a game), to sport Miln 359 (kīḷaṃ).

:: Abhikūjita [abhi + kūjita, past participle of kūj] resounding (with the song of birds) Pv II 123 (cakkavāka°; so read for kujita). Cf. abhinikūjita.

:: Abhikkanta (adjective/noun) [past participle of abhikkamati, in sense of Sanskrit and also Pāli atikkanta] (a) (adjective) literally gone forward, gone out, gone beyond. According to the traditional explanation preserved by Buddhaghosa and Dhpāla (see e.g. Sv I 227 = Pj I 114 = Vv-a 52) it is used in 4 applications: abhikkantasaddo khaya (+ pabbaniya Pj I) sundarābhirūpa-abbhanumodanesu dissati. These are: 1. (literal) gone away, passed, gone out, departed (+ nikkhanta, meaning khaya "wane"), in phrase abhikkantāya rattiyā at the waning of the night Vin I 26; D II 220; M I 142. 2. excellent, supreme (= sundara) Snp 1118 (°dassāvin having the most exellent knowledge = aggadassāvin etc. Nidd II §76); usually in compar °tara (+ paṇītatara) D I 62, 74, 216; A II 101; III 350f.; V 140, 207f.; Sv I 171 (= atimanāpatara). 3. pleasing superb, extremely wonderful, as exclamation °ṃ repeated with bho (bhante), showing appreciation (= abbhānumodana) D I 85, 110, 234; Snp page 15, 24, etc. frequent 4. surpassing beautiful (always with °vaṇṇa = abhirūpa) Vin I 26; D II 220; M I 142; Pv II 110 = Vv 91 (= atimanāpa abhirūpa Pv-a 71); Pj I 115 (= abhirūpachavin). (b) (neuter) abhikkantaṃ (combined with and opposed to paṭikkantaṃ) going forward (and backward), approach (and receding) D I 70 (= gamaṇa + nivattana Sv I 183); Vin III 181; A II 104, 106f.; Vv-a 6.

:: Abhikkama going forward, approach, going out Pv IV 12 (opposite paṭikkama going back); Dhp-a III 124 (°paṭikkama).

:: Abhikkamati Abhikkamati [Vedic abhikramati, abhi + kamati] to go forward, to proceed, approach D I 50 (= abhimukho kamati, gacchati, pavisati Sv I 151); II 147, 256 (abhikkāmuṃ preterit); Dhp-a III 124 (evaṃ °itabbaṃ evaṃ paṭikkamitabbaṃ thus to approach and thus to withdraw). — past participle abhikkanta (q.v.).

:: Abhikkhaṇa1 (neuter) [from abhikkhanati] digging up of the ground M I 143.

:: Abhikkhaṇa2 (neuter) [abhi + °ikkhaṇa from īkṣ, cf. Sanskrit abhīkṣṇa of which the eontracted form is Pāli abhiṇha] only as accusative adverb °ṃ constantly, repeated, often Vv 2412 (= abhiṇhaṃ Vv-a 116); Pv II 84 (= abhiṇhaṃ bahuso Pv-a 107); Pp 31; Dhp-a II 91.

:: Abhikkhaṇati [abhi + khaṇati] to dig up M I 142.

:: Abhikkhipati [abhi + khipati] to throw Dāṭh III 60; cf. abhinikkhipati Dāṭh III 12.

:: Abhigacchati Abhigacchati [DPL]: To go to, to approach. Mah. 107.

:: Abhigajjati [abhi + gajjati from garj, sound-root, cf. Pāli gaggara] (a) to roar, shout, thunder, to shout or roar at (with accusative) Snp 831 (shouting or railing = gajjanto uggajjanto Nidd I 172); gerund abhigajjiya thundering Cp III 10, 8. (b) hum, chatter, twitter (of birds); see abhigajjin.

:: Abhigajjin (adjective) [from abhigajjati] warbling, singing, chattering Thag 1108, 1136.

:: Abhigamanīya (adjective) [gerund of abhigacchati] to be approached, accessible Pv-a 9.

:: Abhigijjhati [abhi + gijjhati 1. to be greedy for, to crave for, show delight in (with locative) Snp 1039 (kāmesu, cf. Nidd II §77). 2. to envy (accusative) S I 15 (aññam-aññaṃ).

:: Abhigīta [past participle of abhigāyati, cf. gīta 1. sung for. Only in one phrase, gāthābhigītaṃ, that which is gained by singing or chanting verses (German "ersungen") S I 173 = Snp 81 = Miln 228. See Pj II 151. 2. resounding with, filled with song (of birds) Ja VI 272 (= abhiruda).

:: Abhighāta [Sanskrit abhighāta, abhi + ghāta] (a) striking, slaying, killing Pv-a 58 (daṇḍa°), 283 (sakkhara°). (b) impact, contact As 312 (rūpa° etc.).

:: Abhicetasika (adjective) [abhi + ceto + ika] dependent on the clearest consciousness. On the spelling see ābhic° (of jhāna) M I 33, 356; III 11; S II 278; A II 23; V 132. (Spelt ābhi° at M I 33; A III 114; Vin V 136). See D.B. III 108.

:: Abhiceteti [abhi + ceteti] to intend, devise, have in mind Ja IV 310 (manasā pāpaṃ).

:: Abhicchanna (adjective) [abhi + channa] covered with, bedecked or adorned with (—°) Ja II 48 (hema-jāla°, v.l. abhisañchanna), 370 (the same); Snp 772 (= ucchanna āvuṭa etc. Nidd I 24, cf. Nidd II §365).

:: Abhicchita (adjective) [abhi + icchita, cf. Sanskrit abhīpsita] desired Ja VI 445 (so read for abhijjhita).

:: Abhijacca (adjective) [Sanskrit ābhijātya; abhi + jacca] of noble birth Ja V 120.

:: Abhijaneti occasional spelling for abhijāneti.


:: Abhijappati [abhi + jappati] to wish for, strive after, pray for S I 143 (read asmābhijappanti and cf. K.S. I 180) = Ja III 359 (= namati pattheti piheti commentary); Snp 923, 1046 (+ āsiṃsati thometi; Nidd II §79 = jappati and same under icchati). Cf. in meaning abhigijjhati.

:: Abhijappana (neuter) [doubtful whether to jappati or to japati to mumble, to which belongs jappana in kaṇṇa° Sv I 97] — in hattha° casting a spell to make the victim throw up or wring his hands D I 11; Sv I 97.

:: Abhijappā (feminine) [abstract from abhijappati, cf. jappā] praying for, wishing, desire, longing Dhs 1059 = Nidd II taṇhā II ; Dhs 1136.


:: Abhijappin (adjective) [from abhijappati] praying for, desiring A III 353 (kāma-lābha°).

:: Abhijalati [abhi + jalati] to shine forth, present participle °anto resplendent Pv-a 189.

:: Abhijavati [abhi + javati] to be eager, active Snp 668.

:: Abhijāta (adjective) [abi + jāta] of noble birth, well-born, S I 69; Vv 293; Miln 359 (°kulakulīna belonging to a family of high or noble birth).

:: Abhijāti (feminine) [abhi + jāti 1. Species. Only as technical term in use by certain non-Buddhist teachers. They divided mankind into six species, each named after a colour D I 53, 54; A III 383ff. (quoted Sv I 162) gives details of each species. Two of them, the black and the white, are interpreted in a Buddhist sense at D III 250, M II 222, and Netti 158. This interpretation (but not the theory of the six species) has been widely adopted by subsequent Hindu writers. 2. Rebirth, descent, Miln 226.

:: Abhijātika (adjective) [from abhijāti] belonging to ones birth or race, born of, being by birth; only in compound kaṇhābhijātika of dark birth, that is, low in the social scale D III 251 = A III 348; Snp 563 = Thag 833; cf. JPTS 1893, 11; in sense of "evil disposed or of bad character" at Ja V 87 (= kāḷaka-sabhāva commentary).

:: Abhijātitā (feminine) [abstract from abhijāti] the fact of being born, descendency Vv-a 216.

:: Abhijāna (neuter or masculine?) [Sanskrit abhijñāna] recognition, remembrance, recollection Miln 78. See also abhiññā.

:: Abhijānāti Abhijānāti [abhi + jñā, cf. jānāti and abhiññā] to know by experience, to know fully or thoroughly, to recognise, know of (with accusative), to be conscious or aware of D I 143; S II 58, 105, 219, 278; III 59, 91; IV 50, 324, 399; V 52, 176, 282, 299; Snp 1117 (diṭṭhiṃ Gotamassa na a.); Ja IV 142; Pv II 710 = II 103 (nābhijānāmi bhuttaṃ vā pītaṃ); Saddh 550; etc. — potential abhijāneyya Nidd II §78 a, and abhijaññā Snp 917, 1059 (= jāneyyāsi Pj II 592); preterit abhaññāsi Snp page 16. — present participle abhijānaṃ S IV 19, 89; Snp 788 (= °jānanto commentary), 1114 (= °jānanto Nidd II §78 b) abhijānitva Dhp-a IV 233; abhiññāya S IV 16; V 392; Snp 534 (sabbadhammaṃ), 743 (jātikkhayaṃ), 1115, 1148; It 91 (dhammaṃ); Dhp 166 (atta-d-atthaṃ); frequent in phrase sayaṃ abhiññāya from personal knowledge or self-experience It 97 (v.l. abhiññā); Dhp 353; and abhiññā [short form, like ādā for ādāya, cf. upādā] in phrase sayaṃ abhiññā D I 31 (+ sacchi-katvā); S II 217; It 97 (v.l. for °abhiññāya), in abhiññā-vosita perfected by highest knowledge S I 167 = 175 = Dhp 423 ("master of supernormal lore" Mrs Rh.D. in K.S. I 208; cf. also Dhp-a IV 233); It 47 = 61 = 81, and perhaps also in phrase sabbaṃ abhiññapariññeyya S IV 29. — gerundive abhiññeyya S IV 29; Snp 558 (°ṃ abhiññātaṃ known is the knowable); Nidd II sub voce; Dhp-a IV 233. — past participle abhiññāta (q.v.).

:: Abhijāyati [abhi + jāyati, passive of jan, but in sense of a causative = janeti] — to beget, produce, effect, attain, in phrase akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ Nibbānaṃ a. D III 251; A III 384f. At Snp 214 abhijāyati means "to behave, to be", cf. Pj II 265 (abhijāyati = bhavati).

:: Abhijigiṃsati [abhi + jigiṃsati] to wish to overcome, to covet Ja VI 193 (= jinituṃ icchati commentary). Burmese scribes spell °jigīsati; Thag 743 ("cheat"? Mrs Rh.D.; "vernichten" Neumann, LMN). See also abhijeti, and nijigiṃsanatā.

:: Abhijighacchati [abhi + jighacchati] to be very hungry Pv-a 271.

:: Abhijīvanika (adjective) [abhi + jīvana + ika] belonging to one's livehood, forming one's living Vin I 187 (sippa).

:: Abhijīhanā (feminine) [abhi + jīhanā of jeh prayatne to open ones mouth] — strenuousness, exertion, strong endeavour Ja VI 373 (viriya-karaṇa commentary).

:: Abhijeti [abhi + jayati] to win, acquire, conquer Ja VI 273 (ābhi° metri causā ).

:: Abhijoteti [abhi + joteti] to make clear, explain, illuminate Ja V 339.

:: Abhijjanaka (adjective) [a + bhijjana + ka, from bhijja, gerund of bhid] not to be broken, not to be moved or changed, uninfluenced Ja II 170; Dhp-a III 189.

:: Abhijjamāna (adjective) [present participle passive of a + bhid, see bhindati] that which is not being broken up or divided. In the stock descrīption of the varieties of the lower Iddhi the phrase udake pi abhijjamāne gacchati is doubtful. The principal passages are D I 78, 212; III 112, 281; M I 34, 494; II 18; A I 170, 255; III 17; V 199; S II 121; V 264. In about half of these passages the reading is abhijjamāno. The various readings show that the mss also are equally divided on this point. Buddhaghosa (Vism 396) reads °māne, and explains it, relying on Paṭis II 208, as that sort of water in which a man does not sink. Pv III 11 has the same idiom. Dhammapāla's note on that (Pv-a 169) is corrupt At D I 78 the Colombo editor 1904, reads abhejjamāne and translation "not dividing (the water)"; at D I 212 it reads abhijjamāno and translation "not sinking (in the water)" .

:: Abhijjhā (feminine) [from abhi + dhyā (jhāyati1), cf. Sanskrit abhidhyāna], covetousness, in meaning almost identical with lobha (cf. BMPE 20, note 3) D I 70, 71 (°āya cittaṃ parisodheti he cleanses his heart from coveting; abhijjhāya = ablative; cf. Sv I 211 = abhijjhāto); M I 347 (the same); D III 49, 71f., 172, 230, 269; S IV 73, 104, 188, 322 (adjective vigatābhijjha), 343 (°āyavipāka); A I 280; III 92; V 251f.; It 118; Nidd I 98 (as one of the 4 kāya-ganthā, q.v.); Nidd II taṇhā II 1; Pp 20, 59; Dhs 1136 (°kāyagantha); Vibh 195, 244 (vigatābhijjha), 362, 364, 391; Nett 13; Dhp-a I 23; Pv-a 103, 282; Saddh 56, 69. — Often combined with °domanassa covetousness and discontent, e.g. at D III 58, 77, 141, 221, 276; M I 340; III 2; A I 39, 296; II 16, 152; IV 300f., 457f.; V 348, 351; Vibh 105, 193f. °anabhijjhā absence of covetousness Dhs 35, 62. ° See also anupassin, gantha, domanassa, sīla.

:: Abhijjhātar see abhijjhitar.

:: Abhijjhāti [abhi + jhāyati1; see also abhijjhāyati] to wish for (accusative), long for, covet S V 74 (so read for abhijjhati); gerund abhijjhāya Ja VI 174 (= patthetvā commentary). — past participle abhijjhita.

:: Abhijjhāyati [Sanskrit abhidhyāyati, abhi + jhāyati1; see also abhijjhāti] — to wish for, covet (with accusative). Snp 301 (preterit abhijjhāyiṃsu = abhipatthayamāna jhāyiṃsu Pj II 320).

:: Abhijjhālū (and °u) (adjective) [cf. jhāyin from jhāyati1; abhijjhālu with °ālu for °āgu which in its turn is for āyin. The BHS form is abhidyālu, e.g. Divy 301, a curious reconstruction] covetous D I 139; III 82; S II 168; III 93; A I 298; II 30, 59, 220 (an° + avyapannacitto sammā-diṭṭhiko at conclusion of sīla); V 92f., 163, 286f.; It 90, 91; Pp 39, 40.

:: Abhijjhiṭṭa v.l. at Dhp-a IV 101 for ajjhiṭṭha.

:: Abhijjhita [past participle of abhijjhāti] coveted, Ja VI 445; usually negative an° not coveted, Vin I 287; Snp 40 (= anabhipatthita Pj II 85; cf. Nidd II §38); Vv 474 (= na abhikaṅkhita Vv-a 201).

:: Abhijjhitar [agent noun from abhijjhita in medium function] one who covets M I 287 (Text abhijjhātar, v.l. °itar) = A V 265 (Text °itar, v.l. °ātar).

:: Abhiñña Abhiñña (adjective) (usually °—°) [Sanskrit abhijña] knowing, possessed of knowledge, especially higher or supernormal knowledge (abhiññā), intelligent; thus in chaḷabhiñña one {64} who possesses the 6 abhiññās Vin III 88; dandh° of sluggish intellect D III 106; A II 149; V 63 (opposite khipp°); mah° of great insight S II 139. — Cf. abhiññatara S V 159 (read bhiyyobhiññataro).


:: Abhiññatā (feminine) [from abhiññā] in compound mahā° state or condition of great intelligence or supernormal knowledge S IV 263; V 175, 298 f.

:: Abhiññā1 (feminine) [from abhi + jñā, see jānāti]. Rare in the older texts. It appears in two contexts. Firstly, certain conditions are said to conduce (inter alia) to serenity, to special knowledge (abhiññā), to special wisdom, and to Nibbāna. These conditions precedent are the Path (S V 421 = Vin I 10 = S IV 331), the Path + best knowledge and full emancipation (A V 238), the Four Applications of Mindfullness (S V 179) and the Four Steps to Iddhi (S V 255). The contrary is three times stated; wrong-doing, priestly superstitions, and vain speculation do not conduce to abhiññā and the rest (D III 131; A III 325f. and V 216). Secondly, we find a list of what might now be called psychic powers. It gives us
1. Iddhi (cf. levitation);
2. the heavenly Ear (cf. clairaudience);
3. knowing others' thoughts (cf. thought-reading);
4. recollecting one's previous births;
5. knowing other people's rebirths;
6. certainty of emancipation already attained (cf. final assurance).
This list occurs only at D III 281 as a list of abhiññās. It stands there in a sort of index of principal subjects appended at the end of the Dīgha, and belongs therefore to the very close of the Nikāya period. But it is based on older material. Descriptions of each of the six, not called abhiññā's, and interspersed by expository sentences or paragraphs, are found at D I 89f. (translation D.B. I 89 feminine); M I 34 (see Buddhist Suttas, 210 feminine); A I 255, 258 = III 17, 280 = IV 421. At S I 191; Vin II 16; Pp 14, we have the adjective chaḷabhiññā ("endowed with the 6 Apperceptions"). At S II 216 we have five, and at S V 282, 290 six abhiññā's mentioned in glosses to the text. And at S II 217, 222 a bhikkhu claims the 6 powers. See also M II 11; III 96. It is from these passages that the list at D III has been made up, and called abhiññā's.
Afterwards the use of the word becomes stereotyped. In the Old commentaries (in the canon), in the later ones (of the 5th ceneuter A.D.), and in medieval and modern Pāli, abhiññā, nine times out ten, means just the powers given in this list. Here and there we find glimpses of the older, wider meaning of special, supernormal power of apperception and knowledge to be acquired by long training in life aud thought. See Nidd I 108, 328 (explanation of ñāṇa); Nidd II sub voce and No. 466; Paṭis I 35; II 156, 189; Vibh 228, 334; Pp 14; Nett 19, 20; Miln 342; Vism 373; Mhv 11,19; Sv I 175; Dhp-a II 49; IV 30; Saddh 228, 470, 482. See also the discussion in the Cpd. 60 sp., 224f. For the phrase sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā and abhiññā-vosita see abhijānāti. The late phrase yath'abhiññaṃ means "as you please, according to liking, as you like", Ja V 365 (= yathādhippāyaṃ yathāruciṃ commentary). For abhiññā in the use of an adjective (°abhiñña) see abhiñña.

:: Abhiññā2 gerund of abhijānāti.

:: Abhiññāta [past participle of abhijānāti 1. known, recognised Snp 588 (abhiññeyyaṃ °ṃ). 2. (well)-known, distinguished D I 89 (°kolañña = pākaṭa-kulaja Sv I 252), 235; Snp page 115.

:: Abhiññeyya gerund of abhijānāti.

:: Abhiṭhāna (neuter) [abhi + ṭhāna, cf. abhitiṭṭhati; literally that which stands out above others] a great or deadly crime. Only at Snp 231 = Khp VI 10 (quoted Kv 109). Six are there mentioned, and are explained (Pj I 189) as "matricide, patricide, killing an Arahant, causing schisms, wounding a Buddha, following other teachers". For other relations and suggestions see BMPE 245, note 2. — See also ānantarika.

:: Abhiṇhaṃ (adverb) [contracted form of abhikkhaṇaṃ] repeatedly, continuous, often M I 442 (°āpattika a habitual offender), 446 (°kāraṇa continuous practice); Snp 335 (°saṃvāsa continuous living together); Ja I 190; Pp 32; Dhp-a II 239; Vv-a 116 (= abhikkhaṇa), 207, 332; Pv-a 107 (= abhikkhaṇaṃ). Cf. abhiṇhaso.

:: Abhiṇhaso (adverb) [adverb case from abhiṇha; cf. bahuso = Sanskrit bahuśaḥ] always, ever S I 194; Thag 25; Snp 559, 560, 998.

:: Abhitakketi [abhi + takketi] to search for Dāṭh V 4.

:: Abhitatta [past participle of abhi + tapati] scorched (by heat), dried up, exhausted, in phrases uṇha° Vin II 220; Miln 97, and ghamma° S II 110, 118; Snp 1014; Ja II 223; Vv-a 40; Pv-a 114.

:: Abhitāpa [abhi + tāpa] extreme heat, glow; adjective very hot Vin III 83 (sīsa° sunstroke); M I 507 (mahā° very hot); Miln 67 (mahābhitāpatara much hotter); Pv IV 18 (mahā°, of Niraya).

:: Abhitāḷita [abhi + tāḷita from tāḷeti] hammered to pieces, beaten, struck Vism 231 (muggara°).

:: Abhitiṭṭhati [abhi + tiṭṭhati] to stand out supreme, to excel, surpassed II 261; Ja VI 474 (abhiṭṭhāya = abhibhavitvā commentary).

:: Abhitunna (°tuṇṇa) [not as Morris, JPTS 1886, 135, suggested from abhi + tud, but accusative to Kern, Toev. page 4 from abhi + tūrv. (Cf. turati and tarati2 and Vedic turvati). Thus the correct spelling is °tuṇṇa = Sanskrit abhitūrṇa. The latter occurs as v.l. under the disguise of (sok-)āhituṇḍa for °abhituṇṇa at Mvu III 2]. Overwhelmed, overcome, overpowered S II 20; Paṭis I 129 (dukkha°), 164; Ja I 407; 509 (°tuṇṇa); II 399, 401; III 23 (soka°); IV 330; V 268; Saddh 281.

:: Abhito (indeclinable) adverb case from preposition abhi].
1. round about, on both sides Ja VI 535 (= ubhayapassesu commentary), 539.
2. near, in the presence of Vv 641 (= samīpe Vv-a 275).

:: Abhitoseti [abhi + toseti] to please thoroughly, to satisfy, gratify Snp 709 (= atīva toseti Pj II 496).

:: Abhitthaneti [abhi + thaneti] to roar, to thunder Ja I 330, 332 = Cp III 10, 7.

:: Abhittharati [abhi + tarati2, evidently wrong for abhittarati] to make haste Dhp 116 (= turitaturitaṃ sīghasīghaṃ karoti Dhp-a III 4).

:: Abhitthavati [abhi + thavati] to praise Ja I 89; III 531; Dāṭh III 23; Dhp-a I 77; Pv-a 22; cf. abhitthunati.

:: Abhitthavana (neuter) [from preceding] praise Thig-a 74.

:: Abhitthunati [abhi + thunati; cf. abhitthavati] to praise Ja I 17 (preterit abhitthuniṃsu); cf. thunati 2. — past participle °tthuta Dhp-a I 88.

:: Abhida1 (adjective) as attribute of sun and moon at M II 34, 35 is doubtful in reading and meaning; vv.ll. abhidosa and abhidesa, Neumann M.S. translation "unbeschränkt". The context seems to require a meaning like "full, powerful" or unbroken, unrestricted (abhijja or abhīta "fearless"?") or does abhida represent Vedic abhidyu heavenly?

:: Abhida2 Only in the difficult old verse D II 107 (= S V 263 = A IV 312 = Ud 64 = Nett 60 = Divy 203). preterit 3rd singular from bhindati he broke.

:: Abhidassana (neuter) [abhi + dassana] sight, appearance, show Ja VI 193.

:: Abhideyya in sabba° at Pv-a 78 is with v.l. to be read sabbapātheyyaṃ.

:: Abhidosa (°-) the evening before, last night; °kāḷakata M I 170 = Ja I 81; °gata gone last night Ja VI 386 (= hiyyo paṭhama-yāme commentary).


:: Abhidosika belonging to last night (of gruel) Vin III 15; Miln 291. See ābhi°.

:: Abhiddavati [abhi + dru, cf. dava2] to rush on, to assail Mhv 6, 5; Dāṭh III 47.

:: Abhidhamati [abhi + dhamati, cf. Sanskrit abhi° and api-dhamati] blow on or at A I 257.

:: Abhidhamma Abhidhamma [abhi + dhamma] the "special Dhamma," i.e.,
1. theory of the Doctrine, the Doctrine classified, the Doctrine pure and simple (without any admixture of literary grace or of personalities, or of anecdotes, or of arguments ad personam), Vin I 64, 68; IV 144; IV 344. Coupled with abhivinaya, D III 267; M I 272.
2. (only in the Chronicles and commentaries) name of the Third Piṭaka, the third group of the canonical books. Dīp V 37; Pv-a 140. See the detailed discussion at Sv I 15, 18f. [As the word abhidhamma standing alone is not found in Snp or S or A, and only once or twice in the D.B., it probably came into use only towards the end of the period in which the 4 great Nikāyas grew up.]{58}

-kathā discourse on philosophical or psychological matters, M I 214, 218; A III 106, 392. See dhammakathā.

:: Abhidhammika see ābhidhammika.

:: Abhidhara (adjective) [abhi + dhara] firm, bold, in °māna firmminded Dhp page 81 (accusative to Morris JPTS 1886, 135; not verified).

:: Abhidhāyin (adjective) [abhi + dhāyin from dhā]" putting on", designing, calling, meaning Pañca-g 98.

:: Abhidhāreti [abhi + dhāreti] to hold aloft Ja I 34 = Bv IV 1.

:: Abhidhāvati [abhi + dhāvati] to run towards, to rush about, rush on, hasten Vin II 195; S I 209; Ja II 217; III 83; Dhp-a IV 23.

:: Abhidhāvin (adjective) from abhidhāvati] "pouring in", rushing on, running Ja VI 559.

:: Abhinata [past participle of abhi + namati] bent, (strained, figurative bent on pleasure) M I 386 (+ apanata); S I 28 (the same.; Mrs. Rh.D. "strained forth", cf. K.S. I 39). See also apanata.

:: Abhinadati [abhi + nadati] to resound, to be full of noise Ja VI 531. Cf. abhinādita.

:: Abhinandati [abhi + nandati] to rejoice at, find pleasure in (accusative), approve of, be pleased or delighted with (accusative) D I 46 (bhāsitaṃ), 55 (the same), 158, 223; M I 109, 458; S I 32 (annaṃ), 57, 14, (cakkhuṃ, rūpe etc.); A IV 411; Thag 606; Dhp 75, 219; Snp 1054, 1057, 1111; Nidd II §82; Miln 25; Sv I 160; Dhp-a III 194 (preterit abhinandi, opposite paṭikkosi) Vv-a 65 (vacanaṃ). — past participle abhinandita (q.v.). Often in combination with abhivadati (q.v.).

:: Abhinandana (neuter) and °ā (feminine) [from abhinandati, cf. nandanā], pleasure, delight, enjoyment D I 244; M I 498; Ja IV 397.

:: Abhinandita [past participle of abhinandati] only in an° not enjoyed, not (being) an object of pleasure S IV 213 = It 38; S V 319.

:: Abhinandin (adjective) [from abhinandati, cf. nandin] rejoicing at, finding pleasure in (locative or °—°), enjoying A II 54 (piyarūpa); especially frequent in phrase (taṇhā) tatratatrābhinandinī finding its pleasure in this or that [cf. BHS tr̥ṣṇā tatra-tatrābhinandinī Mvu III 332] Vin I 10; S V 421; Paṭis II 147; Nett 72, etc.

:: Abhinamati [abhi + namati] to bend. — past participle abhinata (q.v.).

:: Abhinaya [abhi + naya] a dramatic representation Vv-a 209 (sākhā°).

:: Abhinava (adjective) [abhi + nava] quite young, new or fresh Vin III 337; Ja II 143 (devaputta), 435 (so read for accuṇha in explanation of paccaggha; vv. ll. abbhuṇha and abhiṇha); Thig-a 201 (°yobbana = abhiyobbana); Pv-a 40 (°saṇṭhāna), 87 (= paccaggha) 155.

:: Abhinādita [past participle of abhinādeti, causative of abhi + nad; see nadati] resounding with (—°), filled with the noise (or song) of (birds) Ja VI 530 (= abhinadanto commentary); Pv-a 157 (= abhiruda).

:: Abhinikūjita (adjective) [abhi + nikūjita] resounding with, full of the noise of (birds) Ja V 232 (of the barking of a dog), 304 (of the cuckoo); so read for °kuñjita Text). Cf. abhikūjita.

:: Abhinikkhamati [abhi + nikkhamati] to go forth from (ablative), go out, issue As 91; especially figurative to leave the household life, to retire from the world Snp 64 (= gehā abhinikkhamitvā kāsāya-vattho hutvā Pj II 117).

:: Abhinikkhamana (neuter) [abhi + nikkhamana] departure, going away, especially the going out into monastic life, retirement, renunciation. Usually as mahā° the great renunciation Ja I 61; Pv-a 19.

:: Abhinikkhipati [abhi + nikkhipati] to lay down, put down Dāṭh III 12, 60.

:: Abhiniggaṇhanā (feminine) [abstract from abhiniggaṇhāti] holding back Vin III 121 (+ abhinippīḷanā).

:: Abhiniggaṇhāti [abhi + niggaṇhāti] to hold back, restrain, prevent, prohibit; always in combination with abhinippīḷeti M I 120; A V 230. — Cf. abhiniggaṇhanā.

:: Abhinindriya [vv.ll. at all passages for ahīnindriya] doubtful meaning. The other is explained by Buddhaghosa at Sv I 120 as paripuṇṇ°; and at 222 as avikalindriya not defective, perfect sense-organ. He must have read ahīn°. Abhi-n-indriya could only be explained as "with supersense organs", i.e. with organs of supernormal thought or perception, thus coming near in meaning to °abhiññindriya; We should read ahīn° throughout D I 34, 77, 186, 195. II 13; M II 18; III 121; Nidd II under pucchā6 (only ahīn°).

:: Abhininnāmeti [abhi + ninnāmeti cf. BHS abhinirṇāmayati Lal 439] to bend towards, to turn or direct to D I 76 (cittaṃ ñāṇa-dassanāya); M I 234; S I 123; IV 178; Pp 60.

:: Abhinipajjati [abhi + nipajjati] to lie down on Vin IV 273 (+ abhinisīdati); A IV 188 (in = accusative + abhinisīdati); Pp 67 (the same).

:: Abhinipatati [abhi + nipatati] to rush on (to) Ja II 8.

:: Abhinipāta (-matta) destroying, hurting (?) at Vibh 321 is explained by āpātha-matta [cf. Divy 125 śastrabhinipāta splitting open or cutting with a knife].

:: Abhinipātana (neuter) [from abhi-ni-pāteti] in daṇḍa-sattha° attacking with stick or knife Nidd II §5764.

:: Abhinipātin (adjective) [abhi + nipātin] falling onto (—°) Ja II 7.

:: Abhinipuṇa (adjective) [abhi + nipuṇa] very thorough, very clever D III 167.

:: Abhinippajjati [abhi + nippajjati] to be produced, accrue, get, come (to) M I 86 (bhogā abhinipphajjanti: sic) = Nidd II §99 (has nābhinippajjanti). — Cf. abhinipphādeti.

:: Abhinippata at Ja VI 36 is to be read abhinippanna (so v.l.).

:: Abhinippatta at Dhs 1035, 1036 is to be read abhinibbatta.

:: Abhinippanna (and °nipphanna) [abhi + nippanna, past participle of °nippajjati] — produced, effected, accomplished D II 223 (siloka); Ja VI 36 (so read for abhinippata); Miln 8 (-pph-).


:: Abhinippīḷanā (feminine) [abstract to abhinippīḷeti, cf. nippīḷana] pressing squeezing, taking hold of Vin III 121 (+ abhiniggaṇhanā).

:: Abhinippīḷeti [abhi + nippīḷeti] to squeeze, crush, subdue Vism 399; often in combination with abhiniggaṇhāti M I 120; A V 230.

:: Abhinipphatti (feminine) [abhi + nipphatti] production, effecting D II 283 (v.l. °nibbatti).

:: Abhinipphādeti [abhi + nipphādeti] to bring into existence, produce, effect, work, perform D I 78 (bhājana-vikatiṃ); Vin II 183 (iddhiṃ); S V 156, 255; Miln 39.

:: Abhinibbatta [abhi + nibbatta, past participle of abhinibbattati] reproduced, reborn A IV 40, 401; Nidd II §256 (nibbatta abhi° pātubhūta); Dhs 1035, 1036 (so read for° nippatta); Vv-a 9 (puññānubhāva° by the power of merit).

:: Abhinibbattati [abhi + nibbattati] to become, to be reproduced, to result Pp 51. — past participle abhinibbatta. — [Cf. BHS wrongly abhinivartate].

:: Abhinibbatti (feminine) [abhi + nibbatti] becoming, birth, rebirth, D I 229; II 283 (v.l. for abhinipphatti) S II 65 (punabbhava°), 101 (the same); IV 14, 215; A V 121; Pv-a 35.

:: Abhinibbatteti [abhi + nibbatteti, causative of °nibbattati] to produce, cause, cause to become S III 152; A V 47; Nidd II under jāneti.

:: Abhinibbijjati [either medium from nibbindati of vid for °nirvidyate (see nibbindati B), or secondary formation from gerund nibbijja. Reading, however, not beyond all doubt] to be disgusted with, to avoid, shun, turn away from Snp 281 (Text abhinibbijjayātha, vv.ll. °nibbijjiyātha and °nibbajjiyātha, Pj II explains by vivajjeyyātha mā bhajeyyātha; v.l. abhinippajjiyā) = A IV 172 (Text abhinibbajjayātha, vv.ll. °nibbajjeyyātha and °nibbijjayātha); gerund abhinibbijja Thig 84.

:: Abhinibbijjhati [abhi + nibbijjhati] to break quite through (of the chick coming through the shell of the egg) Vin III 3; M I 104 = S III 153 (read °nibbijjheyyun for nibbijjeyyun — Cf. Buddhist Suttas 233, 234.

:: Abhinibbidā (feminine) [abhi + nibbidā; confused with abhinibbhidā] disgust with the world, tedium Nett 61 (taken as abhinibbhidā, according to explained as "padālanā-paññatti avijj°aṇḍa-kosānaṃ"), 98 (so mss, but commentary abhinibbidhā).

:: Abhinibbuta (adjective) [abhi + nibbuta] perfectly cooled, calmed, serene, especially in two phrases, viz. diṭṭhadhammābhinibbuta A I 142 = M III 187; Snp 1087; Nidd II §83, and abhinibbutatta of cooled {59} mind Snp 343 (= apariḍayhamāna-citta Pj II 347), 456, 469, 783. Also at Saddh 35.

:: Abhinibbhidā (feminine) [this the better, although not correct spelling; there exists a confusion with abhinibbidā, therefore spelling also abhinibbidhā (Vin III 4, commentary on Nett 98). To abhinibbijjhati, cf. BHS abhinirbheda Mvu I 272, which is wrongly referred to bhid instead of vyadh.] — the successful breaking through (like the chick through the shell of the egg), coming into (proper) life Vin III 4; M I 104; 357; Nett 98 (commentary reading). See also abhinibbidā.

:: Abhinimantanatā (feminine) [abstract to abhinimanteti] speaking to, adressing, invitation M I 331.

:: Abhinimanteti [abhi + nimanteti] to invite to (with instrumental), to offer to D I 61 (āsanena).

:: Abhinimmadana (neuter) [abhi + nimmadana] crushing, subduing, levelling out M III 132; A IV 189f.

:: Abhinimmita [abhi + nimmita, past participle of abhinimmināti] created (by magic) Vv 161 (pañca rathā satā; cf. Vv-a 79).

:: Abhinimmināti [abhi + nimmināti, cf. BHS abhinirmāti Jm 32; abhinirminoti Divy 251; abhinirminīte Divy 166] — to create (by magic), produce, shape, make S III 152 (rūpaṃ); A I 279 (oḷārikaṃ attabhāvaṃ); Nidd II under pucchā6 (rūpaṃ manomayaṃ); Vv-a 16 (mahantaṃ hatthi-rāja-vaṇṇaṃ). — past participle abhinimmita (q.v.).

:: Abhiniropana (neuter) and °ā (feminine) [from abhiniropeti] fixing one's mind upon, application of the mind Paṭis I 16, 21, 30, 69, 75, 90; Vibh 87; Dhs 7, 21, 298 (cf. BMPE 9, note 3; 17, note 4). See also abhiropana.

:: Abhiniropeti [abhi + niropeti] to implant, fix into (one's mind), inculcate Nett 33.

:: Abhinivajjeti [abhi + nivajjeti] to avoid, get rid of D III 113; M I 119, 364, 402; S V 119, 295, 318; A III 169f.; It 81.

:: Abhinivassati [abhi + ni + vassati from vr̥ṣ] literally to pour out in abundance, figurative to produce in plenty. Cp I 10, 3 (kalyāṇe good deeds).

:: Abhiniviṭṭha (adjective) [abhi + niviṭṭha, past participle of abhi-nivisati] "settled in", attached to, clinging on Nidd II §152 (gahita parāmaṭṭha a.); Pv-a 267 (= ajjhāsita Pv IV 84).

:: Abhinivisati [abhi + nivisati] to cling to, adhere to, be attached to Nidd I 308, 309 (parāmasati + a.). — past participle abhiniviṭṭha; cf. also abhinivesa.

:: Abhinivesa [abhi + nivesa, see nivesa2 and cf. nivesana] "settling in", i.e. wishing for, tendency towards (—°), inclination, adherence; as adjective liking, loving, being given or inclined to D III 230; M I 136, 251; S II 17; III 10, 13, 135, 161, 186 (saṃyojana° IV 50; A III 363 (paṭhavī°, adjective); Nidd II §227 (gāhaṃ parāmasaṃ + a.); Pp 22; Vibh 145; Dhs 381, 1003, 1099; Nett 28; Pv-a 252 (micchā°), 267 (taṇhā°); Saddh 71. — Often combined with adhiṭṭhāna e.g. S II 17; Nidd II §176, and in phrase idaṃ-saccābhinivesa adherence to one's dogmas, as one of the 4 Ties: see kāyagantha and cf. Cpd. 171 note 5.

:: Abhinisīdati [abhi + nisīdati] to sit down by or on (accusative), always combined with abhinipajjati Vin III 29; IV 273; A V 188; Pp 67.

:: Abhinissaṭa (past participle) [abhi + nissaṭa] escaped Thag 1089.

:: Abhiniḥta (past participle) [abhi + nihata] oppressed, crushed, slain Ja IV 4.

:: Abhinīta (past participle) [past participle of abhi-neti] led to, brought to, obliged by (—°) M I 463 = Miln 32 (rājā and cora°); M I 282; S III 93; Thag 350 = 435 (vātaroga° "foredone with cramping pains" Mrs. Rh.D.); Pp 29; Miln 362.

:: Abhinīla (adjective) [abhi + nīla] very black, deep black, only with reference to the eyes, in phrase °netta with deep-black eyes D II 18; III 144, 167f. [cf. Avś I 367 and 370 abhinīla-padma-netra]; Thig 257 (nettā ahesuṃ abbinīla-m-āyatā).

:: Abhinīhanati [abhi + nis + han, cf. Sanskrit nirhanti] to drive away, put away, destroy, remove, avoid M I 119 (in phrase āṇiṃ a. abhinīharati abhinivajjeti).

:: Abhinīharati [abhi + nīharati
1. to take out, throw out M I 119 (see abhinīhanati).
2. to direct to, to apply to (original to isolate? Is reading correct?) in phrase ñāṇadassanāya cittaṃ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti D I 76 (= tanninnaṃ tappoṇaṃ karoti Sv I 220, 224; v.l. abhini°) cf. the latter phrase also in BHS as abhijñabhinirhāra Avś II 3 (see reference and note Index page 221); and the past participle abhinirhr̥ta (r̥ddhiḥ) in Divy 48, 49 to obtain? index), 264 (take to burial), 542.


:: Abhinīhāra [abhi + nīhāra, to abhinīharati; cf. BHS sarīrābhinirhāra taking (the body) out to burial, literal meaning, see note on abhinīharati] being bent on ("downward force" BMPE 223, note 2), i.e. taking oneself out to, way of acting, (proper) behaviour, endeavour, resolve, aspiration S III 267f. (°kusala); A II 189; III 311; IV 34 (°kusala); Ja I 14 (Buddhabhāvāya a. resolve to become a Buddha), 15 (Buddhattāya); Paṭis I 61f.; II 121; Nett 26; Miln 216; Dhp-a I 392; II 82 (kata°).

:: Abhipattika (adjective) [from abhipatti] one who has attained, attaining (—°), getting possession of S I 200 (devakañña°).

:: Abhipatthita (past participle) [from abhipattheti] hoped, wished, longed for Miln 383; Pj II 85.

:: Abhipattheti [abhi + pattheti] to hope for, long for, wish for Khp VIII 10; Pj II 320; Dhp-a I 30. — past participle abhipatthita (q.v.).

:: Abhipassati [abhi + passati] to have regard for, look for, strive after A I 147 (Nibbānaṃ); III 75; Snp 896 (khema°), 1070 (rattamahā°) Nidd I 308; Nidd II §428; Ja VI 370.

:: Abhipāteti [abhi + pāteti] to make fall, to throw Ja II 91 (kaṇḍaṃ).

:: Abhipāruta (adjective) [abhi + pāruta, past participle of abhipārupati] dressed Miln 222.

:: Abhipāleti [abhi + pāleti] to protect Vv 8421, cf. Vv-a 341.

:: Abhipīḷita (past participle) [from abhipīḷeti] crushed, squeezed Saddh 278, 279.

:: Abhipīḷeti [abhi + pīḷeti] to crush, squeeze Miln 166. past participle abhipīḷita (q.v.).

:: Abhipucchati [abhi + pucchati] Sanskrit abhipr̥cchati] to ask Ja IV 18.

:: Abhipūreti [abhi + pūreti] to fill (up) Miln 238; Dāṭh III 60 (paṃsūhi).

:: Abhippakiṇṇa [past participle of abhippakirati] completely strewn (with) Ja I 62.

:: Abhippakirati [abhi + pakirati] to strew over, to cover (completely) D II 137 (pupphāni Tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti a.); Vv-a 38 (for abbhokirati Vv 59). past participle abhippakiṇṇa (q.v.).

:: Abhippamodati [abhi + pamodati] to rejoice (intransitive); to please, satisfy (transative, with accusative) M I 425; S V 312, 330; A V 112; Ja III 530; Paṭis I 95, 176, 190.

:: Abhippalambati [abhi + palambati] to hang down M III 164 (olambati ajjholambati a.).

:: Abhippavassati [abhi + pavassati] to shed rain upon, to pour down; intransitive to rain, to pour, fall. Usually in phrase mahāmegho abhippavassati a great cloud bursts Miln 8, 13, 36, 304; Pv-a 132 (v.l. ati°); intransitive Miln 18 (pupphāni °iṃsu poured down). — past participle abhippavuṭṭha.

:: Abhippavuṭṭha (past participle) [from abhippavassati] having rained, poured, fallen; transative S V 51 (bandhanāni meghena °āni) = A V 127; intransitive M II 117 (mahāmegho °o there has been a cloudburst).

:: Abhippasanna (adjective) [past participle of abhippasīdati, cf. BHS abhiprasanna] finding one's peace in (with locative), trusting in, having faith in, believing in, devoted to (locative) Vin III 43; D I 211 (Bhagavati) S I 134; IV 319; V 225, 378; A III 237, 270, 326f.; Snp page 104 (brāhmaṇesu); Pv-a 54 (sāsane), 142 (the same). Cf. vippasanna in same meaning.

:: Abhippasāda [abhi + pasāda, cf. BHS abhiprasāda Avś 12 (cittasyu°) and vippasāda] — faith, belief, reliance, trust Dhs 12 ("sense of assurance" Expos., + saddhā), 25, 96, 288; Pv-a 223.

:: Abhippasādeti [causative of abhippasīdati, cf. BHS abhiprasādayati Divy 68, 85, past participle abhiprasādita-manāḥ Jm 213, 220] — to establish one's {60} faith in (locative), to be reconciled with, to propitiate Thag 1173 = Vv 212 (manaṃ Arahantamhi = cittaṃ pasādeti Vv-a 105).

:: Abhippāsāreti [abhi + pasāreti, cf. BHS abhiprasārayati Divy 389] to stretch out Vin I 179 (pāde).

:: Abhippasīdati [abhi + pasīdati] to have faith in D I 211 (future °issati). — past participle abhippasanna; causative abhippasādeti.

:: Abhippaharaṇa (neuter) [abhi + paharaṇa] attacking, fighting, as adjective feminine °aṇī fighting, especially of Mārassa senā, the army of M. Snp 439 (kaṇhassa° the fighting army of k. = samaṇa-brāhmaṇānaṃ nippothanī antarāyakārī Pj II 390).

:: Abhibyāpeti [abhi + vyāpeti, cf. Sanskrit vyāpnoti, vi + āp] to pervade Miln 251.

:: Abhibhakkhayati [abhi + bhakkhayati] to eat (of animals) Vin II 201 (bhiṅko paṅkaṃ a.).

:: Abhibhava [from abhibhavati] defeat, humiliation Pj II 436.

:: Abhibhavati Abhibhavati [abhi + bhavati] to overcome, master, be lord over, vanquish, conquer S I 18, 32, 121 (maraṇaṃ); IV 71 (rāgadose), 117 (kodhaṃ), 246, 249 (sāmikaṃ); Ja I 56, 280; Pv-a 94 (= balīyati, vaḍḍhati). — future abhihessati see abhihāreti 4. — gerund abhibhuyya Vin I 294; Dhp 328; It 41 (Māraṃ sasenaṃ); Snp 45, 72 (°cārin), 1097, Nidd II §85 (= abhibhavitvā ajjhottharitvā, pariyādiyitvā); and abhibhavitvā Pv-a 113 (= pasayha), 136. — gerundive abhibhavanīya to be overcome Pv-a 57. — passive present participle abhibhūyamāna being overcome (by) Pv-a 80, 103. — past participle abhibhūta (q.v.).

:: Abhibhavana (neuter) [from abhibhavati] overcoming, vanquishing, mastering S II 210 (v.l. abhipatthana).

:: Abhibhavanīyatā (feminine) [abstract from abhibhavanīya, gerund of abhibhavati] as an° invincibility Pv-a 117.

:: Abhibhāyatana (neuter) [abhibhū + āyatana] position of a master or lord, station of mastery The traditional account of these gives 8 stations or stages of mastery over the senses (see D.B. II 118; Expos. I 252), detailed identically at all the following passages, viz. D II 110; III 260 (and 287); M II 13; A I 40; IV 305, 348; V 61. Mentioned only at S IV 77 (6 stations); Paṭis I 5; Nidd II §466 (as an accomplishment of the Bhagavant); Dhs 247.

:: Abhibhāsana (neuter) [abhi + bhāsana from bhās] enlightenment or delight ("light and delight" translation) Thag 613 (= tosana commentary).

:: Abhibhū Abhibhū (adjective/noun) [Vedic abhibhū, from abhi + bhū, cf. abhibhavati] overcoming, conquering, vanquishing, having power over, a Lord or Master of (—°) D III 29; S II 284; Snp 211 (sabba°), 545 (Māra°, cf. Mārasena-pamaddana 561), 642. — Often in phrase abhibhū anabhibhūta aññadatthudasa vasavattin, i.e. unvanquished Lord of all D I 18; III 135 = Nidd II §276; A II 24; IV 94; It 122; cf. Sv I 111 (= abhibhavitvā ṭhito jeṭṭhako'ham asmīti).

:: Abhibhūta Abhibhūta [past participle of abhibhavati] overpowered, overwhelmed, vanquished D I 121; S I 137 (jāti-jarā°); II 228 (lābhasakkāra-silokena); A I 202 (pāpakehi dhammehi); Ja I 189; Pv-a 14, 41 (= pareta), 60 (= upagata), 68, 77, 80 (= pareta). Often negative an° unconquered, e.g. Snp 934; Nidd I 400; and see phrase under abhibhū.

:: Abhimaṅgala Abhimaṅgala (adjective) [abhi + maṅgala] (very) fortunate, lucky, anspicious, in °sammatā (of Visākhā), blessed Vin III 187 = Dhp-a I 409. opposite avamaṅgala.

:: Abhimaṇḍita (past participle °—°) [abhi + maṇḍita] adorned, embellished, beautified Miln 361; Saddh 17.

:: Abhimata (adjective) [BHS abhimata, e.g. Jm 211; past participle of abhimanyate] — desired, wished for; agreeable, pleasant commentary on Thag 91.


:: Abhimatthati (°eti) and °mantheti [abhi + math or manth, cf. nimmatheti
1. to cleave, cut; to crush, destroy M I 243 (sikharena muddhānaṃ °mantheti); S I 127; Dhp 161 (v.l. °nth°); Ja IV 457 (matthako sikharena °matthiyamāno); Dhp-a III 152 (= kantati viddhaṃseti).
2. to rub, to produce by friction (especially fire, aggiṃ; cf. Vedic agniṃ nirmanthati) M I 240.

:: Abhimaddati [Sanskrit abhimardati and °mr̥dnāti; abhi + mr̥d] to crush S I 102; A I 198; Saddh 288.

:: Abhimana (adjective) [abhi + mano, BHS abhimana, e.g. Mvu III 259] having one's mind turned on, thinking of or on (with accusative) Thag 1122; Ja VI 451.

:: Abhimanāpa (adjective) [abhi + manāpa] very pleasing Vv-a 53 (where the same passage at Pv-a 71 has atimanāpa).

:: Abhimantheti see abhimatthati.

:: Abhimāra [cf. Sanskrit abhimara slaughter] a bandit, robber Ja II 199; Sv I 152.

:: Abhimukha Abhimukha (adjective) [abhi + mukha] facing, turned towards, approaching Ja II 3 (°ā ahesuṃ met each other). Usually °—° turned to, going to, inclined towards D I 50 (purattha°); Ja I 203 (devaloka°), 223 (varaṇa-rukkha°); II 3 (nagara°), 416 (Jetavana°); Dhp-a I 170 (tad°); II 89 (nagara°); Pv-a 3 (kāma°, opposite vimukha), 74 (uyyāna°). — neuter °ṃ adverb to, towards Ja I 263 (matta-vāraṇe); Pv-a 4 (āghātana°, may here be taken as predicative adjective); Dhp-a III 310 (uttara°).

:: Abhiyācati [abhi + yācati] to ask, beg, entreat Snp 1101, cf. Nidd II §86.

:: Abhiyāti [Vedic abhiyāti in same meaning; abhi + yā] to go against (in a hostile manner), to attack (with accusative) S I 216 (preterit abhiyaṃsu, v.l. abhijiyiṃsu); Dhp-a III 310 (preterit abhiyāsi as v.l. for Text reading pāyāsi; the same passage Vv-a 68 reads pāyāsi with v.l. upāyāsi).

:: Abhiyujjhati [abhi + yujjhati from yudh] to contend, quarrel with Ja I 342.

:: Abhiyuñjati [abhi + yuj] to accuse, charge; intransitive fall to one's share Vin III 50; IV 304.

:: Abhiyoga [cf. abhiyuñjati] practice, observance Dāṭh IV 7.

:: Abhiyogin (adjective) [from abhiyoga] applying oneself to, practised, skilled (an augur, soothsayer) D III 168.

:: Abhiyobbana (neuter) [abhi + yobbana] much youthfullness, early or tender youth Thig 258 (= abhinavayobbanakāla Thig-a 211).

:: Abhirakkhati [abhi + rakkhati] to guard, protect Ja VI 589 (= pāleti commentary). Cf. parirakkhati.

:: Abhirakkhā (feminine) [from abhirakkhati] protection, guard Ja I 204 (= ārakkhā 203).

:: Abhirata (adjective) (—°) [past participle of abhiramati] found of, indulging in, finding delight in A IV 224 (nekkhamma°); V 175 (the same), Snp 86 (Nibbāna°), 275 (vihesa°), 276 (kalaha°); Ja V 382 (dāna°); Pv-a 54 (puññakamma°), 61 (satibhavana°), 105 (dānadipuñña°).

:: Abhiratatta (neuter) [abstract from abhirata] the fact of being fond of, delighting in (—°) Ja V 254 (kāma°).

:: Abhirati (feminine) [from abhi + ram] delight or pleasure in (locative or °—°) S I 185; IV 260; A V 122; Dhp 88.

-an° displeasure, discontent, distaste Vin II 110; D I 17 (+ paritassanā); S I 185; V 132; A III 259; IV 50; V 72f., 122; Ja III 395; Sv I 111; Pv-a 187.

:: Abhiratta (adjective) [abhi + ratta] very red Ja V 156; figurative very much excited or affected with (—°) Snp 891 (sandiṭṭhirāgena a.).

:: Abhiraddha (adjective) [past participle of abhi + rādh] propitiated, satisfied A IV 185 (+ attamana).

:: Abhiraddhi (feminine) [from abhiraddha] only in negative an° displeasure, dislike, discontent A I 79; Sv I 52 (= kopassiveetaṃ adhivacanaṃ).

:: Abhiramati [abhi + ram] to sport, enjoy oneself, find pleasure in or with (with locative), to indulge in love Snp 718, 1085; Ja I 192; III 189, 393; Dhp-a I 119; Pv-a 3, 61, 145. — present participle active abhiranto only as neuter °ṃ in adverb phrase yathabhirantaṃ after one's liking, as much as he pleases, after one's heart's content Vin I 34; M I 170; Snp 53. present participle medium abhiramamāna Ja III 188, Pv-a 162. — past participle abhirata (q.v.). — 2nd causative abhiramāpeti (q.v.).

:: Abhiramana (neuter) [from abhiramati] sporting, dallying, amuse oneself Pv-a 16.


:: Abhiramāpana (neuter) [from abhiramāpeti, Causative II of abhiramati] causing pleasure to (accusative), being a source of pleasure, making happy M III 132 (gāmante).

:: Abhiramāpeti [causative II from abhiramati 1. to induce to sport, to cause one to take pleasure Ja III 393. 2. to delight, amuse, divert Ja I 61. — Cf. abhiramāpana.

:: Abhiravati [abhi + ravati] to shout ont Bv II 90 = Ja I 18 (V 99)

:: Abhirādhita [past participle of abhirādheti] having succeeded in, fallen to one's share, attained Thag 259.

:: Abhirādhin (adjective) (—°) [from abhirādheti] pleasing giving pleasure, satisfaction Ja IV 274 (mitta° = ārādhento tosento commentary).

:: Abhirādheti [abhi + rādheti] to please, satisfy, make happy Ja I 421; Sv I 52. — preterit (preterit) abhirādhayi Vv 315 (= abhirādhesi Vv-a 130); Vv 6423 (gloss for abhirocayi Vv-a 282); Ja I 421; III 386 (= paritosesi commentary). — past participle abhirādhita.

:: Abhiruci (feminine) [Sanskrit abhiruci, from abhi + ruc] delight, longing, pleasure, satisfaction Pv-a 168 (= ajjhāsaya).

:: Abhirucita (adjective) [past participle from abhi + ruc] pleasing agreeable, liked Ja I 402; Dhp-a I 45.

:: Abhiruda (adjective °—°) [Sanskrit abhiruta] resounding with (the cries of animals, especially the song of birds), full of the sound of (birds) Thag 1062 (kuñjara°), 1113 (mayūra-koñca°); Ja IV 466 (adāsakunta°); V 304 (mayūra-koñca°); VI 172 (the same, = upagīta commentary), 272 (sakunta°; = abhigīta commentary), 483 (mayūra-koñca°), 539; Pv II 123 (haṃsa-koñca°; = abhinādita Pv-a 157). — The form abhiruta occurs at Thag 49.

:: Abhirūpa (adjective) [abhi + rūpa] of perfect form, (very), handsome, beautiful, lovely Snp 410 (= dassaniya- aṅgapaccaṅga Pj II 383); Ja I 207; Pp 52; Sv I 281 (= aññehi manussehi adhikarūpa); Vv-a 53; Pv-a 61 (= abhikkanta). Occurs in the idiomatic phrase denoting the characteristics of true beauty abhirūpa dassanīya pāsādika (+ paramāya vaṇṇa-pokkharatāya samannāgata), e.g. Vin I 268; D I 47, 114, 120; S II 279; A II 86, 203; Nidd II §659; Pp 66; Dhp-a I 281 (compare); Pv-a 46.

:: Abhirūḷha [past participle of abhirūhati] mounted, gone up to, ascended Ja V 217; Dhp-a I 103.

:: Abhirūhati (abhiruhati) [abhi + ruh] to ascend, mount, climb; to go on or into (with accusative) Dhp 321; Thag 271; Ja I 259; II 388; III 220; IV 138 (navaṃ); VI 272 (peculiar preterit °rucchi with ābhi metri causa; = abhirūhi commentary); Sv I 253. — gerund abhiruyha Ja III 189; Pv-a 75, 152 (as v.l.; Text has °ruyhitva), 271 (nāvaṃ), and abhirūhitvā Ja I 50 (pabbataṃ) II 128.

:: Abhirūhana (neuter) [BHS °rūhana, e.g. Mvu II 289] climbing, ascending, climb Miln 356.


:: Abhiroceti [abhi + roceti, causative of ruc
1. to like, to find delight in (accusative), to desire, long for Ja III 192; V 222 (= roceti); Vv 6423 (vataṃ abhirocayi = abhirocesi ruccitvā pūresi ti attho; abhirādhayi ti pi pāṭho; sādhesi nipphādesī ti attho Vv-a 282).
2. to please, satisfy, entertain, gladden Vv 6424 (but Vv-a 292: abhibhavitvā vijjotati, thus to no. 3).
3. v.l. for atiroceti (to surpassivein splendour) at Vv 8112, cf. also no. 2.

:: Abhiropana (neuter) [from abhiropeti] concentration of mind, attention (seems restricted to Paṭis II only) Paṭis II 82 (v.l. abhiniropana), 84, 93, 115 (buddhi°), 142 (°virāga), 145 (°vimutti), 216 (°abhisamaya). See also abhiniropana.

:: Abhiropeti [abhi + ropeti, cf. Sanskrit adhiropayati, causative of ruh] to fix one's mind on, to pay attention, to show reverence, to honour Vv 377 (preterit °ropayi = ropesi Vv-a 169), 3710 (the same.; = pūjaṃ kāresi Vv-a 172), 604 (= pūjesi Vv-a 253); Dāṭh V 19.

:: Abhilakkhita (adjective) [Sanskrit abhilakṣita in different meaning; past participle of abhi + lakṣ] fixed, designed, inaugurated, marked by auspices Ja IV 1; Sv I 18.

:: Abhilakkhitatta (neuter) [abstract from abhilakkhita] having signs or marks, being characterised, characteristics As 62.

:: Abhilaṅghati [abhi + laṅghati] to ascend, rise, travel or pass over (of the moon traversing the sky) Ja III 364; VI 221.

:: Abhilambati [abhi + lambati] to hang down over (with accusative) M III 164 = Nett 179 (+ ajjholambati); Ja V 70 (papātaṃ), 269 (vetaraṇiṃ). — past participle abhilambita (q.v.).

:: Abhilambita (adjective) [past participle of abhilambati] hanging down Ja V 407 (nīladuma°).

:: Abhilāpa [from abhi + lap] talk, phraseng, expression Snp 49 (vācabhilāpa making phrases, talking, idle or objectionable speech = tiracchānakathā Nidd II §561); It 89 (? reading abhilāpāyaṃ uncertain, vv.ll. abhipāyaṃ abhipāpāyaṃ, abhisāpāyaṃ, abhisapāyaṃ, atisappāyaṃ. The corresponding passage S III 93 reads abhisapayaṃ: (curse), and commentary on It 89 explains abhilāpo ti akkoso, see Ps.B. 376 note 1); Dhs 1306 = Nidd II §34 (as exegesis or paraphrase of adhivacana, combined with vyañjana and translated by Mrs. Rh.D. as "a distinctive mark of discourse"); Sv I 20, 23, 281; As 51.

:: Abhilāsa [Sanskrit abhilāṣa, abhi + laṣ] desire, wish, longing Pv-a 154.

:: Abhilekheti [causative of abhi + likh] to cause to be inscribed Dāṭh V 67 (cāritta-lekhaṃ °lekhayi).

:: Abhilepana (neuter) [abhi + lepana] "smearing over", stain, pollution Snp 1032, 1033 = Nett 10, 11 (see Nidd II §88 = laggana "sticking to", bandhana, upakkilesa).

:: Abhivagga [abhi + vagga] great mass (?), superior force (?), only in phrase °ena omaddati to crush with superior force or overpower M I 87 = Nidd II 1996.

:: Abhivañcana (neuter) [abhi + vañc] deceit, fraud Dāṭh III 64.

:: Abhivaṭṭa [past participle of abhivassati, see also abhivuṭṭha] rained upon Dhp 335 (gloss °vuṭṭha; cf. Dhp-a IV 45); Miln 176, 197, 286. — Note: Andersen PG prefers reading abhivaḍḍha at Dhp 335 "the abounding Bīraṇa grass").

:: Abhivaḍḍhati [Vedic abhivardhati, abhi + vr̥dh
1. to increase (intransitive) D I 113, 195 (opposite hāyati); M II 225; A III 46 (bhogā a.); Dhp 24; Miln 374; Pv-a 8, 133; Saddh 288, 523.
2. to grow over or beyond, to outgrow Ja III 399 (vanaspatiṃ). — past participle abhivuḍḍha and °vuddha (q.v.).

:: Abhivaḍḍhana (adjective/neuter) [from abhivaḍḍhati] increasing (transitive), augmenting; feminine °ī Saddh 68.

:: Abhivaḍḍhi (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit abhivr̥ddhi, from abhi + vr̥dh] increase, growth Miln 94. — See also abhivuddhi.

:: Abhivaṇṇita [past participle of abhivanneti] praised Dīp I 4.

:: Abhivaṇṇeti [abhi + vanneti] to praise Saddh 588 (°ayi). — past participle abhivaṇṇita.

:: Abhivadati [abhi + vadati
1. to speak out, declare, promise Ja I 83 = Vin I 36; Ja VI 220.
2. to speak (kindly) to, to welcome, salute, greet. In this sense always combined with abhinandati, e.g. at M I 109, 266, 458; S III 14; IV 36f.; Miln 69. — causative abhivādeti.

:: Abhivandati [abhi + vandati] to salute respectfully, to honour, greet; gerundive °vandanīya Miln 227.

:: Abhivassaka (adjective) [from abhivassati] raining, figurative shedding, pouring ont, yielding Vv-a 38 (puppha°).

:: Abhivassati [abhi + vassati from vr̥ṣ] to rain, shed rain, pour; figurative rain down, pour out, shed D III 160 (ābhivassaṃ metri causā); A III 34; Thag 985; Ja I 18 (V 100; pupphā a. stream down); Cp III 106; Miln 132, 411. past participle abhivaṭṭa and abhivuṭṭha (q.v.). — causative II abhivassāpeti to cause (the sky to) rain Miln 132.

:: Abhivassin (adjective) = abhivassaka It 64, 65 (sabbattha°).

:: Abhivādana (neuter) [from abhivādeti] respectful greeting, salutation, giving welcome, showing respect or devotion A II 180; IV 130, 276; Ja I 81, 82, 218; Dhp 109 (°sīlin of devout character, cf. Dhp-a II 239); Vv-a 24; Saddh 549 (°sīla).

:: Abhivādeti [causative of abhivadati] to salute, greet, welcome, honour Vin II 208f.; D I 61; A III 223; IV 173; Vv 15 (abhivādayiṃ preterit = abhivādanaṃ kāresiṃ vandiṃ Vv-a 24); Miln 162. Often in combination with padakkhiṇaṃ karoti in sense of to bid goodbye, to {62} say adieu, farewell, e.g. D I 89, 125, 225; Snp 1010. — causative II abhivādāpeti to cause some one to salute, to make welcome Vin II 208 (°etabba).

:: Abhivāyati [abhi + vāyati; cf. Sanskrit abhivāti] to blow through, to pervade Miln 385.

:: Abhivāreti [abhi + vāreti, causative of vr̥] to hold back, refuse, deny Ja V 325 (= nivāreti commentary).

:: Abhivāheti [abhi + vāheti, causative of vah] to remove, to put away Bv X 5.

:: Abhivijayati (and vijināti) [abhi + vijayati] to overpower, to conquer. Of °jayati the gerund °jiya at D I 89, 134; II 16. Of °jināti the present 3rd plural °jinanti at Miln 39; the gerund °jinitvā at M I 253; Pp 66.

:: Abhiviññāpeti [abhi + viññāpeti] to turn somebody's mind on (with accusative), to induce somebody (dative) to (accusative) Vin III 18 (purāṇadutiyikāya methunaṃ dhammaṃ abhiviññāpesi).

:: Abhivitarati [abhi + vitarati] "to go down to", i.e. give in, to pay heed, observe Vin I 134 and in stereotypical explanation of sañcicca at Vin II 91; III 73, 112; IV 290.

:: Abhivinaya [abhi + vinaya] higher discipline, the refinements of discipline or Vinaya; combined with abhidhamma, e.g. D III 267; M I 472; also with vinaya Vin V 1f.

:: Abhivindati [abhi + vindati] to find, get, obtain Snp 460 (= labhati adhigacchati Pj II 405).

:: Abhivisiṭṭha (adjective) [abhi + visiṭṭha] most excellent, very distinguished Sv I 99, 313.

:: Abhivissajjati [abhi + vissajjati] to send out, send forth, deal out, give D III 160.

:: Abhivissattha [abhi + vissattha, past participle of abhivissasati, Sanskrit abhiviśvasta] confided in, taken into confidence M II 52 (v.l. °visaṭṭha).


:: Abhivihacca [gerund of abhi + vihanati] having destroyed, removed or expelled; only in one simile of the sun driving darkness away at M I 317 = S III 156; V 44 = It 20.

:: Abhivuṭṭha [past participle of abhivassati, see also abhivaṭṭa] poured out or over, shed out (of water or rain) Thag 1065; Dhp 335 (gloss); Pv-a 29.

:: Abhivuḍḍha [past participle of abhivaḍḍhati, see also °vuddha] increased, enriched Pv-a 150.

:: Abhivuddha [past participle of abhivaḍḍhati, see also °vuḍḍha] grown up Miln 361.

:: Abhivuddhi (feminine) [Sanskrit abhivr̥ddhi, see also abhivaḍḍhi] increase, growth, prosperity Miln 34.

:: Abhiveṭheti: Kern's (Toev. sub voce) proposed reading at Ja V 452 for ati°, which however does not agree with commentary explanation on page 454.

:: Abhivedeti [abhi + causative of vid
1. to make known, to communicate Dāṭh V 2, 11.
2. to know Ja VI 175 (= jānāti commentary).

:: Abhivyāpeti see abhibyāpeti.

:: Abhisaṃvisati [abhi + saṃvisati]. Only in abhisaṃviṃseyya gattaṃ (or °bhastaṃ or °santuṃ) Thig 466 a compound of doubtful derivation and meaning. Mrs. Rh.D., following Dhammapāla (p. 283) "a bag of skin with carrion filled" .

:: Abhisaṃsati [Vedic abhiśaṃsati, abhi + śaṃs] to execrate, revile, lay a curse on Ja V 174 (°saṃsittha 3rd singular preterit medium = paribhāsi commentary) — preterit abhisasi Ja VI 187, 505, 522 (= akkosi commentary), 563 (the same). — past participle abhisattha. Cf. also abhisiṃsati.

:: Abhisaṃsanā (feminine) [? abhisaṃsati] is doubtful reading at Vv 64; — meaning "neighing" (of horses) Vv-a 272, 279.

:: Abhisaṅkhata (adjective) [abhi + saṅkhata, past participle of abhisaṅkharoti] prepared, fixed, made up, arranged, done M I 350; A II 43; V 343; Ja I 50; Nidd I 186 (kappita + a.); Pv-a 7, 8.

:: Abhisaṅkharoti (and °khāreti in potential) [abhi + saṅkharoti] to prepare, do, perform, work, get up Vin I 16 (iddhābhisaṅkhāraṃ °khāreyya); D I 184 (the same); S II 40; III 87, 92; IV 132, 290; V 449; A I 201; Snp 984 (gerund °itvā: having got up this curse, cf. Pj II 582); Pv-a 56 (iddhābhisaṅkhāraṃ), 172 (the same), 212 (the same). — past participle abhisaṅkhata (q.v.).

:: Abhisaṅkhāra [abhi + saṅkhāra
1. putting forth, performance, doing, working, practice: only in two combinations, viz. (a) gamiya° (or gamika°) a heathenish practice Vin I 233; A IV 180, and (b) iddha° (= iddhi°) working of supernormal powers Vin I 16; D I 106; S III 92; IV 289; V 270; Snp 107; Pv-a 56, 172, 212.
2. preparation, store, accumulation (of kamma, merit or demerit), substratum, state (see for detail saṅkhāra) S III 58 (an°); Nidd I 334, 442; Nidd II sub voce; Vibh 135 (puñña° etc.), 340; As 357 (°viññāna "storing intellect" BMPE 241, note 1).

:: Abhisaṅkhārika (adjective) [from abhisaṅkhāra] what belongs to or is done by the saṅkhāras; accumulated by or accumulating merit, having special (meritorious) effect (or specially prepared?) Vin II 77 = III 160; Saddh 309 (sābhisaṅkhārika).

:: Abhisaṅkhipati [abhi + saṅkhipati] to throw together, heap together, concentrate Vibh 1f., 82f., 216f., 400; Miln 46.

:: Abhisaṅga [from abhi + sañj, cf. abhisajjati and Sanskrit abhisaṃga] sticking to, cleaving to, adherence to Ja V 6; Nett 110, 112; As 129 (°hetukaṃ dukkhaṃ) 249 (°rasa).

:: Abhisaṅgin (adjective) [from abhisaṃga] cleaving to (—°) Saddh 566.

:: Abhisajjati [abhi + sañj; cf. abhisaṃga] to be in ill temper, to be angry, to curse, imprecate (in meaning of abhisaṃga 2) D I 91 (= kodha-vasena laggati Sv I 257); III 159; Ja III 120 (+ kuppati); IV 22 (abhisajji kuppi vyāpajji, cf. BHS abhiṣajyate kupyati vyāpadyate. Avś I 286); V 175 (= kopeti commentary); Dhp 408 (abhisaje potential = kujjhāpana-vasena laggāpeyya Dhp-a IV 182); Pp 30, 36. See also abhisajjana and abhisajjanā.

:: Abhisajjana (neuter-adjective) [abstract from abhisajjati in meaning of abhisaṃga 2] — only as adverb feminine °nī especially of vācā scolding, abusing , cursing A V 265 (para°). Cf. next.

:: Abhisajjanā (feminine) [abstract from abhisajjati, cf. abhisajjana] at Snp 49 evidently means "scolding, cursing being in bad temper" (cf. abhisajjati), as its combination with vācābhilāpa indicates, but is explained both by Nidd II and Buddhaghosa as "sticking to, cleaving, craving, desire" (= taṇhā), after the meaning of abhisaṃga. See Nidd II §§89 and 107; Pj II 98 (sineha-vasena), cf. also the compromise-explained by Buddhaghosa of abhisajjati as kodha-vasena laggati (Sv I 257).

:: Abhisañcināti (and °cayati) [abhi + sañcināti] to accumulate, collective(merit) Vv 476 (potential °sañceyyaṃ = °sañcineyyaṃ Vv-a 202).

:: Abhisañcetayita [past participle of abhisañceteti] raised into consciousness, thought out, intended, planned M I 350; S II 65; IV 132; A V 343.

:: Abhisañceteti [abhi + sañceteti or °cinteti] to bring to consciousness, think out, devise, plan S II 82. — past participle abhisañcetayita (q.v.).

:: Abhisaññā (feminine). Only in the compound abhi-saññā-nirodha D I 179, 184. The prefix abhi qualifies, not saññā, but the whole compound, which means "trance". It is an expression used, not by Buddhists, but by certain wanderers. See saññā-vedayita-nirodha.

:: Abhisaññūhati [abhi + saññūhati, i.e. saṃ-ni-ūhati] to heap up, concentrate Vibh 1, 2, 82f.; 216f., 400; Miln 46. Cf. abhisaṅkhipati.

:: Abhisaṭa [past participle of abhisarati, abhi + sr̥ to flow
1. (medium) streamed forth, come together Ja VI 56 (= sannipatita commentary).
2. (passive) approached, visited Vin I 268.

:: Abhisatta [past participle of abhisapati, cf. Sanskrit abhiśapta, from abhi + śap] cursed, accursed, railed at, reviled Ja III 460; V 71; Pj II 364 (= akkuṭṭha); Vv-a 335.

:: Abhisattha [past participle of abhisaṃsati] cursed, accursed Thag 118 "old age falls on her as if it had been cursed upon her" (that is, laid upon her by a curse). Morris JPTS. 1886, 145 gives the commentator's equivalents, "commanded, worked by a charm". This is a curious idiom. Any European would say that the woman herself, not the old age, was accursed. But the whole verse is a riddle and Kern's translation (Toev. sub voce) "hurried up" seems to us impossible.


:: Abhisaddahati [abhi + saddahati, cf. Sanskrit abhiśraddadhāti, e.g. Divy 17, 337] to have faith in, believe in (with accusative), believe S V 226; Thag 785; Pv IV 113, 125 (°saddaheyya = paṭiñeyya Pv-a 226); Nett 11; Miln 258; Pv-a 26; Dāṭh III 58.

:: Abhisantāpeti [ahhi + santāpeti, causative of santapati] to burn out, scorch, destroy M I 121.

:: Abhisanda [abhi + sanda of syad, cf. BHS abhisyanda, e.g. Mvu II 276] — outflow, overflow, yield, issue, result; only in following phrases: cattāro puññābhisandā kusalābhisandā (yields in merit) S V 391f.; A II 54f.; III 51, 337; VI 245, and kammābhisanda result of kamma Miln 276. — Cf. abhisandana.

:: Abhisandana (neuter) [= abhisanda] result, outcome, consequence Paṭis I 17 (sukhassa).


:: Abhisandahati [abhi + sandahati of saṃ + dhā] to put together, to make ready Thag 151; gerund abhisandhāya in sense of a preposition = on account of, because of Ja II 386 (= paṭicca commentary).

:: Abhisandeti [abhi + sandeti, causative of syad] to make overflow, to make full, fill, pervade D I 73, 74.

:: Abhisanna (adjective) [past participle of abhisandati = abhi + syand, cf. Sanskrit abhisanna] overflowing, filled with (—°), full Vin I 279 (°kāya a body full of humours, Cp II 119 and Miln 134); Ja I 17 (V 88; pītiyā); Miln 112 (duggandha°).

:: Abhisapati [abhi + sapati, of śap] to execrate, curse, accurse Vin IV 276; Ja IV 389; V 87; Dhp-a I 42. — past participle abhisatta.

:: Abhisapana (neuter) [from abhisapati] cursing, curse Pv-a 144 (so read for abhisampanna).

:: Abhisamaya [abhi + samaya, from sam + i, cf. abhisameti and sameti; BHS abhisamaya, e.g. Divy 200, 654] "coming by completely", insight into, comprehension, realization, clear understanding, grasp, penetration. See on term PtsC. 381f. — especially in full phrases: attha° grasp of what is proficient S I 87 = A III 49 = It 17, cf. A II 46; ariyasaccānaṃ a. full understanding of the 4 noble truths S V 415, 440, 441 [cf. Divy 654: anabhisamitānāṃ caturnāṃ āryasatyānāṃ a.]; Snp 758 (sacca° = saccāvabodha Pj II 509); Miln 214 (catusacc°); Saddh 467 (catusacc°), 525 (saccānaṃ); dhammābhisamaya full grasp of the Dhamma, quasi conversion [cf. dharmābhisamaya Divy 200] S II 134; Miln 20, 350; Vv-a 219; Pv-a 9 etc. frequent; sammā-mānābhisamaya full understanding of false pride in stereotype phrase" acchecchi (for acchejji) taṇhaṃ, vivattayi saṃyojanaṃ sammāmānābhisamayā antam akāsi dukkhassa" at S IV 205, 207, 399; A III 246, 444; It 47; cf. māna° S I 188 = Thig 20 (tato mānābhisamayā upasanto carissasi, translated by Mrs. Rh.D. in K.S. I 239 "hath the mind mastered vain imaginings, then mayst thou go thy ways calm and serene"); Snp 342 (explained by mānassa abhisamayo khayo vayo pahānaṃ Pj II 344). Also in following passages: S II 5 (paññāya a.), 104 (the same), 133f.; Snp 737 (phassa°, explained ad sensum but not ad verbum by phassa-nirodha Pj II 509); Paṭis II 215; Pp 41; Vv 1610 (= saccapaṭivedha Vv-a 85); Sv I 32; Dhp-a I 109; Vv-a 73 (bhāvana°), 84 (sacchikiriya°); Dīp I 31. — anabhisamaya not grasping correctly, insufficient understanding, taken up wrongly S III 260; Pp 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162 (Mrs. Rh.D. translates "lack of coordination").

:: Abhisamāgacchati [abhi + sam + āgacchati, cf. in meaning adhigacchati] to come to (understand) completely, to grasp fully, to master Pj I 236 (for abhisamecca Snp 143).

:: Abhisamācārika (adjective) [abhi + samācārika, to samācāra] belonging to the practice of the lesser ethics; to be practiced; belonging to or what is the least to be expected of good conduct, proper. Of sikkhā Vin V 181; A II 243f.; of dhamma M I 469; A III 14f.; 422.

:: Abhisamikkhati (and °ekkhati), [abhi + sam + īks, cf. samikkhati] — to behold, see, regard, notice Ja IV 19 (2nd singular medium °samekkhase = olokesi commentary). — gerund °samikkha and °samekkha [BHS °samīkṣya, e.g. Jm pages 28, 30 etc.] Ja V 340 (°samikkha, v.l. sañcikkha = passitvā commentary); 393, 394 (= disvā commentary).

:: Abhisameta [past participle of abhisameti, from abhi + sam + i, taken as causative formation, against the regular form Sanskrit-Pāli samita and BHS abhisamita] completely grasped or realized, understood, mastered S V 128 (dhamma a.), 440 (anabhisametāni cattāri ariya-saccāni, cf. Divy 654 anabhisamitāni cuma.); A IV 384 (appattaṃ asacchikataṃ + a.).

:: Abhisametāvin (adjective) [possessive adjective formation, equalling a agent noun formation, past participle abhisameta] commanding full understanding or penetration, possessing complete insight (of the truth) Vin III 189; S II 133; V 458f.

:: Abhisameti [abhi + sameti, sam + i; in inflexion base is taken partly as ordinary and partly as causative, e.g. preterit °samiṃsu and °samesuṃ, past participle sameta: Sanskrit samita. Cf. BHS abhisamayati, either causative or denominative formation, Divy 617: caturāryasatyāni a.] to come by, to attain, to realize, grasp, understand (cf. adhigacchati) Miln 214 (catusaccābhisamayaṃ abhisameti). Frequently in combination abhisambujjhati, abhisameti; abhisambujjhitvā abhisametvā, e.g. S II 25; III 139; Kv 321. — future °samessati S V 441. — preterit °samiṃsu Miln 350; °samesuṃ S V 415. — gerund °samecca (for °icca under influence of °sametvā as causative formation; Trenckner's explanation "Notes" 564 is unnecessary and hardly justifiable) S V 438 (an° by not thoroughly understanding); A V 50 (sammattha° through complete realization of what is proficient); Snp 143 (= abhisamāgantvā Pj I 236); and °sametvā S II 25; III 139. — past participle abhisameta (q.v.).

:: Abhisampanna at Pv-a 144 is wrong reading for v.l. abhisapana (curse).

:: Abhisamparāya [abhi + samparāya] future lot, fate, state after death, future condition of rebirth; usually in following phrases: kā gati ko abhisamparāyo (as hendiadys) "what fate in the world-to-come" , D II 91; Vin I 293; S IV 59, 63; V 346, 356, 369; Dhp-a I 221. — evaṃ-gatika evaṃabhisamparāya (adjective) "leading to such and such a return, such and such a future state" D I 16, 24, 32, 33 etc. (= evaṃ-vidhā paralokā ti Sv I 108). °abhisamparāyaṃ (accusative as adverb) in future, after death A I 48; II 197; III 347; IV 104; Pv III 510 (= punabbhave Pv-a 200). — diṭṭhe c'eva dhamme abhisamparāyañ ca "in this world and in the world to come" A II 61; Pp 38; Miln 162; Pv-a 195 etc. (see also diṭṭha). — Used absolutely at Pv-a 122 (= fate).

:: Abhisambujjhati [abhi + sambujjhati] to become wideawake, to awake to the highest knowledge, to gain the highest wisdom (sammāsambodhiṃ) D III 135; It 121. preterit °sambujjhi S V 433; Pv-a 19. In combination abhisambujjhati abhisameti, e.g. S. II 25; III 139. — present participle medium °sambudhāna; past participle °sambuddha — causative °sambodheti to make awake, to awaken, to enlighten; past participle °bodhita.

:: Abhisambujjhana (neuter) = abhisambodhi Ja I 59.

:: Abhisambuddha [past participle of abhisambujjhati] (a) (passive) realized, perfectly understood D III 273; S IV 331; It 121. an° not understood M I 71, 92, 114, 163, 240. — (b) (medium) one who has come to the realization of the highest wisdom, fully-awakened, attained Buddhahood, realising , enlightened (in or as to = accusative) Vin I 1; D II 4; M I 6 (sammāsambodhiṃ); S I 68, 138, 139 and passim Pv-a 94, 99.

:: Abhisambuddhatta (neuter) [abstract from abhisambuddha] thorough realization, perfect understanding S V 433.

:: Abhisambudhāna (adjective) [formation of a present participle medium from past participle abhisam + budh instead of abhisam + bujjh°] awaking, realising , knowing, understanding Dhp 46 (= bujjhanto jānanto ti attho Dhp-a I 337).

:: Abhisambodhi (feminine) [abhi + sambodhi] the highest enlightenment Ja I 14 (parama°). Cf. abhisambujjhana and (sammā-) sambodhi.


:: Abhisambodhita (adjective) [past participle of abhisambodheti, causative of abhi + sambujjhati] awakened to the highest wisdom Pv-a 137 (Bhagavā).

:: Abhisambhava [from abhisambhavati] only in dur° hard to overcome or get over, hard to obtain or reach, troublesome S V 454; A V 202; Snp 429, 701; Ja V 269, VI 139, 439.

:: Abhisambhavati (°bhoti) [abhi + sambhavati] "to come up to", i.e. to be able to (get or stand or overcome); to attain, reach, to bear A IV 241; Thag 436; Nidd I 471, {72} 485; Ja III 140; V 150, 417; VI 292, 293, 507 (future medium °sambhossaṃ = sahissāmi adhivāsessāmi commentary); Paṭis II 193. — gerund °bhutvā Thag 1057 and °bhavitvā Snp 52 (cf. Nidd II §85). — preterit °bhosi D II 232. — gerundive °bhavanīya D II 210; Paṭis II 193. — See also abhisambhuṇāti.

:: Abhisambhuṇāti [considered to be a bastard form of abhisambhavati, but probably of different origin and etymology; also in BHS frequent] — to be able (to get or reach); only in negative present participle anabhisambhuṇanto unable D I 101 (= asampāpuṇanto avisahamāno vā Sv I 268); Nidd I 77, 312.

:: Abhisambhū (adjective) [from abhi + sam + bhū] getting, attaining (?) D II 255 (lomahaṃsa°).

:: Abhisambhūta [past participle of abhisambhavati] attained, got Saddh 556.

:: Abhisammati [abhi + śam, Sanskrit abhiśamyati] to cease, stop; transative (causative) to allay, pacify, still Ja VI 420 (past participle abhisammanto for °sammento? Reading uncertain).

:: Abhisara [from abhi + sarati, of sr̥ to go] retinue Ja V 373.

:: Abhisallekhika (adjective) [abhi + sallekha + ika] austere, stearn, only in feminine °ā (scilicet kathā) A III 117f.; IV 352, 357; V 67.

:: Abhisavati (better °ssavati?) [abhi + savati, of sru] to flow towards or into Ja VI 359 (najjo Gaṅgaṃ a.).

:: Abhisasi preterit of abhisaṃsati (q.v.).

:: Abhisādheti [abhi + sādheti] to carry out, arrange; to get; procure, attain Ja VI 180; Miln 264.

:: Abhisāpa [abhisapati] a curse, anathema S III 93 = It 89 (which latter reads abhilāpa and It-a explains by akkosa: see vv.ll. under abhilāpa and cf. Ps.B. 376 note 1.); Thag 1118.

:: Abhisāriyā (feminine) [Sanskrit abhisārikā, from abhi + sr̥] a woman who goes to meet her lover Ja III 139.

:: Abhisāreti [abhi + sāreti, causative of abhisarati] to approach, to persecute Ja VI 377.

:: Abhisiṃsati [= abhisaṃsati, abhi + śaṃs. As to Sanskrit śaṃs > Pāli siṃs cf. āsiṃsati, as to meaning cf. nature of prayer as a solemn rite to the "infernals", cf. im-precare], — to utter a solemn wish, Vv 8118 (preterit °sīsi. v.l. °sisi. Vv-a 316 explains by icchi sampaṭicchi).

:: Abhisiñcati [abhi + siñc-ati from sic to sprinkle; see also āsiñcati and ava°, Vedic only ā°] — to sprinkle over, figurative to anoint (King), to consecrate A I 107 (khattiyābhisekena) Ja I 399 (figurative °itvā gerund II 409 (the same); VI 161 (the same); Nidd I 298; Miln 336 (amatena lokaṃ abhisiñci Bhagavā); Pv-a 144 (read abhisiñci cimillikañ ca ...) — passive abhisiñcati Miln 359. — past participle abhisitta. — causative abhiseceti.

:: Abhisitta [past participle of abhisiñcati, Sanskrit °sikta
1. sprinkled over, anointed Snp 889 (manasā, cf. Nidd I 298); Miln 336 (amatena lokaṃ a.).
2. consecrated (King), inaugurated (more frequent in this connection is avasitta), Vin III 44; A I 107 (khattiyo khattiyehi khattiyābhisekena a.); II 87 (v.l. for avasitta, also an°).

:: Abhiseka [from abhi + sic, cf. Sanskrit abhiṣeka] anointing, consecration, inauguration (as king) A I 107 (cf. abhisitta); II 87 read abhisekanabhisitto; Ja II 104, 352; Dhp-a I 350; Pv-a 74. Cf. ābhisekika.

:: Abhisecana (neuter) = abhiseka, viz. (a) ablution, washing off Thig 239 and 245 (udaka°). — (b) consecration Ja II 353.

:: Abhiseceti [causative of abhisiñcati] to cause to be sprinkled or inaugurated Ja V 26. (imperative abhisecayassu).

:: Abhisevanā (feminine) [abhi + sevana from sev] pursuit, indulgence in (—°) Saddh 210 (pāpakamma°).

:: Abhissara (adjective) [abhi + issara] only negative an° in formula atāṇo loko anabhissaro "without a Lord or protector" M II 68 (v.l. °abhisaro); Paṭis I 126 (v.l. the same).

:: Abhihaṃsati [abhi + haṃsati from hr̥ṣ
1. (transitive) to gladden, please, satisfy S IV 190 (abhihaṭṭhuṃ); A V 350 (the same).
2. (intransitive) to find delight in (with accusative), to enjoy S V 74 (rūpaṃ manāpaṃ); A IV 419f. (Text reads °hiṃsamāna jhānaṃ v.l. °hisamāna).

:: Abhihaṭa [past participle of abhiharati] brought, offered, presented, fetched D I 166 = Pp 55 (= puretaraṃ gahetvā āhaṭaṃ bhikkhaṃ Pp-a 231); Dhp-a II 79.

:: Abhihaṭṭhuṃ [gerund of abhiharati]. Only in praise abhihaṭṭhuṃ pavāreti, to offer having fetched up. M. I 224; A V 350, 352; S IV 190, V 53, 300. See note in Vinaya Texts II 440.

:: Abhihata [past participle of abhihanati] hit, struck Pv-a 55.

:: Abhihanati (and °hanti) [abhi + han
1. to strike, hit Pv-a 258.
2. to overpower, kill, destroy Ja V 174 (infinitive °hantu for Text hantuṃ).
— past participle abhihata (q.v.).

:: Abhiharati [abhi + harati, cf. Sanskrit abhyāharati and Vedic āharati and ābharati]
1. to bring (to), to offer, fetch D III 170; Ja I 54, 157; III 537; IV 421; Sv I 272.
2. to curse, revile, abuse [cf. Sanskrit anuvyāharati and abhivyā°] A I 198.
— passive abhihariyati Vv-a 172 (for abhiharati of Vv 3710; corresponds with ābhata Vv-a 172).
— past participle abhihaṭa (q.v.).
— causative abhihāreti
1. to cause to be brought, to gain, to acquire D II 188 = 192 = 195 Thag 637; Ja IV 421 (abhihārayaṃ with gloss abhibhārayiṃ).
2. to betake oneself to, to visit, take to, go to Snp 414 (Paṇḍavaṃ abhihāresi = āruhi Pj II 383), 708 (vanantaṃ abhihāraye = vanaṃ gaccheyya Pj II 495); Thig 146 (preterit °hārayiṃ; uyyānaṃ = upanesi Thig-a 138).
3. to put on (mail), only in future abhihessati Ja IV 92 (kavacaṃ; commentary explains wrongly by °hanissati bhindissati so evidently taking it as abhibhavissati).
4. At Ja VI 27 kiṃ yobbanena ciṇṇena yaṃ jarā abhihessati the latter is future of abhibhavati (for °bhavissati) as indicated by gloss abhibhuyyati.

:: Abhihāra [from abhiharati] bringing, offering, gift S I 82; Snp 710; Ja I 81 (āsana-).

:: Abhihiṃsati spurious reading at A IV 419 for °haṃsati (q.v.).

:: Abhihiṃsanā (and °ṃ) [for abhihesanā cf. Pāli hesā = Sanskrit hreṣā, and hesitaṃ] neighing Vv 6410 = Vv-a 279 (gloss abhihesana). See also abhisaṃsanā.

:: Abhihīta S I 50. Read abhigīta with Sinhalese mss So also for abhihita on page 51. "So enchanted was I by the Buddha's rune". The godling ascribes a magic potency to the couplet.

:: Abhihesana see abhihiṃsanā.

:: Abhihessati see abhihāreti causative abhihāreti 3 and 4.

:: Abhīta (adjective) [a + bhīta] fearless Ja VI 193. See also abhida 1.

:: Abhīruka (adjective) [a + bhīru + ka] fearless Sv I 250.

:: Abhumma (adjective) [a + bhumma] groundless, unfounded, unsubstantial, Ja V 178; VI 495.

:: Abhūta (adjective) [a + bhūta] not real, false, not true, usually as neuter °ṃ falsehood, lie, deceit Snp 387; It 37; instrumental abhūtena falsely D I 161.

-vādin one who speaks falsely or tells lies Snp 661 = Dhp 306 = It 42; explained as "ariyūpavāda-vasena alika-vādin" Pj II 478; as "tucchena paraṃ abhācikkhanto" Dhp-a III 477.

:: Abhejja (adjective) [gerund of a + bhid, cf. Sanskrit abhedya] not to be split or divided, not to be drawn away or caused to be dissented, inalienable Snp 255 (mitto abhejjo parehi); Ja I 263 (varasūra ...) III 318 (°rūpa of strong character = {73} abhijja-hadaya); Pp 30 (= acchejja Pp-a 212); Miln 160 (°parisā); Saddh 312 (+ appadusiya); Pañca-g 97 (°parivāra).

:: Amacca Amacca [Vedic amātya (only in meaning "companion"), adjective formation from amā an adverbial locative-genitive of pronoun 1st person, Sanskrit ahaṃ = Indo-Germanic °emo (cf. Sanskrit m-ama), meaning "(those) of me or with me", i.e. those who are in my house
1. friend, companion, fellow-worker, helper, especially one {65} who gives his advice, a bosom-friend It 73; Ja VI 512 (sahajātā amaccā); Pv II 620 (amaccā paricārakā well-advising friends as company or around him). Frequently in combination with mitta as mittāmaccā, friends and colleagues D III 189-90; S 190 = A II 67; Pv-a 29; or with ñātī (ñāti-sālohitā intimate friends and near-relations), mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā Vin II 126; Snp page 104 (= mittā ca kammakarā ca Pj II 447); mittā vā amaccā vā ñātī vā sālohitā vā A I 222; Pv-a 28; amaccā ñāti-saṅghā ca A I 152.
2. Especially a king's intimate friend, king's favourite, confidant Ja I 262; Pv-a 73 (°kula), 74 (amaccā ca purohito ca), 81 (sabba-kammika amacca), 93; and his special adviser or privy councillor, as such distinguished from the official ministers (purohita, mahāmatta, pārisajja); usually combined with pārisajjā (plural) viz. D I 136 (= piya-sahāyaka Sv I 297, but cf. the following explanation of pārisajjā as "sesā āṇatti-karā"); Vin I 348; D III 64 (amaccā pārisajjā gaṇakamahāmattā); A I 142 (catunnaṃ mahārājānaṃ a. pārisajjā). See on the question of minister in general Fick, Soziale Gliederung page 93, 164 and Banerjea, Public Administration in Ancient India past participle 106-120.

:: Amajja [etymology?] a bud Ja V 416 (= makula commentary).

:: Amajjapāyaka [a + majja + pāyaka, cf. Sanskrit amadyapa] one who abstains from intoxicants, a teetotaler Ja II 192.

:: Amata1 (neuter) [a + mata = mr̥ta past participle of mr̥, Vedic amr̥ta = Greek ἀ-μ(β)ροτ-ο and ἀμβροσία = Latin im-mort-a(lis
1. The drink of the gods, ambrosia, water of immortality, (cf. BHS amr̥ta-varṣa "rain of Ambrosia" Jm 221).
2. A general conception of a state of durability and non-change, a state of security i.e. where there is not any more rebirth or re-death. So Buddhaghosa at Pj I 180 (on Snp 225) "na jāyati na jīyati na mīyati ti amatan ti vuccati", or at Dhp-a I 228 "ajātattā na jiyyati na miyyati tasmā amatan ti vuccati". — Vin I 7 = M I 169 (apārutā tesaṃ amatassa dvārā); Vin I 39; D II 39, 217, 241; S I 32 (= rāga-dosa-moha-khayo), 193; III 2 (°ena abhisitta "sprinkled with A."); IV 94 (°assa dātā), 370; V 402 (°assa patti); A I 45f.; III 451; IV 455; V 226f., 256f. (°assa dātā); Ja I 4 (V 25); IV 378, 386; V 456 (°mahā-Nibbāna); Snp 204, 225, 228 (= Nibbāna Pj I 185); Thag 310 (= agada antidote); It 46 = 62 (as dhātu), 80 (°assa dvāra); Dhp 114, 374 (= amata-mahā-Nibbāna Dhp-a IV 110); Miln 258 (°dhura savanūpaga), 319 (agado amataṃ and Nibbānaṃ amataṃ), 336 (amatena lokaṃ abhisiñci Bhagavā), 346 (dhammāmataṃ); Sv I 217 (°Nibbāna); Dhp-a I 87 (°ṃ pāyeti); Dāṭh II 34; V 31; Saddh 1, 209, 530, 571.

-ogadha diving into the ambrosia (of Nibbāna) S V 41, 54, 181, 220, 232; A III 79, 304; IV 46f., 317, 387; V 105f.; Snp 635; Thag 179, 748; Dhp 411 (= amataṃ Nibbānaṃ ogahetvā Dhp-a IV 186); Vv 5020;
-osadha the medicine of ambrosia, ambrosial medicine Miln 247;
-gāmin going or leading to the ambrosia (of Nibbāna) S I 123; IV 370; V 8; A III 329; Thig 222;
-dasa one who sees amata or Nibbāna Thag 336;
-dundubhi the drum of the immortal (Nibbāna) M I 171 = Vin I 8 (has °dudrabhi);
-dvāra the door to Nibbāna M I 353; S I 137 = Vin I 5; S II 43, 45, 58, 80; A V 346;
-dhātu the element of ambrosia or Nibbāna A III 356;
-patta having attained to ambrosia A IV 455;
-pada the region or place of ambrosia S I 212 ("Bourne Ambrosial" K.S. I 274); II 280; Dhp 21 (= amatassa adhigama-vupāyo vuttaṃ hoti Dhp-a I 228);
-pariyosānā come to conclusion in
-phala ambrosial fruit S I 173 = Snp 80;
-magga the path to ambrosia Dhp-a I 94.

:: Amata2 (adjective) [see amata1] belonging to Amr̥ta = ambrosial Snp 452 = S I 189 (amatā vācā = amata-sadisā sādubhāvena Pj II 399: "ambrosial"), 960 (gacchato amataṃ disaṃ = Nibbānaṃ, taṃ hi amatan ti tathā niddisitabbato disā cā ti Pj II 572). Perhaps also at It 46 = 62 (amataṃ dhātuṃ = ambrosial state or amr̥ta as dhātu).

:: Amatabbāka (?) at Vv-a 111, accusative to Hardy (Index) "a precious stone of dark blue colour".

:: Amattaññu (adjective) [a + matta + °ññu = Sanskrit amātrajña] not knowing any bounds (in the taking of food), — intemperate, immoderate It 23 (bhojanamhi); Dhp 7 (the same); Pp 21.

:: Amattaññutā (feminine) [abstract to preceding] immoderation (in food) D III 213; It 23 (bhojane); Pp 21; Dhs 1346 (bhojane); As 402.

:: Amatteyyatā (feminine) [from matteyyatā] irreverence towards one's mother D III 70, 71.

:: Amanussa [a + manussa] a being which is not human, a fairy demon, ghost, god, spirit, yakkha Vin I 277; D I 116; S I 91, Ja I 99; Dhs 617; Miln 207; As 319; Dhp-a I 13 (°pariggahīta haunted); Pv-a 216. — Cf. amānusa.

:: Amanussika (adjective) [from amanussa] belonging to or caused by a spirit Vin I 202, 203 (°abādha being possessed by a demon).

:: Amama (adjective) [a + mama, genitive of ahaṃ, pronoun 1st person, literally "not (saying: this is) of me"] not egotistical, unselfish Snp 220 (+ subbata), 777; Ja IV 372 (+ nirāsaya); VI 259 (= mamāyana-taṇhā-rahita commentary); Pv IV 134 (= mamaṃkāravirahita Pv-a 230); Mhv 1, 66, combined with nirāsa (free from longing), at Snp 469 = 494; Ud 32; Ja IV 303; VI 259.

:: Amara (adjective) [a + mara from mr̥] not mortal, not subject to death Thag 276; Snp 249 (= amara-bhāva-patthanatāya pavatta-kāya-kilesa Pj II 291); Ja V 80 (= amaraṇa-sabhāva), 218; Dāṭh V 62.

:: Amaratta (neuter) [abstract from amara] immortality Ja V 223 (= devatta commentary).

:: Amarā (?) a kind of slippery fish, an eel (?) Only in expression amarā-vikkhepika eel-wobbler, one who practices eel-wriggling, from °vikkhepa "oscillation like the a. fish". In English idiom "a man who sits on the fence" D I 24; M I 521; Paṭis I 155. The explanation given by Buddhaghosa at Sv I 115 is "amarā nāma maccha-jāti, sā ummujjana-nimmujjanādi vasena ... gahetuṃ na Sakkoti" etc. This meaning is not beyond doubt, but Kern's explanation Toev. 71 does not help to clear it up.

:: Amala (adjective) [a + mala] without stain or fault Ja V 4; Saddh 246, 591, 596.

:: Amassuka (adjective) [a + massu + ka] beardless Ja II 185.

:: Amājāta (adjective) [amā + jāta; amā adverb "at home", Vedic amā, see under amacca] — born in the house, of a slave Ja I 226 (dāsa, so read for āmajāta, an old mistake, explained by commentary forcibly as "āma ahaṃ vo dāsī ti"!). See alsoāma1 and āmāya.

:: Amātika (adjective) [a + mātika from mātā] without a mother, motherless Ja V 251.

:: Amānusa (adjective) [Vedic amānuṣa, usually of demons, but also of gods; a + mānusa, cf. amanussa] non- or superhuman, unhuman, demonic, peculiar to a non-human (peta or yakkha) Pv II 1220 (kāma); IV 157 (as n.); IV 36 (gandha, of petas). — feminine °ī Dhp 373 (rati = dibbā rati Dhp-a IV 110); Pv III 79 (ratti, love).

:: Amāmaka (adjective) [a + mama + ka, cf. amama] "not of me" i.e. not belonging to my party, not siding with me Dhp-a I 66.

:: Amāya (adjective) [a + māyā] not deceiving, open, honest Snp 941 (see Nidd I 422: māyā vuccati vañcanikā cariyā). Cf. next.


:: Amāyāvin (adjective) [a + māyāvin, cf. amāya] without guile, not deceiving, honest D III 47 (asaṭha + a.), 55 (the same), 237; Dhp-a I 69 (asaṭhena a.).

:: Amitābha (adjective) [a + mita (past participle of mā) + ā + bhā] of boundless or immeasurable splendour Saddh 255.

:: Amitta [Vedic amitra; a + mitta] one who is not friend, an enemy D III 185; It 83; Snp 561 (= paccatthika Pj II 455); Dhp 66, 207; Ja VI 274 (°tāpana harassing the enemies).

:: Amilātatā (feminine) [a + milāta + tā] the condition of not being withered Ja V 156.

:: Amu° Amu base of demonstrative pronoun "that", see asu.

:: Amucchita (adjective) [a + mucchita] not infatuated (literal not stupified or bewildered), not greedy; only in phrase agathita amucchita anajjhāpanna (or anajjhopanna) D III 46; M I 369; S II 194. See ajjhopanna.

:: Amutta (adjective) [a + mutta] not released, not free from (with ablative) It 93 (mārabandhanā).


:: Amutra (adverb) [pronoun base amu + tra] in that place, there; in another state of existence D I 4, 14, 184; It 99.

:: Amūḷha-vinaya "acquittal on the ground of restored sanity" (Childers) Vin I 325 (IX 6, 2); II 81 (IV 5), 99 (IV 14, 27); IV 207, 351; M II 248.

:: Amoha (adjective) [a + moha, cf. Sanskrit amogha] not dull. As no absence of stupidity or delusion D III 214; Pp 25. The form amogha occurs at Ja VI 26 in the meaning of "efficacious, auspicious" (said of ratyā nights).

:: Amba Amba [derivation unknown. Not found in pre-Buddhist literature. The Sanskrit is āmra. Probably non-Aryan], the Mango tree, Mangifera Indica D I 46, 53, 235; Ja II 105, 160; Vv 7910; Pp 45; Miln 46; Pv-a 153, 187.

-aṭṭhi the kernel or stone of the mango fruit Dhp-a III 207, 208;
-ārāma a garden of mangoes, mango grove Vv 795; Vv-a 305;
-kañjika mango gruel Vv 3337 (= ambilakañjika Vv-a 147);
-pakka a (ripe) mango fruit Ja II 104, 394; Dhp-a III 207;
-panta a border of mango trees Vv-a 198;
-pānaka a drink made from mangoes Dhp-a III 207;
-piṇḍi a bunch of mangoes Ja III 53; Dhp-a III 207;
-pesikā the peel, rind, of the mango fruit Vin II 109;
-potaka a mango sprout Dhp-a III 206 sq;
-phala a mango fruit Pv-a 273, 274;
-rukkha a mango tree Dhp-a III 207; Vv-a 198;
-vana a mango grove or wood D II 126; Ja I 139; Vv-a 305;
-siñcaka one who waters the mangoes, a tender or keeper of mangoes Vv 797.

:: Ambaka1 (adjective) [= ambakā?] "womanish" (?), inferior, silly, stupid, of narrow intellect. Occurs only with reference to a woman, in combination with bālā A III 349 (v.l. amma°) = V 139 (where spelt ambhaka with v.l. appaka° and gloss andhaka); V 150 (spelt ambhaka perhaps in different meaning).

-maddarī see next.

:: Ambaka2 [deminutive of amba] a little mango, only in °maddarī a kind of bird [etymology uncertain] A I 188.

:: Ambakā (feminine) [Sanskrit ambikā deminutive of ambī mother, wife, see Pāli amma and cf. also Sanskrit ambālikā feminine] mother, good wife, used as a general endearing term for a woman Vin I 232 = D II 97 (here in play of words with Ambapālī explained by Buddhaghosa at Vin I 385 as ambakā ti itthiyikā).

:: Ambara1 Ambara (neuter) [Vedic ambara circumference, horizon] the sky, Dāṭh I 38; IV 51; V 32. — Note: At Ja V 390 we have to read muraja-ālambara, and not mura-jāla-ambara.

:: Ambara2 Ambara (masculine-neuter) [etymology = ambara1 (?) or more likely a distortion of kambala; for the latter speaks the combination rattambara = ratta-kambala. — The word would thus be due to an erroneous syllable division rattak-ambala (= ambara) instead of ratta-kambala] some sort of cloth and an (upper) garment made of it (cf. kambala) Vv 537 (ratt° = uttariya Vv-a 236).

:: Ambala at Ja II 246 (°koṭṭhaka-āsana-sālā) for ambara1 (?) or for ambaka2 (?), or should we read kambala°?.

:: Ambāṭaka the hog-plum, Spondias Mangifera (a kind of mango) Vin II 17 (°vana); Sv I 271 (°rukkha).

:: Ambila (adjective) [Sanskrit amla = Latin amarus] sour, acid; one of the 6 rasas or tastes, viz. a., lavaṇa, tittaka, kaṭuka, kasāya, madhura (see under rasa): thus at Miln 56. Another enumeration at Nidd II §540 and Dhs 629. — Ja I 242 (°anambila), 505 (loṇ°); II 394 (loṇ°); Sv I 270 (°yāgu sour gruel); Dhp-a II 85 (ati-ambila, with accuṇha and atisīta).

:: Ambu (neuter) [Vedic ambu and ambhas = Greek ὄμβρος, Latin imber rain; cf. also Sanskrit abhra rain-cloud and Greek ἀϕρός scum: see Pāli abbha] — water Ja V 6; Nidd I 202 (a. vuccati udakaṃ); Dāṭh II 16. — Cf. ambha.

-cārin "living in the water", a fish Snp 62 (= maccha Nidd II §91);
-sevāla a water-plant Thag 113.

:: Ambuja (masculine and neuter) [ambu + ja of jan] "water-born", i.e.
1. (masculine) a fish S I 52.
2. (neuter) a lotus Snp 845 (= paduma Nidd I 202); Dāṭh V 46; Saddh 360.

:: Ambuda [ambu + da from dā] "water-giver", a cloud Dāṭh V 32; Saddh 270, 275.

:: Ambha and Ambho (neuter) [see ambu] water, sea Dāṭh IV 54.

:: Ambhaka see ambaka.

:: Ambho (indeclinable) [from haṃ + bho, see bho, original "hallo you there"] particle of exclamation, employed:
1. to draw attention = look here, hey! hallo! Vin III 73 (= ālapanādhivacana); Ja II 3; Pv-a 62.
2. to mark reproach and anger = you silly, you rascal D I 194; It 114; Ja I 174 (v.l. amho), 254; Miln 48.

:: Amma (indeclinable) [vocative of ammā] endearing term, used
1. by children in addressing their mother = mammy, mother dear D I 93; Ja II 133; IV 1, 281 (amma tāta uṭṭhetha daddy, mammy, get up!); Dhp-a II 87; Pv-a 73, 74.
2. in general when addressinga woman familiarly = good woman, my (good) lady, dear, thus to a woman Ja I 292; Pv-a 63; Dhp-a II 44; to a girl Pv-a 6; to a daughter Dhp-a II 48; III 172. — Cf. ambakā.

:: Ammaṇa (neuter) [of uncertain etymology; Sanskrit armaṇa is Sanskritised Pāli. See on form and meaning Childers sub voce and Kern, Toev. page 72
1. a trough Ja V 297; VI 381 (bhatt°).
2. a certain measure of capacity Ja I 62; II 436 (taṇḍul°). — As °ka at Ja II 117 (v.l. ampaṇaka); Sv I 84.

:: Ammā (feminine) [onomatopoetic from child language; Sanskrit ambā, cf. Greek ἀμμάς mother, Old Icelandic amma "granny", Old High German amma "mammy", nurse; also Latin amita father's sister and amāre to love] mother Ja III 392 (genitive ammāya). — Vocative amma (see seperate).

:: Amha and Amhan (neuter) [Sanskrit aśman, see also asama2] a stone Snp 443 (instrumental amhanā, but Pj II 392 reads asmanā = pāsāṇena).

-maya made of stone, hard Dhp 161 (= pāsāṇa° Dhp-a III 151).

:: Amha, Amhi see atthi.

:: Amhā (feminine) [etymology uncertain; Morris JPTS 1889, 201 too vague] a cow (?) A I 229. The commentary says nothing.

:: Amhākaṃ, Amhe see ahaṃ.
[BD]: Our.

:: Amhi, see atthi

:: Amhe, see ahaṃ.

:: Amho = ambho Ja I 174 (v.l.).

:: Aya1 Aya see ayo.


:: Aya2 (from i, go)
1. income, in aya-potthaka receipt book Ja I 2.
2. inlet (for water, aya-mukha) D I 74; A II 166, IV 287.

:: Ayaṃ (pronoun) [Sanskrit ayaṃ etc., pronoun base Indo-Germanic °i (cf. Sanskrit iha), feminine °ī. Cf. Greek ἰν, μίν; Latin is (feminine ea, neuter id); Goth is, neuter ita; Old High German er (= he), neuter ez (= it); Lithuanian jīs (he), feminine jī (she).] — demonstrative pronoun "this, he"; feminine ayaṃ; neuter idaṃ and imaṃ "this, it" etc. This pronoun combines in its inflection two stems, viz. as° (ayaṃ in nominative masculine and feminine) and im° (id° in nominative neuter).
I Forms.
A. (singular) nominative masculine ayaṃ Snp 235; Ja I 168, 279; feminine ayaṃ [Sanskrit iyaṃ] Khp VII 12; Ja II 128, 133; neuter idaṃ Snp 224; Ja III 53; and imaṃ Miln 46. accusative masculine imaṃ Ja II 160; feminine imaṃ [Sanskrit imāṃ] Snp 545, 1002; Ja I 280. genitive dative masculine imassa Ja I 222, 279 and assa Snp 234, 1100; Khp VII 12 (dative); Ja II 158; feminine imissā Ja I 179 and assā [Sanskrit asyāḥ] Ja I 290; Dhp-a III 172. instrumental masculine neuter iminā Ja I 279; Pv-a 80 and (peculiarly or perhaps for amunā) aminā Snp 137; feminine imāya [Sanskrit anayā] Ja I 267. The instrumental anena [Sanskrit anena] is not proved in Pāli. ablative asmā Snp 185; Dhp 220; and imasmā (not proved). locative masculine neuter imasmiṃ Khp III ; Ja II 159 and asmiṃ Snp 634; Dhp 242; feminine imissā Pv-a 79 (or imissaṃ?) and imāyaṃ (no reference).
B. (plural) nominative masculine ime Ja I 221; Pv I 83; feminine imā [Sanskrit imāḥ] Snp 897 and imāyo Snp 1122; neuter imāni [= Sanskrit] Vin I 84. accusative masculine ime [Sanskrit imān] Ja I 266; II 416; feminine imā [Sanskrit imāḥ] Snp 429; Ja II 160. genitive imesaṃ Ja II 160, esaṃ [Sanskrit eṣāṃ] M II 86, and esānaṃ M II 154; III 259; feminine also āsaṃ Ja I 302 (= etāsaṃ commentary) and imāsaṃ. instrumental masculine neuter imehi Ja VI 364; feminine imāhi. locative masculine neuter imesu [Sanskrit eṣu] Ja I 307.
II Meanings
1. ayaṃ refers to what is immediately in front of the speaker (the subject in question) or before his eyes or in his present time and situation, thus often to be translated by "before our eyes", "the present", "this here", "just this" (and not the other) (opposite para), viz. atthi imasmiṃ kāye "in this our visible body" Khp III ; yathāyaṃ padīpo "like this lamp here" Snp 235; ayaṃ dakkhiṇā dinnā "the gift which is just given before our eyes" Khp VII 12; ime pādā imaṃ sīsaṃ ayaṃ kāyo Pv I 83; asmiṃ loke paramhi ca "in this world and the other" Snp 634, asmā lokā paraṃ lokaṃ kathaṃ pecca na socati Snp 185; cf. also Dhp 220, 410; Ja I 168; III 53.
2. It refers to what immediately precedes the present of the speaker, or to what has just been mentioned in the sentence; viz. yaṃ kiñci {67} vittaṃ ... idam pi Buddhe ratanaṃ "whatever ... that" Snp 224; ime divase these days (just gone) Ja II 416; cf. also Vin I 84; Snp 429; Ja II 128, 160.
3. It refers to what immediately follows either in time or in thought or in connection: dve ime antā "these are the two extremes, viz." Vin I 10; ayaṃ eva ariyo maggo "this then is the way" ibid.; cf. Ja I 280.
4. With a touch of (often sarcastic) characterization it establishes a closer personal relation between the speaker and the object in question and is to be translated by "like that, such (like), that there, yonder, yon", e.g. imassa vānarindassa "of that fellow, the monkey" Ja I 279; cf. Ja I 222, 307; II 160 (imesaṃ sattānaṃ "creatures like us"). So also repeated as ayañ ca ayañ ca "this and this", "so and so" Ja II 3; idañ c'idañ ca "such and such a thing" Ja II 5.
5. In combination with a pronoun relative it expresses either a generalisation (whoever, whatever) or a specialisation (= that is to say, what there is of, i.e. German und zwar), e.g. yāyaṃ taṇhā Vin I 10; yo ca ayaṃ ... yo ca ayaṃ "I mean this ... and I mean" ibid.; ye kec'ime Snp 381; yadidaṃ "i.e." Miln 25; yatha-y-idaṃ "in order that" (with potential) Snp 1092. See also seyyathīdaṃ.
6. The genitive of all genders functions in general as a possessive pronoun of the 3rd = his, her, its (literal of him etc.) and thus resembles the use of tassa, e.g. āsava'ssa na vijjanti "his are no intoxications" Snp 1100; sīlaṃ assā bhindāpessāmi "I shall cause her character to be defamed" Ja I 290; assa bhariyā "his wife" Ja II 158 etc. frequent

:: Ayana (neuter) [Vedic ayana, from i] (a) "going", road. — (b) going to, goal S V 167 (ekāyano maggo leading to one goal, a direct way), 185 (the same); Sv I 313; Dāṭh IV 40. See also eka°.

:: Ayasa (neuter) [a + yasa, cf. Sanskrit ayaśaḥ] ill repute, disgrace Miln 139, 272; Dāṭh I 8.

:: Ayira (and Ayyira) (adjective/noun) [Vedic ārya, metathesis for ariya as diæretic form of ārya, of which the contracted (assimilation) form is ayya. See also ariya] — (noun) Ariyan, nobleman, gentleman (opposite servant); (adjective) Aryan, well-born, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, gentlemanly Ja V 257; Vv 396. — feminine ayirā lady, mistress (of a servant) Ja II 349 (v.l. oyyakā); vocative ayire my lady Ja V 138 (= ayye commentary).

:: Ayiraka = ayira; cf. ariyaka and ayyaka; D III 190 (v.l. °yy-); Ja II 313.

:: Ayo and Aya (neuter) [Sanskrit ayaḥ neuter iron and ore, Indo-Germanic °ajes-, cf. Avesta ayah, Latin aes, Gothic aiz, Old High German ēr (= German Erz.), Anglo-Saxon ār (= English ore).] iron. The nominative ayo found only in set of 5 metals forming an alloy of gold (jātarūpa), viz. ayo, loha (copper), tipu (tin), sīsa (lead), sajjha (silver) A III 16 = S V 92; of oblique cases only the instrumental ayasā occurs Dhp 240 (= ayato Dhp-a III 344); Pv I 1013 (paṭikujjita, of Niraya). — Iron is the material used κατ'ἐξοχήν in the outfit and construction of Hell or Niraya (see Niraya and Avīci and cf. Vism 56f.). — In compounds both ayo° and aya° occur as bases.
I ayo°:

-kapāla an iron pot A IV 70 (v.l. °guhala); Nidd II §304 III D2 (of Niraya);
-kūṭa an iron hammer Pv-a 284;
-khīla an iron stake S V 444; M III 183 = Nidd II §304 III C; Pj II 479;
-guḷa an iron ball S V 283; Dhp 308; It 43 = 90; Thig 489; Sv I 84;
-ghana an iron club Ud 93; Vv-a 20;
-ghara an iron house Ja IV 492;
-paṭala an iron roof or ceiling (of Niraya) Pv-a 52;
-pākāra an iron fence Pv I 1013 = Nidd II §304 III D1;
-maya Ayo-maya made of iron Snp 669 (kūṭa); Ja IV 492 (nāvā); Pv I 1014 Pv-a 43, 52;
-muggara an iron club Pv-a 55;
-saṅku an iron spike S IV 168; Snp 667.

II aya°:

-kapāla = ayo° Dhp-a I 148 (v.l. ayo°);
-kāra a worker in iron Miln 331;
-kūṭa = ayo° Ja I 108; Dhp-a II 69 (v.l.);
-naṅgala an iron plough Dhp-a I 223; III 67;
-paṭṭaka an iron plate or sheet (cf. loha°) Ja V 359;
-paṭhavi an iron floor (of Avīci) Dhp-a I 148;
-saṅghāṭaka an iron (door) post Dhp-a IV 104;
-sūla an iron stake Snp 667; Dhp-a I 148.

:: Ayojjha (adjective) [Sanskrit ayodhya] not to be conquered or subdued M II 24.

:: Ayya (adjective/noun) [contracted form for the diæretic ariya (q.v. for etymology). See also ayira
(a) (noun) gentleman, sire, lord, master J III 167 = Pv-a 65; Dhp-a I 8 (ayyā plural the worthy gentlemen, the worthies), 13 (amhākaṃ ayyo our worthy Sir); II 95.
(b) (adjective) worthy, gentlemanly, honourable Vin II 191; Dhp-a II 94f. — The vocative is used as a polite form of address (cf. German "Sie" and English address "Esq.") like English Sir, milord or simply "you" with the implication of a pluralis majestatis; thus vocative proper ayya Ja I 221, 279, 308; plural nominative as vocative ayyā in addressing several Ja II 128, 415; nominative singular as vocative (for all genders and numbers) ayyo Vin II 215; Ja III 126, 127. — feminine ayyā lady, mistress M II 96 (= mother of a prince); Dhp-a I 398; vocative ayye my lady Ja V 138.

-putta literally son of an Aryan, i.e. an aristocratic (young) man gentleman (cf. in meaning kulaputta); thus (a) son of my master (literal) said by a servant Ja III 167; (b) lord, mastery "governor" Ja I 62 (by a servant); Sv I 257 (= sāmi, opposite dāsi-putta); Pv-a 145 (by a wife to her husband); Dhp-a II 110; (c) prince (see WZKM XII, 1898, 75f. and Epigraphia Indica III 137f.) Ja VI 146.

:: Ayyaka [deminutive of ayya] grandfather, (so also BHS, e.g. Mvu II 426; III 264) Ja III 155; IV 146; VI 196; Pv I 84; Miln 284. ayyaka-payyakā grandfather and great grandfather, {76} forefathers, ancestors Ja I 2; Pv-a 107 (= pitāmahā). — feminine ayyakā grandmother, granny Vin II 169; S I 97; Ja II 349 (here used for "lady", as v.l.); and ayyikā Thig 159; Vism 379.

:: Ara [Vedic ara from r̥, r̥ṇoti; see etymology under appeti and cf. more especially Latin artus limb, Greek ἃρμα chariot, also Pāli aṇṇava] the spoke of a wheel D II 17 (sahassāra adjective with thousand spokes), cf. Miln 285; Ja IV 209; VI 261; Miln 238; Dhp-a II 142; Vv-a 106 (in allegorical etymology of Arahant = saṃsāra-cakkassa arānaṃ hatattā "breaker of the spokes of the wheel of rebirth") = Pv-a 7 (has saṃsāra-vaṭṭassa); Vv-a 277.

:: Arakkhiya (adjective) [a + rakkhiya, gerund of rakkhati] not to be guarded, viz.
1. impossible to watch (said of women folk) Ja II 326 (a. nāma itthiyo); III 90 (mātugāmo nāma a.).
2. unnecessary to be guarded Vin II 194 (Tathāgatā).

:: Arakkheyya (adjective) [in form = arakkhiya] only in neuter "that which does not need to be guarded against", what one does not need to heed, superfluous to beware of A IV 82 (cattāri Tathāgatassa °āni). — 3 arakkheyyāni are enumerated at D III 217 (but as ārakkh°, which is also given by Childers).

:: Araghaṭṭa [Sanskrit araghaṭṭaka (so Abhidh-r-m page 138), dialectical] a wheel for raising water from a well Buddhaghosa on cakkavaṭṭaka at (Sp VI 1208). So read for Text (as quoted at Vin II 318 and Sp v.l.) Arahatta-ghaṭi-yanta according to Morris, JPTS 1885, 30; cf. also Vinaya Texts III 112. — The 2nd part of the compound is doubtful; Morris and Aufrecht compare the modern Hindī form arhaṭ or rahaṭ "a well-wheel".

:: Araja (adjective) [a + raja] free from dust or impurity S IV 218 (of the wind); Vv 536 (= apagata-raja Vv-a 236).

:: Arañña (neuter) [Vedic araṇya; from araṇa, remote, + ya. In the R̥V araṇya still means remoteness (opposed to amā, at home). In the A V it has come to mean wilderness or forest. Connected with ārād and āre, remote, far from]. forest D I 71; M I 16; III 104; S I 4, 7, 29, 181, 203 (mahā); A I 60 (°vanapatthāni); II 252; III 135, 138; Snp 39, 53, 119; Dhp 99, 329, 330; It 90; Vv 567; Paṭis I 176. [The commentators, give a wider meaning to the word. Thus the word analysis (Vin III 46, quoted Vism 72 and Pj II 83) says every place, except a village and the approach thereto, is arañña. See also Vin III 51; Sv I 209; Pv-a 73; Vv-a 249; Ja I 149, 215; II 138; V 70].

-āyatana a forest haunt Vin II 201; S II 269; Ja I 173; Vv-a 301; Pv-a 54, 78, 141;
-kuṭikā a hut in the forest, a forest lodge S I 61; III 116; IV 116, 380; Dhp-a IV 31 (as v.l.; Text has °kuṭi);
-gata gone into the forest (as loneliness) M I 323; A III 353; V 109f., 207, 323f.
-ṭhāna a place in the forest Ja I 253;
-vāsa a dwelling in the forest, a hermitage Ja I 90;
-vihāra living in (the) loneliness (of the forest) A III 343f.

:: Araññaka (and āraññāka) (adjective) [arañña + ka] belonging to solitude or to the forest, living in the forest, fond of solitude, living as {68} hermits (bhikkhū) M I 214 (ā°), 469; III 89; S II 187, 202 (v.l. ā°), 208f.; 281; A III 343, 391; IV 291, 344, 435; V 10. See also āraññaka.

:: Araññakatta (neuter) [abstract from araññaka] the habit of one who lives in the forest, indulgence in solitude and sequestration, a hermit's practice, seclusion S II 202, 208f. See also āraññakatta.

:: Araṇa1 (adjective/noun) [Vedic araṇa from °ara √r̥, which as ablative ārā is used as adverb far from, cf. Pāli ārakā. Original meaning "removed from, remote, far". See also arañña]. (adjective) living in solitude, far from the madding crowd M III 237 (°vibhaṅga-sutta); S I 44, 45; Ja I 340 (tittha°—°).

:: Araṇa2 (neuter) [a + raṇa] quietude, peace Nett 55 (+ tāṇa), 176 (or as adjective = peaceful) Thig-a 134 (+ saraṇa); Vibh 19f. (opposite saraṇa). See saraṇa2.

-vihārin (or araṇā-vihārin) [to be most likely taken as araṇā°, ablative of araṇa in function of ārakā, i.e. adverb far from, away; the spelling araṇa would refer it to araṇa2. As regards meaning the Pāli commentators explanation it as opposite of raṇa fight, battle, i.e. peacefullness, friendliness and see in it a synonym of metta. Thus Dhammapāla at Pv-a 230 explains it as "mettā-vihārin", and in this meaning it is found frequently in BHS e.g. Divy 401; Avś II 131 (q.v. for further reference under note 3); Mvu I 165; II 292. Cf. also the epithet of the Buddhas raṇañjaha] — one who lives in seclusion, an anchorite, hermit; hence a harmless, peaceful person A I 24; Thig 358, 360; Pv IV 133 (= Pv-a 230); Thig-a 244. Cf. BMPE 312.

:: Araṇi and °ī (feminine) [Vedic araṇī and araṇi from r̥] wood for kindling fire by attrition, only in following compounds: °potaka small firewood, all that is needed for producing fire, chiefly drill sticks Miln 53; °sahita (neuter) same Vin II 217; Ja I 212 (ī); V 46 (ī); Dhp-a II 246; °mathana rubbing of firewood Ja VI 209. — Note: The reading at Pv-a 211 araṇiyehi devehi sadisa-vaṇṇa is surely a misreading (v.l. ariyehi).

:: Arati (feminine) [a + rati] dislike, discontent, aversion Snp 270, 436, 642, 938; Dhp 418 (= ukkaṇṭhitattaṃ Dhp-a IV 225); Thig 339 (= ukkaṇṭhi Thig-a 239); Saddh 476.

:: Aravinda [ara + vinda (?) Abhidh-r-m gives as Sanskrit aravinda neuter] a lotus, Nymphaea Nelumbo Dāṭh V 62.

:: Araha (adjective) (—°) [Vedic arha of arh
1. worthy of, deserving, entitled to, worth Dhp 195 (pūjā°); Pv II 86 (dakkhiṇā°); Vv-a 23 (daṇḍa° deserving punishment). Frequently in compound mahāraha [Sanskrit mahārgha] worth much, of great value, costly, dear Ja I 50, 58; III 83, etc. (see mahant).
2. fit for, apt for, suitable Pv-a 26 (paribhoga° fit for eating).

:: Arahati [Vedic arhati, etymology uncertain but cf. agghati] to be worthy of, to deserve, to merit (= Latin debeo) Snp 431, 552 (rājā arahasi bhavituṃ); Ja I 262; Dhp 9, 10, 230; Pv III 66. — present participle Arahant (q.v.). Cf. also adjective araha.

:: Arahatta1 (neuter) [abstract formation from arahat°, 2nd base of Arahant in compounds: see Arahant IV 2] — the state or condition of an Arahant, i.e. perfection in the Buddhist sense = Nibbāna (S IV 151) final and absolute emancipation, Arahantship, the attainment of the last and highest stage of the Path (see magga and Anāgāmin). This is not restricted by age or sex or calling. There is one instance in the canon of a child having attained Arahantship at the age of 7. One or two others occur in the commentaries Thig-a 64 (Selā); Pv-a 53 (Saṅkicca). Many women Arahants are mentioned by name in the oldest texts. About 400 men Arahants are known. Most of them were bhikkhus, but A III 451 gives the names of more than a score lay Arahants (cf. D II 93 = S V 360, and the references in D.B. III 5 note 4). — Arahattaṃ is defined at S IV 252 as rāga-kkhaya, dosa°, moha°. Descriptions of this state are to be found in the formulæ expressing the feelings of an Arahant (see Arahant II). Vin II 254; D III 10, 11, 255; A III 34, 421, 430; V 209; Pp 73; Nett 15, 82; Sv I 180, 188, 191; Dhp-a II 95; IV 193; Pv-a 14.
Phrases: Arahattaṃ sacchikaroti to experience Arahantship Vin II 74; D I 229; Arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti to attain or reach Arahantship (usually in preterit pāpuṇi) Ja II 229 Thig-a 64; Dhp-a II 49 (saha paṭisambhidāhi) 93 (the same); Pv-a 53, 54, 61, 233 and frequent elsewhere; cf. arahattāya paṭipanna D III 255; A I 120; IV 292f., 372f.

-gahaṇa attainment of Arahantship Dhp-a I 8;
-patta (and patti) one who has attained Ar. S I 196; V 273; A II 157; III 376; IV 235;
-phala the fruit of Ar. Vin I 39, 41, 293; III 93; D III 227, 277; S III 168; V 44; A I 23, 45; III 272; IV 276; Dhs 1017; Vibh 326;
-magga the Path of Ar. S I 78; A III 391; Sv I 224;
-vimokkha the emancipation of Ar. Nidd II §19.

:: Arahatta2 in °ghaṭi see araghaṭṭa.


:: Arahant (adjective/noun) [Vedic arhant, present participle of arhati (see arahati), meaning deserving, worthy]. Before Buddhism used as honorific title of high officials like the English "His Worship" ; at the rise of Buddhism applied popularly to all ascetics (D.B. III 3-6). Adopted by the Buddhisṭs as technical term for one who has attained the Summum Bonum of religious aspiration (Nibbāna).
I. Cases nominative singular arahaṃ Vin I 9; D I 49; M I 245, 280; S I 169; see also formula commentary under II, and arahā Vin I 8, 25, 26; II 110, 161; D III 255; It 95; Khp IV ; genitive arahato S IV 175; Snp 590; instrumental arahatā S III 168; Sv I 43; accusative Arahantaṃ D III 10; Dhp 420; Snp 644; locative Arahantamhi Vv 212.
— nominative plural Arahanto Arahanta Vin I 19; IV 112; S I 78, 235; II 220; IV 123; genitive arahataṃ Vin III 1; S I 214; Snp 186; It 112; Pv I 1112. Other cases are of rare occurrence.
II. Formulae. Arahantship finds its expression in frequent occurring formulæ, of which the standard ones are the following:
A. khīṇā jāti vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ nāparaṃ itthattāya "destroyed is (re-)birth, lived is a chaste life, (of a student) done is what had to be done, after this present life there is no beyond". Vin I 14, 35, 183; D I 84, 177, 203; M I 139; II 39; S I 140; II 51, 82, 95, 120, 245; III 21, 45, 55, 68, 71, 90, 94, 195, 223; IV 2, 20, 35, 45, 86, 107, 151, 383; V 72, 90, 144, 222; A I 165; II 211; III 93; IV 88, 179, 302; V 155, 162; Snp 16; Pp 61, etc.
B. eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto "alone, secluded, earnest, zealous, master of himself" D I 177; II 153 and continued with A: S I 140, 161; II 21; III 36, 74; IV 64; V 144, 166; A I 282; II 249; III 70, 217, 301, 376; IV 235.
C. arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anupatta-sadattho parikkhīṇa-bhava-saññojano sammad-aññā vimutto: D III 83, 97; M I 4, 235; S I 71; III 161, 193; IV 125; V 145, 205, 273, 302; A I 144; III 359, 376; IV 362, 369, 371f., It 38.
D. ñāṇañ ca pana me dassanaṃ udapādi akuppā me ceto-vimutti ayaṃ antimā jāti n'atthi dāni punabbhavo "there arose in me insight, the emancipation of my heart became unshakeable, this is my last birth, there is now no rebirth for me: S II 171; III 28; IV 8; V 204; A I 259; IV 56, 305, 448.
III. Other passages (selected) Vin I 8 (arahā sītibhūto nibbuto), 9 (arahaṃ Tathāgato Sammāsambuddho), 19 (ekādasa loke Arahanto), 20 (ekṣaṭṭhi the same). 25f.; II 110, 161; III 1; IV 112 (te Arahanto udake kīḷanti); D I 49 (Bhagavā arahaṃ), 144; III 10, 255: M I 245 (Gotamo na pi kālaṃ karoti: arahaṃ samaṇo Gotamo), 280; S I 9, 26, 50 (Tathāgato), 78, 140, 161, 169, 175, 178 (+ sītibhūta), 208, 214, 235 (khīṇāsavā Arahanto); III 160 (arahā ti'ssa?), 168; IV 123, 175, 260, 393; V 159f., 164, 200f.; A I 22 (sammāsambuddho), 27, 109, 266; II 134; III 376, 391, 439; IV 364, 394; V 120; Snp 186, 590, 644, 1003; It 95 (+ khīṇāsava), 112; Khp IV (dasahi aṅgehi samannāgato arahā ti vuccati: see Pj I 88); Vv 212; I 217; Dhp 164, 420 (khīṇāsava + a.); Paṭis II 3, 19, 194, 203f.; Pp 37, 73; Vibh 324, 336, 422; Pv I 11 (khettūpamā Arahanto), 1112; IV 132.
IV. In compounds and derivatives we find two bases, viz.
1. Arahanta° in °ghāta the killing or murder of an Arahant (considered as one of the six deadly crimes): see abhiṭhāna; °ghātaka the murderer of the {69} A.: Vin I 89, 136, 168, 320; °magga (Arahatta°?) the path of an A.: D II 144.
2. arahat° in (arahad-)dhaja the flag or banner of an A.: Ja I 65.
V. See further details and passages under Anāgāmin, khīṇa, Buddha. On the relationship of Buddha and Arahant see D.B. II 1-3; III 6. For riddles or word-play on the form Arahant see M I 280; A IV 145; Sv I 146 = Vv-a 105, 6 = Pv-a 7; Dhp-a IV 228; As 349.

:: Arāti [a + rāti, cf. Sanskrit arāti] an enemy Dāṭh IV 1.

:: Ari [Vedic ari; from r̥] an enemy. — The word is used in exegesis and word explanation, thus in etymology of Arahant (see reference under Arahant V.); of bhūri Paṭis II 197. — Otherwise in late language only, e.g. Saddh 493 (°bhūta). See also arindama and aribhāseti.

:: Ariñcamāna [present participle medium of Pāli riñcati for ricyati] not leaving behind, not giving up, i.e. pursuing earnestly Snp 69 (jhānaṃ = ajahamana Pj II 123, cf. Nidd II §94).

:: Ariṭṭha1 (adjective) [a + riṭṭha = Vedic ariṣṭa, past participle of a + riṣ to hurt or be hurt] unhurt Saddh 279.

:: Ariṭṭha2 [Sanskrit ariṣṭa, name of a tree] a kind of spirituous liquor Vin IV 110.

:: Ariṭṭhaka (adjective) [from ariṭṭha] (a) unhurt; perfect Sv I 94 (°ṃ ñāṇaṃ). — (b) [from ariṭṭha in meaning of "soap-berry plant"?] in phrase mahā ariṭṭhako maṇi S I 104 "a great mass of soap stone" (cf. Rh.D. in JRAS 1895, 893f.), "a shaped block of steatite" (Mrs. Rh.D. in K.S. I 130).

:: Aritta (neuter) [Vedic aritra, Indo-Germanic °ere to row (Sanskrit r̥ to move); cf. Greek ἐρέσσω to row, ἐρετμός rudder, Latin remus, Old High German ruodar = rudder; Anglo-Saxon rowan = English row] — a rudder. Usually in combination with piya (phiya) oar, as piyārittaṃ (phiy°) oar and rudder, thus at S I 103 (Text piya°, v.l. phiya°); A II 201 (piya°); Ja IV 164 (Text piya°, v.l. phiya°); Snp 321 (piya + ; Pj II 330 phiya = dabbi-padara, aritta = veḷudaṇḍa). As 149.

:: Arindama [Sanskrit arindama, ariṃ + dama of dam] a tamer of enemies, victor, conqueror Pv IV 315 (= arīnaṃ damanasīla Pv-a 251); Saddh 276.

:: Aribhāseti [= ariṃ bhāseti] to denounce, literally to call an enemy Ja IV 285. Correct to Pari° according to Fausbøll (Ja V correct)

:: Ariya (adjective/noun) [Vedic ārya, of uncertain etymology. The other Pāli forms are ayira and ayya
1. (racial) Aryan D II 87.
2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth.
3. (ethical) in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. Hence: right, good, ideal. [The early Buddhists had na such ideas as we cover with the words Buddhist and Indian. Ariya does not exactly mean either. But it often comes very near to what they would have considered the best in each]. — (adjective): D I 70 = (°ena sīlakkhandhena samannāgata fitted out with our standard morality); III 64 (cakkavatti-vatta), 246 (diṭṭhi); M I 139 (pannaddhaja); II 103 (ariyāya jātiyā jāto, become of the Aryan lineage); S II 273 (tuṇhībhāva); IV 250 (vaddhi), 287 (dhamma); V 82 (bojjhaṅgā), 166 (satipaṭṭhānā), 222 (vimutti), 228 (ñāṇa), 255 (iddhipādā), 421 (maggo), 435 (saccāni), 467 (paññā-cakkhu); A I 71 (parisā); II 36 (ñāya); III 451 (ñāṇa); IV 153 (tuṇhībhāva); V 206 (sīlakkhandha); It 35 (paññā), 47 (bhikkhu sammaddaso); Snp 177 (patha = aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo Pj II 216); Dhp 236 (bhūmi), 270; Paṭis II 212 (iddhi).
-alamariya fully or thoroughly good D I 163 = III 82 = A IV 363; nālamariya not at all good, objectionable, ignoble ibid. — (masculine) Vin I 197 (na ramati pāpe); D I 37 = (yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā etc.: see 3rd. jhāna), 245; III 111 (°ānaṃ anupavādaka one who defames the noble); M I 17, 280 (sottiyo ariyo arahaṃ); S I 225 (°ānaṃ upavādaka); II 123 (the same); IV 53 (°assa vinayo), 95 (the same); A I 256 (°ānaṃ upavādaka); III 19, 252 (the same); IV 145 (dele! see arīhatatta); V 68, 145f., 200, 317; It 21, 108; Dhp 22, 164, 207; Ja III 354 = Miln 230; M I 7, 35 (ariyānaṃ adassāvin: "not recognising the Noble Ones") Pv-a 26, 146; Dhp-a II 99; Saddh 444 (°ānaṃ vaṃsa). — anariya (adjective and noun) not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, common, uncultured A I 81; Snp 664 (= asappurisa Pj II 479; As 353); Ja II 281 (= dussīla pāpadhamma commentary); V 48 (°rūpa shameless), 87; Dhp-a IV 3. — See also ñāṇa, magga, sacca, sāvaka.

-atraja a true descendant of the Noble ones Dīp V 92;
-āvakāsa appearing noble Ja V 87;
-uposatha the ideal feast day (as one of 3) A I 205f., 212;
-kanta loved by the Best D III 227;
-gaṇā (plural) troops of worthies {78} J VI 50 (= brāhmaṇa-gaṇā, te kira tāda ariyācārā ahesuṃ, tena te evam āha commentary);
-garahin casting blame on the righteous Snp 660;
-citta a noble heart
-dasa having the ideal (or best) belief It 93 = 94;
-dhana sublime treasure; always as sattavidha° sevenfold, viz. saddhā°, sīla°, hiri°, ottappa°, suta°, cāga°, paññā° "faith, a moral life, modesty, fear of evil, learning, self-denial, wisdom" Thig-a 240; Vv-a 113; Sv II 34;
-dhamma the national customs of the Aryans (= ariyānaṃ eso dhammo Nidd I 71, 72) M I 1, 7, 135; A II 69; V 145f., 241, 274; Snp 783; Dhs 1003;
-puggala an (ethically) model person, Paṭis I 167; Vin V 117; Thig-a 206;
-magga the Aryan Path;
-vaṃsa the (fourfold) noble family, i.e. of recluses content with the 4 requisites D III 224 = A II 27 = Paṭis I 84 = Nidd II §141; cf. A III 146;
-vattin leading a noble life, of good conduct Ja III 443;
-vatā at Thag 334 should be read °vattā (nominative singular of vattar, vac) "speaking noble words":
-vāsa the most excellent state of mind, habitual disposition, constant practice. Ten such at D III 269, 291 = A V 29 (passage recommended to all Buddhists by Asoka in the Bhabra Edict);
-vihāra the best practice S V 326;
-vohāra noble or honorable practice. There are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk. They are otherwise known as the 4 vacī-kammantā and represent sīla nos. 4-7. See D III 232; A II 246; Vin V 125;
-saṅgha the communion of the nobles ones Pv-a 1;
-sacca, a standard truth, an established fact, D I 189, II 90, 304f.; III 277; M I 62, 184; III 248; S V 415f. = Vin I 10, 230. It 17; Snp 229, 230, 267; Dhp 190; Dhp-a III 246; Pj I 81, 151, 185, 187; Thig-a 178, 282, 291; Vv-a 73;
-sāvaka a disciple of the noble ones (= ariyānaṃ santike sutattā a. Pj II 166). M I 8, 46, 91, 181, 323; II 262; III 134, 228, 272; It 75; Snp 90; Miln 339; Dhp-a I 5, (opposite putthujjana);
-sīlin of unblemished conduct, practising virtue D I 115 (= sīlaṃ ariyaṃ uttamaṃ parisuddhaṃ Sv I 286); M II 167.

When the commentators, many centuries afterwards, began to write Pāli in S. India and Ceylon, far from the ancient seat of the Aryan clans, the racial sense of the word ariya was scarcely, if at all, present to their minds. Dhammapāla especially was probably a non-Aryan, and certainly lived in a Dravidian environment. The then current similar popular etmologies of ariya and Arahant (cf. next article) also assisted the confusion in their minds. They sometimes therefore erroneously identify the two words and explain Aryans as meaning Arahants (Dhp-a I 230; Pj II 537; Pv-a 60). In other ways also they misrepresented the old texts by ignoring the racial force of the word. Thus at Ja V 48 the text, speaking of a hunter belonging to one of the aboriginal tribes, calls him anariya-rūpa. The commentary explains this as "shameless", but what the text has, is simply that he looked like a non-Aryan. (cf "frank" in English).

:: Arīhatatta in phrase "arīhatta ariyo hoti" at A IV 145 is wrong reading for arīnaṃ hatattā. The whole phrase is inserted by mistake from a gloss explaining arahā in the following sentence "ārakattā kilesānaṃ arīnaṃ hatattā ... arahā hoti", and is to be deleted (omitted also by Sinhalese mss).

:: Aru (neuter) [Vedic aruḥ, unknown etymology] a wound, a sore, only in compounds: °kāya a heap of sores M II 64 = Dhp 147 = Thag 769 (= navannaṃ vaṇamukhānaṃ vasena arubhūta kāya Dhp-a III 109 = Vv-a 77); °gatta (adjective) with wounds in the body M I 506 (+ pakka-gatta); Miln 357 (the same); °pakka decaying with sores S IV 198 (°āni gattāni); °bhūta consisting of wounds, a mass of wounds Vv-a 77 = Dhp-a III 109.


:: Aruka = aru; only in compound °ūpamacitto (adjective) having a heart like a sore (of a man in anger) A I 124 = Pp 30 (explained at Pp-a 212 as purāṇa-vaṇa-sadisa-citto "an old wound" i.e. continually breaking open).

:: Aruṇa [Vedic aruṇa (adjective) of the colour of fire, i.e. ruddy, neuter the dawn; of Indo-Germanic °ereu as in Sanskrit aruśa reddish, Avesta auruśa white, also Sanskrit ravi sun; an enlarged from of Indo-Germanic °reu as in Sanskrit rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etymology under rohita), Greek ἐρνδρός, Latin ruber.] — the sun Vin II 68; IV 245; Ja II 154; V 403; VI 330; Dīp I 56; Sv I 30. a. uggacchati the sun rises Ja I 108; Vv-a 75, and see compounds

-ugga sunrise Vin IV 272; S V 29, 78, 101, 442 (at all S passages the v.l. is aruṇagga); Vism 49;
-uggamana sunrise (opposite oggamanna). Vin III 196, 204, 264; IV 86, 166, 230, 244; Dhp-a I 165; II 6; Pv-a 109;
-utu the occasion of the sun (-rise) Dhp-a I 165;
-vaṇṇa of the colour of the sun, reddish, yellowish, golden Vism 123;
-sadisa (vaṇṇa) like the sun (in colour) Pv-a 211 (gloss for suriyavaṇṇa).

:: Arubheda (the R̥V) Thig-a 206. (1893 ed.), wrong reading for Irubbeda.

:: Arūpa (adjective) [a + rūpa] without form or body, incorporeal, D I 195f.; III 240; Snp 755; It 62; Saddh 228, 463, 480. See details under rūpa.

-āvacara the realm or world of Formlessness, Dhs 1281-1285; Paṭis I 83f., 101;
-kāyika belonging to the group of formless beings Miln 317 (devā);
-ṭhāyin standing in or being founded on the Formless It 62;
-taṇhā "thirst" for the Formless D III 216;
-dhātu the element or sphere of the incoporeal (as one of the 3 dhātus rūpa°, arūpa°, nirodha°; see dhātu) D III 215, 275; It 45;
-bhava formless existence D III 216;
-loka the world of the Formless, Saddh 494;
-saññin not having the idea of form D II 110; III 260; Expos. I 252.

:: Arūpin (adjective) [a + rūpin] = arūpa; D I 31 (arūpī attā hoti: see Sv I 119), 195; III 111, 139; It 87 (rūpino va arūpino va sattā).

:: Are (indeclinable) [onomatopoetic cf. Sanskrit lalallā, Greek λαλέω, Latin lallo = English lull, German lallen and without reduplicated Anglo-Saxon holā, German halloh, English lo. An abbreviation form of are is re. Cf. also alālā] — exclamation of astonishment and excitement: hey! hallo! I say!, implying an imprecation: Away with you (with vocative) Ja I 225 (dāsiputta-ceṭaka); IV 391 (duṭṭha-caṇḍāla); Sv I 265 (= re); Vv-a 68 (dubbinī), 217 ("how in the world").

:: Ala1 frequent spelling for aḷa.

:: Ala2 (adjective) [alaṃ adverb as adjective] enough, only in negative anala insufficient, impossible M I 455; Ja II 326 = IV 471.

:: Alaṃ (indeclinable) [Vedic araṃ. In meaning 1. alaṃ is the expanded continuation of Vedic araṃ, an adverb accusative of ara (adjective) suitable; fitly, aptly, rightly from r̥ cf. aṇṇava, appeti, ara. In meaning 2. alaṃ is the same as are] — emphatic particle
1. in affirmative sentences: particle of assurance and emphasis = for sure, very much (so), indeed, truly. Note: In connection with a dative or an infinitive the latter only apparently depend upon alaṃ, in reality they belong to the syntax of the whole sentence (as dative or infinitive absolute). It is customary however (since the practice of the Pāli grammarians) to regard them as interdependent and interpret the construction as "fit for, proper" (= yuttaṃ Pāli commentary), which meaning easily arises out of the connotation of alaṃ, e.g. alam eva kātuṃ to be sure, this is to be done = this is proper to be done. In this sense (with dative) it may also be compared with Vedic araṃ with dative
(a) (absolute) only in combination with dative or infinitive (see with and Note above).
(b) (°-) see compounds
(c) with dative or infinitive: alaṃ antarāyāya for certain an obstacle M I 130 (opposite nālaṃ not at all); alaṃ te vippaṭisārāya you ought to feel sorry for it Vin II 250; alaṃ vacanāya one says rightly S II 18; alaṃ hitāya untold happiness Dhp-a II 41. — ito ce pi so bhavaṃ Gotamo yojanasate viharati alam eva ... upasaṅkamituṃ even if he were 100 miles from here, (surely) even so (i.e. it is fit or proper even then) one must go to him D I 117 (explained at Sv I 288 by yuttam eva = it is proper); alam eva kātuṃ kalyāṇaṃ indeed one {79} must do good = it is appropriate to do good Pv II 923 (= yuttaṃ Pv-a 122); alaṃ puññāni kātave "come, let us do meritorious works" Vv 44 (= yuttaṃ Vv-a 191).
2. in negative or prohibitive sentences: particle of disapprobation reproach and warning; enough! have done with! fie! stop! alas! (etc. see are).
(a) (absolute) enough: nālaṃ thutuṃ it is not enough to praise Snp 217; te pi na honti me alaṃ they are not enough for me Pv I 63.
(b) with vocative: alaṃ Devadatta mā te rucci saṅghabhedo "look out D. or take care D. that you do not split up the community" Vin II 198; alaṃ Vakkali kin te iminā pūtikāyena diṭṭhena ... S III 120.
(c) enough of (with instrumental): alaṃ ettakena enough of this, so much of that Miln 18; alam me Buddhena enough for me of the Buddha = I am tired of the B. Dhp-a II 34.

-attha (adjective) "quite the thing", truly good, very profitable, useful D II 231; M II 69 (so read for alamatta); A II 180; Thag 252; Ja I 401 (so read for °atta);
-ariya truly genuine, right noble, honourable indeed, only in °ñāṇa-dassana [cf. BHS alamārya-jñāna-darshana Lal V 309, 509] Vin I 9; A III 64, 430; V 88; Ja I 389 (cf. ariya);
-kammaniya (quite or thoroughly) suitable Vin III 187;
-pateyya: see the latter;
-vacanīyā (feminine) a woman who has to be addressed with "alaṃ" (i.e. "fie"), which means that she ceases to be the wife of a man and returns to her parental home Vin III 144, cf. 274 (Buddhaghosa's explanation.);
-samakkhātar one who makes sufficiently clear It 107;
-sājīva one who is thoroughly fit to associate with his fellow A III 81;
-sāṭaka "curse-coat", one who curses his waist-coat (alaṃ sāṭaka!) because of his having eaten too much it will not fit; an over-eater; one of the 5 kinds of gluttons or improper eaters as enumerated at Dhp-a IV 16 = As 404.

:: Alakkhika (and īka) (adjective) [a + lakkhika] unfortunate unhappy, of bad luck Vin III 23; Ja III 259.

:: Alakkhī (feminine) [a + lakkhi] bad luck, misfortune Thag 1123.

:: Alagadda [derivation unknown. In late Sanskrit alagarda is a watersnake] a kind of snake M I 133 = Sv I 21; Dhp-a IV 132 (°camma, so read for Text alla-camma, vv.ll. alaṃda° and alaṃdu°). [BD]: alligator?]

:: Alagga (adjective) [past participle of laggati] not stuck or attached Nidd II §107 (also alaggita); alaggamāna (present participle) the same Dhp-a III 298.

:: Alaggana (neuter) [a + laggana] not hanging on anything, not being suspended Sv I 180.

:: Alaṃkata [past participle of alaṅkaroti
1. "made too much", made much of, done up, adorned, fitted out Dhp 142 (= vatthābharaṇa-paṭimaṇḍita Dhp-a III 83); Pv II 36; Vv 11; Ja III 392; IV 60.
2. "done enough" (see alaṃ, use with instrumental), only negative analaṅkata in meaning "insatiate" S I 15 (kāmesu).

:: Alaṃkaraṇa (neuter) [alaṃ + karaṇa, from alaṅkaroti] doing up, fitting out, ornamentation Ja I 60.

:: Alaṃkaraṇaka (adjective) [from alaṃkaraṇa] adorning, embellishing, decorating Dhp-a I 410.

:: Alaṃkaroti [alaṃ + karoti, Vedic araṅkaroti] to make much of i.e. to adorn, embellish, decorate Ja I 60; III 189; VI 368. gerund °karitvā Dhp-a I 410; Pv-a 74. — past participle alaṅkata. — causative alaṃkārāpeti to cause to be adorned Ja I 52.

:: Alaṃkāra [from alaṅkaroti, cf. Vedic araṅkr̥ti] "getting up" i.e. fitting out, ornament, decoration; especially trinkets, ornaments D III 190; A III 239; 263f.; Ja VI 368; Pv-a 23, 46, 70 (-° adjective adorned with), 74; Saddh 249.

:: Alattaka [Sanskrit alaktaka] lac, a red animal dye Ja IV 114 (°pāṭala); Dhp-a II 174; IV 197.

:: Alanda and Alandu see alagadda.

:: Alamba (adjective) [a + lamba] not hanging down, not drooping, short Ja V 302; VI 3 (°tthaniyo not flabby: of a woman's breasts cf. alambordhva-stanī Suśr I 371).

:: Alasa (adjective) [a + lasa] idle, lazy, slack, slothful, languid S I 44, 217; Snp 96 (= jāti-alaso Pj II 170); Ja IV 30; Dhp 280 (= mahā-alaso Dhp-a III 410). opposite analasa vigorous, energetic S I 44; D III 190 (dakkha + a.); Vin IV 211; Nidd II §141 (the same).


:: Alasatā (feminine) [abstract from alasa] sloth, laziness; only in negative analasatā zeal, industry Vv-a 229.

:: Alassa (neuter) at S I 43 is spurious spelling for ālassa idleness, sloth; v.l. ālasya.

:: Alāta (neuter) [Sanskrit alāta, related to Latin altāre altar, adoleo to burn] a firebrand A II 95 (chava° a burning corpse, see chava); Ja I 68; Pp 36; Dhp-a III 442.

:: Alāpu (neuter) [= alābu, with p for b: so Trenckner "Notes" 6216] a gourd, pumpkin Dhp 149 (= Dhp-a III 112; vv.ll. alābu and alābbu).

:: Alābu [Sanskrit alābūf.] a long white gourd, Cucurbita Lagenaris M I 80 (tittaka°), 315 (the same); Pv-a 47 (the same); As 405. — See also alāpu.

:: Alābhaka [a + labhaka] not getting, loss, detriment Vin III 77.

:: Alālā (indeclinable) [a + lālā interjection from sound root °lal, see etymology under are] — "not saying lā lā" i.e. not babbling, not dumb, in °mukha not (deaf and) dumb Pj II 124 (= aneḷamūga of Snp 70).

:: Alika (adjective) [Sanskrit alīka] contrary, false, untrue S I 189; Ja III 198; VI 361; Miln 26, 99. — neuter °ṃ a lie, falsehood Dhp 264.

-vādin Alika-vādin one who tells a lie, a liar Dhp 223 = Vv-a 69 (has alīka°); Ja II 4; Pj II 478 (for abhūta-vādin Snp 661).

:: Alīnatā (feminine) [abstract of alīna] open mindedness, prudence, sincerity Ja I 366.

:: Aluḷita (adjective) [a + luḷita, past participle of lul] umoved, undisturbed Miln 383.

:: Aloṇika (adjective) [a + loṇika] not salted Ja III 409; Vv-a 184.

:: Aloma (adjective) [a + loma] not hairy (upon the body) Ja VI 457.

:: Alola (adjective) [a + lola] undisturbed, not distracted (by desires), not wavering: of firm resolution, concentrated Snp 65 (= nillolupa Nidd II §98; = rasavisesesu anākula Pj II 118).

:: Alla (adjective) (only °-) [Vedic ārdra, to Greek ἂρδω moisten, ἂρδα dirt] — 1. moist, wet M III 94 (°mattikā-puñja a heap of moist clay; may be taken in meaning 2).
2. fresh (opposite stale), new; freshly plucked, gathered or caught, viz.

-āvalepana see adda3;
-kusamuṭṭhi freshly plucked grass A V 234 = 249;
-gomaya fresh dung A V 234; Dhp-a I 377;
-camma living skin Vism 195;
-tiṇa fresh grass Sv I 77; Pv-a 40;
-dārūni green sticks Ja I 318;
-madhu fresh honey Dhp-a II 197;
-maṃsa-sarīra a body of living flesh Dhp-a II 51 = IV 166;
-rasa fresh-tasting Dhp-a II 155;
-rohita-maccha fresh fish Ja III 333.

3. wet = with connotation of clean (through being washed), freshly washed,

-kesa with clean hair Pv-a 82 (sīsaṃ nahātvā allakesa); usually combined with allavattha with clean clothes (in an ablution; often as a sign of mourning) Ud 14, 91; Dhp-a IV 220; or with odāta vattha (the same) Ja III 425;
-pāṇi with clean hand Pv II 99 (= dhotapāṇi Pv-a 116). [For analla-gatta at S I 183 better read, with ibid 169, an-allīna-gatta. For allacamma at Dhp-a IV 132 alagadda-camma, with the v.l., is preferable].

:: Allāpa [Sanskrit ālāpa; ā + lāpa] conversation, talk; only in compound °sallāpa conversation (literal talking to and fro or together) Ja I 189; Miln 15; Vv-a 96; Pv-a 86.


:: Allika (?) [either from alla = allikaṃ neuter in meaning defilement, getting soiled by (—°), or from allīyati = alliyakaṃ, a derivation from gerund alliya clinging to, sticking to. The whole word is doubtful.] — only in compound (kāma-) sukhallikānuyoga given to the attachment to sensual joys Vin I 10; D III 113, 130; S IV 330; V 421; Nett 110.

:: Allīna [past participle of allīyati; Sanskrit ālīna] (a) sticking to, adhering or adhered to, clinging M I 80; A V 187; Nidd II under nissita (in form asita allīna upagata). — (b) soiled by (—°), dirtied A II 201. — anallīna "to which nothing sticks", i.e. pure, undefiled, clean S I 169 (the same on page 183 reads analla: see alla). Cf. ālaya.

:: Allīyati [ā + līyati, lī, līyate, layate] to cling to, stick to, adhere to (in both senses, good or bad); to covet. — (a) literally kesā sīsaṃ allīyiṃsu the hair stuck to the head Ja I 64; khaggo lomesu allīyi the sword stuck in the hair Ja I 273. — (b) figurative to covet, desire etc.: in idiomatic phrase allīyati (S III 190 v.l.; Text ālayati) keḷāyati vanāyati (S III 190 v.l.; Text manāyati; M I 260 Text dhanāyati, but v.l. page 552 vanāyati) mamāyati "to caress dearly and be extremely jealous of" (with accusative) at M I 260 and S III 190. — Ja IV 5; V 154 (allīyituṃ, v.l. illīyituṃ); As 364 (vanati bhajati a); past participle allīna — causative alliyāpeti [cf. Sanskrit ālāpayati, but BHS allīpeti Mvu III 144; past participle allīpita ibid. I 311; III 408; passive allīpīyate III 127.] to make stick, to to bring near to (with accusative or locative) Ja II 325 (hatthiṃ mahābhittiyaṃ alliyāpetvā); IV 392 (sīsena sīsaṃ alliyāpetvā).

:: Aḷa [etymology unknown
1. the claw of a crab M I 234; S I 123; Ja I 223, 505 (°chinno kakkaṭako; Text spells ala°); II 342; III 295;
2. the nails (of finger or toe) (?) in °chinna one whose nails are cut off Vin I 91.

:: Aḷāra (adjective) [Is it the same as uḷāra?] only used with reference to the eyelashes, and usually explained by visāla, i.e. extended, wide, but also by bahala, i.e. thick. The meaning and etymology are as yet uncertain. Kern, (Toev. sub voce) translates by "bent, crooked, arched".

-akkhin with wide eyes (eyelashes?) Ja I 306 (= visāla-netta commentary);
-pamha with thick eye-lashes Vv 357 (= bahala-saṃyata-pakhuma commentary; v.l. °pamukha);
-bhamuka having thick eyebrows or eyelashes Ja VI 503 (so read for °pamukha; commentary explains by visālakkhigaṇḍa). Cf. āḷāra.

:: Aḷhaka in udak'aḷhaka Vv-a 155 read āḷhaka.

:: Ava° (prefix)
1. Relation between ava and o. Phonetically the difference between ava and o is this, that ava is the older form, whereas o represents a later development Historically the case is often reversed — that is, the form in o was in use first and the form in ava was built up, sometimes quite independently, long afterwards. Okaḍḍhati, okappati, okappanā, okassati, okāra, okantati, okkamati, ogacchati, odāta and others may be used as examples. The difference in many cases has given rise to a differentiation of meaning, like English ripe: rife, quash: squash; German Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2).
A. The old Pāli form of the prefix is o. In some cases however a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its archaic character. In words forming the 2nd part of a compound we have ava, while the absolute form of the same word has o. See e.g. avakāsa (—°) > okāsa (°-); avacara > ocaraka; avatata; avadāta; avabhāsa; avasāna.
B. 1. the proportion in the words before us (early and later) is that o alone is found in 65% of all cases, ava alone in 24%, and ava as well as o in 11%. The proportion of forms in ava increases as the books or passages become later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 Nikāyas) are the following forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamati, okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati.
2. The Pāli form (o) shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit forms (ava°). See the following:

avakappanā harnessing: okappanā confidence;
avakkanti (not Sanskrit): okkanti appearance;
avakkhitta thrown down: okkhitta subdued;
avacara sphere of motion: ocaraka spy;
avatiṇṇa descended: otiṇṇa affected with love;
avaharati to move down, put off: oharati to steal.

3. In certain secondary verb-formations, arisen on Pāli grounds, the form o is used almost exclusively pointing thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Pāli. Among these formations are deminutives in °ka usually; the gerund and the infinitive usually; the causatives throughout.
II. Ava as prefix. [Pāli ava = Vedic ava and occasionally o; Avesta ava; Latin au- (aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.); Obg. u-; Old-Irish o, ua. See further relations in Walde, Latin Wtb. under au]. — Meaning. (Rest:) lower, low (opposite ut°, see e.g. uccāvaca high and low, and below III c), explained as heṭṭhā (Dhp-a IV 54 under avaṃ) or adho (ibid. 153; Pj II 290). — (Motion:) down, downward, away (down), off; e.g. avasūra sundown; adverb avaṃ (q.v., opposite uddhaṃ).
(a) literally away from, off: ava-kantati to cut off; °gaṇa away from the crowd; °chindati cut off; °jīyati fall off; °bhāsati shine out, effulge; °muñcati take off; °siṭṭha left over. — down, out, over: °kirati pour down or out over; °khitta thrown down; °gacchati go down; °gāheti dip down; °tarati descend; °patita fallen down; °sajjati emit; °siñcati pour out over; °sīdati sink down.
(b) figurative down in connection with verbs of emotion (cf. Latin de- in despico to despise, literally look down on), see ava-jānāti, °bhūta, °mānita, °vajja, °hasati. — away from, i.e. the opposite of, {72} as equivalent to a negation and often taking the place of the negative prefix a° (an°), e.g. in avajaya (= ajaya), °jāta, °maṅgala (= a°), °pakkhin, °patta.
Affinities of ava.
(a) apa. There exists an exceedingly frequent interchange of forms with apa° and ava°, the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For a comparison of the two the BHS forms are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature of the word in question. See on this apa 2 and cf. the following words under ava: avakata, °karoti, °khalita, °aṅga, ottappa, avattha, °nīta, °dāna, °pivati, °rundhati, °lekhati, °vadati, °varaka, °sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, °hita, avāpurīyati, avekkhati.
(b) abhi. The similarity between abhi and ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi II b and ava II a. The two prefixes are practically synonymous in the following words: °kaṅkhati, °kamati, °kiṇṇa, °khipati, °maddati, °rata, °lambati, °lekheti, °lepana, °siñcati.
(c) The contrary of ava is ut (cf. above II 2). Among the frequent contrast-pairs showing the two, like English up and down, are the following: ukkaṃsāvakaṃsa, uggama-noggamana, uccāvaca, ullaṅgheti-olaṅgheti, ullittāvalitta; ogilituṃ-uggilituṃ, onamanunnamana. Two other combinations founded on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chiddāvacchidda and ava° in contrast with vi° in olambavilamba, olugga-vilugga.

:: Avaṃ (adverb) [Vedic avāk and avāṃ] the preposition ava in adverb use, down, downward; in commentary often explained by adho. Rarely absolute, the only passage found so far being Snp 685 (avaṃ sari he went down, v.l. avasari, explained by otari Pj II 486). Opposite uddhaṃ (above, up high). Frequently in compound avaṃsira (adjective) head downward (+ uddhaṃpāda feet up), a position characteristic of beings in Niraya (Hell), e.g. S I 48; Snp 248 (patanti sattā Nirayaṃ avaṃsirā = adhogata-sīsā Pj II 290); Vv 5225 (of Revatī, + uddhaṃpāda); Pv IV 146; Ja I 233 (+ uddhapāda); IV 103 (Nirayaṃ vajanti yathā adhammo patito avaṃsiro); Nidd I 404 (uddhaṃpāda + a.); Dhp-a IV 153 (gloss adhosira). — On avaṃ° cf. further avakkāra, avākaroti, avekkhipati.

:: Avakaṃsa [from ava-karṣati; on ṃs: °rṣ cf. haṃsati: harṣati] dragging down, detraction, abasement, in compound ukkaṃsavak° lifting up and pulling down, raising and lowering, rise and fall D I 54.

:: Avakaṅkhati (—°) [ava + kaṅkhati; cf. Sanskrit anu-kāṅkṣati] to wish for, strive after S IV 57 (n'); Ja IV 371 (n'); V 340 (n'), 348 (n' = na pattheti commentary).


:: Avakaḍḍhati [ava + kaḍḍhati, cf. avakassati and apakassati] Nett 4 (avakaḍḍhayitvā). passive avakaḍḍhati Ja IV 415 (hadayaṃ me a. my heart is weighed down = sokena avakaḍḍhīyati commentary; v.l. avakassati). — past participle avakaḍḍhita.

:: Avakaḍḍhita [past participle of avakaḍḍhati] pulled down, dragged away Dhp-a III 195.

:: Avakata = apakata, v.l. at It 89.

:: Avakanta [for °avakatta, Sanskrit avakr̥tta; past participle of avakantati, see kanta2] cut, cut open, cut off Ja IV 251 (galakāvakantaṃ).

:: Avakantati and okantati (okk°) [cf. Sanskrit avakr̥ntati, ava + kantati, cf. also apakantati] — to cut off, cut out, cut away, carve — (ava:) Ja IV 155. — past participle avakanta and avakantita.

:: Avakantita [past participle of avakantati] cut out Pv-a 213.

:: Avakappanā and okappanā (feminine) [ava + kappanā] preparation, fixing up, especially harnessing Ja VI 408.

:: Avakaroti [Sanskrit apakaroti, cf. Pāli apa°] "to put down", to despise, throw away; only in derived avakāra and avakārin. — past participle avakata (q.v.). — See also avākaroti and cf. avakirati 2.

:: Avakassati and okassati [cf. Sanskrit avakarṣati, ava + kr̥s.; see also apakassati and avakaḍḍhati] to drag down, to draw or pull away, distract, remove. — A V 74 = Vin II 204 (+ vavakassati).

:: Avakārakaṃ (adverb) [from avakāra] throwing away, scattering about Vin II 214.

:: Avakārin (adjective) (—°) [from avakāra] despising, degrading, neglecting Vibh 393f. (an°).

:: Avakāsa and okāsa [ava + kāś to shine, cf. Sanskrit avakāśa
1. "appearance": akkhuddāvakāso dassanāya not little (or inferior) to behold (of appearance) D I 114; ariyāvakāsa appearing noble or having the appeararance of an Aryan Ja V 87; katāvakāsa put into appearance Vv 229.
2. "opportunity": kata° given leave D I 276 Snp 1030; anavakāsakārin not giving occasion Miln 383. — anavakāsa not having a chance or opportunity (to happen), impossible; always in stereotypical phrase aṭṭhānaṃ etaṃ anavakāso Vin II 199; A I 26; V 169; Pp 11, 12; Pv-a 28.

:: Avakirati and okirati [ava + kirati
1. to pour down on, to pour out over; preterit avakiri Pv-a 86; gerund °kiritvā Ja V 144.
2. to cast out, reject, throw out; preterit avākiri Vv 305 = 485 (v.l. °kari; Vv-a 126 explains by chaḍḍesi vināsesi). — passive avakirīyati Pv III 110 (= chaḍḍīyati Pv-a 174); gerundive °kiriya (see seperate). See also apakiritūna. past participle okiṇṇa.

:: Avakiriya [gerundive of avakirati] to be cast out or thrown away; rejectable, low, contemptible Ja V 143 (taken by commentary as gerund = avakiritvā).

:: Avakujja (adjective) [ava + kujja, cf. BHS avakubja Mvu I 29, avakubjaka ibid. 213; II 412] — face downward, head first, prone, bent over (opposite ukkujja and uttāna) Ja I 13 = Bv II 52; Ja V 295; VI 40; Pv IV 108; Pv-a 178.

-pañña (adjective) one whose reason is turned upside down (like an upturned pot, i.e. empty) A I 130; Pp 31 (= adhomukha-pañña Pp-a 214).

:: Avakkanta (—°) [past participle of next] entered by, beset with, overwhelmed by (instrumental) S III 69 (dukkha°, sukha° and an°).

:: Avakkanti (feminine) [from avakkamati] entry, appearance, coming down into, opportunity for rebirth S II 66 (nāmarūpassa); III 46 (pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ); Pp 13 (= okkanti nibbatti pātubhāvo Pp-a 184); Kv 142 (nāmarūpassa); Miln 123 (gabbhassa).

:: Avakkama [from avakkamati] entering, appearance Ja V 330 (gabbhassa).

:: Avakkamati Avakkamati and okkamati [ava + kamati from kr̥am] to approach. to enter, go into or near to, to fall into, appear in, only in gerund (poetically) avakamma Ja III 480 (v.l. apa°).

:: Avakkāra [Sanskrit avaskara fæces, from avaṃ + karoti] throwing away, refuse, sweepings; only in compound °pātī a bowl for refuse, slop basin, ash-bin Vin I 157, 352; II 216; M I 207; Dhp-a I 305.

:: Avakkhalita [past participle of avakkhaleti, causative of kṣal] washed off, taken away from, detracted Sv I 66 (v.l. apa°).

:: Avakkhitta and okkhitta [past participle of avakkhipati
1. [= Sanskrit avakṣipta] thrown down, flung down, cast down, dropped; thrown out, rejected. (ava:) M I 296 (ujjhita + a.); Sv I 281 (an°), 289 (pinḍa); Pv-a 174 (piṇḍa).
2. [= Sanskrit utkṣipta?] thrown off, gained, produced, got (cf. uppādita), in phrase sedāvakkhitta gained by sweat A II 67; III 45.

:: Avakkhipati and okkhipati [ava + khipati; cf. Sanskrit avakṣipati] to throw down or out, cast down, drop; figurative usually applied to the eyes = to cast down, hence transferred to the other senses and used in meaning of "to keep under, to restrain, to have control over" (cf. also avakkhāyati), preterit °khipi Sv I 268 (bhusaṃ, v.l. avakkhasi).

:: Avakkhipana (neuter) [from avakkhipati] throwing down, putting down Ja I 163.

:: Avagacchati [ava + gacchati] to come to, approach, visit (cf. Vedic avagacchati) Pv-a 87.

:: Avagaṇḍa (-kāraka) (adjective) [ava + gaṇḍa°] "making a swelling", i.e. puffing out the cheeks, stuffing the cheeks, full (when eating); only neuter °ṃ as adverb after the manner or in the way of stuffing etc. Vin II 214; IV 196.

:: Avagata [past participle of avagacchati] at Pv-a 222 is uncertain reading; the meaning is "known, understood" (aññāta Pv IV 111); perhaps we should read āvikata or adhigata (so v.l.).


:: Avagāhati and ogāhati [ava + gāhati] to plunge or enter into, to be absorbed in (accusative and locative) Vism 678 (vipassanāvīthiṃ); Saddh 370, 383.

:: Avaguṇṭhana (adjective) (—°) [from oguṇṭheti] covering Saddh 314.

:: Avaggaha [Sanskrit avagraha] hindrance, impediment, used at Sv I 95 as synonym for drought (dubuṭṭhikā).

:: Avaṅga see apaṅga.

:: Avaca (adjective) [derived from ava after the analogy of ucca < ut] — low, only in combination uccāvacā (plural) high and low, see ucca. Kv-a 38.

:: Avacana (neuter) [a + vacana] "non-word", i.e. the wrong word or expression Ja I 410.

:: Avacarati Avacarati [DPL]: To go through, to traverse, to occupy, to make one's home.

:: Avacara (—°) (adjective/noun) [ava + car, also BHS avacara in same sense, e.g. antaḥpurāvacarā the inmates of the harem Jm 210
(a) (adjective) living in or with, moving in D I 206 (santika° one who stays near, a companion); figurative dealing or familiar with, at home in A II 189 (atakka°); IV 314 (parisā°); Ja I 60 (tāḷa° one conversant with music, a musician, see tāḷa1); II 95 (saṅgāma°); Miln 44 (the same and yoga°).
(b) (noun) sphere (of moving or activity), realm, plane (of temporal existence); only as technical term in kāmāvacara rupāvacara arūpāvacara or the 3 realms of sense-desires, form and non-form: kāma° D I 34 (°deva); Dhs 431 (as adjective); rūpa° Pp 37; arūpa° Pp 38; Paṭis I 83, 84, 101; As 387; Pv-a 138, 163; to be omitted in Dhs 1268, 1278.

:: Avacaraka and ocaraka (adjective/noun) [from avacara 1. only in compound kāmāvacarika as adjective to kāmāvacara, belonging to the sphere of sense experiences, Saddh 254. 2. Late form of ocaraka, spy, only in commentary on Thag 315ff. quoted in Ps.B. 189, note 3. Occurs in BHS (Divy 127).


:: Avacaraṇa (neuter) [from avacarati 1] being familiar with, dealing with, occupation Ja II 95.

:: Avacuttha 2nd preterit of vac, in prohibitive form mā evaṃ avacuttha do not speak thus Ja VI 72; Dhp-a IV 228.

:: Avacchidda (—°) (adjective) [ava + chidda] perforated, only in reduplicated (intensive) compound chiddāvacchidda perforated all over, nothing but holes Ja III 491; Dhp-a I 122. 284, 319. Cf. chidda-vicchidda.

:: Avacchedaka (—°) (adjective) [ava + cheda + ka] cutting off, as neuter °ṃ adverb in phrase kabaḷāvacchedakaṃ after the manner of cutting off mouthfuls (of food) Vin II 214; IV 196; cf. āsāvacchedika whose hope or longing has been cut off or destroyed Vin I 259.

:: Avajaya [ava + jaya, cf. apajita] defeat Dhp-a II 228 (v.l. for Text ajaya).

:: Avajāta (adjective) [ava + jāta; cf. BHS avajāta in meaning misborn, miscarriage] — low-born, of low or base birth, figurative of low character (opposite abhijāta) Snp 664 (= buddhassa avajātaputta Pj II 479); It 63; Miln 359.

:: Avajānāti Avajānāti [ava + jñā
1. to deny Vin II 85; A III 164 = Pp 65.
2. (later) to despise Dhp-a III 16; Pv-a 175 (gerundive °jānitabba) — Of short stem-form ñā are found the foll: gerundive avaññeyya Pv-a 175, and with o°: gerundive oñātabba Pv-a 195; past participle avañāta, besides avaññāta.

:: Avajīyati [ava + jīyati; Sanskrit avajiryate] to be diminished, to be lost, be undone Ja I 313 (jitaṃ a; v.l. avajījy°); Dhp 179 (jitaṃ a = dujjitaṃ hoti Dhp-a III 197).

:: Avajja (adjective) [Sanskrit avadya, seemigly a + vadya, but in reality a derived from ava. According to Childers = Sanskrit avarjya from vr̥j, thus meaning "not to be shunned, not forbidden". This interpretation is justified by context of Dhp 318, 319. The Pāli commentator refers it to ava + vad (for
*ava-vadya) in sense of to blame, cf. apavadati] — low, inferior, blamable, bad, deprecable Dhp 318, 319; Dhs 1160. More figurative in negative form anavajja blameless, faultless D I 70 (= anindita Sv I 183); A II 26 = It 102; Snp 47 (°bhojin carrying on a blameless mode of livelihood, see Nidd II §39), 263 (= anindita agarahita Pj I 140): Paṭis II 116, 170; Pp 30, 41, 58; Saddh 436. Opposite sāvajja.

:: Avajjatā (feminine) [abstract to preceding), only negative an° blamelessness, faultlessness Pp 25, 41; Dhs 1349.

:: Avajjha (adjective) [garundive of a + vadhati, Sanskrit vadhya, vadh] not to be killed or destroyed, inviolable Snp 288; Ja V 69; VI 132.

:: Avañcana (adjective) [a + vañcana from vañc] not (even) tottering, i.e. unfit for any motion (especially walking), said of crippled feet Ja I 214 = Cp III 9, 10.

:: Avañña (adjective) [to avaññā] despised, despicable Pv III 113 (= avaññeyya avajānitabba Pv-a 175).

:: Avaññatti (feminine) [ava + ñatti = Sanskrit °avajñapti, from ava + jñā] only as negative an° the fact of not being despised, inferior or surpassed, egotism, pride, arrogance It 72; Vibh 350, 356; °kāma (adjective) wishing not to be surpassed, unvilling to be second, wanting to be praised A II 240; IV 1f.

:: Avaññā (feminine) [Sanskrit avajñā, from ava + jñā] contempt, disregard, disrespect Ja I 257 (°ya).

:: Avaññāta (adjective) [past participle of avajānāti] despised, treated with contempt Pv-a 135 (an°); Saddh 88, 90.

:: Avaṭaṃsaka (= vaṭ°) see Vinaya Texts II 347.

:: Avaṭṭhāna (neuter) [Sanskrit avasthāna] position, standing place Ja I 508; Pv-a 286.

:: Avaṭṭhita (adverb) [Sanskrit avasthita, ava + thita] "standing down" = standing up, firm, fixed, settled, lasting Thag 1140. Usually negative an° unsettled, unsteady; not lasting, changeable Dhp 38 (°citta; cf. Dhp-a I 308 cittaṃ thāvaraṃ n'atthi); Pv-a 87 (= na sassata not lasting for ever).

:: Avaṭṭhitatā (feminine) [abstract from preceding] steadiness, only as negative an° unsteadiness, fickleness Thig-a 259.

:: Avaṭṭhiti (feminine) [Sanskrit avasthiti] (firm) position, posture, steadfastness S V 228; Dhs 11, 570.

:: Avaḍḍhi (feminine) [a + vaḍḍhi] "non-growth", decay Dhp-a III 335; commentary on A III 76 (cf. apajaha).

:: Avaṇṭa (adjective) [a + vaṇṭa] without a stalk Ja V 155.

:: Avaṇṇa [a + vaṇṇa] blame, reproach, fault D I 1 (= dosā nindā Sv I 37); It 67; Pp 48, 59.

:: Avaṇṇanīya (adjective) [gerund of a + vaṇṇeti] indescribable Ja V 282.

:: Avaṭaṃsa see vaṭaṃsa.

:: Avatata and otata [ava + tata, past participle of tan] stretched over, covered, spread over with Vv 643 (—°); Vv-a 276 (= chādita).

:: Avatiṭṭhati [ava + tiṭṭhati] to abide, linger, stand still D I 251 = S IV 322 = A V 299 (tatra°); S I 25 (v.l. otiṭṭhati); Thag 21; Ja II 62; IV 208 (preterit avaṭṭhāsi). past participle avaṭṭhita (q.v.).

:: Avatiṇṇa and otiṇṇa [past participle of otarati] fallen into, affected with (—°), as ava° rare late or poetical form of o°, e.g. Ja V 98 (issa-°). See otiṇṇa.

:: Avattha1 [derivation uncertain] aimless (of cārikā, a bhikkhu's wandering, going on tour) A III 171 (commentary avavatthika).

:: Avattha2 [Sanskrit apāsta, apa + āsta, past participle of as2] thrown away Ja V 302 (= chaḍḍita commentary).

:: Avattharaṇa (neuter) [from avattharati] setting in array, deploying (of an army) Ja II 104 (of a robber band), 336.

:: Avattharati [ava + tharati, str̥] to strew, cover over or up Ja I 74 (°amāna present participle), 255 (°itvā gerund); IV 84; Dāṭh I 38. — past participle otthaṭa cf. pariy°.

:: Avatthāraṇa (neuter) = avattharaṇa Sv I 274.

:: Avatthu (and °ka) (adjective) [a + vatthu] groundless, unfounded (fig) Vin II 241; Ja I 440 (°kaṃ vacanaṃ). For literal meaning see vatthu.

:: Avadāta (= odāta) Dāṭh III 14 metri causā.

:: Avadāna see apadāna.

:: Avadāniya (adjective) [from avadāna cutting off; ava + dā2 to cut] stingy, niggardly Snp 774 (= Nidd I 36f. which explains as follows: avaṃ gacchanti ti pi avadāniyā; maccharino pi vuccanti avadāniyā; buddhānaṃ ... vacanaṃ ... nādiyantī ti avadāniyā. Pj II 516 con- {74} denses this explanation into the following: avaṃgamanatāya maccharitāya buddhādīnaṃ vacanaṃ anādiyanatāya ca avadāniyā).

:: Avadāpana (cleansing): see vodāpana.

:: Avadāpeti (to deal out) only BHS pary° Divy 202.

:: Avadāyati [denominative from avadā in same meaning as anuddā, to dā1: see dayati2] to have pity on, to feel sorry for Ja IV 178 (bhūtānaṃ na-vadāyissaṅ, gloss nānukampiyaṃ).

:: Avadīyati [Sanskrit avadīryati, ava + ḍr̥1, ḍr̥ṇāti, see etymology under darī] — to burst, split open Ja VI 183 (= bhijjati commentary) see also uddīyati.


:: Avadehaka (—°) (adjective) [ava + deha + ka but more likely direct from ava + dih] — in the idiom udarāvadehakaṃ bhuñjati, to eat one's fill M I 102; Thag 935. Vism 33 has udarāvadehaka-bhojana, a heavy meal.

:: Avadhāna, attention A 10.68 Sn. 322; Mp. 21; UdA. 17; A. i, 198.

:: Avadhāraṇa (neuter) [Cf. Sanskrit avadhāraṇa, from ava + dhr̥] calling attention to, affirmation, emphasis; as technical term used by commentaries in explanation of evaṃ at Sv I 27; and of kho at Pv-a 11, 18.

:: Avadhi 3 singular preterit of vadhati. — At Dhp-a II 73 avadhi = odhi.

:: Avanata see oṇata.

:: Avanati (—°) (feminine) [from avanamati] stooping, bending, bowing down, humiliation Miln 387 (unnatāvanati).

:: Avani (feminine) [Vedic avani] bed or course of a river; earth, ground Dāṭh IV 5.

:: Avapakāsati [ava + pa + kāsati = kassati, from kr̥̥ṣ] is a doubtful compound of kassati, the combined ava + pa occurring only in this word. In all likelihood it is a distortion of vavakassati (vi + ava + kassati), supplementing the ordinary apakassati. See meaning and further discussion under apakāsati — Vin II 204 (apakāsati + ; v.l. avapakassati; Buddhaghosa in explanation on page 325 has apapakāsati which seems, to imply (a)vavakassati); A III 145f. (avapakāsituṃ).

:: Avapatta see opatta.

:: Avapāyin (—°) (adjective) [cf. avapivati] coming for a drink, drinking Ja I 163.

:: Avapivati [ava + pā, cf. apapibati] to drink from Ja I 163.

:: Avabujjhati (—°) [Cf. BHS avabudhyate] to understand A IV 96 = It 83 (navabujjhati); A IV 98 (the same) Ja I 378 = III 387 (interchanging with anubujjhati at the latter passage).

:: Avabodha ([DPL]: spelling avabhodha avabhodha) [ava + bodha] perception, understanding, full knowledge Pj II 509 (sacca°). — Negative an° not awakened to the truth Vv 826 (= ananubodha Vv-a 319).

:: Avabodha Avabhodha [DPL]: Full knowledge or understanding.

:: Avabodhati (—°) [cf. Sanskrit avabodhati] to realize, perceive, pay attention to Ja III 151 nava°).

:: Avabhāsa [later form of obhāsa] Only in compound gambhīrāvabhāso D II 55, looking deep. Same compound at A II 105 = Pp 46 has obhāsa.

:: Avabhāsaka (—°) (adjective) [from avabhāsa] shining, shedding light on, illuminating Saddh 14.

:: Avabhāsita (—°) [late form of obhāsita] shining with, resplendent Saddh 590.

:: Avabhuñjati [ava + bhuñjati] to eat, to eat up Ja III 272 (infinitive °bhottuṃ), 273.

:: Avabhūta (adjective) [ava + bhūta, past participle of ava + bhū] "come down", despised, low, unworthy M II 210.

:: Avamaṅgala (adjective) [ava + maṅgala, ava here in privative function] of bad omen, unlucky, infaustus (opposite abhimaṅgala); neuter bad luck, ill omen Ja I 372, 402; II 197; VI 10, 424; Dhp-a III 123; Pv-a 261. Cf. next.

:: Avamaṅgalla (adjective) [from avamaṅgala] of bad omen, neuter anything importune, unlucky Ja I 446.

:: Avamaññati Avamaññati [Sanskrit avamanyate] to slight, to disregard, despise Dhp-a I 170; Pv-a 37, 175; Saddh 271. — past participle causative avamānita.

:: Avamāna and omāna [from ava + man, think] disregard, disrespect, contempt Ja II 386; III 423; V 384. Cf. next.

:: Avamānana (neuter) [from avamāna] = avamāna Ja I 22.

:: Avamāneti [causative of avamaññati] to despise Ja V 246. past participle avamānita Pv-a 36.

:: Avaya only in negative anavaya.

:: Avayava [derivation uncertain. Cf. mediæval Sanskrit avayava] — limb, member, constituent, part Vv-a 53 (sarīra° = gattā). 168, 201, 276; Pv-a 211 (sarīra° = gattā), 251 (mūl° the fibres of the root). As technical term in grammar at Pj II 397. In the commentaries avayava is often used where aṅga would have been used in the older texts.

:: Avarajjhati (—°) [ava + rajjhati of rādh, cf. Sanskrit avarādhyate] — to neglect, fail, spurn Thag 167; Ja IV 428 (v.l. °rujjh°).

:: Avaruddha [from avarundhati 1. Doubtful reading at Vin IV 181, apparently meaning "in revolt, out of hand" (of slaves) 2. [late form of oruddha] restrained Saddh 592.

:: Avaruddhaka [avruddha + ka] subdued, expelled, banished Ja VI 575; Dīp I 21 (Np).

:: Avaruddhati [Sanskrit aparundhati; ava + ruddhati of rudh] — to expel, remove, banish Ja VI 505 (= nīharati commentary), 515. See also avarundhati.

:: Avarundhati [ava + rundhati. Only referred to by Dhammapāla in his commentary (Thig-a 271) on oruddha] — to put under restraint, to put into one's harem as subsidiary wife.

:: Avalambati [= olambati]. Only in late verse. Text hang down. Pv II 118; 102. Gerund avalamba (for °bya) Pv III 35; cf. olubbha.

:: Avalitta (—°) [Sanskrit avalipta, past participle of ava-limpati] besmeared; in compound ullittāvalitta "smeared up and down" i.e. plasterd inside and outside A I 101.

:: Avalekhati [ava + lekhati, likh, Sanskrit avalikhati] to scrape off Vin II 221 (v.l. apa°).

:: Avalekhana1 (neuter) [from avalekhati] (a) scraping, scraping off Vin II 141 (°pidhara), 221 (°kaṭṭha). (b) scratching in, writing down Ja IV 402, (°sattha a chisel for engraving letters).

:: Avalekhana2 (neuter) v.l. for apalekhana.

:: Avalepana (—°) (neuter) [from ava + lip] smearing, daubing, plasterng M I 385 (pīta°); Snp 194 (kāyo taca-maṃsāvalepano the body plasterd with skin and flesh).

:: Avasa (adjective) [a + vasa] powerless Saddh 290.

:: Avasaṭa and Osaṭa [Sanskrit apasr̥ta, cf. also samavasr̥ta, past participle of ava + sr̥] — withdrawn, gone away; one who has left a community and gone over to another sect, a renegade Vin IV 216, 217 (= titthāyatanaṃ saṃkata).

:: Avasarati [ava + sr̥] to go down, to go away (to) Snp 685 (v.l. Text avaṃsari).

:: Avasāna (—°) [for osāna] (neuter) stopping ceasing end, finish, conclusion Ja I 87 (bhattakiccāvasāne at the end of the meal); Pv-a 76 (the same).

:: Avasāya [from avaseti] stopping, end, finish Thig 12 (= avasānaṃ niṭṭhānaṃ Thig-a 19). But the same passage at Dhp 218 has anakkhāte.

:: Avasiñcanaka (—°) (adjective) [from osiñcati] pouring over (active and medium), overflowing Ja I 400 (an°).

:: Avasiṭṭha (sic and not osiṭṭha) [past participle of avasissati, Sanskrit avaśiṣṭa] — left, remaining, over S II 133; Ja I 138; V 339; Vv-a 66, plural avasiṭṭhā all who are left, the others Pv-a 165 (janā).

:: Avasiṭṭhaka (adjective) [from avasiṭṭha] remaining, left Ja III 311.


:: Avasitta (—°) [past participle of osiñcati] besprinkled, anointed, consecrated, only in phrase rājā khattiyo muddhāvasitto of a properly consecrated king (see also khattiya) D I 69; II 227; III 64; Pp 56; Sv I 182 (Text muddhāvassita, v.l. °abhisitta); etc. — See also abhisitta.

:: Avasin (adjective/noun) [a + vasin from vaś] not having control over oneself, D II 275.

:: Avasissati [Sanskrit avaśiṣyate; passive of ava + śiṣ; but explained by Kern, Toev. sub voce as future of avasīdati] to be left over, to remain, in phrase yaṃ pamāṇa-kataṃ kammaṃ na taṃ tatrāvasissati D I 251; A V 299 = S IV 322; Ja II 61 (see explanation on page 62). Also in the phrases taco ca nahārū ca aṭṭhi ca avasissatu sarīre upasussatu {75} maṃsa-lohitaṃ M I 481; A I 50; S II 28, and sarīrāni avasissanti S II 83. With the latter phrases cf. avasussati.

:: Avasī metri causā for avasi, a + vasi, preterit of vas4 to stop, stay, rest Ja V 66 (mā avasī).

:: Avasussati [Sanskrit °ava-śuṣyati of śuṣ] to dry up, to wither; in later quotations of the old kāmaṃ taco ca nahāru ca aṭṭhi ca avasussatu (upasussatu sarīre maṃsalohitaṃ) Ja I 71, 110; Saddh 46. It is a later spelling for the older avasissatu see Trenckner (M I 569). — future avasucchati (= Sanskrit śokṣyati) Ja VI 550 (v.l. °sussati; commentary avasucchissati).

:: Avasūra [ava + sūra; ava here in function of °avaṃ see ava II] sundown, sunset, accusative °ṃ as adverb at or with sundown Ja V 56 (anāvasūraṃ metrically).

:: Avasesa1 [Sanskrit avaśeṣa, from ava + śiṣ, cf. avasissati] remainder, remaining part; only in compounds an° (adjective) without any remainder, i.e. fully, completely M I 220 = A V 347 (°dohin); A I 20f., 88; Snp 146; Pp 17; Dhs 363, 553; Pj II 417 (°pharaṇa); Pv-a 71 (°ato, adverb altogether, not leaving anything out); and sāvasesa leaving something over, having something left A I 20f., 88; Pv III 55 (jīvita° having still a little life left).

:: Avasesa2 (adjective) [see preceding] remaining, left Snp 694 (āyu avaseso); Ja III 19; Vibh 107 (taṇhā ca avasesā ca kilesā); Pv-a 19 (avasesā ca ñātakā the rest of the relatives), 21 (avasesā parisā), 201 (aṭṭhi-tacamattāvasesa-sarīra with a body on which nothing but skin and bones were left), 206 (aṭṭhi-saṅghātamattāvasesa-sarīra). — neuter (as predicative) °ṃ what is left Pv-a 52 (appāvasesaṃ); Pj I 245 (n'atthi tesaṃ avasesaṃ).

:: Avasesaka (adjective) [from avasesa2] being left, overflowing, additional, more Ja I 400 (an°); Dīp IV 45.

:: Avassa (adjective) [a + vaś] against one's will, inevitable Ja I 19 (°bhāvin); V 319 (°gāmitā). Usually as neuter °ṃ adverb inevitably (cf. BHS avaśyaṃ Divy 347; Avś I 209 etc.) Ja III 271; Sv I 263; Saddh 293.

:: Avassakaṃ (adverb) [see avassa] inevitably Dīp IX.13.

:: Avassajati and ossajati [ava + sr̥j, perhaps ud + sr̥j = Sanskrit utsr̥jati, although the usual Vedic form is avasr̥jati. The form ossajati puzzled the BHS writers in their Sanskritization apotsr̥jati = apa + ut + sr̥j Divy 203] to let loose, let go, send off, give up, dismiss, release (ava): Ja IV 425; V 487 (preterit avassaji read for avissaji).

:: Avassana (neuter) [a + vassana, Sanskrit vāsana of vaś to bleat] not bleating Ja IV 251.

:: Avassaya [Sanskrit °avāśraya for the usual apāśraya, see Pāli apassiveya1] support, help, protection, refuge Ja I 211; II 197; IV 167; Miln 160; Dhp-a II 267; IV 198; Pv-a 5, 113.

:: Avassava [ava + sava, Sanskrit °srava from sru to flow] outflow, effect, only negative anassava no further effect Vin II 89; M I 93; II 246; A III 334f.

:: Avassāvana (neuter) [from ava + causative of sru to flow] straining, filtering (?) Ja II 288.

:: Avassita [for apassita, Sanskrit apaśrita] depending on, dealing with Ja V 375. See apassita.

:: Avassuta (adjective) [Sanskrit °avasruta, past participle of ava + sru, cf. avassava
1. (literal) flowing out or down, oozing, leaking Ja IV 20.
2. (figurative) (cf. anvāssava and āsava) filled with desire, lustful (opposite anavassuta, q.v.) Vin II 236; S IV 70, 184 (an°); A I 261, 262 (an°); II 240; IV 128, 201; Snp 63 (an°); Pp 27, 36; Dīp II 5 (Text reads avassita). — Negative anavassuta: 1. not leaking, without a leak Ja IV 20 (nāvā = udaka-pavesanābhāvena a. commentary).] 2. free from leakage, i.e. from lust or moral intoxication Dhp 39 (°citta); Snp 63 (see explanation in detail at Nidd II §40); Pj II 116 (= kilesa-anvāssava-virahita).

:: Avasseti [ava + ā + śri, for the usual °apāśrayati; see apassati] — to lean against, to depend on, find shelter in (locative) Ja II 80 (preterit avassayiṃ = vāsaṃ kappesiṃ commentary). — past participle avassita.

:: Avahaṭa [past participle of avaharati] taken away, stolen Miln 46.

:: Avaharaṇa (—°) [from avaharati in both meanings] taking away, removal; theft Pv-a 47 (sāṭaka°), 92 (soka°).

:: Avaharati Avaharati and oharati [ava + hr̥] to steal Ja I 384; Pv-a 47 (avahari vatthaṃ), 86 (the same, = apānudi). — past participle avahaṭa (q.v.).

:: Avahasati [ava + has] to laugh at, deride, mock Ja V 111 (aññamaññaṃ); Pv-a 178. — preterit avahasi Ja IV 413.

:: Avahāra [from avaharati] taking, acquiring, acquisition Vin V 129 (pañca avahārā, viz. theyya°, pasayha°, parikappa°, paṭicchanna°, kusa°).

:: Avahīyati [for ohīyati] to be left behind, to stay behind Ja V 340.

:: Avākaroti [either ava + ā + karoti or avaṃ + karoti, the latter more probable. It is not necessary to take it with Kern, Toev. sub voce as Sanskrit apākr̥ṇoti, apa + ā + kr̥
1. to revoke, undo, rescind, not fulfill, spoil, destroy Ja III 339 (avākayirā = avakareyya chindeyya commentary); V 495, 500; VI 280.
2. to give back, restore Ja VI 577 (= deti commentary).

:: Avākirati wrong by Hardy Vv-a Index for avakirati (q.v.).

:: Avāgata [ava + ā + gacchati] only in phrase dhammā avāgat'-amhā, we are fallen from righteousness, Ja V 82. (commentary explains apāgata).

:: Avāṭuka see apāṭuka.

:: Avāpuraṇa (neuter) [same as apāpuraṇa] a key S III 132; A IV 374.

:: Avāpurati [same as apāpurati] to open (a door) Ja I 63; VI 373.

:: Avāvaṭa (adjective) [a + vāvaṭa] unobstructed, unhindered, free. Of a woman, not married Ja V 213 (= apetāvaraṇā, which read for °bharaṇā, apariggahitā commentary).

:: Avikampamāna (adjective) [a + vi + kampamāna, present participle medium of kamp] not hesitating, not wavering, not doubting Ja IV 310 (= anosakkamāna commentary; Kern takes it at this passage as a + vikalpamāna, see Toev. sub voce, but unnecessarily); VI 176 (= nirāsaṅka commentary); 273.

:: Avikampin (adjective) [from a + vi + kamp] unmoved, not shaking, steady Vv 5022 (= acala Vv-a 215).

:: Avikopin (adjective) [a + vikopin; from vi + kup] not agitated, not moving, unshaken, undisturbed Ja VI 226 (acchejja + a.).

:: Avikkhepa [a + vikkhepa] calmness, balance, equanimity D III 213; A I 83; Paṭis I 94; II 228; Dhs 11, 15, 570.


:: Avicāreti [a + vicāreti] not to examine Vv-a 336.

:: Aviccaṃ at Ja V 434 read aviviccaṃ [a + viviccaṃ] i.e. not secretly, openly.

:: Avijānaṃ [a + vijānaṃ] not knowing, ignorant Dhp 38, 60; It 104.

:: Avijjā (feminine) [Sanskrit avidyā; from a + vid] ignorance; the main root of evil and of continual rebirth (see paṭicca-samuppāda, cf. S II 6, 9, 12; Snp page 141 and many other passages). See on term Cpd. 83 note 3, 187f. 262f. and for further detail vijjā. avijjā is termed an anusaya (D III 254, 282; S IV 205, 208f., 212); it is one of the āsavā (Vin III 4; D I 84; III 216; It 49; Dhs 1100, 1109), of the oghā (D III 230, 276; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162), of the nīvaraṇāni (S II 23; A I 223; It 8; Dhs 1162, 1486), of the saṃyojanāni (D III 254; Dhs 1131, 1460). See for various characterisatons the following passages: Vin I 1; III 3; D III 212, 230, 234, 274; M I 54, 67, 144; S II 4, 26, 263; III 47, 162; IV 256; V 52; A I 8, 285; II 132, 158, 247; III 84f., 414; IV 228; It 34 (yā kāc'imā duggatiyo asmiṃ loke paramhi ca avijjāmūlakā sabbā icchā-lobha-sammussayā), 57, 81; Snp 199, 277, 729 (jāti-maraṇa-saṃsāraṃ ye vajanti punappunaṃ ... avijjāyeva sā gati), 730, 1026, 1033 (avijjāya nivuto loko); Dhp 243; Nidd II §99; Pp 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162; Dhp-a III 350; IV 161 (°paligha).

:: Aviññāṇaka (adjective) [a + viññāṇa + ka] senscless, without feeling or consciousness, unfeeling Dhp-a I 6 (saviññāṇaka + a.).

:: Aviññū (adjective) = aviddasu.

:: Avitakka (adjective) [a + vitakka] free from thought D III 219, 274; Thig 75 ("where reasonings cease" translation); Dhs 161 ("free from the working of conception" translation), 504 etc.

:: Avidūra (adjective) [a + vidūra] not far, near; usually in locative °e as adverb near Sn. 147.


:: Aviddasu (adjective) [a + viddasu] ignorant, foolish Snp 762 (= bāla Pj II 509); Dhp 268 = Nidd II §514 (= aviññū Dhp-a III 395); Pv-a 18 (so read for avindasu).

:: Avināsaka (°ika) (adjective) [a + vināsa + ka] not causing destruction A III 38 (°ika); Ja V 116 (= anāsaka commentary).

:: Avināsana (adjective) [a + vināsana] imperishable Dīp IV 16.

:: Avinicchayaññū (adjective) [a + vinicchaya + ññū] not knowing how to decide Ja V 367.

:: Avinibbhujaṃ (adjective) [present participle of a + vinibbhujati] unable to distinguish or to know Ja V 121 (= atīrento commentary).

:: Avinibbhoga (adjective) [a + vinibbhoga] not to be distinguished, indistinct Ja III 428 (°sadda).

:: Avipariṇāma [a + vipariṇāma] absence of change, steadfastness, endurance D I 18; III 31, 33 (°dhamma); Sv I 113 (= jarā-vasena vipariṇāmassa abhāvato).

:: Avippaṭisāra [a + vippaṭisāra] absence of regret or remorse A III 46.

:: Avippavāsa (adjective/noun) [a + vippavāsa] thoughtfullness, mindfullness, attention; adjective not neglectful, mindful, attentive, eager Vin V 216; Snp 1142 (cf. Nidd II §101: anussatiyā bhāvento); Sv I 104 (appamādo vuccati satiyā avippavāso); Dhp-a IV 26 (appamāda = satiyā avippavāsa).

:: Aviruddha (adjective) [a + viruddha] not contrary, unobstructed, free, without difficulties Dhp 406; Snp 365, 704, 854.

:: Avirūḷhi (feminine) [a + virūḷhi] absence or cesssation of growth Snp 235; Dhp-a I 245 (°dhamma).

:: Avirodha [a + virodha] absence of obstruction, gentleness M II 105 = Thag 875.

:: Avirodhana (neuter) = avirodha Ja III 320, 412; V 378.

:: Avivāda [a + vivāda] absence of contesting or disputing, agreement, harmony D III 245; Snp 896 (°bhūma Pj II 557 or °bhumma Nidd I 308, explained as Nibbāna).

:: Avisaṃvādaka (adjective) [a + visaṃvada + ka] not deceiving, not lying D I 4; III 170; Pp 57; Sv I 73.

:: Avisaṃvādanatā (feminine) [abstract from a + visaṃvāda] honesty, faithfullness, uprightness D III 190.

:: Avisaṃvādeti [a + visaṃ + causative of vad] to keep one's word, to be honest, to be true Ja V 124.

:: Avisaggatā (feminine) [a + visaggatā, v.l. viy°, thus as a + viyagga, Sanskrit vyagra = ākula] — state of being undisturbed, harmony, balance Ja VI 224 (commentary avisaggata). Cf. avyagga.

:: Avisare at Ja V 117 according to Kern, Toev. sub voce corrupted from avisaye, i.e. towards a wrong or unworthy object [a + visaya, locative], commentary differently: avisare = avisaritvā atikkamitva; v.l. adhisare.

:: Avisāhaṭa (adjective) [a + visāhaṭa] imperturbed Dhs 15, 24, 287, 570. (°mānasata).

:: Avissaji at Ja VI 79 is with Kern, Toev. sub voce better to be read avassaji (see avassajati).

:: Avissajjiya (adjective) [gerund of a + vissajjati] not to be given away, inalienable (cf. avebhaṅgiya) Vin I 305 (°ika for °iya); II 170 (five such objects in detail); V 216 (+ avebh°); Ja VI 568.

:: Avissāsaniya (adjective) [a + visāsana + iya, ika] not to be trusted, untrustworthy Ja III 474.

:: Aviha [of uncertain etymology] the world of the Avihas, i.e. the 12th of the 16 Brahmā-worlds, cf. K.S. I 48 note 3; Cpd. 139. — S I 35, 60; A I 279; Pp 17.

:: Avihiṃsa (Avihesa) (feminine) [a + vihiṃsā] absence of cruelty, mercy, humanity, friendliness, love D III 213, 215, 240 (avihesā); Snp 292 (= sakaruṇabhāva Pj II 318); It 82 (°vitakka).

:: Aviheṭhaka (adjective) [a + viheṭhaka] not harassing not hurting D III 166 (but cf. Pj II 318 avihesaka in same context); Miln 219.

:: Avī° in general see vī°.

:: Avīci [BHS avīci a + vīci (?) no intermission, or no pleasure (?), unknown, but very likely popular etymology
1. avīciNiraya, one of the (great) hells (see Niraya), described in vivid colours at many passages of the Pāli canon, e.g. at Vin II 203 = It 86; Nidd I 18, 347, 405 = Nidd II §304 III D; Paṭis I 83; Dhs 1281; Ja I 71, 96; III 182; IV 159; Dhp-a I 148; Pv-a 52; Pj II 290; Saddh 37, 194; Pañca-g 5f.; etc.
2. disintegration, decay Vism 449 (a. jarā nāma).

:: Avekalla (°-) adjective) [a + vekalla] without deficiency, in °buddhi complete knowledge Ja VI 297.

:: Avekkhati [BHS avīkṣate. The regular Pāli form however is apekkhati, to which the BHS av° corresponds] to look at, to consider, to see It 33 (v.l. ap°); Dhp 28, 50, Ja IV 6; Dhp-a I 259 (= passati).

:: Avekkhipati [avaṃ + khipati, avaṃ here in form ave corresponds to avaḥ, cf. pure for puraḥ etc.] to jump, hop, literally to throw (a foot) down Ja IV 251 (= pacchimapāde khipati commentary).

:: Avecca (adverb) [Usually taken as ava + gerund of i (*itya), cf. adhicca and abhisamecca, but by Pāli grammarians as a + vecca. The form is not sufficiently clear semantically; BHS avetya, e.g. Jm 210, is a Sanskritization of the Pāli form] — certainly, definitely, absolutely, perfectly, explained by Buddhaghosa as acala (on D II 217), or as paññāya ajjhogāhetvā (on Snp 229); by Dhammapāla as apara-paccaya-bhāvena (on Pv IV 125). — Usually in phrase Buddhe Dhamme Saṅghe avecca-pasādo perfect faith in the B., the Dhamma and the Saṅgha, e.g. at M I 47; S II 69; IV 271f., 304; V 344, 405; A I 222; II 56; III 212, 332, 451; IV 406; V 183; further at Paṭis I 161 (°pasanna); Snp 229 (yo ariya-saccāni avecca passati); Pv IV 125.


:: Avedha (adjective) [a + vedha, gerund of vidh (vyadh) to pierce, Sanskrit avedhya] — not to be hurt or disturbed, inviolable, unshakable, imperturbable Snp 322 (°dhamma = akampanasabhāva Pj II 331).

:: Avebhaṅgika (adjective) [from a + vi + bhaṅga] not to be divided or distributed Vin I 305. Cf. next.

:: Avebhaṅgiya (neuter) [= avebhaṅgika] that which is not to be divided, an inalienable possession; 5 such objects enumerated at Vin II 171, which are the same as under avissajjiya (q.v.); V 129.

:: Avera (adjective) [a + vera] peaceable, mild, friendly Snp 150 (= veravirahita Pj I 248); Saddh 338. — °ṃ (neuter) friendliness, kindness D I 247 (°citta); Dhp 5 (= khantimetta Dhp-a I 51).

:: Averin (adjective/noun) = avera Dhp 197, 258.

:: Avosita [reading uncertain, cf. avyosita] only in negative an° unfulfilled, undone Thag 101.

:: Avyagga (adverb) [a + vyagga, Sc. vyagra] not bewildered, not confused S V 66. Cf. avisaggatā.

:: Avyatta = a-vyatta
[CPD]: unintelligent, not learned, unskilled, unaccustomed See Vyatta.

:: Avyattatā (feminine) [abstract from avyatta] foolishness Dhp-a II 38.

:: Avyatha (adjective) [a + vyatha, cf. Sanskrit vyathā misfortune] not miserable, fortunate Ja III 466 (= akilamāna commentary).

:: Avyaya [a + vyaya | absence of loss or change, safety D. I 72 (instrumental °ena safely); Miln 393 (as abbaya Text).

:: Avyāpajjha1 (abyābajjha) (neuter) [a + vyāpajjha or vyābajjha, a confusion between the roots bādh or pad] — (active) kindness of heart; (passive) freedom from suffering (especially of Nibbāna) Vin I 183 (avyāpajjhādhimuta); It 31 (abyābajjhārāma).

:: Avyāpajjha2 (abyābajjha) (adjective) [either a + °vyāpadya or more likely a + °vyābādhya] — free from oppression or injury; not hurting, kind D II 242 (avera + a.), 276; M I 90; It 16 = 52 (sukhaṃ); Miln 410 (avera + a.).

:: Avyāpanna (adjective) [a + vyāpanna] free from desire to injure, free from malice, friendly, benevolent D III 82, 83 (°citta); A II 220 (the same); Pp 68 (the same). — Same in BHS e.g. Divy 105, 302.

:: Avyāpāda [a + vyāpāda] absence of desire to injure, freedom from malice D III 215, 229, 240; It 82 (all mss have aby°); Dhs 33, 36, 277, 313, 1056.

:: Avyāyata (adjective) [a + vyāyata of yam] at random, without discrimination, careless Ja I 496 (= avyatta commentary).

:: Avyāyika (adjective) [from avyaya] not liable to loss or change, imperishable Ja V 508 (= avigacchanaka commentary).


:: Avyāvaṭa (adjective) [a + vyāvaṭa = Sanskrit vyāpr̥ta] not occupied, i.e. careless, neglectful, not worrying Vin III 136; Nidd II §72 (abyāvaṭa for appossukka Snp 43); Ja III 65; VI 188. Miln 177 (abyā°).

:: Avyāseka (adjective) [a + vy + āseka] untouched, unimpaired D I 182 (°sukha = kilesa vyāseka-virahitattā avyāseka Sv I 183); Pp 59.

:: Avyāharati [a + vy + āharati] not to bring or procure Ja V 80.

:: Avyosita (adjective) [a + vyosita, Sanskrit vyavasita] not having reached perfection, imperfect Thag 784 (aby°).

:: Avhaya [from avhayati; cf. Sanskrit āhvaya "betting"] calling, name; adjective (—°) called, having the name of Snp 684 (isi°), 686 (Asit°), 689 (kanhasiri°), 1133 (Sace°, cf. Nidd II §624).

:: Avhayati and Avheti [Sanskrit āhvayati, ā + hū or hvā]
1. to call upon, invoke, appeal to D I 244 (avhayāma imperative); Pv-a 164.
2. to call, call up, summon M 1.17; Ja II 10, 252 (= pakkosati); V 220 (avhayesi); VI 18, 192, 273 (avhettha preterit); Vv 331 (avheti).
3. to give a name, to call, to address Pj II 487 (= āmanteti ālapati). — past participle avhāta (q.v.).

:: Avhāta [past participle of avhayati] called, summoned Ja III 165 = (an° = anāhuta ayācita) = Pv I 123, cf. Pv-a 64. The the same passage at Thig 129 reads ayācita.

:: Avhāna (neuter) [from avhayati, Sanskrit āhvāna in different meaning
1. begging, calling, asking Snp 710; Vism 68 (°ānabhinandanā).
2. addressing naming Pj II 605 (= nāma).

:: Avhāyana (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit āhvayana] calling to, asking, invocation, imploration D I 11 (Sir-avhāyane, v.l. avhayana; explained at Sv I 97 with reading Sirivhāyana as "ehi Siri mayhaṃ mayhaṃ sire patiṭṭhāhī ti evaṃ sire Siriyā avhayanaṃ"), 244, 245 (v.l. avhāna).

:: Avhāyika (adjective) [from avhaya] calling, giving a name; (masculine) one who gives a name Ja I 401 = III 234.

:: Asa (adjective) [for asaṃ = asanto, a + santo, present participle of as in meaning "good"] — bad Ja IV 435 = VI 235 (sataṃ vā asaṃ, accusative singular with v.l. santaṃ ..., explained by sappurisaṃ vā asappurisaṃ vā commentary); V 448 (noun plural feminine asā explained by asatiyo lāmakā commentary; cf. V 446 verse 319).

:: Asaṃvata (adjective) [past participle of + saṃvuṇati, cf. saṃvuta] unrestricted, open Ja VI 306.

:: Asaṃvara [a + saṃvara] absence of closing or restraint, no control Dhs 1345.

:: Asaṃvāsa (adjective) [a + saṃvāsa] deprived of co-residence, expelled from the community Vin IV 213, 214.

:: Asaṃvindaṃ [present participle a + saṃvindati] not finding, not knowing Thag 717.

:: Asaṃvuta (adjective) [past participle of a + saṃvuṇāti, cf. saṃvata] — not restrained Dhs 1345, 1347.

:: Asaṃsaṭṭha (adjective) [a + saṃsaṭṭha] not mixed or mixing, not associating, not given to society M I 21; S I 63; Snp 628 = Dhp 404 (= dassana-savana-samullāpa-paribhogakāya-saṃsaggānaṃ abhāvena Pj II 468 = Dhp-a IV 173).

:: Asaṃhārima (adjective) = asaṃhāriya (?) Vin IV 272.

:: Asaṃhāriya (adjective) [gerund of a + saṃharati] not to be destroyed or shattered It 77; Thag 372; Nidd II 110.

:: Asaṃhīra (adjective) [= asaṃhāriya of saṃ + hr̥] immovable, unconquerable, irrefutable Vin II 96; S I 193; A IV 141; V 71; Snp 1149 (as especially of Nibbāna, cf. Nidd II §110); Ja I 62; IV 283 (°citta unfaltering); Dīp IV 12.

:: Asakka (adjective) [a + sakka; Sanskrit aśakya] impossible Ja V 362 (°rūpa).

:: Asakkuṇeyya (adjective) [gerund of a + sakkoti] impossible, unable to Ja I 55; Pj I 185 and passim.

:: Asakkhara (adjective) [a + sakkhara] not stony, free from gravel or stones, smooth Ja V 168; Dhp-a III 401 (opposite sasakkhara).

:: Asakyadhītā (feminine) [a + Sakyadhītā] not a true Buddhist nun Vin IV 214.


:: Asagguṇa [a + sagguṇa] bad quality, vice Saddh 382 (°bhāvin, the a° belongs to the whole compound).

:: Asaṅkita and °iya (adjective) [a + saṅkita, past participle of śaṅk] not hesitating, not afraid, not anxious, firm, bold Ja I 334 (°iya); V 241; Saddh 435, 541.

:: Asaṅkuppa (adjective) [a + saṅkuppa, gerund of kup] not to be shaken; immovable; steady, safe (especially of Nibbāna) Snp 1149 (cf. Nidd II §106); Thag 649.

:: Asaṅkusaka (adjective) [a + saṅkusaka, which is distorted from Sanskrit saṅkasuka splitting, crumbling, see Kern, Toev. page 18] not contrary Ja VI 297 (°vattin, commentary appaṭilomavattin, cf. J.S. VI 143).

:: Asaṅkheyya (adjective) [a + saṅkheyya, gerund of saṃ-khyā] incalculable, innumerable, neuter an immense period A II 142; Miln 232 (cattāri a.), 289 Dhp-a I 5, 83, 104.

:: Asaṅga (adjective) [a + saṅga] not sticking to anything, free from attachment, unattached Thig 396 (°mānasa, = anāsattacitta Thig-a 259); Miln 343. Cf. next.

:: Asaṅgita (adjective) [from asaṅga, a + saṅgita, or should we read asaṅgika?] not sticking or stuck, unimpeded, free, quick Ja V 409.

:: Asacca (adjective) [a + sacca] not true, false Ja V 399.

:: Asajjamāna (adjective) [present participle medium of a + sajjati, sañj] — not clinging, not stuck, unattached Snp 38, 71 (cf. Nidd II §107); Dhp 221 (nāmarūpasmiṃ a. = alaggamana Dhp-a III 298).

:: Asajjittho 2nd singular preterit medium of sajjati to stick or cling to, to hesitate Ja I 376. See sajjati.

:: Asajjhaya [a + sajjhāya] non-repetition Dhp 241 (cf. Dhp-a III 347).

:: Asañña (adjective) [a + saññā] unconscious, °sattā unconscious beings name of a class of Devas D I 28 (cf. Sv I 118 and BHS asaṃjñika-sattvāḥ Divy 505).

:: Asaññata (adjective) [a + saññata, past participle of saṃ + yam] unrestrained, intemperate, lacking self-control It 43 = 90 = Snp 662 = Dhp 307.

:: Asaññin (adjective) [a + saññin] unconscious D I 54 (°gabbhā, cf. Sv I 163); III 111, 140, 263; It 87; Snp 874.

:: Asaṭha (adjective) [a + saṭha] without guile, not fraudulent, honest D III 47, 55, 237; Dhp-a I 69.

:: Asaṅṭhita (adjective) [a + saṇṭhita] not composed, unsettled, fickle It 62, 94.

:: Asat (Asanto) [a + sat, present participle of asti] not being, not being good, i.e. bad, not genuine (cf. asa); frequent, e.g. Snp 94, 131, 881, 950; Dhp 73, 77, 367; It 69 (asanto Nirayaṃ nenti). See also asaddhamma.

:: Asati
*Asati (and Asanāti q.v.) [Sanskrit aśnāti, aś to partake of, to eat or drink cf. aṃśa share, part] — to eat; imperative asnātu Ja V 376; future asissāmi Thag 223; Snp 970. — present participle medium asamāna Ja V 59; Snp 239. gerund asitvā Miln 167; and asitvāna Ja IV 371 (an°). past participle asita (q.v.). See also the spurious forms asmiye and añhati (añhamāna Snp 240), also āsita1.

:: Asatiyā (adverb) [instrumental of a + sati] heedlessly, unintentionally Ja III 486.

:: Asatta (adjective) [past participle of a + sajjati] not clinging or attached, free from attachment Snp 1059; Dhp 419; Nidd II §§107, 108; Dhp-a IV 228.

:: Asattha (adjective/noun) [a + sattha] absence of a sword or knife, without a knife, usually combined with adaṇḍa in various phrases: see under daṇḍa. Also at Thag 757 (+ avaṇa).

:: Asadisa (adjective) [a + sadisa] incomparable, not having its like Dhp-a II 89; III 120 (°dāna).

:: Asaddha (adjective) [a + saddha] not believing, without faith D III 252, 282.

:: Asaddhamma [a + sat + dhamma, cf. asat and BHS asaddharma] evil condition, sin, especially sexual intercourse; usually mentioned as a set of several sins, viz. as 3 at It 85; as 4 at A II 47; as 7 at D III 252, 282; as 8 at Vin II 202.

:: Asana1 (neuter) [Vedic aśan(m)] stone, rock Ja II 91; V 131.

:: Asana2 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit aśana of aś, cf. asati] eating, food; adjective eating Ja I 472 (ghatāsana especially of the fire; V 64 (the same). Usually in negative form anasana fasting, famine, hunger Snp 311 (= khudā Pj II 324); Sv I 139. See also nirasana.

:: Asana3 (neuter) [Sanskrit asana] the tree Pentaptera Tomentosa Ja I 40 (as bodhi-tree of Gotama); II 91; V 420; VI 530.


:: Asana4 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit asanā, to asyati to hurl, throw] — an arrow M I 82 = S I 62. Cf. asani.

:: Asanāti [see asati] to eat, to consume (food) Ja I 472; V 64; VI 14 (Fausbøll note: read asnāti; commentary paribhuñjati).

:: Asani (feminine) [Vedic aśani in same meaning; with Sanskrit aśri corner, caturaśra four cornered (see assa), to Latin ācer pointed, sharp, Greek ἄκρος pointed, Anglo-Saxon egl sting, Old High German ekka corner, point. Connected with this is Sanskrit aśan (see asana1). Cf. also aṃsa and asama2] — originally a sharp stone as hurling-weapon thence in mythology. Indra's thunderbolt, thunder-clap, lightning Ja I 71, 167; II 154; III 323; Miln 277; Vv-a 83.

-aggi the fire of thunder, i.e. lightning or fire caused by lightning Dhp-a III 71;
-pāta the falling of the thunderbolt, thunderclap, lightning Sv I 280 (or should we read asannipāta°); Pv-a 45;
-vicakka same as °pāta (?) S II 229 (= lābha-sakkāra-silokassa adhivacana); D III 44, 47.

:: Asantasaṃ and °anto (adjective) [present participle of a + santasati] fearless, not afraid Snp 71, 74; Ja IV 101; VI 306; Nidd II §109.

:: Asantāsin (adjective) [a + santāsin, cf. asantāsaṃ] fearless, not trembling, not afraid Snp 850; Dhp 351; Nidd II §109; Dhp-a IV 70.

:: Asantuṭṭha [past participle of a + santussati] not contented with, greedy, insatiate, unhappy Snp 108. Cf. next.

:: Asantuṭṭhitā (feminine) [abstract from asantuṭṭhita = asantuṭṭha] — dissatisfaction, discontentment D III 214 (so read for °tutth-) = A I 95.

:: Asanthava [a + santhava] dissociation, separation from society, seclusion Snp 207.

:: Asandhitā (feminine) [a + sandhi + tā] absence of joints, disconnected state Ja VI 16.

:: Asannata (adjective) [a + sannata] not bent or bending Saddh 417.

:: Asapatta (adjective/noun) [a + sapatta = Sanskrit sapatna] (active) without enmity, friendly (medium) having no enemy or foe, secure, peaceful D II 276; Snp 150 (= vigata-paccatthika, mettavihārin Pj I 249); Thig 512.

:: Asapattī (feminine) [a + sapattī] without co-wife or rival in marriage S IV 249.

:: Asappurisa [a + sappurisa, cf. asat] a low, bad or unworthy man M III 37; Pj II 479 (= anariya Snp 664).

:: Asabala (adjective) [a + sabala] unspotted D II 80 = III 245.

:: Asabbha (adjective) [a + sabbha, i.e. °sabhya cf. sabhā and in meaning court: courteous, hof: hoflich etc.] not belonging to the assembly room, not consistent with good manners, {88} impolite, vile, low, of base character Ja III 527 (mātugāma); Dhp 77 = Ja III 367 = Thag 994; Miln 221; Dhp-a I 256; Thig-a 246 (akkhi). Cf. next. — Note: Both sabbha and sabbhin occur only in the negative formation.

:: Asabbhin = asabbha Ja I 494, more frequent in compounds as asabbhi°, e.g.

-kāraṇa a low or sinful act Miln 280;
-rūpa low, common Ja VI 386 (= asādhu-jātika, lāmaka), 387 (= asabbhijātika), 414 (= apaṇḍita-jātika). Cf. preceding.

:: Asabha *Asabha [Sanskrit r̥śabha] see usabha.

:: Asama1 (adjective) [a + sama] unequal, incomparable Ja I 40 (+ appaṭipuggala); Saddh 578 (+ atula). Especially frequent in compound °dhura literally carrying more than an equal burden, of incomparable strength, very steadfast or resolute Snp 694 (= asama-viriya Pj II 489); Ja I 193; VI 259, 330.

:: Asama2 (neuter) [the diæretic form of Sanskrit aśman hurling stone, of whieh the contracted form is amha (q.v.); connected with Latin ocris "mons confragosus"; Greek ἤκμων anvil; Lithuanian akmu°~ stone, see also asana1 (Sanskrit aśan stone for throwing) and asani] — stone, rock Sv I 270, 271 (°muṭṭhika having a hammer of stone; v.l. ayamuṭṭhika); Pj II 392 (instrumental asmanā).

:: Asamaggiya (neuter) [abstract from a + samagga] lack of concord, disharmony Ja VI 516 (so read for asāmaggiya).

:: Asamaṇa at Pp 27 is to be read assamaṇa (q.v.).

:: Asamapekkhana (neuter) and °ā (feminine) [from a + sam + apekkhati] lack of consideration S III 261; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162.

:: Asamāhita (adjective) [a + samāhita] not composed, uncontrolled, not firm It 113 (opposite susamāhita); Dhp 110, 111; Pp 35.

:: Asamijjhanaka (adjective) [a + samijjhana + ka] unsuccessful, without result, fruitless; feminine °ikā Ja III 252.

:: Asamiddhi (feminine) [a + samiddhi] misfortune, lack of success Ja VI 584.

:: Asamosaraṇa (neuter) [a + samosaraṇa] not coming together, not meeting, separation Ja V 233.

:: Asampakampiya (adjective) [gerund of a + sampakampeti] not to be shaken, not to be moved Snp 229 (= kampetuṃ vā cāletuṃ vā asakkuṇeyyo Pj I 185).

:: Asampajañña (neuter) [a + sampajañña] lack of intelligence D III 213; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162, 1351.

:: Asampāyanto [present participle of a + sampāyati] unable to solve or explain Snp page 92.

:: Asambādha (adjective) [a + sambādha] unobstructed Snp 150 (= sambādha-virahita Pj I 248); Ja I 80; Thig-a 293.

:: Asammodiya (neuter) [a + sammodiya] disagreement, dissension Ja VI 517 (= asamaggiya commentary).

:: Asammosa [a + sammosa cf. BHS asammośadharman epithet of the Buddha; Divy 49 etc] absence of confusion D III 221 = Dhs 1366.

:: Asayaṃvasin (adjective) [a + sayaṃ + vasiṃ] not under one's own control, i.e. dependent D II 262; Ja I 337.

:: Asayha (adjective) [a + sayha, gerund of sah = Sanskrit asahya] impossible, insuperable Ja VI 337. Usually in compound °sāhin conquering the unconquerable, doing the impossible, acchieving what has not been achieved before Thag 536, Pv II 922 (Aṅgīrasa); It 32.

:: Asahana (neuter-adjective) [a + sahana] not enduring, non-endurance, inability Ja III 20; Pv-a 17.

:: Asahāya (adjective) [a + sahāya] one who is without friends; who is dependent on himself Miln 225.

:: Asā see āsa.

:: Asāta (adjective) [a + sāta, Sanskrit aśāta, Kern's interpretation and etymology of asāta at Toev. sub voce page 90 is improbable] — disagreeable Vin I 78 (asātā vedanā, cf. asātā vedanā Mvu I 5); Snp 867; Ja I 288, 410; II 105; Dhs 152, 1343.

:: Asādhāraṇa (adjective) [a + sādhāraṇa cf. asādhāraṇa Divy 561] — not general, not shared, uncommon, unique Vin III 35; Khp VIII 9; Ja I 58, 78; Miln 285; Sv I 71; Saddh 589, 592.

:: Asādhu Asādhu [DPL]: (adjective) Bad, wicked.

:: Asāmapāka (adjective) [a + sāma + pāka] one who does not cook (a meal) for himself (a practice of ascetics) Sv I 270.

:: Asāra (adjective/noun) [a + sāra] that which is not substance, worthlessness; adjective worthless, vain, idle Snp 937 (= asāra nissāra sārāpagata Nidd I 409); Dhp 11, 12 (cf. Dhp-a I 114 for interpretation).

:: Asāraka (adjective) [a + sāraka] unessential, worthless, sapless, rotten Thag 260; Ja II 163 = Dhp-a I 144.

:: Asāraddha (adjective) [a + sāraddha] not excited, cool A I 148 = It 119 (passeddho kāyo a.; v.l. assāraddha).

:: Asāhasa (neuter) [a + sāhasa] absence of violence, meekness, peaceableness D III 147 (asāhase rata fond of peace); accusative as adverb asāhasaṃ without violence, not arbitrarily Ja III 319; instrumental asāhasena the same Ja VI 280; Dhp 257 (= amusāvādena Dhp-a III 382).

:: Asi Asi [Vedic asi, Avesta aṃhū Latin ensis] a sword, a large knife D I 77 (= Sv I 222); M II 99; A I 48 = (asinā sīsaṃ chindante); IV 97 (asinā hanti attānaṃ); Ja IV 118 (asi sunisito), 184; V 45 (here meaning "sickle"), 475 (asiñ ca me maññasi, probably faulty for either "āsiñ ca me" or "āsiñcam me"); Vism 201 (ñāṇāsi the sword of knowledge); Pv-a 253 (asinā pahaṭa).

-koṭṭha worker in leather, shoemaker Vin IV 171 (Oldenberg Vin IV 363 suggests °koṭṭa; cf. Sanskrit kuṭṭa cutting)
-camma sword and shield Vin II 192; A III 93; Ja VI 449;
-tharu the hilt of a sword Dhp-a IV 66;
-nakha having nails like swords Pañca-g 29;
-patta having sword-like leaves, with swords (knives) for leaves (of the sword-leaf-wood in Niraya, a late feature in the descriptions of Hell in Indian speculative Theology, see e.g. Mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇa XII 24f.; Mahābhārata XII 321; Manu IV 90; XII 75; {79} Scherman, Materialen, past participle 23f.) Ja VI 250 (°Niraya); Pv-a 221 (°vana); Saddh 194;
-pāsa having swords for snares (a class of deities) Miln 191;
-māla (māla in compound) sword-garland (torture) Ja III 178 (+ sīsaṃ chindāpeti); °kamma the same Dāṭh III 35. (-māla- metri causa).
-lakkhaṇa "sword sign", i.e. (fortune-telling from) marks or a sword D I 9; Ja I 455;
-loma having swords for hair S II 257, cf. Vin III 106;
-sūna slaughter-house (so also BHS asisūnā Divy 10, 15; see further detail under "kāma" similes) Vin II 26; M I 130, 143; A III 97;
-sūla a sword blade Thig 488 (explained at Thig-a 287 by adhikuṭṭanatthena, i.e. with reference to the executioner's block, cf. also sattisūla).

:: Asika (adjective) (—°) [asi + ka] having a sword, with a sword in phrase ukkhittasika with drawn sword, M I 377; Ja I 393.

:: Asita1 [Sanskrit aśita, past participle of *asati, Sanskrit aśnāti] having eaten, eating; (neuter) that which is eaten or enjoyed, food M I 57; A III 30, 32 (°pīta-khāyita etc.); Pv-a 25 (the same); Ja VI 555 °(āsana having enjoyed one's food, satisfied). Cf. āsita1.

:: Asita2 (adjective) [a + sita past participle of °śri, Sanskrit aśrita] not clinging to, unattached, independent, free (from wrong desires) D II 261 (°ātiga); M I 386; Thag 38, 1242 (see Mrs Rh.D. in Ps.B. 404 note 2); Ja II 247; It 97; Snp 251, 519, 593, 686 (Asitavhaya, called the Asita i.e. the Unattached; cf. Pj II 487), 698 (the same), 717, 957, 1065 (cf. Nidd II §111 and nissaya).


:: Asita3 (adjective) [Sanskrit asita; Indo-Germanic °ās, cf. Latin āreo to be dry, i.e. burnt up; Greek ἤζω to dry; original meaning burnt, hence of burnt, i.e. black colour (of ashes)] — black-blue, black M II 180 (°vyābhaṅgī); A III 5 (the same); Thig 480 (= indanīla Thig-a 286); Ja III 419 (°āpaṅgin black-eyed); V 302; Dāṭh I 45.

:: Asita4 (masculine neuter) [from asi] a sickle Ja III 129; V 46. °vyābhaṅgī sickle and pole M II 180; A III 5.

:: Asīti Asīti (numeral) [Sanskrit aśīti] 80 (on symbolical meaning and frequent application see aṭṭha1 B 1 c, where also most of the references. In addition we mention the following:) Ja I 233 (°hattha 80 hands, i.e. 80 cubits deep); III 174 (°sahassa-vāraṇa-parivuta); VI 20 (vassasahassāni); Miln 23 (asītiyā bhikkhusahassehi saddhiṃ); Vīsm 46 (satakoṭiyo) Dhp-a I 14, 19 (mahātherā); II 25 (°koṭi-vibhava). Cf. āsītika.

:: Asu [Sanskrit asau (masculine), adas (neuter); base amu° in oblique cases and derivation, e.g. adverb amutra (q.v.)] — pronoun demonstrative "that", that one, usually combined with yo (yaṃ), e.g. asu yo so puriso M I 366; yaṃ aduṃ khettaṃ S IV 315. — nominative singular masculine asu S IV 195; Miln 242; feminine asu Ja V 396 (asū metri causā); neuter aduṃ M I 364, 483; A I 250. Of oblique cases e.g. amunā (instrumental) A I 250. Cf. also next.

:: Asuka (pronoun/adjective) [asn + ka] such a one, this or that, a certain Vin III 87; Ja I 148; Pv-a 29, 30, 35, 109, 122 (°ṃ gatiṃ gata).

:: Asuci (adjective) [a + suci] not clean, impure, unclean Snp 75 (°manussā, see Nidd II §112); Pp 27, 36; Saddh 378, 603.

:: Asucīka (neuter) [abstract from asuci] impurity, unclean living, defilement Snp 243 (°missita = asucibhāva-missita Pj II 286.

:: Asubha (adjective) [a + subha] impure, unpleasant, bad, ugly, nasty; neuter °ṃ nastiness, impurity. Cf. on term and the Asubha-meditation, as well as on the 10 asubhas or offensive objects BMPE 63 note 1, and Cpd. 121 note 6. — S IV 111 (asubhato manasikaroti); V 320; Snp 341; Saddh 368. — subhāsubha pleasant and unpleasant, good and bad Snp 633; Ja III 243; Miln 136.

-ānupassīn realising or intuiting the corruptness (of the body) It 80, 81; Dhp-a I 76;
-kathā talk about impurity Vin III 68;
-kammaṭṭhāna reflection on impurity Dhp-a III 425;
-nimitta sign of the unclean i.e. idea of impurity Vism 77;
-bhāvanā contemplation of the impurity (of the body) Vin III 68;
-saññā idea of impurity D III 253, 283, 289, 291;
-saññin having an idea of or realising the impurity (of the body) It 93.

:: Asura [Vedic asura in more comprehensive meaning; connected with Avesta ahuro Lord, ahuro mazdā°; perhaps to Avesta anhuṣ and Latin erus mastery — a fallen angel, a Titan; plural asurā the Titans, a class of mythological beings. Dhammapāla at Pv-a 272 and the commentary on Ja V 186 define them as kāḷakañjaka-bhedā asurā. The are classed with other similar inferior deities, e.g. with garuḷā, nāgā, yakkhā at Miln 117; with supaṇṇā, gandhabbā, yakkhā at Sv I 51. — The fight between Gods and Titans is also reflected in the oldest books of the Pāli Canon and occurs in identical description at the following passages under the title of devāsura-saṅgāma: D II 285; S I 222 (cf. 216f.), IV 201f., V 447; M I 253; A IV 432. — Rebirth as an Asura is considered as one of the four unhappy rebirths or evil fates after death (apāyā; viz. Niraya, tiracchāna-yoni, petā or pettivisaya, asurā), e.g. at It 93; Ja V 186; Pv IV 111, see also apāya. — Other passages in general: S I 216f. (fight of Devas and Asuras); IV 203; A II 91; IV 198f., 206; Snp 681; Nidd I 89, 92, 448; Dhp-a I 264 (°kaññā); Saddh 366, 436.

-inda Chief or king of the Titans. Several Asuras are accredited with the role of leaders, most commonly Vepacitti (S I 222; IV 201f.) and Rāhu (A II 17, 53; III 243). Besides these we find Pahārāda (gloss Mahābhadda) at A IV 197;
-kāya the body or assembly of the Asuras A I 143; Ja V 186; Thig-a 285;
-parivāra a retinue of Asuras A II 91;
-rakkhasā Asuras and Rakkhasas (Rakāsasas) Snp 310 (defined by Buddhaghosa at Pj II 323 as pabbata-pāda-nivāsino dānava-yakkha-saññitā).

Haplology (from Greek ἁπλόος haplóos "simple" and λόγος lógos, "speech") is defined as the elimination of an entire syllable through dissimilation: when two identical or similar syllables occur consecutively. ° Wikipedia

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

:: Asuropa [probably a haplological contraction of asura-ropa. On various suggestions as to etymology and meaning see Morris's discussion at JPTS 1893, 8f. The word is found as āsulopa in the Asoka inscriptions] anger, malice, hatred; abruptness, want of forbearance Pp 18 = Vibh 357; Dhs 418, 1060, 1115, 1341 (an°); As 396.

:: Asussūsaṃ [present participle of a + susūsati, desiderative of śru, cf. Sanskrit śuśrūṣati] not wishing to hear or listen, disobedient Ja V 121.

:: Asūyaka see anasūyaka.

:: Asūra (adjective) [a + sūra1]
1. not brave, not valiant, cowardly Snp 439.
2. uncouth, stupid Ja VI 292 (cf. Kern. Toev. page 48).

:: Asekha (and Asekkha) (adjective/noun) [a + sekha] not requiring to be trained, adept, perfect, masculine one who is no longer a learner, an expert; very often meaning an Arahant (cf. BHS aśaikṣa occurring only in phrase śaikṣāśaikṣāh those in training and the adepts, e.g. Divy 261, 337; Avś I 269, 335; II 144) Vin I 62f.; III 24; S I 99; D III 218, 219; It 51 (asekho sīlakkhandho; v.l. asekkha); Pp 14 (= Arahant); Dhs 584, 1017, 1401; Kv 303f.

-muni the perfectly Wise Dhp-a III 321;
-bala the power of an Arahant, enumerated in a set of 10 at Paṭis II 173, cf. 176.

:: Asecanaka (adjective) [a + secana + ka, from sic to sprinkle, cf. BHS asecanaka-darśana in same meaning e.g. Divy 23, 226, 334] — unmixed, unadulterated, i.e. with full and unimpaired properties, delicious, sublime, lovely M I 114; S I 213 (a. ojava "that elixir that no infusion needs" Mrs Rh.D.) = Thig 55 (explained as anāsittakaṃ pakatiyā'va mahārasaṃ at Thig-a 61) = Thig 196 (= anāsittakaṃ ojavantaṃ sabhāva-madhuraṃ Thig-a 168); S V 321; A III 237f. Miln 405.

:: Asevanā (feminine) [a + sevanā] not practising abstinence from Snp 259 (= abhajanā apayirupāsanā Pj I 124).

:: Asesa (adjective) [a + sesa] not leaving a remnant, without a remainder, all, entire, complete Snp 2f., 351, 355, 500, 1037 (= sabba Nidd II §113). As °- (adverb) entirely, fully, completely Snp page 141 (°virāga-nirodha); Miln 212 (°vacana inclusive statement).

:: Asesita (adjective) [past participle of a + causative of śiṣ, see seseti and sissati] — leaving nothing over, having nothing left, entire, whole, all Ja III 153.

:: Asoka1 (adjective) [a + soka, cf. Sanskrit aśoka] free from sorrow Snp 268 (= nissoka abbūḷha-soka-salla Pj I 153); Dhp 412; Thig 512.

:: Asoka2 [Sanskrit aśoka] the Asoka tree, Jonesia Asoka Ja V 188; Vv 354, 359 (°rukkha); Vism 625 (°aṅkura); Vv-a 173 (°rukkha).

:: Asoṇḍa (adjective) [a + soṇḍa] not being a drunkard, abstaining from drink Ja V 116. — feminine asoṇḍī A III 38.

:: Asotatā (neuter) [abstract a + sota + tā, having no ears, being earless Ja VI 16.

:: Asnāti [Sanskrit aśnāti to eat, to take food; the regular Pāli forms are asati (as base) and asanāti] — to eat; imperative asnātu Ja V 376.


:: Asman (neuter) [Vedic aśman; the usual Pāli forms are amha and asama2] — stone, rock; only in instrumental asmanā Pj II 362.

:: Asmasati [spurious form for the usual assasati = Sanskrit āśvasati] to trust, to rely on Ja V 56 (potential asmase).

:: Asmi (I am) see atthi.

:: Asmimāna [asmi + māna] the pride that says "I am", pride of self, egotism (same in BHS e.g. Divy 210, 314) Vin I 3; D III 273; M I 139, 425; A III 85; Paṭis I 26; Kv 212; Dhp-a I 237. Cf. ahaṃ asmi.


:: Asmiye 1 singular indicative present medium of aś to eat, in sense of a future "I shall eat" Ja V 397, 405 (commentary bhuñjissāmi). The form is to be explained as denominative formation from āśa food, = aṃsiyati and with metathesis asmiyati. See also añhati which would correspond either to °aṃśyati or aśnāti (see asati).

:: Assa1 Assa [for aṃsa1, q.v. for etymology] shoulder; in compound assapuṭa shoulder-bag, knapsack i.e. a bag containing provisions, instrumental assupuṭena with provisions. Later exegesis has interpreted this as a bag full of ashes, and vv.ll. as well as commentators take assa = bhasma ashes (thus also Morris JPTS 1893, 10 without being able to give an etymology). The word was already misunderstood by Buddhaghosa when he explained the Dīgha passage by bhasmapuṭena, sīse chārikaṃ okiritvā ti attho Sv I 267. After all it is the same as puṭaṃsa (see under aṃsa1). — D I 98, cf. A II 242 (v.l. bhasma°); Sv I 267 (v.l. bhassa°).

:: Assa2 Assa [for aṃsa2 = Sanskrit aśra point, corner, cf. Sanskrit aśri, Greek ἅκρος and ὀξύς sharp, Latin acer] — corner, point; occurs only in compound caturassa four-cornered, quadrangular, regular (of symmetrical form, Vin II 316; Ja IV 46, 492; Pv II 119. Perhaps also at Thig 229 (see under assa3). Occurs also in form caturaṃsa under catur).

:: Assa3 Assa [Vedic aśva, cf. Avesta aspō; Greek ἵππος, dialect ἴκκος; Latin equus; Old-Irish ech; Gallic epo-; Cymr. ep, Gothic aīhva; Os. ehu; Anglo-Saxon eoh] — a horse; often mentioned alongside of and combined with hatthi (elephant) Vin III 6 (pañca-mattehi assa-satehi), 52 (enumerated under catuppadā, quadrupeds, with hatthi oṭṭha goṇa gadrabha and pasuka); A II 207; V 271; Snp 769 (gavāssa). At Thig 229 the commentary explains caturassa as "four in hand" ; but the context shows that the more usual sense of caturassa (see assa2) was probably what the poet meant; Dhp 94, 143, 144 (bhadra, a good horse), 380 (the same); Vv 203 (+ assatarī); Vv-a 78; Dhp-a I 392 (hatthi-assādayo); Saddh 367 (duṭṭh°).

-ājāniya [cf. BHS aśvājāneya Divy 509, 511] a thoroughbred horse, a blood horse A I 77, 244; II 113f., 250f.; III 248, 282f.; IV 188, 397; V 166, 323; Pv-a 216. See also ājāniya;
-āroha one who climbs on a horse, a rider on horseback, name of an occupation "cavalry" D I 51 (+ hatthāroha; explained at Sv I 156 by sabbe pi assācariya-assavejja-assabhaṇḍādayo);
-kaṇṇa name of a tree, Vatica Robusta, literally "horse-ear" (cf. similarly Gothic aīhva-tundi the thornbush, literally horse-tooth) Ja II 161; IV 209; VI 528;
-khaḷuṇka an inferior horse ("shaker"), opposite sadassa A I 287 = IV 397;
-tthara a horse cover, a horse blanket Vin I 192; D I 7
-damma a horse to be tamed, a fierce horse, a stallion A II 112;
-dammasārathi a horse trainer A II 112, 114; V 323f.; Dhp-a IV 4;
-potaka the young of a horse, a foal or colt Ja II 288;
-bandha a groom Ja II 98; V 449; Dhp-a I 392;
-bhaṇḍa (for °bandha? or should we read °paṇḍaka?) a groom or horse-trainer, a trader in horses Vin I 85 (see on form of word Kern, Toev. page 35);
-bhaṇḍaka horse-trappings Ja II 113;
-maṇḍala circus Vism 308, cf. M I 446;
-maṇḍalika exercising ground Vin III 6;
-medha name of a sacrifice: the horse-sacrifice [Vedic aśvamedha as proper name] S I 76 (v.l. sassa°); It 21 (+ purisamedha); Snp 303;
-yuddha a horse-fight D I 7;
-rūpaka a figure of a horse, a toy horse Dhp-a II 69 (+ hatthi-rūpaka);
-lakkhaṇa (earning fees by judging) the marks on a horse D I 9;
-laṇḍa horse-manure, horse dung Dhp-a IV 156 (hatthi-laṇḍa + a.);
-vāṇija a horse dealer Vin III 6;
-sadassa a noble steed of the horse kind A I 289 = IV 397 (in comparison with purisa°).

:: Assa4 Assa is genitive dative singular of ayaṃ, this.

:: Assa5 Assa 3. singular potential of asmi (see atthi).

:: Assaka1 (—°) [assa3 + ka] with a horse, having a horse; an° without a horse Ja VI 515 (+ arathaka).

:: Assaka2 (adjective) [a + saka; Sanskrit asvaka] not having one's own, poor, destitute M I 450; II 68; A III 352; Paṭis I 126 (v.l. asaka).

:: Assatara [Vedic aśvatara, aśva + comparative suffix tara in function of "a kind of", thus literally a kind of horse, cf. Latin matertera a kind of mother. i.e. aunt] — a mule Dhp 322 = Dhp-a I 213; Dhp-a IV 4 (= vaḷavāya gadrabhena jāta); Ja IV 464 (kambojake assatare sudante; imported from Cambodia); VI 342. — feminine assatarī a she-mule Vin II 188; S I 154; II 241; A II 73; Miln 166. — assatarī-ratha a chariot drawn by she-mules Vv 203, 208 (Text assatarī ratā) = 438; Pv I 111 (= assatariyutta ratha Pv-a 56); Ja VI 355.

:: Assattha1 [Vedic aśvattha, explained in KZ I 467 as aśva-ttha dialect for aśva-stha "standing place for horses, which etymology is problematic; it is likely that the Sanskrit word is borrowed from a local dialect.] — the holy fig-tree, Ficus Religiosa; the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, i.e. the Bo tree Vin IV 35; D II 4 (sammā-sambuddho assatthassa mūle abhisambuddho); S V 96; Ja I 16 (V 75, in word-play with assattha2 of V 79).

:: Assattha2 [past participle of assasati; cf. BHS āsvasta Avś I 210] encouraged, comforted A IV 184 (v.l. as gloss assāsaka); Paṭis I 131 (loka an°; v.l. assaka); Ja I 16 (V 79 cf. assattha1); VI 309 (= laddhassāsa commentary), 566.

:: Assaddha (adjective) [a + saddhā] without faith, unbelieving, Snp 663; Pp 13, 20; Dhs 1327; Dhp-a II 187.

:: Assaddhiya (neuter) [a + saddhiya, in form, but not in meaning a gerund of saddahati, for which usually saddheyya; cf. Sanskrit aśradheyya incredible] — disbelief S I 25; A III 421; V 113f., 146, 148f., 158, 161; Vibh 371; Sv I 235; Saddh 80.

:: Assama [ā + śram] a hermitage (of a brahmin ascetic especially a jaṭila) Vin I 24 = IV 108; I 26, 246; III 147; Snp 979; Snp 104, 111; Ja I 315 (°pada) V 75 (the same) 321. VI 76 (°pada). The word is not found anywhere in the canon in the technical sense of the later Sanskrit law books, where "the 4 āśramas" is used as a technical term for the four stages in the life of a brahmin priest (not of a brahmin by birth). See D.B. I 211-217.

:: Assamaṇa [a + samaṇa] not a true samaṇa Vin I 96; Snp 282; Pp 27 (so read for asamaṇa); Pp-a 207. — feminine assamaṇī Vīn IV 214.

:: Assaya [ā + sayati, śri] resting place, shelter, refuge, seat Sv I 67 (puññ°). Cf. BHS rājāśraya Jm 3156; aśraya also in meaning "body": see Avś I 175 and Index II 223.

:: Assava (adjective) [ā + suṇāti, śru] loyal D I 137; Snp 22, 23, 32; Ja IV 98; VI 49; Miln 254; an° inattentive, not docile Dhp-a I 7.

:: Assavati [ā + sru] to flow Ja II 276 (= paggharati commentary). Cf. also āsavati.

:: Assavanatā (feminine) [abstract from assavana] not listening to, inattention M I 168.

:: Assavanīya (adjective) [a + savanīya] not pleasant to hear Saddh 82.

:: Assasati [ā + śvas, on semantical inversion of ā and pa see under ā1 3
1. to breathe, to breathe out, to exhale, Ja I 163; VI 305 (gloss assāsento passivesento susū ti saddaṃ karonto); Vism 272. Usually in combination with passāsati to inhale, i.e. to breathe in and out, D II 291 = M I 56, cf. M I 425; Ja II 53, cf. V 36.
2. to breathe freely or quietly, to feel relieved, to be comforted, to have courage S IV 43; Ja IV 93 assasitvāna gerund = vissamitvā commentary); VI 190 (assāsa imperative, with mā soci); medium assase Ja IV 57 (commentary for asmase Text; explained by vissase), 111 (°itvā).
3. to enter by the breath, to bewitch, enchant, take possession Ja IV 495 (= assāsa-vātena upahanati āvisati commentary). — causative assāseti. — past participle assattha2. See also assāsa-passāsa.


:: Assāda [ā + sādiyati, svad] taste, sweetness, enjoyment, satisfaction D I 22 (vedanānaṃ samudaya atthaṅgama assāda etc.); M I 85; S II 84f. (°ānupassīn), 170f.; III 27f. (ko rūpassa assādo), 62, 102; {81} IV 8f., 220; V 193, 203f.; A I 50 (°ānupassīn), 258, 260; II 10; III 447 (°diṭṭhi) Ja I 508; IV 113, Snp 448; Paṭis I 139f., (°diṭṭhi), 157; Cp I 1017; Pv IV 62 (kām°); Vibh 368 (°diṭṭhi); Nett 27f.; Miln 388; Vism 76 (paviveka-rasassādaṃ); Saddh 37, 51. See also appasseda under appa.

:: Assādanā (feminine) [cf. assāda] sweetness, taste, enjoyment S I 124; Snp 447 (= sādubhāva Pj II 393).

:: Assādeti [denominative from assāda] to taste S II 227 (lābha-sakkārasilokaṃ); Vism 73 (paviveka-sukha-rasaṃ); Dhp-a I 318.

:: Assāraddha v.l. at It 111 for asāraddha.

:: Assāvin (adjective) [ā + sru] only in an° not enjoying or finding pleasure, not intoxicated Snp 853 (sātiyesu a. = sāta-vatthusu kāmaguṇesu taṇhā-santhava-virahito Pj II 549). See also āsava.

:: Assāsa [Sanskrit āśvāsa, ā + śvas
1. (literal) breathing, especially breathing out (so Vism 272), exhalation, opposed to passāsa inhalation, with which often combined. or contrasted; thus as compound assāsa-passāsa meaning breathing (in and out), sign of life, process of breathing, breath D II 157 = S I 159 = Thag 905; D III 266; M I 243; S I 106; IV 293; V 330, 336; A IV 409; V 135; Ja II 146; VI 82; Miln 31, 85; Vism 116, 197. — assāsa in contrast with passāsa at Paṭis I 95, 164f., 182f.
2. (figurative) breathing easily, freely or quietly, relief, comfort, consolation, confidence M I 64; S II 50 (dhamma-vinaye); IV 254 (param-assāsa-ppatta); A I 192; III 297f. (dhamma-vinaye); IV 185; Ja VI 309 (see assattha2); Miln 354; Pv-a 104 (°matta only a little breathing space); Saddh 299 (param°), 313.

:: Assāsaka (adjective/noun) [from assāsa
1. (cf. assāsa 1) having breath, breathing, in an° not able to draw breath Vin III 84; IV 111.
2. (cf. assāsa2) (masculine and neuter) that which gives comfort and relief, confidence, expectancy Ja I 84; VI 150. Cf. next.

:: Assāsika (adjective) [from assāsa in meaning of assāsa 2, cf. assāsaka 2] — only in negative an° not able to afford comfort, giving no comfort or security M I 514; III 30; Ja II 298 (= aññaṃ assāsetuṃ asamatthaṭāya na assāsika). Cf. BHS anāśvāsika in stereotype phrase anitya adhruva anāśvāsika vipariṇāmadharman Divy 207; Avś 139, 144; whereas the corresponding Pāli equivalent runs anicca addhuva asassata (= appāyuka) vipariṇāma-dhamma thus inviting the conjecture that BHS āśvāsika is somehow distorted out of Pāli asassata.

:: Assāsin (adjective) [Sanskrit āśvāsin] reviving, cheering up, consoled, happy S IV 43 (an°).

:: Assāseti [causative of assasati] to console, soothe, calm, comfort, satisfy Ja VI 190, 512; Dhp-a I 13.

:: Assita (adjective) [Sanskrit aśrita, ā + past participle of śri] dependent on, relying, supported by (accusative); abiding, living in or on D II 255 (tad°); Vv 5016 (sīho va guhaṃ a.); Thag 149 (janaṃ ev'assito jano); Saddh 401.

:: Assirī (adjective) [a + sirī] without splendour, having lost its brightness, in assirī viya khāyati Nett 62 = Ud 79 (which latter has sassar'iva, cf. Ud-a 386 sassati viya ... asassati-r-iva).

:: Assu1 (neuter) [Vedic aśru, Avesta asrū, literally aszar, with etymology not definitely clear: see Walde, Latin Wtb. under lacrima] a tear Vin I 87 (assūni pavatteti to shed tears); S II 282 (the same); Dhp 74; Thig 496 (cf. Thig-a 289); Pj I 65; Dhp-a I 12 (°puṇṇa-netta with eyes full of tears); II 98; Pv-a 125.

-dhārā a shower of tears Dhp-a IV 15 (pavatteti to shed);
-mukha (adjective) with tearful face [cf. BHS aśrumukha e.g. Jm 3116] D I 115, 141; Dhp 67; Pp 56; Sv I 284; Pv-a 39;
-mocana shedding of tears Pv-a 18.

:: Assu2 is 3rd plural potential of atthi.

:: Assu3 (indeclinable) [Sanskrit sma] expletive particle also used in emphatic sense of "surely, yes, indeed" Snp 231 (according to Fausbøll, but preferably with PTS editor as tayas su for tay'assu, cf. Pj I 188); Vv 324 (assa v.l.) = Vv-a 135 (assū ti nipāta-mattaṃ). Perhaps we ought to take this assu3 together with the following assu4 as a modification of ssu (see su2). Cf. āsu.

:: Assu4 particle for Sanskrit svid (and sma?) see under su2. According to this view Fausbølls reading ken'assu at Snp 1032 is to be emended to kena ssu.

:: Assuka (neuter) [assu1 + ka] a tear Vin II 289; Snp 691; Pv IV 53.

:: Assutavant (adjective) [a + sutavant] one who has not heard, ignorant M I 1, 8, 135; Dhs 1003, 1217, cf. BMPE 237 note 2.

:: Aha1 Aha (indeclinable) [cf. Sanskrit aha and Pāli aho; Germ. aha; Latin ehem etc.] — exclamation of surprise, consterenation, pain etc. "oh! alas! woe!". Perhaps to be seen in compound °kāmā miserable pleasures literally "woe to these pleasures!") gloss at Thig-a 292 for Text kāmakāmā of Thig 506 (explained by commentary as "ahā ti lāmaka-pariyāyo"). See also ahaha.

:: Aha2 (—°) and Aho (°-) (neuter) [Vedic ahan and ahas] a day.
1. °aha only in following compounds and cases: instrumental ekahena in one day Ja VI 366; locative tadahe on that (same) day Pv-a 46; accusative katipahaṃ (for) some or several days Ja I 152 etc. (kattpaha); sattāhaṃ seven days, a week Vin I 1; D II 14; Ja IV 2, and frequent; anvahaṃ daily Dāṭh IV 8. — The initial a of ahaṃ (accusative) is elided after i, which often appears lengthened: kati'haṃ how many days? S I 7; ekahadvīhaṃ one or two days Ja I 292; dvīha-tīhaṃ two or three days Ja II 103; Vv-a 45; ekaha-dvīhaccayena after the lapse of one or two days Ja I 253. — A doublet of aha is anha (through metathesis from ahan), which only occurs in phrases pubbaṇho and sāyaṇha (q.v.); an adjective derived from aha is °ahika: see pañcahika (consisting of 5 days).
2. aho° in compound aho-ratta (masculine and neuter) [cf. BHS ahorātraṃ Avś I 209] and ahoratti (feminine) day and night, occurring mostly in oblique cases and adverbially in accusative ahorattaṃ: M I 417 (°ānusikkhin); Dhp 226 (the same.; explained by divā ca rattiñ ca tisso sikkhā sikkhamāna Dhp-a III 324); Thag 145 (ahorattā accayanti); Ja IV 108 (°ānaṃ accaye); Pv II 131 (°ṃ); Miln 82 (ena). — ahorattiṃ Dhp 387; Ja VI 313 (v.l. for Text aho va rattiṃ).

:: Ahaṃ Ahaṃ (pronoun) [Vedic ahaṃ = Avesta azém; Greek ἐγώ(ν); Latin ego; Gothic ik, Anglo-Saxon ic, Old High German ih etc.] pronoun of 1st person "I" nominative singular ahaṃ S III 235; A IV 53; Dhp 222, 320; Snp 172, 192, 685, 989, 1054, 1143; Ja I 61; II 159. — In pregnant sense (my ego, myself, I as the one and only, i.e. egotistically) in following phrases: yaṃ vadanti mama ... na te ahaṃ S I 116, 123; ahaṃ asmi "I am" (cf. ahaṃkāra below) S I 129; III 46, 128f.; IV 203; A II 212, 215f.; Vism 13; ahaṃ pure ti "I am the first" Vv 8450 (= ahamahaṃkārā ti Vv-a 351). — genitive dative mayhaṃ mayhaṃ Snp 431, 479; Ja I 279; II 160, mama S I 115; Snp 22, 23, 341, 997; Ja II 159, and mamaṃ S I 116; Snp 253 (= mama commentary), 694, 982. — instrumental mayā Snp 135, 336, 557, 982; Ja I 222, 279. — accusative maṃ Snp 356, 366, 425, 936; Ja II 159; III 26, and mamaṃ Ja III 55, 394. — locative mayi Snp 559; Ja III 188. The enclitic form in the singular is me, and functions in different cases, as genitive (Snp 983; Ja II 159), accusative (Snp 982), instrumental (Ja I 138, 222), and ablative — plural nominative mayaṃ (we) Snp 31, 91, 167, 999; Ja II 159; VI 365, amhe Ja II 129, and vayaṃ (q.v.). — genitive amhākaṃ amhākaṃ Ja I 221; II 159 and asmākaṃ Snp 106. — accusative amhe Ja I 222; II 415 and asme Ja III 359. — instrumental amhehi Ja I 150; II 417 and asmābhi Thig-a 153 (Ap. 132). — locative amhesu Ja I 222. The enclitic form for the plural is no (for accusative dat and genitive): see under vayaṃ.

-kāra selfishness, egotism, arrogance (see also mamaṃkāra) M III 18, 32; S II 253; III 80, 136, 169f.; IV 41, 197, 202; A I 132f.; III 444; Ud 70; Nett 127, and passim.


:: Ahaha [onomatopoetic after exclamation ahahā: see aha1
1. exclamation of woe Ja III 450 (ahahā in metre).
2. (neuter) name of a certain division of Hell (Niraya), literally oh woe! A V 173 = Snp page 126.

:: Ahāsa [a + hāsa, cf. Sanskrit ahāsa and aharṣa] absence of exultancy, modesty Ja III 466 (= an-ubbillāvitattaṃ commentary).

:: Ahāsi 3rd singular preterit of harati (q.v.).

:: Ahi [Vedic ahi, with Avesta ai perhaps to Latin anguis etc., see Walde Latin Wtb. sub voce] a snake Vin II 109; D I 77; S IV 198; A III 306f.; IV 320; V 289; Nidd I 484; Vism 345 (+ kukkura etc.); Vv-a 100; Pv-a 144. {82}

-kuṇapa the carcase of a snake Vin III 68 = M I 73 = A IV 377;
-gāha a snake catcher or trainer Ja VI 192;
-guṇṭhika (? reading uncertain, we find as vv.ll. °guṇḍika, °guṇṭika and °kuṇḍika; the BHS paraphrase is °tuṇḍika Divy 497. In view of this uncertainty we are unable to pronounce a safe etymology; it is in all probability a dialectical; maybe non-Aryan, word. See also under kuṇḍika and guṇṭhika and cf. Morris in JPTS 1886, 153) a snake charmer Ja I 370 (°guṇḍ°); II 267; III 348 (°guṇḍ°); IV 456 (Text °guṇṭ; v.l. °kuṇḍ°) 308 (Text °kuṇḍ°, v.l. °guṇṭh°), 456 (Text °guṇṭ°; v.l. °kuṇḍ); VI 171 (Text °guṇḍ°; v.l. °kuṇḍ°); Miln 23, 305;
-chattaka (neuter) "a snake's parasol", a mushroom D III 87; Ja II 95; Ud-a 399;
-tuṇḍika = °guṇṭhika Vism 304, 500;
-peta a Peta in form of a snake Dhp-a II 63;
-mekhalā "snake-girdle", i.e. outfit or appearance of a snake Dhp-a I 139;
-vātaka (-roga) name of a certain disease ("snake-wind-sickness") Vin I 78; Ja II 79; IV 200; Dhp-a I 169, 187, 231; III 437;
-vijjā "snake-craft", i.e. fortune-telling or sorcery by means of snakes D I 9 (= sappa-daṭṭhatikicchana-vijjā c'eva sappavhāyana-vijjā ca "the art of healing snake bites as well as the invocation of snakes (for magic purposes)" Sv I 93).

:: Ahiṃsaka (adjective) [from ahiṃsā] not injuring others, harmless, humane, S I 165; Thag 879; Dhp 225; Ja IV 447.

:: Ahiṃsā (feminine) [a + hiṃsā] not hurting, humanity, kindness D III 147; A I 151; Dhp 261, 270; Ja IV 71; Miln 402.

:: Ahita (adjective/noun) [a + hita] not good or friendly, harmful, bad; unkindliness D III 246; Dhp 163; Snp 665, 692; Miln 199 (°kāma).

:: Ahirika and Ahirīka (adjective) [from a + hirī] shameless, unscrupulous D III 212, 252, 282; A II 219; Dhp 244; Snp 133 (°īka); It 27 (°īka); Pp 19 (also neuter unscrupulousness); Dhs 365; Nett 39, 126; Dhp-a III 352.

:: Ahīnindriya see discussion under abhinindriya.

:: Ahu1, 2 [DOP] singular accusative locative of aha(n) qv.

:: Ahu3, 4 [DOP] aorist 3 singular, 2 singular of bhavati qv.

:: Ahuvāsiṃ 1st singular preterit of hotī (q.v.) I was Vv 826 (= ahosiṃ Vv-a 321).

:: Ahuhāliya (neuter) [onomatopoetic] a hoarse and loud laugh Ja III 223 (= danta-vidaṃsaka-mahā-hasita commentary).

:: Ahe (indeclinable) [= aho, cf. aha1] exclamation of surprise or bewilderment: alas! woe etc., perhaps in compound ahevana a dense forest (literal oh! this forest, alas! the forest (i.e. how big it is) Ja V 63 (uttamāhevanandaho, if reading is correct, which is not beyond doubt. commentary on page 64 explains as "ahevanaṃ vuccati vanasaṇḍo").

:: Aho (indeclinable) [Sanskrit aho, for etymology see aha1] exclamation of surprise, astonishment or consternation: yea, indeed, well; I say! for sure! Vv-a 103 (aho ti acchariyatthena nipāto); Ja I 88 (aho acchariyaṃ aho abbhutaṃ), 140. Usually combined with similar emphatic particles, e.g. aho vata Dhp-a II 85; Pv-a 131 (= sādhu vata); aho vata re D I 107; Pv II 945. Cf. ahe.

:: Ahosi-kamma (neuter) an act or thought whose kamma has na longer any potential force: Cpd. 145. At page 45 ahosikakamma is said to be a kamma inhibited by a more powerful one. See Buddhaghosa in Vism Chap. XIX (page 601).

-----[ Ā ]-----    Ā


:: Ā1 (indeclinable) [Vedic ā, preposition with accusative, locative, ablative, meaning "to, towards", and also "from". Originally an emphatic-deictic particle (Indo-Germanic °e) = Greek ἦ surely, really; Old High German °ā etc., increment of a (Indo-Germanic °e), as in Sanskrit a-sau; Greek ὲκεῖ (cf. a3), see Brugmann, Kurze Vergl. Greek 464, 465] — a frequent prefix, used as well-defined simple base-prefix (with root derivations), but not as modification (i.e. first part of a double prefix compound like sam-ā-dhi) except in one case ā-ni-saṃsa (which is doubtful and of different origin, viz. from combination āsaṃsa-nisaṃsa, see below 3b). It denotes either touch (contact) or a personal (close) relation to the object (ā ti anussaraṇatthe nipāto Pv-a 165), or the aim of the action expressed in the verbal
1. As preposition with ablative only in Ja in meaning "up to, until, about, near" Ja VI 192 (ā sahassehi = yāva s. commentary), probably a late development. As prefix in meaning "forth, out, to, towards, at, on" in following applications:
(a) aim in general or touch in particular (literal), e.g. ākaḍḍhati pull to, along or up; °kāsa shining forth; °koṭeti knock at; °gacchati go towards; °camati rinse over; °neti bring towards, ad-duce; °bhā shining forth; °bhujati bend in; °masati touch at; °yata stretched out; °rabhati at-tempt; °rohana a-scending; °laya hanging on; °loketi look at; °vattati ad-vert; °vahati bring to; °vāsa dwelling at; °sādeti touch; °sīdati sit by; °hanati strike at.
(b) in reflexive function: close relation to subject or person actively concerned, e.g. ādāti take on or up (to oneself); °dāsa looking at, mirror; °dhāra support; °nandati rejoice; °nisaṃsa subjective gain; °bādha being affected; °modita pleased; °rakkha guarding; °rādhita satisfied; °rāma (personal) delight in; °liṅgati embrace (to oneself); °hāra taking to (oneself).
(c) in transitive function: close relation to the object passively concerned, e.g. āghātana killing; °carati indulge in; °cikkhati point ont, explain; °jīva living on; °ṇāpeti give an order to somebody; °disati point out to some one; °bhindati cut; °manteti ad-dress; °yācati pray to; °roceti speak to; siñcati besprinkle; °sevati indulge in.
(d) out of meaning (a) develops that of an intensive-frequentative prefix in sense of "all-round, completely, very much", e.g. ākiṇṇa strewn all over, °kula mixed up; °dhuta moved about; °rāva shouting out or very much; °luḷati move about; °hiṇḍati roam about.
2. Affinities. Closely related in meaning and often interchanging are the following preposition (prefixes): anu (°bhati), abhi (°saṃsati), pa (°tapati), paṭi (°kaṅkhati) in meaning 1 a-c; and vi (°kirati, °ghāta, °cameti, °lepa, °lopa), sam (°tapati, °dassati) in meaning 1 (d). See also 3 (b).
3. Combinations:
(a) Intensifying combinations of other modifying prefixes with ā as base: anu + ā (anvā-gacchati, °disati, °maddati, °rohati, °visati, °sanna, °hata), paṭi + ā (paccā-janati, °ttharati, °dāti, °savati), pari + ā (pariyā-ñāta, °dāti, °pajjati, °harati), sam + ā (samā-disati, °dāna, °dhi, °pajjati, °rabhati).
(b) Contrast-combinations with other prefix in a double compound of noun, adjective or verb (cf. above 2) in meaning of "up and down, in and out, to and fro"; ā + ni: āvedhika-nibbedhika, āsaṃsa-nisaṃsa (contracted to ānisaṃsa), āsevita-nisevita; ā + pa: assasati-passāsati (where both terms are semantically alike; in exegesis however they have been differentiated in a way which looks like a distortion of the original meaning, viz. assasati is taken as "breathing out", passāsati as "breathing in": see Vism 271), assāsa-passāsa, āmodita-pamodita, āhuna-pāhuna, āhuneyya-pāhuneyya; ā + paccā: {93} Ākoṭita-paccākoṭita; ā + pari: ākaḍḍhana-parikaḍḍhana, āsaṅkita-parisaṅkita; ā + vi: ālokita-vilokita, āvāha-vivāha, āveṭhana-viniveṭhana; a + sam: allāpa-sallāpa: ā + samā: āciṇṇa-samāciṇṇa.
4. Before double consonants ā is shortened to a and words containing ā in this form are to be found under a°, e.g. akkamaṇa, akkhitta, acchādeti, aññāta, appoṭeti, allāpa, assāda.

:: Ā°2 guṇa or increment of a° in connection with such suffixes as °ya, °iya, °itta. So in āyasakya from ayasaka; āruppa from arūpa; ārogya from aroga; ālasiya from alasa; ādhipacca from adhipati; ābhidosika from abhidosa etc.

:: Ā°3 of various other origins (guṇa e.g. of r̥ or lengthening of ordinary root a°), rare, as ālinda (for alinda), āsabha (from usabha).

:: Ā°4 infix in repetition-compounds denoting accumulation or variety (by contrast with the opposite, cf. Ā1 3 (b)), constitutes a guṇa- or increment form of negative prefix a (see a2), as in following: phalāphala all sorts of fruit (literal what is fruit and not fruit) frequent in Jātakas, e.g. I 416; II 160; III 127; IV 220, 307, 449; V 313; VI 520; kāraṇākāraṇāni all sorts of duties Ja VI 333; Dhp-a I 385; {83} khaṇḍākhaṇḍa pēle-mēle Ja I 114; III 256; gaṇḍāgaṇḍa a mass of boils Dhp-a III 297; cirāciraṃ continually Vin IV 261; bhavābhava all kinds of existences Snp 801, cf. Nidd I 109; Nidd II §664; Thag 784 (°esu = mahant-āmahantesu bhikkhus commentary, see Ps.B. 305); rūpārūpa the whole aggregate Thig-a 285; etc.

:: Ākaṅkhati [ā + kāṅkṣ, cf. kaṅkhati] to wish for, think of, desire; intend, plan, design Vin II 244 (°amāna); D I 78, 176; S I 46; Snp 569 (°amāna); Snp page 102 (= icchati Pj II 436); Dhp-a I 29; Pj II 229; Vv-a 149; Pv-a 229. [BD]: Hankering after

:: Ākaṅkhā feminine [from ā + kāṅkṣ] longing, wish; Thag 1030. [BD]: Hanker

:: Ākaḍḍhati [ā + kaḍḍhati] to pull along, pull to (oneself), drag or draw out, pull up Vin II 325 (Buddhaghosa for apakassati, see under apakāsati); IV 219; Ja I 172, 192, 417; Miln 102, 135; Thig-a 117 (°eti); Vv-a 226; Pv-a 68. — passive ākaḍḍhiyati Ja II 122 (°amāna-locana with eyes drawn away or attracted); Miln 102; Vism 163; Vv-a 207 (°amāna-hadaya with torn heart). — past participle ākaḍḍhita.

:: Ākaḍḍhana (neuter) [from ākaḍḍhati] drawing away or to, pulling out, distraction Vv-a 212 (°parikaḍḍhana pulling about); As 363; Miln 154 (°parikaḍḍhana), 352. — As feminine Vin III 121.

:: Ākaḍḍhita [past participle of akaḍḍhati] pulled out, dragged along; upset, overthrown Ja III 256 (= akkhitta2).

:: Ākantana (?) a possible reading, for the durakantana of the text at Thag 1123, for which we might read durākantana.

:: Ākappa [cf. Sanskrit ākalpa ā + kappa
1. attire, appearance, Vin I 44 (an°) = II 213; Ja I 505.
2. deportment Dhs 713 (ā° gamanādi-ākāro As 321).

-sampanna, suitably attired, well dressed, A III 78; Ja IV 542; anākappa-sampanna, ill dressed, Ja I 420.

:: Ākampita [past participle of ākampeti, causative of ā + kamp] shaking, trembling Miln 154 (°hadaya).

:: 'kara [cf. Sanskrit ākara] a mine, usually in compound ratan'-ākara a mine of jewels Thag 1049; Ja II 414; VI 459; Dīp I 18. — Cf. also Miln 356; Vv-a 13.

:: Ākassati [ā + kassati] to draw along, draw after, plough, cultivate Nidd I 428.

:: Ākāra [a + karoti, kr̥] "the (way of) making", i.e.
1. state, condition Ja I 237 (avasan° condition of inhabitability); II 154 (patan° state of falling), cf. paṇṇ°.
2. property, quality, attribute D I 76 (anāvila sabb°-sampanna endowed with all good qualities, of a jewel); II 157 (°varūpeta); Ja II 352 (sabb° paripuṇṇa altogether perfect in qualities).
3. sign, appearance, form, D I 175; Ja I 266 (chātak° sign of hunger); Miln 24 (°ena by the sign of ...); Vv-a 27 (Therassa ā. form of the Th.); Pv-a 90, 283 (rañño ā. the king's person); Saddh 363.
4. way, mode, manner, sa-ākāra in all their modes D I 13 = 82 = III 111; Ja I 266 (āgaman° the mode of his coming). Especially in instrumental singular and plural with numeral or pronoun (in this way, in two ways etc.): chah'ākārehi in a sixfold manner Nidd II §680 5n (cf. kāraṇehi in same sense); Nett 73, 74 (dvādasah'ākārehi); Vism 613 (navah'ākārehi indriyāni tikkhāni bhavanti); Pv-a 64 (yen'ākārena āgato ten'ākārena gato as he came so he went), 99 (the same).
5. reason, ground, account D I 138, 139; Nett 4, 8f., 38; Dhp-a I 14; Pj I 100 (in explanation of evaṃ). In this meaning frequent with dass (dasseti, dassana, nidassana etc.) in commentary style "what is meant by", the (statement of) reason why or of, notion, idea Pv-a 26 (dātabbākāradassana), 27 (thomanākāradassana), 75 (kāruññākāraṃ dassesi), 121 (pucchanākāradassanaṃ what has been asked); Pj II 135 (°nidassana).

-parivitakka study of conditions, careful consideration, examination of reasons S II 115; IV 138; A II 191 = Nidd II §151.

:: Ākāraka (neuter) [ākāra + ka] appearance; reason, manner (cf. ākāra 4) Ja I 269 (ākārakena = kāraṇena commentary).

:: Ākāravant (adjective) [from ākāra] having a reason, reasonable, founded M I 401 (saddhā).

:: Ākāsa1 Ākāsa [Sanskrit ākāśa from ā + kāś, literally shining forth, i.e. the illuminated space] air, sky, atmosphere; space. On the concept see Cpd. 5, 16, 226. On a fanciful etymology of ākāsa (from ā + kassati of kr̥ṣ) at As 325 see BMPE 178, note 1. — D I 55 (°ṃ indriyāni saṅkamanti the sense-faculties pass into space); III 224, 253, 262, 265; S III 207; IV 218; V 49, 264; Ja I 253; II 353; III 52, 188; IV 154; VI 126; Snp 944, 1065; Nidd I 428; Pv II 118; Pj II 110, 152; Pv-a 93; Saddh 42, 464. — ākāsena gacchati to go through the air Pv-a 75 (āgacch°), 103, 105, 162; °ena carati the same Ja II 103; °e gacchati the same Pv-a 65 (cando). — Formula "ananto ākāso" frequent; e.g. at D I 183; A II 184; IV 40, 410f.; V 345.

-anta "the end of the sky", the sky, the air (on °anta see anta1 4) Ja VI 89;
-ānañca (or ânañca) the infinity of space, in compound °āyatana the sphere or plane of the infinity of space, the "space-infinity-plane", the sphere of unbounded space. The consciousness of this sphere forms the first one of the 4 (or 6) higher attainments or recognitions of the mind, standing beyond the fourth jhāna, viz. (1) ākās°, (2) viññāṇānañcāyatana (3) ākiñcaññāyatana, (4) n'evasaññānasaññāyatana, (5) nirodha, (6) phala. — D I 34, 183; II 70, 112, 156; III 224, 262f.; M I 41, 159.; III 27, 44; S V 119; Paṭis I 36; Dhs 205, 501, 579, 1418; Nett 26, 39; Vism 326, 340, 453; Sv I 120 (see Nidd II under ākāsa; Dhs 265f.; BMPE 65). As classed with jhāna see also Nidd II §672 (sādhu-vihārin);
-kasiṇa one of the kasiṇāyatanas (see under kasiṇa) D III 268; A I 41;
-Gaṅgā name of the celestial river Ja I 95; III 344;
-gamana going through the air (as a trick of elephants) Miln 201;
-cārika walking through the air Ja II 103;
-cārin = °cārika Vv-a 6;
-ṭṭha living in the sky (of devatā) Bv I 29; Miln 181, 285; Pj I 120; Pj II 476;
-tala upper story, terrace on the top of a palace Pj II 87;
-dhātu the element of space D III 247; M I 423; III 31; A I 176; III 34; Dhs 638.

:: Ākāsa2 (neuter°) a game, playing chess "in the air" (sans voir) Vin II 10 = D I 6 (= aṭṭhapada-dasapadesu viya ākāse yeva kiḷanaṃ Sv I 85).

:: Ākāsaka (adjective) [ākāsa + ka] being in or belonging to the air or sky Ja VI 124.


:: Ākāsati [from ākāsa1] to shine Ja VI 89.

:: Ākiñcañña (neuter) [abstract from akiñcana] state of having nothing, absence of (any) possessions; nothingness (the latter as philosophical technical term; cf. below °āyatana and see BMPE 68). — Snp 976, 1070, 1115 (°sambhava, cf. Nidd II §116); Thig 341 (= akiñcanabhāva Thig-a 240; translated "cherish no wordly wishes whatsoe'er"); Nidd II §115, see ākāsa; Miln 342.

-āyatana realm or sphere of nothingness (cf. ākāsa°) D I 35, 184; II 156; III 224, 253, 262f.; M I 41, 165; II 254, 263; III 28, 44, S IV 217; A I 268; IV 40, 401; Paṭis I 36; Nett 26, 39; Vism 333. See also jhāna and vimokkha.

:: Ākiṇṇa [past participle of ākirati
1. strewn over, beset with, crowded, full of, dense, rich in (°-) Vin III 130 (°loma with dense hair); S I 204 (°kammanta "in motley tasks engaged"); IV 37 (gāmanto ā. bhikkhūhi etc.); A III 104 (°vihāro); IV 4; V 15 (an° commentary for appakiṇṇa); Snp 408 (°varalakkhaṇa = vipula-varalakkh° Pj II 383); Pv II 124 (nānā-dijagaṇ° = āyutta Pv-a 157); Pp 31; Pv-a 32 (= parikiṇṇa); Saddh 595. — Frequently in idiomatic phrase describing a flourishing city "iddha phīta bahujana ākiṇṇa-manussa", e.g. D I 211; II 147 (°yakkha for °manussa; full of yakkhas, i.e. under their protection); A III 215; cf. Miln 2 (°jana-manussa).
2. (uncertain whether to be taken as above 1 or as equal to avakiṇṇa from avakirati 2) dejected, base, vile, ruthless S I 205 = Ja III 309 = 539 = Pj II 383. At K.S. 261, Mrs. Rh.D. translates "ruthless" and quotes commentary as implying twofold exegesis of (a) impure, and (b) hard, ruthless. It is interesting to notice that Buddhaghosa explains the same verse differently at Pj II 383, viz. by vipula°, as above under Snp 408, and takes ākiṇṇaludda as vipulaludda, i.e. beset with cruelty, very or intensely cruel, thus referring it to ākiṇṇa 1.


:: Ākirati [ā + kirati] to strew over, scatter, sprinkle, disperse, fill, heap Snp 665; Dhp 313; Pv II 49 (dānaṃ vipulaṃ ākiri = vippakirati Pv-a 92); Miln 175, 238, 323 (imperative ākirāhi); Snp 383. — past participle ākiṇṇa.

:: Ākiritatta (neuter) [ākirita + tta; abstract from ākirita, past participle of ākirati causative] the fact or state of being filled or heaped with Miln 173 (sakataṃ dhaññassa ā).

:: Ākilāyati v.l. at Pj I 66 for āgilāyati.

:: Ākucca (or °ā?) [etymology unknown, probably non-Aryan] an iguana Ja VI 538 (commentary godhā; gloss amattākuccā).

:: Ākurati [onomatopoetic to sound-root *kur = *kor as in Latin cornix, corvus etc. See gala note 2 B and cf. kukkuṭa, kokila, khaṭa etc., all words expressing a rasping noise in the throat. The attempts at etymology by Trenckner (Miln page 425 as denominative of ākula) and Morris (JPTS 1886, 154 as contracted denominative of aṅkura "intumescence", thus meaning "to swell") are hardly correct] — to be hoarse Miln 152 (kaṇṭho ākurati).

:: Ākula (adjective) [ā + *kul of which Sanskrit-Pāli kula, to Idg °quel to turn round, cf. also cakka and carati; literally meaning "revolving quickly", and so "confused"] — entangled, confused, upset, twisted, bewildered Ja I 123 (salākaggaṃ °ṃ karoti to upset or disturb); Vv 849 (andha°); Pv-a 287 (an° clear). Often reduplicated as ākulākula thoroughly confused Miln 117, 220; Pv-a 56; ākula-pākula Ud 5 (so read for akkula-pakkula); ākula-samākula Ja VI 270. — On phrase tantākula-jātā gulā-guṇṭhika-jātā see guḷā.

:: Ākulaka (adjective) [from ākula] entangled D II 55 (tant° for the usual tantākula, as given under guḷā).

:: Ākulanīya (adjective) [gerund of ā + °kulāyati, denominative of kula] in an° not to be confused or upset Pv-a 118.

:: Ākulī (-puppha) at Pj I 60 (milāta°) read (according to Index page 870) as milāta-bakula-puppha. Vism 260 (the same passage) however reads ākulī-puppha "tangle-flower" (?), cf. Ud 5, gāthā 7 bakkula, which is preferably to be read as pākula.

:: Ākoṭana1 (neuter) [from ākoṭeti] beating on, knocking M I 385; Miln 63, 306; As 144.

:: Ākoṭana2 (adjective) [= ākoṭana1] beating, driving, inciting, urging Ja VI 253 (feminine ākoṭanī of paññā, explained by "nivāraṇapatoda-laṭṭhi viya paññā koṭinī hoti" page 254).

:: Ākoṭita [past participle of ākoṭeti] 1. beaten, touched, knocked against Ja I 303; Miln 62 (of a gong). 2. pressed, beaten down (tight), flattened, in phrase ākoṭita-paccākoṭita flattened and pressed all round (of the cīvara) S II 281; Dhp-a I 37.

:: Ākoṭeti [a + koṭṭeti, Sanskrit kuṭṭayati; BHS ākoṭayati e.g. Divy 117 dvāraṃ trir ā°, Cowell "break" (?); Avś Index page 222 sub voce]
1. to beat down, pound, stamp Ja I 264.
2. to beat, knock, thresh Vin II 217; Ja II 274; Pv-a 55 (aññamaññaṃ); Saddh 159.
3. Especially with reference to knocking at the door, in phrases aggaḷaṃ ākoṭeti to beat on the bolt D I 89; A IV 359; V 65; Sv I 252 (cf. aggaḷa); dvāraṃ ā. Ja V 217; Dhp-a II 145; or simply ākoṭeti Vv 8117 (ākoṭayitvāna = appoṭetvā Vv-a 316).
4. (intransitive) to knock against anything Ja I 239. — past participle ākoṭita (q.v.). causative II ākoṭapeti Ja III 361.

:: Ākhu [Vedic ākhu, from ā + khan, literally the digger in, i.e. a mole; but given as rat or mouse by Abhidh-r-m] a mouse or rat Pañca-g 10.

:: Āgacchati Āgacchati [ā + gacchati, gam] to come to or towards, approach, go back, arive etc.
I. Forms (same arrangement as under gacchati):
1. √gacch: present āgacchati D I. 161; Ja II 153; Pv IV 151; future āgacchissati Ja III 53; preterit āgacchi Pv II 133; Pv-a 64.
2. √gam: preterit āgamāsi Pv-a 81, āgamā D I 108; Ja III 128, and plural āgamiṃsu Ja I 118; future āgamissati Vv-a 3; Pv-a 122; gerund āgamma (q.v.) and āgantvā Ja I 151; Miln 14; causative āgameti (q.v.).
3. √gā: preterit āgā Snp 841; Pv I 123 (= āgacchi Pv-a 64). — past participle āgata (q.v.).
II. Mcanings:
1. to come to, approach, arrive D I 108; Pv I 113; II 133; Miln 14; to return, to come back (cf. āgata) Pv-a 81, 122.
2. to come into, to result, deserve (cf. āgama 2) D I 161 (gārayhaṃ ṭhānaṃ deserve blame, come to be blamed); Pv IV 151 (get to, be a profit to = upakappati Pv-a 241).
3. to come by, to come out to (be understood as), to refer or be referred to, to be meant or understood (cf. āgata 3 and āgama 3) Ja I 118 (tīṇi piṭakāni āgamiṃsu); Pj II 321; Vv-a 3. See also āgamma.

:: Āgata [past participle of āgacchati]
1. come, arrived Miln 18 (°kāraṇa the reason of his coming); Vv-a 78 (°ṭṭhāna); Pv-a 81 (kiṃ āgat'attha why have you come here) come by, got attained (°-) A II 110 = Pp 48 (°visa); Mhv 14, 27 (°phala = Anāgāmiphala)
-āgatāgatā (plural) people coming and going, passivers by, all comers Pv-a 39, 78, 129; Vv-a 190 (especially of saṅgha). °svāgata "wel-come", greeted, hailed; neuter welcome, hail Thig 337; Pv IV 315, opposite durāgata not liked, unwelcome, A II 117, 143, 153; III 163; Thig 337.
2. come down, handed down (by memory, said of texts) D I 88; Dhp-a II 35; Pj I 229; Vv-a 30; āgatāgamo, one to whom the āgama, or the āgamas, have been handed down, Vin I 127, 337; II 8; IV 158; A II 147; Miln 19, 21.
3. anāgata not come yet, i.e. future; usually in combination with atīta (past) and paccuppanna (present): see atīta and anāgata.

:: Āgati (feminine) [ā + gati] coming, coming back, return S III 53; Ja II 172. Usually opposed to gati going away. Used in spe- {95} cial sense of rebirth and re-death in the course of saṃsāra. Thus in āgati gati cuti upapatti D I 162; A III 54f., 60f., 74; cf. also S II 67; Pv II 922 (gatiṃ āgatiṃ vā).

:: Āgada (masculine) and āgadana (neuter) [ā + gad to speak] a word; talk, speech Sv I 66 (= vacana).

:: Āgantar [N. ag. from āgacchati] one who is coming or going to come A I 63; II 159; It 4, 95 (nominative āgantā only one ms, all others āgantvā). an° A I 64; II 160.

:: Āgantu (adjective) [Sanskrit āgantu] 1. occasional, incidental Ja VI 358. 2. an occasional arrival, a new comer, stranger Ja VI 529 (= āgantuka-jana commentary); Thig-a 16.

:: Āgantuka (adjective/noun) [āgantu + ka; cf. BHS āgantuka in same meaning as Pāli viz. āgantukā bhikṣavaḥ Avś I 87, 286; Divy 50]
1. coming, arriving, newcomer, guest, stranger, especially a newly arrived bhikkhu; a visitor (opposite gamika one who goes away) Vin I 132, 167; II 170; III 65, 181; IV 24, A I 10; III 41, 366; Ja VI 333; Ud 25; Dhp-a II 54, 74; Vv-a 24; Pv-a 54.
2. adventitions, incidental (= āgantu1) Miln 304 (of megha and roga).
3. accessory, superimposed, added Vism 195.

-bhatta food given to a guest, meal for a visitor Vin I 292 (opposite gamika°); II 16.

:: Āgama [from ā + gam]
1. coming, approach, result, D I 53 (āgamanaṃ pavattatī ti Sv I 160; cf. Saddh 249 dukkh°).
2. that which one goes by, resource, reference, source of reference, text, scripture, canon; thus a designation of (?) the Pātimokkha, Vin II 95 = 249, or of the Four Nikāyas, Sv I 1, 2 (dīgh°). A definition at Vism 442 runs "antamaso opamma-vagga-mattassa pi Buddha-vacanassa pariyāpuṇaṇaṃ". See also āgata 2, for phrase āgatāgama, Vin loc. cit. svāgamo, versed in the Doctrine, Pv IV 133 (sv° = suṭṭhu āgatāgamo, Pv-a 230); Miln 215. BHS in same use and meaning, e.g. Divy 17, 333, āgamāni = the Four Nikāyas.
3. rule, practice, discipline, obedience, Snp 834 (āgamā parivitakkaṃ), cf. Dāṭh V 22 (takk°, discipline of right thought) Saddh 224 (āgamato, in obedience to).
4. meaning, understanding, Pj I 107 (vaṇṇ°).
5. repayment (of a debt) Ja VI 245.
6. as gramatical technical term a consonant or syllable added or inserted Pj II 23 (sa-kārāgama).

:: Āgamana (neuter) [from āgacchati, Sanskrit same] oncoming, arrival, approach A III 172; Sv I 160; Pv-a 4, 81; Saddh 224, 356. an° not coming or returning Ja I 203, 264.

:: Āgameti [causative of agacchati] to cause somebody or something to come to one, i.e.
1. to wait, to stay Vin II 166, 182, 212; D I 112, 113; S IV 291; Pv-a 4, 55.
2. to wait for, to welcome Vin II 128 (present participle āgamayamāna); M I 161 (the same) Ja I 69 (the same + kālaṃ).

:: Āgamma (adverb) [original gerund of āgacchati, q.v. under I 2 for form and under II 3 for meaning. BHS āgamya in meaning after the Pāli form, e.g. Divy 95, 405 (with genitive); Avś I 85, 210 etc.; Mvu I 243, {85} 313]. — With reference to (with accusative), owing to, relating to; by means of, thanks to. In meaning nearly synonymous with ārabbha, sandhāya and paṭicca (see K.S. I 318 sub voce) D I 229; It 71; Ja I 50; VI 424; Khp VIII 14 (= nissāya Pj I 229); Pv-a 5, 21 etc.

:: Āgāmitā found only in negative form Anāgāmitā.

:: Āgāmin (adjective/noun) [ā + gāmin] returning, one who returns, especially one who returns to another form of life in saṃsāra (cf. āgati), one who is liable to rebirth A I 63; II 159; It 95. See Anāgāmin.

:: Āgāra (—°) see agāra.

:: Āgāraka and °ika (adjective/noun) (—°) [cf. BHS āgārika Divy 275, and agārika] — belonging to the house, viz.
1. having control over the house, keeping, surveying, in compounds koṭṭh° possessor or keeper of a storehouse Vin I 209; bandhan° prison-keeper A II 207; bhaṇḍ° keeper of wares, treasurer Pv-a 2 (see also bhaṇḍ°).
2. being in the house, sharing (the house), companion S III 190 (paṃsv° playmate).

:: Āgāḷha (adjective) (ā + gāḷha 1; cf. Sanskrit samāgāḍhaṃ] strong, hard, harsh, rough (of speech), usually in instrumental as adverb āgāḷhena roughly, harshly A I 283, 295; Pp 32 (so to be read for agāḷhena, although Pp-a 215 has a°, but explains by atigāḷhena vacanena); instrumental feminine āgāḷhāya Vin V 122 (ceteyya; Sp 1327 explains by daḷhabhāvāya). See also Nett 77 (āgāḷhā paṭipadā a rough path), 95 (the same.; v.l. agāḷhā).

:: Āgilāyati [ā + gilāyati; Sanskrit glāyati, cf. gilāna] to be wearied, exhausted or tired, to ache, to become weak or faint Vin II 200; D III 209; M I 354; S IV 184; Pj I 66 (hadayaṃ ā.). Cf. āyamati.

:: Āgu (neuter) [for Vedic āgas neuter] guilt, offence, S I 123; A III 346; Snp 522 = Nidd II §337 (in explanation of nāga as āguṃ na karotī ti nāgo); Nidd I 201. Note: A reconstructed āgasa is found at Saddh 294 in compound akatāgasa not having committed sin.

-cārin one who does evil, D II 339; M II 88; III 163; S II 100, 128; A II 240; Miln 110.

:: Āghāta [Sanskrit āghāta only in literal meaning of striking, killing, but cf. BHS āghāta in meaning "hurtfullness" at Mvu I 79; Avś II 129; cf. ghāta and ghāteti] — anger, ill-will, hatred, malice D I 3, 31; III 72f.; S I 179; Ja I 113; Dhs 1060, 1231; Vibh 167, 362, 389; Miln 136; Vism 306; Sv I 52; Vv-a 67; Pv-a 178. — anāghāta freedom from ill will Vin II 249; A V 80.

-paṭivinaya repression of ill-will; the usual enumeration of Āghāta-paṭivinayā comprises nine, for which see D III 262, 289; Vin V 137; A IV 408; besides this there are sets of five at A III 185f.; Pj II 10, 11, and one of ten at Vin V 138;
-vatthu occasion of ill-will; closely connected with °paṭivinaya and like that enumerated in sets of nine (Vin V 137; A IV 408; Paṭis I 130; Ja III 291, 404; V 149; Vibh 389; Nett 23; Pj II 12), and of ten (Vin V 138; A V 150; Paṭis I 130; Vibh 391).
[BD]: agita

:: Āghātana (neuter) [ā + ghāta(na), cf. āghata which has changed its meaning]
1. slaying, striking, destroying, killing Thag 418, 711; death D I 31 (= maraṇa Sv I 119).
2. shambles, slaughter-house Vin I 182 (gav°); A IV 138; Ja VI 113.
3. place of execution Vin III 151; Ja I 326, 439; III 59; Miln 110; Dhp-a IV 52; Pv-a 4, 5.

Obdurate: stubbornly refusing to change one's opinion or course of action.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

:: Āghāteti [denominative from āghāta, in form + ā + ghāteti, but different in meaning] — only in phrase cittaṃ a. (with locative) to incite one's heart to hatred against, to obdurate one's heart Saddh 126 = S I 151 = A V 172.

:: Ācamati [ā + cam] to take in water, to absorb, to rinse Ja III 297; Miln 152, 262 (+ dhamati). — causative I ācamcti (a) to purge, rinse one's mouth Vin II 142; M II 112; A III 337; Pv IV 13 (ācamayitvā = mukhaṃ vikkhāletvā Pv-a 241); Miln 152 (°ayamāna). — (b) to wash off, clean oneself after evacuation Vin II 221. — causative II ācamāpeti to cause somebody to rinse himself Ja VI 8.

:: Ācamana (neuter) [ā + camana of cam] rinsing washing with water, used (a) for the mouth D I 12 (= udakena mukhasiddhi-karaṇa Sv I 98); (b) after evacuation Ja III 486.

-kumbhī water-pitcher used for rinsing Vin I 49, 52; II 142, 210, 222;
-pādukā slippers worn when rinsing Vin I 190; II 142, 222;
-sarāvaka a saucer for rinsing Vin II 142, 221.

:: Ācamā (feminine) [from ā + cam] absorption, resorption Nidd I 429 (on Snp 945, which both in Text and in Pj II reads ājava; explained by taṇhā in Nidd.). Note: Index to Pj II (Vol III) has ācāma.


:: Ācaya [ā + caya] heaping up, accumulation, collection, mass (opposite apacaya). See on term BMPE 179 note 2 and Cpd. 251, 252. — S II 94 (kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi); A IV 280 = Vin II 259 (opposite apacaya); Dhs 642, 685; Vibh 319, 326, 330; Vism 449; Dhp-a II 25.

-gāmin making for piling up (of rebirth) A V 243, 276; Dhs 584, 1013, 1397; Kv 357.

:: Ācarati [ā + carati]
1. to practice, perform, indulge in Vin I 56; II 118; Snp 327 (ācare dhamma-sandosa-vādaṃ), 401; Miln 171, 257 (pāpaṃ). Cf. past participle ācarita in BHS e.g. Avś I 124, 153, 213 in same meaning. — past participle āciṇṇa.
2. to step upon, pass through Ja V 153.

:: Ācarin (adjective/noun) [from ā + car] teaching, feminine ācarinī a female teacher Vin IV 227 (in contrast to gaṇa and in same sense as ācariya masculine at Vin IV 130), 317 (the same).

:: Ācariya Ācariya [from ā + car] a teacher (almost synonymous with upajjhāya) Vin I 60, 61, 119 (°upajjhāya); II 231; IV 130 (gaṇo vā ācariyo a meeting of the bhikkhus or a single teacher, cf. feminine ācarinī); D I 103, 116 (gaṇ°) 238 (sattamācariyamahāyuga seventh age of great teachers); III 189f.; M III 115; S I 68 (gaṇ°), 177; IV 176 (yogg°); A I 132 (pubb°); Snp 595; Nidd I 350 (upajjhāya vā āc°); Ja II 100, 411; IV 91; V 501; Pv IV 323, 351 (= ācāra-samācāra-sikkhāpaka Pv-a 252); Miln 201, 262 (master goldsmith?); Vism 99f.; Pj I 12, 155; Pj II 422; Vv-a 138. — For contracted form of ācariya see ācera.

-kula the clan of the teacher A II 112;
-dhana a teacher's fee S I 177; A V 347;
-pācariya teacher upon teacher, literally "teacher and teacher's teacher" (see ā1 3b) D I 94, 114, 115, 238; S IV 306, 308; Sv I 286; Pj II 452 (= ācariyo c'eva ācariya-ācariyo ca);
-bhariyā the teacher's fee Ja V 457; VI 178; Dhp-a I 253;
-muṭṭhi "the teacher's fist" i.e. close-fistedness in teaching, keeping things back, D II 100; S V 153; Ja II 221, 250; Miln 144; Pj II 180, 368;
-vaṃsa the line of the teachers Miln 148;
-vatta serving the teacher, service to the t. Dhp-a I 92;
-vāda traditional teaching; later as heterodox teaching, sectarian teaching (opposite Theravāda orthodox doctrine) Miln 148; Dīp V 30; Mhbv 96.

:: Ācariyaka [ācariya + ka, different from Sanskrit ācariyaka neuter art of teaching] — a teacher Vin I 249; III 25, 41; D I 88, 119, 187; II 112; M I 514; II 32; S V 261; A II 170; IV 310. See also sācariyaka.

:: Ācāma [Sanskrit ācāma] the scum or foam of boiling rice D I 166; M I 78; A I 295; Ja II 289; Pp 55; Vv-a 99f.; Dhp-a III 325 (°kuṇḍaka).

:: Ācāmeti [for ācameti? Cf. Sanskrit ācāmayati, causative of ā + cam] at M II 112 in imperative ācāmehi be pleased or be thanked (?); perhaps the reading is incorrect.

:: Ācāra [ā + car] way of behaving, conduct, practice, especially right conduct, good manners; adjective (—°) practising indulging in, or of such and such a conduct. — Snp 280 (pāpa°); Ja I 106 (vipassena°); II 280 (ācāra-ariya); VI 52 (ariyācāra); Pj II 157; Pv-a 12 (sīla°), 36, 67, 252; Saddh 441. — an° bad behaviour Vin II 118 (°ṃ ācarati indulge in bad habits); Dhp-a II 201 (°kiriyā). Cf. sam°.

-kusala versed in good manners Dhp 376 (cf. Dhp-a IV 111);
-gocara pasturing in good conduct; i.e. practice of right behaviour D I 63 = It 118; M I 33; S V 187; A I 63f.; II 14, 39; III 113, 155, 262; IV 140, 172, 352; V 71f., 89, 133, 198; Vibh 244, 246 (cf. Miln 368, 370, quotation Vin III 185); Vism I 8;
-vipatti failure of morality, a slip in good conduct Vin I 171.


:: Ācārin (adjective/noun) [from ācāra] of good conduct, one who behaves well A I 211 (anācārī viratā line 4 from bottom is better read as ācārī virato, in accordance with v.l.).

:: Ācikkhaka (adjective/noun) [ā + cikkha + ka of cikkhati] one who tells or shows Dhp-a I 71.

:: Ācikkhati [Frequent of ā + khyā, i.e. akkhāti] to tell, relate, show, describe, explain D I 110; A II 189 (atthaṃ ā to interpret); Pp 59; Dhp-a I 14; Pj II 155; Pv-a 121, 164 (describe). — imperative present ācikkha Snp 1097 (= brūhi Nidd II §§119 and 455); Pv I 109; II 81; and ācikkhāhi Dhp-a II 27. — preterit ācikkhi Pv-a 6, 58, 61, 83. — ācikkhati often occurs in stock phrase ācikkhati deseti paññāpeti paṭṭhapeti vivarati etc., e.g. Nidd I 271; Nidd II §465; Vism 163. — attānaṃ ā. to disclose one's identity Pv-a 89, 100. — past participle ācikkhita (q.v.). — causative II ācikkhāpeti to cause somebody to tell Dhp-a II 27.

:: Ācikkhana (adjective/noun) [ā + cikkhana of cikkhati] telling, announcing Ja III 444; Pv-a 121.

:: Ācikkhita [past participle of acikkhati] shown, described, told Pv-a 154 (°magga), 203 (an° = anakkhāta).

:: Ācikkhitar [agent noun from ācikkhati] one who tells or shows Dhp-a II 107 (for pavattar).

:: Āciṇa [past participle of ācināti° or is it distorted from āciṇṇa?] accumulated; practised, performed Dhp 121 (pāpaṃ = pāpaṃ āciṇanto karonto Dhp-a III 16). It may also be spelt ācina.

:: Āciṇṇa [ā + ciṇṇa, past participle of ācarati] practiced, performed, (habitually) indulged in M I 372 (kamma, cf. Miln 226 and the explanation of āciṇṇaka kamma as "chronic karma" at Cpd. 144); S IV 419; A V 74f.; Ja I 81; Sv I 91 (for aviciṇṇa at D I 8), 275; Vism 269; Dhp-a I 37 (°samāciṇṇa thoroughly fulfilled); Vv-a 108; Pv-a 54; Saddh 90.

-kappa ordinance or rule of right conduct or customary practice (?) Vin I 79; II 301; Dīp IV 47; cf. V 18.

:: Ācita [past participle of ācināti] accumulated, collected, covered, furnished or endowed with Ja VI 250 (= nicita); Vv 411; As 310. See also āciṇa.

:: Ācināti [ā + cināti] to heap up, accumulate S III 89 (v.l. ācinati); IV 73 (present participle ācinato dukkhaṃ); As 44. — past participle ācita and āciṇa (ācina). — passive ācīyati (q.v.).

:: Ācīyati (and āceyyati) [passive of ācināti, cf. cīyati] to be heaped up, to increase, to grow; present participle āceyyamāna Ja V 6 (= ācīyanto vaḍḍhanto commentary).

:: Ācera is the contracted form of ācariya; only found in the Jātakas, e.g. Ja IV 248; VI 563.

:: Ācela in kañcanācela-bhūsita "adorned with golden clothes" Pv II 127 stands for cela°.

:: Ājañña is the contracted form of ājāniya.

:: Ājava see ācamā.

:: Ājāna (adjective) [ā + jāna from jñā] understandable, only in compound durājāna hard to understand S IV 127; Snp 762; Ja I 295, 300.

:: Ājānana (neuter) [ā + jānana, cf. Sanskrit ajñāna] learning, knowing, understanding; knowledge Ja I 181 (°sabhāva of the character of knowing, fit to learn); Pv-a 225.

:: Ājānāti [ā + jānāti] to understand, to know, to learn D I 189; Snp 1064 (°amāna = vijānamāna Nidd II §120). As aññāti at Vism 200. — past participle aññāta. Cf. also āṇāpeti.

:: Ājāniya (ājānā̆ya) (adjective/noun) [cf. BHS ājāneya and Sanskrit ājāti birth, good birth. Instead of its correct derivation from ā + jan (to be born, i.e. well-born) it is by Buddhaghosa connected with ā + jñā (to learn, i.e. to be trained).* See for these popular etymology e.g. Ja I 181: sārathissa citta-rucitaṃ kāraṇaṃ ājānana-sabhāvo ājañño, and Dhp-a IV 4: yaṃ assadamma-sārathi kāraṇaṃ kāreti tassa khippaṃ jānana {97} samatthā ājāniyā. — The contracted form of the word is ājañña] — of good race or breed; almost exclusively used to denote a thoroughbred horse (cf. assājāniya under assa3).
(a) ājāniya (the more common and younger Pāli form): Snp 462, 528, 532; Ja I 178, 194; Dīp IV 26; Dhp-a I 402; III 49; IV 4; Vv-a 78; Pv-a 216.
(b) ājānīya: M I 445; A V 323; Dhp 322 = Nidd II §475.
(c) ājañña = (mostly in poetry): Snp 300 = 304; Ja I 181; Pv IV 154; purisājañña "a steed of man", i.e. a man of noble race) S III 91 = Thag 1084 = Snp 544 = Vv-a 9; A V 325. — anājāniya of inferior birth M I 367.

-susu the young of a noble horse, a noble foal M I 445 (°ūpamo dhamma-pariyāyo).

*[BD]: see SN 5.46.52: "Bhagavato santike etassa bhāsitassa atthaṃ ājānissāmā" ti.]

:: Ājānīyatā (feminine) [abstract from ājāniya] good breed Pv-a 214.

:: Ājira [= ajira with lengthened initial a] a courtyard Mhv 35, 3.

:: Ājīva [ā + jīva; Sanskrit ājīva] livelihood, mode of living, living, subsistence, D I 54; A III 124 (parisuddha°); Snp 407 (°ṃ = parisodhayi = micchājīvaṃ hitvā sammājīvaṃ eva pavattayī Pj II 382), 617; Pp 51; Vibh 107, 235; Miln 229 (bhinna°); Vism 306 (the same); As 390; Saddh 342, 375, 392. Especially frequent in the contrast pair sammā-ājīva and micchā-ā° right mode and wrong mode of gaining a living, e.g. at S II 168f.; III 239; V 9; A I 271; II 53, 240, 270; IV 82; Vibh 105, 246. See also magga (ariyaṭṭhaṅgika).

-pārisuddhi purity or propriety of livelihood Miln 336; Vism 22f., 44; Dhp-a IV 111;
-vipatti failure in method of gaining a living A I 270;
-sampadā perfection of (right) livelihood A I 271; Sv I 235.

:: Ājīvaka (and °ika) [ājīva + ka, original "one finding his living" (scilicet in a peculiar way); cf. BHS ājīvika Divy 393, 427] — an ascetic, one of the numerous sects of non-buddhist ascetics. On their austereties, practice and way of living see especially Dhp-a II 55f. and on the whole question Basham, History and doctrines of the Ājīvikas, 1951.
(a) ājīvaka: Vin I 291; II 284; IV 74, 91; M I 31, 483: S I 217; A III 276, 384; Ja I 81, 257, 390.
(b) ājīvika: Vin I 8; Snp 381 (v.l. °aka).

-sāvaka a hearer or lay disciple of the ājīvaka ascetics Vin II 130, 165; A I 217.

:: Ājīvika (neuter) (or ājīvikā f.?) [from ājīva] sustenance of life, livelihood, living Vibh 379 (°bhaya) Miln 196 (the same); Pv-a 274, and in phrase ājīvikāpakata being deprived of a livelihood, without a living M I 463 = S III 93 (Text reads jīvikā pakatā) = It 89 (reads ājīvikā pakatā) = Miln 279.

:: Ājīvin (adjective/noun) [from ājīva] having one's livelihood, finding one's subsistence, living, leading a life of (—°) D III 64; A V 190 (lūkha°)

:: Āṭa [etymology? Cf. Sanskrit āṭi Turdus Ginginianus, see Abhidh-r-m page 148] a kind of bird Ja VI 539 (= dabbimukha commentary).

:: Āṭaviya is to be read for aṭaviyo (q.v.) at Ja VI 55 [= Sanskrit āṭavika].

:: Āṭhapanā (feminine) at Pp 18 and v.l. at Vibh 357 is to be read aṭṭhapanā (so Text at Vibh 357).

:: Āṇañja see ānejja.

:: Āṇaṇya see ānaṇya.

:: Āṇatti (feminine) [ā + ñatti (cf. āṇāpeti), causative of jñā] order, command, ordinance, injunction Vin I 62; Pj I 29; Pv-a 260; Saddh 59, 354.

:: Āṇattika (adjective) [āṇatti + ka] belonging to an ordinance or command, of the nature of an injunction Pj I 29.

:: Āṇā (feminine) [Sanskrit ājñā, ā + jñā] order, command, authority Miln 253; Sv I 289; Pj I 179, 180, 194; Pv-a 217; Saddh 347, 576. rājāṇā the king's command or authority Ja I 433; III 351; Pv-a 242. āṇaṃ deti to give an order Ja I 398; °ṃ pavatteti to issue an order Miln 189, cf. āṇāpavatti Ja III 504; IV 145.

:: Āṇāpaka (adjective/noun) [from āṇāpeti 1. (adjective) giving an order Vism 303. 2. (noun) one who gives or calls out orders, a town-crier, an announcer of the orders (of an authority) Miln 147.

:: Āṇāpana (neuter) [abstract from āṇāpeti] ordering or being, ordered, command, order Pv-a 135.

:: Āṇāpeti [ā + ñāpeti, causative of ā + jānāti from jñā, cf. Sanskrit ājñāpayati] — to give an order, to enjoin, command (with accusative of person) Ja III 351; Miln 147; Dhp-a II 82; Vv-a 68 (dāsiyo), 69; Pv-a 4, 39, 81.

:: Āṇi (Vedic āṇi to aṇu fine, thin, flexible, in formation an n-enlargement of Indo-Germanic °olenā, cf. Old High German lun, German lunse, Anglo-Saxon lynes = English linch, further related to Latin ulna elbow, Greek ὠλένη, Old High German elina, Anglo-Saxon eln = English el-bow. See Walde, Lāt. Wtb. under ulna and lacertus].
1. the pin of a wheel-axle, a linchpin M I 119; S II 266, 267; A II 32; Snp 654; Ja VI 253, 432; Pj II 243; Pj I 45, 50.
2. a peg, pin, bolt, stop (at a door) M I 119; S. II 266 (drum stick); Ja IV 30; VI 432, 460; {87} Thag 744; Dhp I 39.
3. (figurative) (°-) peg-like (or secured by a peg, of a door), small, little in °colaka a small (piece of) rag Vin II 271, I 205 (vaṇabandhana-colaka); °dvāra Thag 355; commentary khuddaka-dvāra, quoted at Ps.B. 200, translated by Mrs. Rh.D. as "the towngate's sallyport" by Neumann LMN as "Gestöck" (fastening, enclosure) āṇi-gaṇṭhikāhato ayopatto at Vism 108; Sv I 199 is apparently a sort of brush made of four or five small pieces of flexible wood.

:: Ātaṅka [etymology uncertain; Sanskrit ātaṅka] illness, sickness, disease M I 437; S III 1; Snp 966 (°phassa, cf. Nidd I 486). Frequently in compound appātaṅka freedom from illness, health (cf. appābādha) D I 204; III 166; A III 65, 103; Miln 14. — feminine abstract appātaṅkatā M I 124.

:: Ātaṅkin (adjective) [from ātaṅka] sick, ill Ja V 84 (= gilāna commentary).

:: Ātata [from ā + tan, past participle tata; literally stretched, covered over] generic name for drums covered with leather on one side Dīp XIV 14; Vv-a 37 (q.v. for enumeration of musical instruments), 96.

:: Ātatta [ā + tatta1, past participle of ā-tapati] heated, burnt scorched, dry Ja V 69 (°rūpa = sukkha-sarīra commentary).

:: Ātapa [ā + tapa]
1. sun-heat Snp 52; Ja I 336; Dhs 617; Dīp I 57; Vv-a 54; Pv-a 58.
2. glow, heat (in general) Pv I 74; Saddh 396.
3. (figurative) (cf. tapa2) ardour, zeal, exertion Pv-a 98 (viriy'ātapa; perhaps better to be read °ātāpa q.v.). Cf. ātappa.

-vāraṇa "warding off the sun-heat", i.e. a parasol, sun-shade Dāṭh I 28; V 35.

:: Ātapatā (feminine) [abstract of ātapa] glowing or burning state, heat Saddh 122.

:: Ātapati [ā + tap] to burn Ja III 447.

:: Ātappa (neuter) [Sanskrit °ātāpya, from ātāpa] ardour, zeal, exertion D I 13; III 30f., 104f., 238f.; M III 210; S II 132, 196f.; A I 153; III 249; IV 460f.; V 17f.; Snp 1062 (= ussāha ussoḷhi thāma etc. Nidd II §122); Ja III 447; Nidd I 378; Vibh 194 (= vāyāma); Sv I 104.

:: Ātāpa [ā + tāpa from tap; cf. tāpeti] glow, heat; figurative ardour, keen endeavour, or perhaps better "torturing, mortifica- {98} tion" Miln 313 (cittassa ātāpo paritāpo); Pv-a 98 (viriya°). Cf. ātappa and ātāpana.

:: Ātāpana (neuter) [ā + tāpana] tormenting, torture, mortification M I 78; A I 296 (°paritāpana); II 207 (the same); Pp 55 (the same); Vism 3 (the same).

:: Ātāpin (adjective) [from ātāpa, cf. BHS ātāpin Avś I 233; II 194 = Divy 37; 618] ardent, zealous, strenuous, active D III 58, 76f., 141 (+ sampajāna), 221, 276; M I 22, 56, 116, 207, 349; II 11; III 89, 128, 156; S 113, 117f., 140, 165; II 21, 136f.; III 73f.; IV 37, 48, 54, 218; V 165, 187, 213; A II 13f.; III 38, 100f.; IV 29, 177f., 266f., 300, 457f.; V 343f.; Snp 926; Nidd I 378; It 41, 42; Vibh 193f.; Miln 34, 366; Vism 3 (= viriyavā); Dhp-a I 120; Pj II 157, 503. — Frequently in the formula of Arahantship "eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto": see Arahant II B. See also satipaṭṭhāna. — opposite anātāpin S II 195f.; A II 13; It 27 (+ anottappin).

:: Ātāpeti [ā + tāpeti] to burn, scorch; figurative to torment, inflict pain, torture M I 341 (+ paritāpeti); S IV 337; Miln 314, 315.

:: Ātitheyya (neuter) [from ati + theyya] great theft (?) A I 93; IV 63f. (v.l. ati° which is perhaps to be preferred).

:: Ātu [dialectical] father M I 449 (cf. Trenckner's note on page 567: the text no doubt purports to make the woman speak a sort of patois).

:: Ātuman [Vedic ātman, diæretic form for the usual contracted attan; only found in poetry. Cf. also the shortened form tuman] — self. nominative singular ātumo Pv IV 52 (= sabhāvo Pv-a 259), ātumā Nidd I 69 (ātumā vuccati attā), 296 (the same), and ātumāno Nidd I 351; accusative ātumānaṃ Snp 782 (= attānaṃ Pj II 521), 888, 918; locative ātume Pv II 1311 (= attani commentary).

:: Ātura (adjective) [Sanskrit ātura, cf. BHS ātura, e.g. Jm 3170] ill, sick, diseased; miserable, affected S III 1 (°kāya); A I 250; Snp 331; Vv 8314 (°rūpa = abhitunna-kāya Vv-a 328); Ja I 197 (°anna "food of the miserable", i.e. last meal of one going to be killed; commentary explains as maraṇabhojana), 211 (°citta); II 420 (°anna, as above); III 201; V 90, 433; VI 248; Miln 139, 168; Dhp-a I 31 (°rūpa); Pv-a 160, 161; Vv-a 77; Saddh 507. Used by commentators as synonym of aṭṭo, e.g. at Ja IV 293; Pj II 489. — anātura healthy, well, in good condition S III 1; Dhp 198.

:: Āthabbaṇa (neuter) [= athabbaṇa, q.v.] the Atharva Veda as a code of magic working formulas, witchcraft, sorcery Snp 927 (v.l. ath°, see interpretation at Nidd I 381; explained as āthabbaṇika-manta-p-payoga at Pj II 564).

:: Āthabbaṇika (adjective/noun) [from athabbaṇa] one conversant with magic, wonder-worker, medicine-man Nidd I 381; Pj II 564.

:: Ādapeti [causative of ādāti] to cause one to take, to accept, agree to M II 104; S I 132.

:: Ādara Ādara [Sanskrit ādara, probably ā + dara, cf. semantically German ehrfurcht awe] — consideration of, esteem, regard, respect, reverence, honour Ja V 493; Pj II 290; Sv I 30; As 61; Vv-a 36, 61, 101, 321; Pv-a 121, 123, 135, 278; Saddh 2, 21, 207, 560.

-anādara lack of reverence, disregard, disrespect; (adjective) disrespectful S I 96; Vin IV 218; Snp 247 (= ādara-virahita Pj II 290; Sv I 284; Vv-a 219; Pv-a 3, 5, 54, 67, 257.

:: Ādaratā (feminine) [abstract from ādara] = ādara, in negative an° want of consideration Ja IV 229; Dhs 1325 = Vibh 359 (in explanation of dovacassatā).

:: Ādariya (neuter) [abstract from ādara] showing respect or honour; negative an° disregard, disrespect Vin II 220; A V 146, 148; Pp 20; Vibh 371; miln 266.

:: Ādava [ā + dava2?] is gloss at Vv-a 216 for maddava Vv 5123; meaning: excitement, adjective exciting. The passage in Vv-a is somewhat corrupt, and therefore unclear.

:: Ādahati1 [ā + dahati1] to put down, put on, settle, fix Vism 289 (samaṃ ā. = samādahati). Cf. sam° and ādhiyati.

:: Ādahati2 [ā + dahati2] to set fire to, to burn Ja VI 201, 203.

:: Ādā [gerund of ādāti from reduced base °da of dadāti 1 (b)] taking up, taking to oneself Vin IV 120 (= anādiyitvā commentary; cf. the usual form ādāya).

:: Ādāti (ādadāti) [ā + dadāti of dadāti base 1 dā] to take up, accept, appropriate, grasp, seize; gerundive ādātabba Vin I 50; infinitive ādātuṃ D III 133 (adinnaṃ theyyasaṅkhātaṃ ā.). gerund ādā and ādāya (see separately); gerundive ādeyya, causative ādapeti (q.v.). — See also ādiyati and ādeti.

:: Ādāna (neuter) [ā + dāna, or directly from ā + dā, base 1 of dadāti] taking up, getting, grasping, seizing; figurative appropriating, clinging to the world, seizing on (worldly objects).
1. (literal) taking (food), pasturing M III 133; Ja V 371 (and °esana).
2. getting, acquiring, taking, seizing S II 94; A IV 400 (daṇḍ°); Pv-a 27 (phal°); especially frequent in adinn° seizing what is not given, i.e. theft: see under adinna.
3. (figurative) attachment, clinging A V 233, 253 (°paṭinissagga); Dhp 89 (the same.; cf. Dhp-a II 163); Snp 1103 (°taṇhā), 1104 (°satta); Nidd I 98 (°gantha); Nidd II §§123, 124. — an° free from attachment S I 236 (sādānesu anādāno "not laying hold 'mong them that grip" translation K.S. I 303); A II 10; It 109; Ja IV 354; Miln 342; Dhp-a IV 70 (= khandhādisu niggahaṇo). Cf. upa°, pari°.

:: Ādāya Ādāya [gerund of ādāti, either from base 1 of dadāti (dā) or base 2 (dāy). See also ādiya] — having received or taken, taking up, seizing on, receiving; frequently used in the sense of a preposition "with" (with accusative) Snp 120, 247, 452; Ja V 13; Vibh 245; Dhp-a II 74; Pj II 139; Pv-a 10, 13, 38, 61 etc. — At Vin I 70 the form ādāya is used as a noun in meaning of "a casually taken up belief" (tassa ādāyassa vaṇṇe bhaṇati). Cf. upa°, pari°.

:: Ādāyīn (adjective/noun) [from ā + dadāti base 2, cf. ādāya] taking up, grasping, receiving; one who takes, seīzes or appropriates D I 4 (dinn°); A III 80; V 137 (sār°); Sv I 72.

:: Ādāsa [Sanskrit ādarśa, ā + dr̥ś, Pāli dass, of dassati1 2] a mirror Vin II 107; D I 7, 11 (°pañha mirror-questioning, cf. Sv I 97: "ādāse devataṃ otaretvā pañha-pucchanaṃ"), 80; II 93 (dhammādāsaṃ nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi); S V 357 (the same); A V 92, 97f., 103; Ja I 504; Dhs 617 (°maṇḍala); Vism 591 (in simile); Pj I 50 (°daṇḍa) 237; Dhp-a I 226.

-tala the surface of the mirror, in similes at Vism 450, 456, 489.


:: Ādāsaka = ādāsa Thig 411.

:: Ādi [Sanskrit ādi, etymology uncertain]
1. (masculine) starting-point, beginning Snp 358 (accusative ādiṃ = kāraṇaṃ Pj II 351); Dhp 375 (nominative ādi); Miln 10 (ādimhi); Ja VI 567 (ablative ādito from the beginning). For use as neuter see below 2 (b).
2. (adjective and adverb)
(a) (°-) beginning, initially, first, principal, chief: see compounds
(b) (°-) beginning with, being the first (of a series which either is supposed to be familiar in its constituents to the reader or hearer or is immediately intelligible from the context), i.e. and so on, so forth (cf. adhika); e.g. rukkha-gumbādayo (accusative plural) trees, jungle etc. Ja I 150; amba-panasādīhi rukkehi sampanno (and similar kinds of fruit) Ja I 278; amba-labujādīnaṃ phalānaṃ anto Ja II 159; asi-satti-dhanu-ādīni āvudhāni (weapous, such as sword, knife, bow and the like) Ja I 150; kasi-gorakkhādīni karonte manusse Ja II 128; ... ti ādinā nayena in this and similar ways Ja I 81; Pv-a 30. Absolute as neuter plural ādinī with ti (evaṃ) (ādīni), closing a quotation, meaning "this and such like", e.g. at Ja II 128, {99} 416 (ti ādīni viravitvā). — In phrase ādiṃ katvā meaning "putting (him, her, it) first", i.e. heginning with, from ... on, from ... down (with accusative) e.g. Dhp-a I 393 (rājānaṃ ādiṃ k. from the king down); Pv-a 20 (vihāraṃ ādikatvā), 21 (pañcavaggiye ādiṃ k.).

-kammika [cf. BHS ādikarmaka Divy 544] a beginner Vin III 146; IV 100; Miln 59; Vism 241; As 187;
-kalyāṇa in phrase ādikalyāṇa majjhe-kalyāṇa pariyosāna-kalyāṇa of the Dhamma, "beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the end" see references under dhamma commentary 3 and cf. Sv I 175 (= ādimhi kalyāṇa etc.); Pj II 444; abstract °kalyāṇatā Vism 4;
-pubbaṅgama original Dīp IV 26;
-brahmacariyaka belonging to the principles or fundaments of moral life D I 189; III 284; M I 431; II 125, 211; III 192; S II 75, 223; IV 91; V 417, 438; feminine °ikā Vin I 64, 68; A I 231f.
-majjhapariyosāna beginning, middle and end Miln 10; cf. above ādikalyāṇa.

:: Ādika (adjective) [ādi + ka] from the beginning, initial (see adhika); instrumental ādikena in the beginning, at once, at the same time M I 395, 479; II 213; S II 224; Ja VI 567. Cf. ādiya3.

:: Ādicca [Vedic āditya] the sun S I 15, 47; II 284; III 156; V 44, 101; A I 242; V 22, 263, 266f.; It 85; Snp 550, 569, 1097 ("ādicco vuccati suriyo" Nidd II §125); Dhp-a IV 143; Saddh 14, 17, 40.

-upaṭṭhānā sun-worship D I 11 (= jīvikatthāya ādicca-paricariyā Sv I 97); Ja II 72 (°jātaka; ādiccaṃ upatiṭṭhati page 73 = suriyaṃ namassamāno tiṭṭhati commentary);
-patha the path of the sun, i.e. the sky, the heavens Dhp 175 (= ākāsa Dhp-a III 177);
-bandhu "kinsman of the sun", epithet of the Buddha Vin II 296; S I 186, 192; A II 54; Snp 54, 915, 1128; Nidd I 341; Nidd II §125 B; Vv 425, 7810; Vv-a 116.

:: Ādiṇṇa [Sanskrit ādīrṇa, past participle of ā + dr̥, see ādiyati2] broken, split open S IV 193 (= sipāṭṭiko with burst pod); cf. M I 306.

:: Ādiṇṇata (neuter) [abstract from ādiṇṇa] state of being broken or split Paṭis I 49.

:: Āditta [ā + ditta1, Sanskrit ādīpta, past participle of ā + dīp] set on fire, blazing, burning Vin I 34; Kv 209 (sabbaṃ ādittaṃ); S III 71; IV 19, 108; A IV 320 (°cela); Snp 591; Ja IV 391; Pv I 85 (= paditta jalita Pv-a 41); Kv 209; Sv I 264; Pv-a 149; Saddh 599.

-pariyāya the discourse or sermon on the fire (literal being in fllames) S IV 168f.; Vin I 34; Dhp-a I 88.

:: Ādina only at D I 115 (Text reading ādīna, but vv.ll. ādina, abhinna) in phrase ādina-khattiya-kula primordial. See note in D.B. I 148.

:: Ādiya1 (adjective) gerund of admi, ad, Sanskrit ādya] edible, eatable A III 45 (bhojanāni).

:: Ādiya2 in °mukha is uncertain reading at A III 164f. (vv.ll. ādeyya° and ādheyya), meaning perhaps "grasp-mouth", i.e. gossip; thus equal to gerund of ādiyati1. Perhaps to be taken to ādiyati2. The same phrase occurs at Pp 65 (Text ādheyya°, commentary has v.l. ādheyya°) where Pp-a 248 explains "ādito dheyyamukho, paṭhama-vacanasmiṃ yeva ṭhapita-mukho ti attho" (sticking to one's word). See ādheyya.

:: Ādiya3 = ādika, instrumental ādiyena in the beginning Ja VI 567 (= ādikena commentary).

:: Ādiya4 gerund of ādiyati.

:: Ādiyati1 [ā + diyati, medium passive base of dadāti 4, viz. di° and dī°; see also ādāti and ādeti] — to take up; take to oneself, seize on, grasp, appropriate, figurative take notice of, take to heart, heed. — present ādiyati A IIJ.46; Snp 119, 156, 633, 785, Nidd I 67; Nidd II §§123, 124; Ja III 296: V 367. — potential ādiye Snp 400; imperative ādiya M III 133 (so read for ādissa ?). — preterit ādiyi D III 65; A III 209, ādiyāsi Pv IV 148 (sayaṃ daṇḍaṃ ā. = acchinditvā gaṇhasi sic Pv-a 241), and ādapayi (causative formation from ādāti?) to take heed S I 132 (v.l. ādiyi, translated "put this into thy mind" K.S. I 166). — gerund ādiyitvā Vin IV 120 (= ādā); Ja II 224 (commentary for ādiya Text); III 104; IV 352 (an° not heeding; v.l. anāditvā, cf. anādiyanto not attending Ja III 196); Dhp-a III 32 (the same); Pv-a 13 (Text anādayitva not heeding), 212 (vacanaṃ anādiyitvā not paying attention to his word), ādiya S III 26 (v.l. an° for anādīya); Ja II 223 (= ādiyitvā commentary); see also ādiya2, and ādīya S III 26 (an°). See also upādiyati and pariyādiyati.

:: Ādiyati2 [ā + diyati, Sanskrit ādīryate, passive of dr̥ to split: see etymology under darī] — to split, go asunder, break Paṭis I 49. — past participle ādiṇṇa. See also avadīyati. Cf. also upādiṇṇa.

:: Ādiyanatā (feminine) [abstract formation ādiyana (from ādiya gerund of ādiyati) + ta] — in an° the fact of not taking up or heeding Pj II 516.

:: Ādisati [ā + disati] (a) to announce, tell, point out, refer to. — (b) to dedicate (a gift, dakkhiṇaṃ or dānaṃ). — present indicative ādisati D I 213 = A I 170 (tell or read one's character); Snp 1112 (atītaṃ); Nidd I 382 (nakkhattaṃ set the horoscope); Miln 294 (dānaṃ); potential ādiseyya Thig 307 (dakkhiṇaṃ); Pv IV 130 (the same = uddiseyya Pv-a 228), and ādise Vin I 229 = D II 88 (dakkhiṇaṃ); imperative ādisa Pv-a 49. — future ādissati Thig 308 (dakkhiṇaṃ) Pv-a 88 (the same). — preterit ādisi Pv II 28; Pv-a 46 (dakkhiṇaṃ); plural ādisiṃsu ibid. 53 (the same) and ādisuṃ Pv I 106 (the same). — gerund ādissa Vin III 127; Snp 1018; Pv II 16 (dānaṃ), and ādisitvāna Thig 311. — gerundive ādissa (adjective) to be told or shown M I 12.

:: Ādiso (adverb) [original ablative of ādi, formed with °śaḥ°] from the beginning, i.e. thoroughly, absolutely D I 180; M III 208.

:: Ādissa1 at M III 133 is an imperative present meaning "take", and should probably better be read ādiya (similar to ādāna). It is not gerund of ādisati, which its form might suggest.

:: Ādissa2 (adjective) blameworthy M I 12; Ps I 92 = gārayha.

:: Ādīna at D I 115 and S V 74 (vv.ll. ādina, and abhinna) see ādina. See diṇṇa.

:: Ādīnava [ā + dīna + va (neuter), a substantivised adjective, originally meaning "full of wretchedness", cf. BHS ādīnava Mvu III 297 (misery); Divy 329] — disadvantage, danger (in or through = locative) D I 38 (vedanānaṃ assādañ ca ādīnavañ ca etc.), 213 (iddhi-pāṭihāriye M I 318; S I 9 (ettha bhīyo); II 170f. (dhātūnaṃ); III 27, 62, 102 (rūpassa etc.); IV 7, 168; A I 57 (akaraṇīye kayiramāne) 258 (ko loke assādo); III 250f.; 267f. (duccarite), 270 (puggala-p-pasāde); IV 439f.; V 81; Ja I 146; IV 2; It 9 = A II 10 = Nidd II §172 A; Snp 36, 50 (cf. Nidd II §127), 69, 424, 732; Thig 17 (kāye ā. = dosa Thig-a 23), 485 (kāmesu ā. = dosa Thig-a 287); Pv III 107 (= dosa Pv-a 214); IV 67 (= dosa Pv-a 263); Paṭis I 192f.; II 9, 10; Pv-a 12, 208. — There are several sets of sources of evil or danger, viz. five dussīlassa sīla-vipattiyā ā. at D II 85 = III 235 = A III 252; five akkhantiyā ā. at Vibh 378; six of six each at D III 182f. — In phrase kāmānaṃ ā. okāro saṅkileso D I 110, 148; M I 115; Nett 42; Dhp-a 16.

-ānupassīn realising the danger or evil of S II 85 (upādāniyesu dhammesu) abstract °ānupassīnā Vism 647f., 695;
-dassāvin same as °ānupassīn D I 245 (an°); A V 178 (the same); D III 46; S II 194, 269; A III 146; V 181f.; Nidd II §141;
-pariyesanā search for danger in{89} (—°) S II 171; III 29; IV 8 sq:
-saññā consciousness of danger D I 7); III 253, 283; A III 79.

:: Ādīpanīya (adjective) [gerund of ā + dīpeti] to be explained Miln 270.

:: Ādīpita [past participle of ādīpeti, ā + causative of dīp, cf. dīpeti] — ablaze, in flames S I 31 (loka; v.l. ādittaka) 108; Ja V 366; Dhp-a III 32 (v.l. āditta).

:: Ādu (indeclinable) [see also adu] emphatic (adversative) particle 1. of affirmation and emphasis: but, indeed, rather Ja III {100} 499 = V 180; VI 443; VI 552.

Corresponsion: The character of being correspondent, or the state of corresponding; correspondence

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

2. as 2nd component of a disjunctive question, mostly in corresponsion udāhu ... ādu (= kiṃ ... udāhu Pj II 350), viz. "is it so ... or" Thag 1274 = Snp 354; Pv IV 317 = Dhp-a I 31; Ja V 384; VI 382; without udāhu at Ja V 460 (adu). The close connection with udāhu suggests an explanation of ādu as a somehow distorted abbreviation of udāhu.

:: Ādeti [a + deti, base2 of dadāti (day° and de°), cf. also ādiyati] — to take, receive, get Snp 121 (= gaṇhāti Pj II 179), 954 (= upādiyati gaṇhāti Nidd I 444); Cp I 4, 3; Ja III 103, 296; V 366 (= gaṇhāti commentary; cf. ādiyati on page 367); Miln 336.

:: Ādeyya (adjective) [gerund of ādāti (q.v.)] to be taken up, acceptable, pleasant, welcome, only in phrase °vacana welcome or acceptable speech, glad words Vin II 158; Ja VI 243; Miln 110; Thig-a 42.

:: Ādeva, ādevanā [ā + div devati] lamenting, deploring, crying etc. in stereotypical phrase (explaining parideva or pariddava) ādevo paridevo ādevanā pari ādevitattaṃ pari° Nidd I 370 = Nidd II §416 = Paṭis I 38.

:: Ādesa [from ādisati, cf. Sanskrit ādeśa] information, pointing out; as technical term gramatical characteristic, determination, substitute, e.g. kutonidānā is at Pj II 303 said to equal kiṃ-nidānā, the °to of kuto (ablative) equalling or being substituted for the accusative case: paccatta-vacanassa to-ādeso veditabbo.

:: Ādesanā (feminine) [ā + desanā] pointing out, guessing , prophesy; only in phrase °pāṭihāriya trick or marvellous ability of mind-reading or guessing other peoples character Vin II 200; D I 212, 213; III 220; A I 170, 292; V 327; Paṭis II 227. For pāṭihāriya is subsiituted °vidhā (literal variety of, i.e. act or performance etc.) at D III 103.

:: Ādhāna (neuter) [ā + dhāna]
1. putting up, putting down, placing, laying A IV 41 (aggissa ādhānaṃ, v.l. of 6 mss ādānaṃ).
2. receptacle M I 414 (udak°), cf. ādheyya.
3. enclosure, hedge Miln 220 (kaṇṭak° thorny brake, see under kaṇṭaka).

-gāhin holding one's own place, i.e. obstinate (?), reading uncertain and interchanging with ādāna, only in one stereotype phrase, viz. sandiṭṭhi-parāmāsin ādhāna-gāhin duppaṭinissaggin Vin II 89; M I 43, 96; A III 335 (v.l. ādāna°, commentary explains by daḷhagāhin); D III 247 (adhāna°).

:: Ādhāra [ā + dhāra]
1. a container, receptacle, basin, literally holder A III 27; Ja VI 257.
2. "holding up", i.e. support, basis, prop. Especially a (round) stool or stand for the alms-bowl (patta) Vin II 113 (an° patto); M III 95; S V 21; Ja V 202. — figurative S V 20 (an° without a support, cittaṃ); Vism 8, 444.
3. (technical term gramatical) name for the locative case ("resting on") Pj II 211.

:: Ādhāraka (masculine and neuter) [ā + dhāraka, or simply ādhāra + ka]
1. a stool or stand (as ādhāra2) (always masculine, except at Ja I 33 where °āni plural neuter) Ja I 33; Dhp-a III 290 = Vv-a 220; Dhp-a III 120 = 186 (one of the four priceless things of a Tathāgata, viz.: setacchattaṃ, nisīdanapallaṅko, ādhārako pādapīṭhaṃ).
2. a reading desk, pulpit Ja III 235; IV 299.

:: Ādhāraṇatā (feminine) [ā + dhāraṇatā] concentration, attention, mindfullness Pj II 290 (+ daḷhīkaraṇa), 398 (the same).

:: Ādhārita [past participle of ā + dhāreti, cf. dhāreti 1] supported, held up Miln 68.

:: Ādhāvati [ā + dhavati 1] to run towards a goal, to run after M I 265 (where the same passage S II 26 has upadh°); Sv I 39. Frequently in combination ādhāvati paridhāvati to run about, e.g. Ja I 127, 134, 158; II 68.

:: Ādhāvana (neuter) [from ādhāvati] onrush, violent motion Miln 135.

:: Ādhipacca (and ādhipateyya) (neuter) [from adhi + pati + ya "being over-lord"; see also adhipateyya] — supreme rule, lordship, sovereignty, power S V 342 (issariy°); A I 62 (the same), 147, 212; II 205 (the same); III 33, 76; IV 252 singular; Pv II 959 (one of the ṭhānas, cf. ṭhāna II 2b; see also D III 146, where spelt ādhipateyya; explained by issariya at Pv-a 137); Ja I 57; Dāṭh V 17; Vv-a 126 (gehe ā = issariya). The three (att°, lok°, dhamm°) at Vism 14.

:: Ādhuta [ā + dhuta 1] shaken, moved (by the wind, i.e. fanned] Vv 394 (v.l. adhuta which is perhaps to be preferred, i.e. not shaken, cf. vātadhutaṃ Dāṭh V 49; Vv-a 178 explains by saṇikaṃ vidhūpayamāna, i.e. gently fanned).

:: Ādheyya (adjective) [gerund of ā + dadhāti cf. ādhāna 2] to be deposited (in one's head and heart Pp-a), to be heeded, to be appropriated [in latter meaning easily mixed with ādheyya, cf. vv.ll. under ādiya2]; neuter depository (= ādhātabbatā ṭhapetabbatā Pp-a 217) Pp 34 (°ṃ gacchati is deposited); Miln 359 (sabbe tass'ādheyya2 honti they all become deposited in him, i.e. his deposits or his property).

-mukha see ādiya2.

:: Ānaka [Sanskrit ānaka, cf. Morris JPTS 1893, 10] a kind of kettledrum, beaten only at one end S II 266; Ja II 344; Dīp XVI 14.

:: Ānañca see ākāsa° and viññāṇa°

:: Ānañja see ānejja

:: Ānaṇya (neuter) [Sanskrit ānr̥ṇya, so also BHS e.g. Jm 3118; from a + r̥ṇa, Pāli iṇa but also aṇa in composition, thus an-aṇa as base of ānaṇya] freedom from debt D I 73; A III 354 (especially of Nibbāna, cf. anaṇa); Nidd I 160; Vism 44; Sv I 3.

:: Ānadati [ā + nadati] to trumpet (of elephants) Ja IV 233.

:: Ānana (neuter) [Vedic āna, later Sanskrit ānana from an to breathe] — the mouth; adjective (—°) having a mouth Saddh 103; Pañca-g 63 (vikaṭ°).

:: Ānantarika (and °ya) [from an + antara + ika] without an interval, immediately following, successive Vin I 321; II 212; Pp 13; Dhs 1291.

-kamma "conduct that finds retribution without delay" (PtsC. 275 note 2) Vin II 193; Ja I 45; Kv 480; Miln 25 (cf. BMPE 245 note 2); Vism 177 (as prohibiting practice of kammaṭṭhāna).

:: Ānanda [Vedic Ānanda, from ā + nand, cf. BHS ānandī joy Divy 37] — joy, pleasure, bliss, delight D I 3; Snp 679, 687; Ja I 207 (°maccha Leviathan); VI 589 (°bheri festive drum); Sv I 53 (= pītiyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ).

:: Ānandati [ā + nandati] to be pleased or delighted Ja VI 589 (preterit ānandi in Text reading ānandi vittā, explained by commentary as nandittha was pleased; we should however read ānandi-cittā with gladdened heart). See also ānandiya.

:: Ānandin (adjective) [from ā + nand] joyful, friendly Thag 555; Ja IV 226.

:: Ānandiya (adjective-.) [gerund of Ānandati] enjoyable, neuter joy, feast Ja VI 589 (°ṃ acarati to celebrate the feast = ānandachaṇa commentary).

:: Ānandī (feminine) [ā + nandī, cf. ānanda] joy, happiness in compound ānandi-citta Ja VI 589 (so read probably for ānandi vitta: see ānandati).

:: Ānaya (adjective) [ā + naya] to be brought, in suvānaya easy to bring S I 124 = Ja I 80.

:: Ānayati see āneti.

:: Ānāpāna (neuter) [āna + apāna, compounds of an to breathe] in haled and exhaled breath, inspiration and respiration S V 132, {101} 311f.; Ja I 58; Paṭis I 162 (-kathā); usually in compound °sati concentration by in-breathing and out-breathing (cf. Manual of a Manual of a Mystic 70) M I 425 (cf. D II 291); III 82; Vin III 70; A I 30; It 80; Paṭis I 166, 172, 185 (-samādhi); Nidd II §466 B (the same); Miln 332; Vism 111, 197, 266f.; Pj II 165. See detail under sati. [apnia]

:: Ānāpeti see āneti.

:: Ānāmeti [ā + nāmeti, causative of namati, which is usually spelt nameti] — to make bend, to bend, to bring toward or under Ja V 154 (doubtful reading future ānāmayissasi, v.l. ānayissati, commentary ānessasi = lead to).


:: Ānisaṃsa [ā + na + saṃsa, BHS distorted to anuśaṃsa] praise i.e. that which is commendable, profit, merit, advantage, good result, blessing in or from (with locative). — There are five ānisaṃsā sīlavato sīla-sampadāya or blessings which accrue to the virtuous enumerated at D II 86, viz. bhoga-kkhandha great wealth, kittisadda good report, visārada self-confidence, asammūḷho kālaṃ karoti an untroubled death, saggaṃ lokaṃ uppajjati to be reborn in a heavenly world. — D I 110, 143; III 132 (four), 236 (five); M I 204; S I 46, 52; III 8, 93 (mahā-); V 69 (seven), 73, 129, 133, 237 (seven), 267, 276; A I 58 (karaṇīye kariyamāne); II 26, 185, 239, 243 (sikkhā-); III 41 (dāne), 248 (dhammasavane), 250 (yāguyā), 251 (upaṭṭhita-satissa), 253f. (sīlavato sīlasampadāya etc., as above), 267 (sucarite), 441; IV 150 (mettāya ceto-vimuttiyā), 361 (dhamma-savane), 439f. (nekkhamme avitakke nippītike), 442, 443f. (ākāsañcāyatane); V I, 106 (mahā-), 311; It 28, 29, 40 (sikkhā-); Snp 256 (phala°), 784, 952; Ja I 9, 94; V 491 (v.l. anu-); Nidd I 73, 104, 441; Kv 400; Miln 198; Vv-a 6, 113; Pv-a 9 (dāna°) 12, 64 (= phala), 208, 221 (= guṇa); Saddh 263. — Eleven ānisaṃsas of mettā (cf. Paṭis II 130) are given in detail at Vism 311 314; on another eight see past participle 644f.

:: Ānisada (neuter) [a + sad] "sit down", bottom, behind M I 80 = 245; Ja III 435 (gloss asata) Vism 251 = Pj I 45 (°ttaca), 252 (°maṃsa).

:: Ānīta [past participle of ānetī] fetched, brought (here), brought back adduced Ja I 291; III 127; IV 1.

:: Ānuttariya (neuter) [see also anuttariya which as — probably represents ānutt°] incomparableness, excellency, supreme ideal D III 102f.; A V 37.

:: Ānupuṭṭha metri causā for anupuṭṭha (q.v.).

:: Ānupubba (neuter) [abstract from anupubba] rule, regularity, order Thag 727 (cf. Mvu II 224 ānupubbā).

:: Ānupubbatā (feminine) (or °ta neuter?) [from last] succession; only in technical term gramatical padānupubbatā word sequence, in explanation of iti Nidd I 140; Nidd II §137 (v.l. °ka).

:: Ānupubbikathā [for anupubbi° representing its isolated composition form, cf. ānubhāva and see also anupubbi°] — regulated exposition, graduated sermon D I 110; II 41f.; M I 379; Ja I 8; Miln 228; Sv I 277, 308; Dhp-a IV 199.

:: Ānubhāva [the dissociated composition form of anubhāva, q.v. for details. Only in later language] — greatness, magnificence, majesty, splendour Ja I 69 (mahanto); II 102 (of a jewel) V 491; Dhp-a II 58.

:: Āṇañja
Ānejja and ānañja [abstract from an + *añja or *ejja = *ijja. The Sanskritised equivalent would be *iñjya or *iṅgya of iṅg to stir, move, with a peculiar substitution of *aṅg in Pāli, referring it to a base with r̥ (probably Sanskrit r̥j, r̥ñjati) in analogy to a form like Sanskrit r̥ṇa = Pāli aṇa and iṇa, both a and i representing Sanskrit r̥. The form añja would thus correspond to a Sanskrit añjya (*aṅgya). The third Pāli form ān-eñja is a direct (later, and probably re-instituted) formation from Sanskrit iñjya, which in an interesting way became in BHS re-Sanskritised to ānijya (which on the other hand may represent ānejja and thus give the latter the feature of a later, but more specifically Pāli form). The editions of Pāli texts show a great variance of spelling, based on mss vacillation, in part also due to confusion of derivation] — immovability, imperturbability, impassivebility. The word is noun but occurs as adjective at Vin III 109 (ānañja samādhi, with which cf. BHS ānijyā śāntiḥ at Avś I 199. — The term usually occurs in compound ānejja-p-patta (adjective) immovable literally having attained impassivebility, explained by Buddhaghosa at Sp 157 (on Vin III 4) as acala, niccala (v.l. for niriñjane), i.e. motionless. This compound is indicated below by (p.) after the reference. — The various spellings of the word are as follows:
1. ānejja D I 76 (v.l. ānañja-p.) A II 184 (p.); III 93 (p.), 100 (p.), 377f. (p.); Nidd II §471 (v.l. aneja, ānañja) = Vibh 137 (āneñja); Nidd II §569a (v.l. ānañja), 601 (v.l. anejja and aneñja); Pp 60 (p.); Sv I 219 (v.l. āneñja).
2. ānañja Vin III 4 (p.) (v.l. ānañca°, anañja°, ānañja°; Buddhaghosa ānejja° Sp 157), 109; Ud 27 (samādhi, adjective v.l. ānañca); Dhp-a IV 46. See also below compound °kāraṇa. — A peculiarity of Trenckner a spelling is āṇañja at M II 229 (v.l. aṇañja, aneñja, āneñja), 253, 254.
3. āneñja S II 82. (v.l. āṇañje, or is it āṇeñja?); D III 217 (°ābhisaṅkhāra of imperturbable character, remaining static, cf. PtsC. 358); Nidd I 90 (the same), 206, 442; Paṭis II 206; Vibh 135, 340; Vism 377, 386 (sixteen- fold), 571; Nett 87, 99. — See also iñjati.

-kāraṇa trick of immovability, i.e. pretending to be dead (done by an elephant, but see differently Morris JPTS 1886, 154) Ja I 415; II 325 (vv.ll. āṇañja, āneñca, ānañca); IV 308; V 273, 310.

:: Āneñjatā (feminine) [from āneñja] steadfastness Vism 330, 386.

:: Āneti [ā + neti] to bring, to bring towards, to fetch, procure, convey, bring back Snp 110; Pv-a 54, 92. potential 1st plural ānema (or imperative 2nd pl ānetha M I 371. future ānayissati S I 124; Pv II 65; Ja III 173; V 154 (v.l.), and ānessati Ja V 154. infinitive ānayituṃ Pv II 610, gerund ānetvā Pv-a 42, 74. preterit ānesi Pv-a 3, and ānayi Pv I 77 (sapatiṃ). — past participle ānīta (q.v.). — Medium passive ānīyati and āniyyati D II 245 (āniyyataṃ imperative shall be brought); M I 371 (present participle ānīyamāna). — causative II ānāpeti to cause to be fetched Ja III 391; V 225.

:: Āpa and āpo (neuter) [Vedic ap and āp, feminine singular apā, plural āpaḥ, later Sanskrit also āpaḥ neuter — Indo-Germanic °ap and °ab, primarily to Lithuanian ùpé water, Old Prussian ape river, Greek Απία name of the Peloponnesus; further (as °ab) to Latin amnis river, Sanskrit abda cloud, and perhaps ambu water] — water; philosophically technical term for cohesion, representative of one of the 4 great elements (cf. mahābhūta), viz. paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo: see Cpd. 268 and BMPE 184 note 3, also below °dhātu. D II 259; M I 327; S II 103; III 54, 207; A IV 312, 375; Snp 307, 391 (°ṃ), 392 (locative āpe), 437 (the same); Ja IV 8 (paṭhavi-āpa-teja-); Dhs 652; Miln 363 (genitive āpassive, with paṭhavī etc.); Saddh 100.

-kasiṇa the water-device, i.e. meditation by (the element of) water (cf. Manual of a Mystic 75 note) D III 268; Ja I 313; Dhs 203; Vism 170; Dhp-a I 312; III 214;
-dhātu the fluid element, the essential element in water, i.e. element of cohesion (see Cpd. 155 note 2; Manual of a Mystic 9, note 2; BMPE 184, note 3, 222) D III 228, 247; M I 187, 422: Dhs 652; Nett 74. (See also dhātu);
-rasa the taste of water A I 32; Pj II 6;
-sama resembling water M I 423.

:: Āpabbata Āpabbata [DPL]: (adjective) Reaching the mountain.

:: Āpābbata [DPL]: (p.p.p.) Brought away.

:: Āpakā (feminine) [= āpagā] river Ja V 452; VI 518.

:: Āpagā (feminine) [āpa + ga of gam] a river Thag 309; Snp 319; Ja V 454; Dāṭh I 32; Vv-a 41.

:: Āpajjati [Sanskrit āpadyate, ā + pad] to get into, to meet with (accusative); to undergo; to make, produce, exhibit Vin II 126 (saṃvaraṃ); D I 222 (pariyeṭṭhiṃ); It 113 (vuddhiṃ); Ja I 73; Pp 20, 33 (diṭṭhānugatiṃ); Pv-a 29 (present participle āpajjanto); Dhp-a II 71 — potential āpajjeyya D I 119 (musāvādaṃ). — preterit āpajji Ja V 349; Pv-a 124 (saṅkocaṃ) and {102} āpādi S I 37; A II 34; It 85; Ja II 293; 3rd plural āpādu D II 273. — gerund āpajjitva Pv-a 22 (saṃvegaṃ), 151. — past participle āpanna (q.v.). — causative āpādeti (q.v.). — Note: The reading āpajja in āpajja naṃ It 86 is uncertain (vv.ll. āsajja and ālajja). The the same passage at Vin II 203 (CV VII 4, 8) has āsajjanaṃ, for which Sp 1277 has āpajjanaṃ. Cf. pariyāpajjati.

:: Āpaṇa [Sanskrit āpaṇa, ā + paṇ] a bazaar, shop Vin I 140; Ja I 55; V 445; Pv II 322; Miln 2, 341; Pj II 440; Dhp-a I 317; II 89; Vv-a 157; Pv-a 88, 333 (phal° fruit shop), 215.

:: Āpaṇika [from āpaṇa] a shopkeeper, tradesman Ja I 124; Miln 344; Vv-a 157; Dhp-a II 89.

:: Āpatacchika at Ja VI 17 is commentary reading for apatacchika in khārāpat° (q.v.).

:: Āpatati [ā + patati] to fall onto, to rush onto Ja V 349 (= upadhāvati commentary); VI 451 (= āgacchati commentary); Miln 371.

:: Āpatti (feminine) [Sanskrit āpatti, from ā + pad, cf. apajjati and BHS āpatti, e. g, Divy 330] — an ecclesiastical offence (cf. PtsC. 362 note 1), Vin I 103 (-khandha), 164 (°ṃ paṭikaroti), 322 (°ṃ passati), 354 (avasesā and anavasesā); II 2f. (°ṃ ropeti), 59, 60 (°pariyanta), 88 (°adhikaraṇa), 259 (°ṃ paṭikaroti); IV 344; D III 212 (°kusalatā); A I 84 (the same), 87; II 240 (°bhaya); Dhs 1330f. (cf. BMPE 321). {91}

-vuṭṭhānatā forgiveness of an offence Vin II 250. — anāpatti Vin III 35.

:: Āpattika (adjective) [āpatti + ka, cf. BHS āpattika Divy 303] guilty of an offence M I 443; Vin IV 224. an- Vin I 127.

:: Āpatha in micchāpatha, dvedhāpatha as classified in Vibh Index page 441 should be grouped under patha as micchā-, dvedhā-.

:: Āpathaka in °jjhāyin Nidd II §3422 is read āpādaka° at Nidd I 226, and āpātaka- at Vism 26.

:: Āpadā (feminine) [Sanskrit āpad, from ā + pad, cf. āpajjati and BHS āpad, e.g. in āpadgata Jm 3133] — accident, misfortune, distress, D III 190; A II 68 (locative plural āpadāsu), 187; III 45; IV 31; Thag 371; Ja IV 163 (āpadatthā, a difficult form; vv.ll. Text aparattā, āpadatvā, commentary aparatthā; explained by āpadāya); V 340 (locative āpade), 368; Pv-a 130 (quotation); Saddh 312, 554. Note: For the contracted form in locative plural āpāsu (= °āpatsu) see °āpā.

:: Āpanna [past participle of āpajjati]
1. entered upon, fallen into, possessed of, having done Vin I 164 (āpattiṃ ā.); III 90; D I 4 (dayāpanna merciful); Nidd II §32 (taṇhāya).
2. unfortunate, miserable Ja I 19 (V 124). Cf. pari-.

:: Āpā
*Āpā (and *āvā) (feminine) [for āpadā, q.v.] misery, misfortune Ja II 317 (locative plural āpāsu, v.l. avāsu, commentary āpadāsu); III 12 (āvāsu); V 82 (avāgata gone into misery, v.l. apagata, commentary apagata parihīna), 445 (locative āvāsu, v.l. avāsu, commentary āpadāsu), 448 (āvāsu kiccesu; v.l. apassive, read āpāsu). Note: Since *āpā only occurs in locative plural, the form āpāsu is to be regarded as a direct contraction of Sanskrit āpatsu.

:: Āpāṇa [ā + pāṇa] life, literally breathing, only in compound °koṭi the end of life Miln 397; Dāṭh III 93; adjective °koṭika M II 120; Vism 10.

:: Āpātha [etymology? Trenckner, Miln page 428 says: "I suspect ā. to be corrupted from āpāta (cf. āpatati), under an impression that it is allied to patha; but it is scarcely ever written so"] — sphere, range, focus, field (of consciousness or perception; cf. BMPE 182 note 2), appearance A II 67; Ja I 336; Vibh 321; Miln 298; Vism 21, 548; Sv I 228; As 308, 333; Vv-a 232 (-kāla); Dhp-a IV 85; Saddh 356. Usually in phrase āpāthaṃ gacchati to come into focus, to become clear, to appear M I 190; S IV 160, or °ṃ āgacchati Vin I 184; A III 377f.; IV 404; Vism 125. Cf. °gata below.

-gata come into the sphere of, appearing, visible M I 174 = Nidd II jhāna (an° unapproached); Pv-a 23 (āpāthaṃ gata);
-gatatta abstract from last: appcarance Vism 617.

:: Āpāthaka (adjective) [from āpātha] belonging to the (perceptual) sphere of, visible, in °nisādin lying down, visible D III 44, 47. Cf. āpathaka.

:: Āpādaka (adjective/noun) [from ā + pad]
1. (adjective) producing, leading to (—°) Vv-a 4 (abhiññ° catuttha-jjhāna).
2. (noun) one who takes care of a child, a protector, guardian A I 62 = 132 = It 110 (+ posaka). — feminine āpādikā a nurse, foster mother Vin II 289 (+ posikā).

:: Āpādā (feminine) [short for āpādikā] a nursing woman, in an° not nursing unmarried Ja IV 178.

:: Āpādi preterit of āpajjati (q.v.).

:: Āpādeti [causative of āpajjati] to produce, make out, bring, bring into M I 78; III 248; S IV 110 (addhānaṃ to live one's life, cf. addhānaṃ āpādi Ja II 293 = jīvitaddhānaṃ āpādi āyuṃ vindi commentary); Pj II 466. — Cf. pari°

:: Āpāna (neuter) [from ā + pā] drinking; drinking party, banquet; banqueting-hall, drinking-hall Ja I 52 (°maṇḍala); V 292 (°bhūmi); Vism 399 (the same); Dhp-a I 213 (the same, rañño).

:: Āpānaka (adjective) [āpāna + ka] drinking, one who is in the habit of drinking D I 167.

:: Āpānīya (adjective) [from āpāna, ā + pā] drinkable, fit for drinking or drinking with, in °kaṃsa drinking-bowl, goblet M I 316; S II 110.

:: Āpāyika (adjective/noun) [from apāya] one suffering in an apāya or state of misery after death Vin II 202 = It 85 (v.l. ap°); Vin II 205; D I 103; A I 265; It 42; Vism 16; Pv-a 60.

:: Āpiyati [from r̥, cf. appāyati and appeti] to be in motion (in etymology of āpo) Vism 364.

:: Āpucchati [ā + pucchati] to enquire after, look for, ask, especially to ask permission or leave; preterit āpucchi Ja I 140; Pv-a 110; gerundive āpucchitabba Dhp-a I 6; gerund āpucchitvā Vin IV 267 (apaloketvā + a.); Miln 29; Pv-a 111; āpucchitūna (cf. Geiger P.Gram §211) Thig 426; āpuccha Thig 416, and āpucchā [= āprcchya, cf. Vedic ācyā for ācya], only in negative form an° without asking Vin II 211, 219; IV 165, 226 (= anapaloketvā); Dhp-a I 81. — past participle āpucchita Vin IV 272.

:: Āpūrati [a + pūrati] to be filled, to become full, to increase Ja III 154 (cando ā. = pūrati commentary); IV 26, 99, 100.

:: Āpeti [causative of āp, see appoti and pāpuṇāti] to cause to reach or obtain Ja VI 46. Cf. vy°.

:: Āphusati [ā + phusati] to feel, realize, attain to, reach; preterit āphusi Vv 169 (= adhigacchi Vv-a 84).

:: Ābaddha [past participle of ābandhati] tied, bound, bound up Sv I 127; figurative bound to, attached to, in love with Dhp-a I 88; Pv-a 82 (Tissāya °—°sineha); Saddh 372 (sineh' °hadaya).

:: Ābandhaka (adjective) [ā + bandh, cf. Sanskrit ābandha tie, bond] — (being) tied to (locative) Pv-a 169 (sīse).

:: Ābandhati (ā + bandhati, Sanskrit ābadhnāti, bandh] to bind to, tie, fasten on to, hold fast; figurative to tie to, to attach to, Ja IV 132, 289; V 319, 338, 359. — past participle ābaddha.

:: Ābandhana (neuter) [from ā + bandh] 1. tie, bond Sv I 181 = Pp-a 236 (°atthena ñāti yeva ñāti-parivaṭṭo). 2. tying, binding Vism 351 (-lakkhaṇa, of āpodhātu). 3. reins (?) or harness (on a chariot) Ja V 319 (but cf. commentary explanation "hatthi-assa-rathesu ābandhitabbāni bhaṇḍakāni", thus taking it as ā + bhaṇḍa + na, i.e. wares, loads etc.). With this cf. Sanskrit ābandha, according to Abhidh-r-m 2, 420 a thong of leather which fastens the oxen to the yoke of a plough.


:: Ābādha [ā + bādh to oppress, Vedic ābādha oppression] — affliction, illness, disease Vin IV 261; D I 72; II 13; A I 121; III 94, 143; IV 333, 415f., 440; Dhp 138; Pp 28; Vism 41 (udara-vāta°) 95; Vv-a 351 (an° safe and sound); Pj II 476; Saddh 85. — A list of ābādhas or illnesses, as classified on grounds of ætiology, runs as follows: pittasamuṭṭhānā, semha°, vāta°, sannipātikā, utupariṇāmajā, visama-parihārajā, opakkamikā, kammavipākajā (after Nidd II §304 I commentary, recurring with slight variations at S IV 230; A II 87; III 131; V 110; Nidd I 17, 47; Miln 112, cf. 135). — Another list of illnesses mentioned in the Vinaya is given in Index to Vin II, page 351. — Five ābādhas at Vin I 71, viz. kuṭṭhaṃ gaṇḍo kilāso soso apamāro said to be raging in Magadha cf. page 93. — Three ābādhas at D III 75, viz. icchā anasanaṃ jarā, cf. Snp 311. — See also compound appābādha (health) under appa.

:: Ābādhika (adjective/noun) [from ābādha] affected with illness, a sick person A III 189, 238; Nidd I 160; Miln 302; Sv 212; Dhp-a I 31; Pv-a 271. — feminine ābādhikinī a sick woman A II 144.

:: Ābādhita [past participle of ābādheti, causative of ā + bādh] afflicted, oppressed, molested Thag 185.

:: Ābādheti [ā + causative of bādh, cf. ābādha] to oppress, vex, annoy, harass S IV 329.

:: Ābila (adjective) [Sanskrit āvila; see also Pāli āvila] turbid, disturbed, soiled Ja V 90.

:: Ābhata [past participle of ā + bharati from bhr̥] brought (there or here), carried, conveyed, taken D I 142; S. I 65; A II 71, 83; It 12, 14 with phrase yathābhataṃ as he has been reared (cf. Ja V 330 evaṃ kicchā bhaṭo); Pv III 5 (ratt° = rattiyaṃ ā. Pv-a 199); Dhp-a II 57, 81; IV 89; Vv-a 65. Cf. yathābhata.

:: Ābhataka (adjective) = ābhata; Sv I 205 (v.l. ābhata).

:: Ābharaṇa (neuter) [Sanskrit ābharaṇa, ā + bhr̥] that which is taken up or put on, viz. ornament, decoration, trinkets D I 104; Vv 802; Ja III 11, 31; Dhp-a III 83; Vv-a 187.

:: Ābharati [ā + bhr̥] to bring, to carry; gerund ābhatvā Ja IV 351.

:: Ābhassara (adjective/noun) [etymology uncertain; one suggested in Cpd. 138 note 4 is ā + °bha + °sar, i.e. from whose bodies are emitted rays like {92} lightning, more probably a combination of ābhā + svar (to shine, be bright), i.e. shining in splendour] — shining, brilliant, radiant, name of a class of gods in the Brahma heavens "the radiant gods", usually referred to as the representatives of supreme love (pīti and mettā); thus at D I 17; Dhp 200; It 15; Dhp-a III 258 (°loka). In another context at Vism 414f.

:: Ābhā (feminine) [Sanskrit ābhā, from ā + bhā, see ābhāti] shine, splendour, lustre, light D II 12; M III 147 (adjective —); S II 150 (°dhātu); A II 130, 139; III 34; Mhv II 11; Vv-a 234 (of a Vimāna, v.l. pabhā); Dhp-a IV 191; Saddh 286.

:: Ābhāti [ā + bhā] to shine, shine forth, radiate Dhp 387 (= virocati Dhp-a IV 144); Ja V 204. See also ābheti.

:: Ābhāveti [ā + bhāveti] to cultivate, pursue Pv II 1319 (mettacittaṃ; gloss and v.l. abhāvetvā; explained as vaḍḍhetvā brūhetvā Pv-a 168).

:: Ābhāsa [Sanskrit ābhāsa, from ā + bhās] splendour, light, appearance M III 215.

:: Ābhicetasika (adjective) See abhicetasika. This spelling, with guṇa of the first syllable, is probably more correct; but the short a is the more frequent.

:: Ābhidosika (adjective) [abhidosa + ika] belonging to the evening before, of last night Vin III 15 (of food; stale); M I 170 (-kāḷakata died last night); Miln 291.

:: Ābhidhammika (adjective) [abhidhamma + ika] belonging to the specialised Dhamma, versed in or studying the Abhidhamma Miln 17, 341; Vism 93. As abhi° at Pj I 151; Ja IV 219.

:: Ābhindati [ā + bhindati] to split, cut, strike (with an axe) S IV 160 (v.l. a°).

:: Ābhisekika (adjective) [from abhiseka] belonging to the consecration (of a king) Vin V 129.

:: Ābhujati [ā + bhujati, bhuj1] to bend, bend towards or in, contract; usually in phrase pallaṅkaṃ ā° "to bend in the round lap" or "bend in hookwise", to sit crosslegged (as a devotee with straightened back), e.g. at Vin I 24; D I 71; M I 56 (v.l. ābhuñjitvā), 219; A III 320; Pp 68; Paṭis I 176; Ja I 71, 213; Miln 289; Sv I 58, 210. In other connections Ja I 18 (V 101; of the ocean "to recede"); Miln 253 (kāyaṃ).

:: Ābhujana (neuter) [from ābhujati] crouching, bending, turning in, in phrase pallaṅkābhujana sitting cross-legged Ja I 17 (V 91); Pv-a 219.

:: Ābhujī (feminine) [literally the one that bends, probably a poetic metaphor] name of a tree, the Bhūrja or Bhojpatra Ja V 195 (= bhūjapatta-vana commentary), 405 (= bhūjapatta commentary).

:: Ābhūñjati [ā + bhuj2, Sanskrit bhunakti] to enjoy, partake of, take in, feel, experience Ja IV 456 (bhoge); As 333.

:: Ābhuñjana (neuter) [from ābhuñjati] partaking of, enjoying, experiencing As 333.

:: Ābheti [°ābhayati = ābhāti, q.v.] to shine Pv II 126 (present participle °entī); Vv 82 (°antī, v.l. °entī; = obhāsentī Vv-a 50).

:: Ābhoga [from ābhuñjati, bhuj2 to enjoy etc. The translators of Kv derive it from bhuj1 to bend etc. (PtsC. 221 note 4) which however is hardly correct, cf. the similar meaning of gocara "pasturing", figurative perception etc.] — ideation, idea, thought D I 37 (= manasikāro samannāhāro Sv I 122; cf. semantically āhāra = ābhoga, food); Vibh 320; Miln 97; Vism 164, 325, 354; Dāṭh 62; Pj I 42 (-paccavekkhana), 43 (the same) 68.

:: Āma1 Āma (indeclinable) [a specific Pāli formation representing either amma (q.v.) or a gradation of pronoun base amu° "that" (see asu), thus deictic-emphatic exclaimation cf. also BHS āma e.g. Avś I 36] — affirmative particle "yes, indeed, certainly" D I 192f. (as v.l..; Text has āmo); Ja I 115, 226 (in commentary explanation of Text amā-jāta which is to be read for āmajāta); II 92; V 448; Miln 11, 19, 253; Dhp-a I 10, 34; II 39, 44; Vv-a 69; Pv-a 12, 22, 56, 61, 75, 93 etc.

:: Āma2 (adjective) [Vedic āma = Greek ὠμός, connected with Latin amārus. The more common Pāli form is āmaka (q.v.)] — raw, viz. (a) unbaked (of an earthen vessel), unfinished Snp 443; (b) uncooked (of flesh), neuter raw flesh, only in following compounds:

-gandha "smell of raw flesh", verminous odour, a smell attributed in particular to rotting corpses (cf. similarly BHS āmagandha Mvu III 214) D II 242f.; A I 280; Snp 241, 242 (= vissagandha kuṇapagandha Pj II 286), 248, 251; Dhs 625; and
-giddha greedy after flesh (used as bait) Ja VI 416 (= āmasaṅkhāta āmisa commentary).

:: Āmaka (adjective) [= āma2] raw, uncooked D I 5 = Pp 58 (°maṃsa raw flesh); M I 80 (titta-kalābu āmaka-cchinno).

-dhañña "raw" grain, corn in its natural, unprepared state D I 5 = Pp 58 (see Sv I 78 for definition); Vin IV 264; V 135;
-sāka raw vegetables Vism 70;
-susāna "cemetery of raw flesh" charnel ground (cf. āmagandha under ama2), i.e. fetid smelling cremation ground Ja I 264, 489; IV 45f.; VI 10; Dhp-a I 176; Vv-a 76; Pv-a 196.

:: Āmaṭṭha [Sanskrit āmr̥ṣṭa, past participle of āmasati; cf. āmasita] touched, handled Ja I 98 (an°); Sv I 107 (= parāmaṭṭha); Saddh 333.


:: Āmaṇḍaliya [ā + maṇḍala + iya] a formation resembling a circle, in phrase °ṃ karoti to form a ring (of people) or a circle, to stand closely together M I 225 (cf. Sanskrit āmaṇḍalikaroti).

:: Āmata in anāmata at Ja II 56 is metri causā for amata.

:: Āmattikā (feminine) [ā + mattikā] earthenware, crockery; in °āpaṇa a crockery shop, chandler's shop Vin IV 243.

:: Āmaddana (neuter) [ā + maddana of mr̥d] crushing Vv-a 311.

:: Āmanta (adjective-adverb) [either gerund of āmanteti (q.v.) or root derived from ā + mant, cf. āmantaṇā] asking or asked, invited, only as an° without being asked, unasked, uninvited Vin I 254 (°cāra); A III 259 (the same).

:: Āmantaṇīya (adjective) [gerund of āmanteti] to be addressed Ja IV 371.

:: Āmantana (neuter) and °nā (feminine, also °ṇā) [from āmanteti] addressing calling; invitation, greeting Snp 40 (epithet Nidd II §128); °vacana the address-form of speech i.e. the vocative case (cf. Sanskrit āmantritaṃ the same) Pj II 435; Pj I 167.

:: Āmantanaka (adjective/noun) [from āmantana] addressing speaking to, conversing; feminine °ikā interlocutor, companion, favourite queen Vv 188 (= allāpa-sallāpa-yoggā kīḷanakāle vā tena (i.e. Sakkena) āmantetabbā Vv-a 96).

:: Āmantita [past participle of āmanteti] addressed, called, invited Pv II 313 (= nimantita Pv-a 86).

:: Āmanteti [denominative of ā + *mantra] to call, address, speak to, invite, consult Ja VI 265; Sv I 297; Pj II 487 (= ālapati and avhayati); Pv-a 75, 80, 127. — preterit āmantesi D II 16; Snp page 78 (= ālapi Pj II 394) and in poetry āmantayi Snp 997; Pv II 27; 37 (perhaps better with v.l. samantayi). — gerund āmanta (= Sanskrit āmantrya) Ja III 209, 315 (= āmantayitvā commentary), 329; IV 111; V 233; VI 511. past participle āmantita (q.v.). — causative II āmantāpeti to invite to come, to cause to be called, to send for D I 134 (v.l. āmanteti); Miln 149.

:: Āmaya [etymology? Cf. Sanskrit āmaya] affliction, illness, misery; only as an° (adjective) not afflicted, not decaying, healthy, well (cf. BHS nirāmaya Aśvaghoṣa II 9) Vin I 294; Vv 1510 (= aroga Vv-a 74); 177; 368; Ja III 260, 528; IV 427; VI 23. Positive only very late, e.g. Saddh 397.

:: Āmalaka [cf. Sanskrit āmalaka] emblic myrobalaṃ, Phyllanthus Emblica Vin I 201, 278; II 149 (°vaṇṭika pīthu); S I 150; A V 170; Snp page 125 (°matti); Ja IV 363; V 380 (as v.l. for Text āmala); Miln 11; Dhp-a I 319; Vv-a 7.

:: Āmalakī (feminine) āmalaka Vin I 30; M I 456 (°vana).

:: Āmasati [ā + masati from mr̥ś] to touch (upon), to handle, to lay hold on Vin II 221; III 48 (kumbhiṃ); Ja III 319 (the same); A V 263, 266; Ja IV 67; Paṭis II 209; Miln 306; Pj II 400; As 302; Vv-a 17. — preterit āmasi Ja II 360; gerund āmasitvā Vin III 140 (udakapattaṃ) Ja II 330; gerundive āmassa Ja II 360 (an°) and āmasitabba the same (commentary). — past participle āmaṭṭha and āmasita (qq.v.).

:: Āmasana (neuter) [from āmasati] touching, handling; touch Vin IV 214. Cp III 11, 8; Miln 127, 306; Sv I 78.


:: Āmasita [past participle of āmasati] touched, taken hold of, occupied Vv-a 113 (an° khetta virgin land).

:: Āmāya (adjective) [to be considered either a derivation from amā (see amājāta in same meaning) or to be spelt amāya which metri causā may be written ā°] — "born in the house" (cf. semantically Greek ἰϧαγενής > indigenous), inborn, being by birth, in compound

-dāsa (dāsī) a born slave, a slave by birth Ja VI 117 (= gehadāsiyā kucchismiṃ jātadasī commentary), 285 (= dāsassa dāsiyā kucchimhi jātadāsā).

:: Āmāsaya [āma2 + āsaya, cf. Sanskrit āmāśaya and āmāśraya] receptacle of undigested food, i.e. the stomach Vism 260; Pj I 59. Opposite pakkṣaya.

:: Āmilāka (neuter?) [etymology?] a woollen cover into which a floral pattern is woven Sv I 87.

:: Āmisa (neuter) [derivation from āma raw, q.v. for etymology — Vedic āmis (masculine); later Sanskrit āmiṣa (neuter), both in literal and figurative meaning
1. originally raw meat; hence prevailing notion of "raw, unprepared, uncultivated"; thus °khāra raw lye Vin I 206.
2. "fleshy, of the flesh" (as opposed to mind or spirit), hence material, physical; generally in opposition to dhamma (see dhamma B 1. a. and also next no.), thus at M I 12 (°dāyāda); It 101 (the same); A I 91 = It 98 (°dāna material gifts opposed to spiritual ones); Dhs 1344 (-paṭisanthāra hospitality towards bodily needs, cf. BMPE 325).
3. food, especially palatable food; food for enjoyment, dainties Vin II 269f.; Ja II 6; Miln 413 (lok°); Sv I 83 (°sannidhi),
4. bait S I 67; IV 158; Ja IV 57, 219; VI 416; Sv I 270.
5. gain, reward, money, douceur, gratuity, "tip" Pv-a 36, 46; especially in phrase °kiñcikkha-hetu for the sake of some (little) gain S II 234; A I 128; V 265, 283f., 293f.; Pp 29; Pv II 83 (= kiñci āmisaṃ patthento Pv-a 107); Miln 93; Vv-a 241 (= bhogahetu).
6. enjoyment Pv II 82 (= kāmāmise-laggacitto Pv-a 107).
7. greed, desire, lust Vin I 303 (°antara out of greed, selfish, opposite mettacitto); A III 144 (the same), 184 (the same); I 73 (°garū parisā); Ja V 91 (°cakkhu); Paṭis II 238 (mār°). See also compounds with nir° and sa°.

:: Āmuñcati [ā + muc] to put on, take up; to be attached to, cling to As 305. — past participle āmutta (q.v.).

:: Āmutta [Sanskrit āmukta, past participle of ā + muc, cf. also BHS āmukta jewel Divy 2, 3 etc., a meaning which might also be seen in the later Pāli passages, e.g. at Pv-a 134. Semantically cf. ābharaṇa] — having put on, clothed in, dressed with, adorned with (always °—) D I 104 (°mālābharaṇa); Vin II 156 = Vv 208 (°maṇi-kuṇḍala); S I 211; Ja IV 460; V 155; VI 492; Vv 721 (= paṭimukka); 802 (°hatthābharaṇa); Pv II 951 (°maṇi-kuṇḍala); Ja IV 183; Vv-a 182.

:: Āmeṇḍita (or āmeḍita) [Sanskrit āmreḍita fram ā + mreḍ, dialectical] — (neuter) sympathy in °ṃ karoti to show sympathy (? so Morris JPTS 1887, 106) Sv I 228 = Pj II 155 (v.l. at Sv āmeḍita).

:: Āmo = āma D I 192.

:: Āmoda [Sanskrit āmoda, from ā + mud] that which pleases; fragrance, perfume Dāṭh V 51.

:: Āmodanā (feminine) [from ā + mud] rejoicing Dhs 86, 285.

:: Āmodamāna (adjective) [present participle medium of āmodeti] rejoicing, glad S I 100 (v.l. anu°) = It 66; Vv 648 (= pamodamāna Vv-a 278); Ja V 45.

:: Āmodita [past participle from āmodeti] pleased, satisfied, glad Ja I 17 (V 80); V 45 (°pamodita highly pleased); Miln 346.

:: Āmodeti [Sanskrit āmodayati, causative of ā + mud] to please, gladden, satisfy Thag 649 (cittaṃ); Ja V 34. — past participle āmodita (q.v.).

:: Āya [Sanskrit āya; ā + i
1. coming in, entrance M III 93.
2. tax Ja V 113.
3. income, earning, profit, gain (opposite vaya loss) A IV 282 = 323; Snp 978; Ja I 228; Pj I 38 (in explanation of kāya), 82 (in etymology of āyatana); Pv-a 130.
4. (āyā feminine?) a lucky dice ("the incomer") Ja VI 281.

-kammika a treasurer Dhp-a I 184;
-kusala clever in earnings Nett 20;
-kṣalla proficiency in money making D III 220 (one of the three kṣallas); Vibh 325;
-pariccāga expediture of one's income Pv-a 8;
-mukha (literal) entrance, inflow, going in D I 74 (= āgamana-magga Sv {105} 1.78); M II 15; A II 166; (figurative) revenue income, money Pj II 173.

:: Āyata [Sanskrit āyata, past participle of ā + yam, cf. āyamati]
1. (adjective) outstretched, extended, long, in length (with numeral) D III 73 (ñātikkhaya, prolonged or heavy?); M I 178 (dīghato ā°; tiriyañ ca vitthata); Ja I 77, 273 (tettiṃs'-aṅgulāyato khaggo); III 438; Vv 8415 (°aṃsa; cf. explained at Vv-a 339); Pj II 447; As 48; Pv-a 152 (dāṭhā fangs; lomā hair), 185 (°vaṭṭa); Saddh 257.
2. (noun) a bow Ja III 438.

-agga having its point (end) stretched forward, i.e. in the future (see āyati) It 15, 52;
-paṇhin having long eye-lashes (one of the signs of a Mahāpurisa) D II 17 = III 143;
-pamha a long eye-lash Thig 384 (= dīghapakhuma Thig-a 250).

:: Āyataka (adjective) [= āyata]
1. long. extended, prolonged, kept up, lasting Vin II 108 (gītassara); A III 251 (the same); Ja I 362.
2. sudden, abrupt, instrumental °ena abruptly Vin II 237.

:: Āyatana (neuter) [Sanskrit āyatana, not found in the Vedas; but frequent in BHS From ā + yam, cf. āyata. The plural is āyatanā at S IV 70. — For full definition of term as seen by the Pāli commentators see Buddhaghosa's explained at Sv I 124, 125, with which cf. the popular etymology at Pj I 82: "āyassa vā tananato āyatassa vā saṃsāra-dukkhassa nayanato āyatanāni" and at Vism 527 "āye tanoti āyatañ ca nayatī ti ā."]
1. stretch, extent, reach, compass region; sphere, locus, place, spot; position, occasion (corresponding to Buddhaghosa's definition at Sv I 124 as "samosaraṇa") D III 241, 279 (vimutti°); S II 41, 269; IV 217; V 119f., 318.f.; A III 141 (ariya°); V 61 (abhibh°, q.v.) Snp 406 (rajass° "haunt of passion" = rāgādi-rajassa uppatti-deso Pj II 381); Ja I 80 (raj°). Frequently in phrase araññ° a lonely spot, a spot in the forest Ja I 173; Vv-a 301; Pv-a 42, 54.
2. exertion, doing, working, practice, performance (comprising Buddhaghosa's definition at Sv I 124 as paññatti), usually —°, viz. kamm° Nidd I 505; Vibh 324, 353; kasiṇ° A V 46f., 60; Paṭis I 28; titth° A I 173, 175; Vibh 145, 367; sipp° (art, craft) D I 51; Nidd II §505; Vibh 324, 353; cf. an° non-exertion, indolence, sluggishness Ja V 121.
3. sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense-organ and object; relation, order. — Cpd. page 183 says rightly: "āyatana cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense-organs (the mind being regarded as 6th sense) and sense objects". — These āyatanāni (relations, functions, reciprocalities) are thus divided into two groups, inner (ajjhattikāni) and outer (bāhirāni), and comprise the following: (a) ajjhattika: 1. cakkhu eye, 2. sota ear, 3. ghāna nose, 4. jivhā tongue, 5. kāya body, 6. mano mind; (b) bāhira: 1. rūpa visible object, 2. sadda sound, 3. gandha odour, 4. rasa taste, 5. phoṭṭhabba tangible object, 6. dhamma cognizable object. — For details as regards connotation and application see BMPE introduction lixf. Cpd. 90 note 2; 254f. — Approximately covering this meaning (3) is Buddhaghosa's definition of āyatana at Sv I 124 as sañjāti and as kāraṇa (origin and cause, i.e. mutually occasioning and conditioning relations or adaptations). See also Nidd II under rūpa for further classifications. — For the above mentioned 12 āyatanāni see the following passages: D II 302f.; III 102, 243; A III 400; V 52; Snp 373 (cf. Pj II 366); Paṭis I 7, 22, 101, 137; II 181, 225, 230; Dhs 1335; Vibh 401f.; Nett 57, 82; Vism 481; Thig-a 49, 285. Of these 6 are mentioned at S I 113, II 3; IV 100, 174f.; It 114; Vibh 135f., 294; Nett 13, 28, 30; Vism 565f. Other sets of 10 at Nett 69; of 4 at D II 112, 156; of 2 at D II 69. — Here also belongs ākāsānañcāyatana- ānañcaññ° etc. (see under ākāsa etc. and sub voce), e.g. at D I 34f., 183; A IV 451f.; Vibh 172, 189, 262f.; Vism 324f. — Unclassified passages: M I 61; II 233; III 32, 216, 273; S I 196; II 6, 8, 24, 72f.; III 228; IV 98; V 426; A I 113, 163, 225; III 17, 27, 82, 426; IV 146, 426; V 30, 321, 351, 359; Nidd I 109, 133, 171, 340; Ja I 381 (paripuṇṇa°); Vibh 412f. (the same). {94}

-uppāda birth of the āyatanas (see above 3) Vin I 185;
-kusala skilled in the ā. M III 63;
-kusalatā skill in the spheres (of sense) D III 212; Dhs 1335;
-ṭ-ṭha founded in the sense-organs Paṭis I 132; II 121.

:: Āyatanika (adjective) [from āyatana] belonging to the sphere of (some special sense, see āyatana 3) S IV 126 (phass° Niraya and sagga).

:: Āyati (feminine) [from ā + yam, cf. Sanskrit āyati] "stretching forth", extension, length (of time), future. Only (?) in accusative āyatiṃ (adverb) in future Vin II 89, 185; III 3; Snp 49; It 115 (Text reads āyati but cf. page 94 where Text āyatiṃ, v.l. āyati); Ja I 89; V 431; Sv I 236.

:: Āyatika (adjective) [from last] future S I 142.

:: Āyatikā (feminine) [of āyataka] a tube, waterpipe Vin II 123.

:: Āyatta [Sanskrit āyatta, past participle of ā + yat].
1. striving, active, ready, exerted Ja V 395 (°mana = ussukkamana commentary).
2. striven after, pursued Ja I 341.
3. dependent on Vism 310 (assāsa-passāsa°); Nett 194; Saddh 477, 605.

:: Āyanā (feminine) [?] at As 259 and Vism 26 is a grammarian's construction, abstracted from feminine abstract words ending in °āyanā, e.g. kaṅkhā < kaṅkhāyanā, of which the correct explanation is a derivation from causative formation kaṅkhāyati > kaṅkhāy + a + nā. What the idea of Buddhaghosa was in propounding his explanation is hard to say, perhaps he related it to √i and understood it to be the same as āyāna.

:: Āyamati [ā + yam] to stretch, extend, stretch out, draw out Miln 176, usually in stereotype phrase piṭṭhi me āgilāyati tam ahaṃ āyamissāmi "my back feels weak, I will stretch it" Vin II 200; D III 209; M I 354; S IV 184; Ja I 491. Besides this in commentaries e.g. Ja III 489 (mukhaṃ āyamituṃ).

:: Āyasa (adjective) [Sanskrit āyasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S II 182; A III 58; Dhp 345; Ja IV 416; V 81; Vv 845 (an°? Cf. the rather strange explained at Vv-a 335).

:: Āyasakya (neuter) dishonour, disgrace, bad repute A IV 96; Ja V 17; Vv-a 110; usually in phrase °ṃ pāpuṇāti to fall into disgrace Thag 292; Ja II 33 = 271; III 514. [Buddhaghosa on A IV 96 (Mp IV 48) explains it as ayasaka + ya with guṇa of the initial, cf. ārogya].

:: Āyasmant (adjective) [Sanskrit āyuṣmant, the Pāli form showing assimilation of u to a] — literally old, i.e. venerable; used, either as adjective or absolute as a respectful appellation of a bhikkhu of some standing (cf. the semantically identical Thera). It occurs usually in nominative āyasmā and is explained in Nidd by typical formula "piya-vacanaṃ garu°, sagārava-sappaṭissādhivacanaṃ", e.g. Nidd I 140, 445; Nidd II §130 on various Snp passages (e.g. 814, 1032, 1040, 1061, 1096). — Frequently in all texts, of later passages see Pj II 158; Pv-a 53, 54, 63, 78. — See also āvuso.

:: Āyāga [ā + yāga of yaj] sacrificial fee, gift; (masculine) recipient of a sacrifice or gift (deyyadhamma) Snp 486 (= deyyadhammānaṃ adhiṭṭhāna-bhūta Pj II 412); Thag 566; Ja VI 205 (°vatthu worthy objact of sacrificial fees).

:: Āyācaka (adjective/noun) [from ā + yāc] one who begs or prays, petitioner Miln 129.

:: Āyācati [ā + yāc, cf. BHS āyācate Divy 1.]
1. to request, beg, implore, pray to (accusative) Vin III 127; D I 240; Pv-a 160.
2. to make a vow, to vow, promise A I 88; Ja I 169 = V 472; I 260; II 117. — past participle āyācita (q.v.).

:: Āyācana (neuter) [from āyācati]
1. asking, exhortation, addressing (technical term in grammar in explanation of imperative) Pj II 43, 176, 412.
2. a vow, prayer A I 88; III 47; Ja I 169 = V 472.


:: Āyācita [past participle of āyācati] vowed, promised Ja I 169 (°bhattajātaka Name).

:: Āyāta [past participle of āyāti; cf. BHS āyāta in same meaning at Jm 210] — gone to, undertaken Saddh 407.

:: Āyāti [ā + yāti of yā] to come on or here, to come near, approach, get into S I 240; Snp 669; Snp page 116 (= gacchati Pj II 463); Ja IV 410; pv II 1212 (= āgacchati Pv-a 158); Dhp-a I 93 (imperative āyāma let us go). — past participle āyāta.

:: Āyāna (neuter) [from ā + yā to go] coming, arrival: see āyanā.

:: Āyāma [from ā + yam, see āyamati]
1. (literal) stretching, stretching out, extension Vin I 349 = Ja III 488 (mukh°).
2. (applied) usually as linear measure: extension, length (often combined with and contrasted to vitthāra breadth or width and ubbedha height), as noun (especially in ablative āyāmato and instrumental āyāmena in length) or as adjective (—°): Ja I 7, 49 (°ato tīṇi yojanasatāni, vitthārato aḍḍhatiyāni); III 389; Miln 17 (ratanaṃ soḷasahatthaṃ āyāmena aṭṭhahatthaṃ vitthārena), 282 (ratanaṃ catuhatthāyāmaṃ); Vism 205 (+ vitth°); Pj I 133 (+ vitthāra and parikkhepa); Vv-a 188 (soḷasayojan°), 199 (°vitthārehi), 221 (°ato + vitth°); Pv-a 77 (+ vitth°), 113 (the same + ubbedha); Dhp-a I 17 (saṭṭhi-yojan°).

:: Āyāsa [cf. Sanskrit āyāsa, etymology?] trouble, sorrow, only negative an° (adjective) peaceful, free from trouble A IV 98; Thag 1008.

:: Āyu Āyu (neuter) [Vedic āyus; Avesta āyu, gradation form of same root as Greek αἰών "æon", αἰέν always; Latin aevum, Gothic aiws. Old High German ewa, io always; German ewig eternal; Anglo-Saxon āe eternity, ā always (cf. ever and aye)] — life, vitality, duration of life, longevity D III 68, 69, 73, 77; S III 143 (usmā ca); IV 294; A I 155; II 63, 66 (addh°); III 47; IV 76, 139; Snp 694, 1019; It 89; Ja I 197 (dīgh°); Vv 555 (cf. Vv-a 247 with its definition of divine life as comprising 36,000,000 years); Vism 229 (length of man's āyu = 100 years); Dhs 19, 82, 295, 644, 716; Saddh 234, 239, 258. — Long or divine life, dibbaṃ āyu is one of the 10 attributes of ādhipateyya or majesty (see ṭhāna), thus at Vin I 294; D III 146; S IV 275f.; A I 115; III 33; IV 242, 396; Pv II 959 (= jīvitaṃ Pv-a 136).

-ūhā see āyūhā;
-kappa duration of life Miln 141; Dhp-a I 250;
-khaya decay of life (cf. jīvita-k-khaya) D I 17 (cf. Sv I 110); III 29;
-pamāṇa span or measure of life time D II 3; A I 213, 267; II 126f.; IV 138, 252f., 261; V 172; Pp 16; Vibh 422f.; Pj II 476;
-pariyanta end of life It 99; Vism 422;
-saṅkhaya exhaustion of life or lifetime Dīp V 102;
-saṅkhāra (usually plural °ā) constituent of life, conditions or properties resulting in life, vital principle D II 106; M I 295f.; S II 266; A IV 311f.; Ud 64; Ja IV 215; Miln 285; Vism 292; Dhp-a I 129; Pv-a 210. Cf. BHS āyuḥ-saṃskāra Divy 203.

:: Āyuka (—°) (adjective) [from āyu] — being of life; having a life or age A IV 396 (niyat°); Vv-a 196 (yāvatāyukā dibbasampatti divine bliss lasting for a lifetime). Especially frequent in combination with dīgha (long) and appa (short) as dīghāyuka A IV 240; Pv-a 27; appāyuka A IV 247; Pv-a 103; both at Vism 422. In phrase vīsati-vassasahassāyukesu manussesu at the time when men lived 20,000 years D II 5-12 (see Table at D.B. II 6); Dhp-a II 9; Pv-a 135; dasa-vassasahassāyukesu manussesu (10,000 years) Pv-a 73; cattāḷīsa° Dhp-a I 103; catusaṭṭhi-kappāyukā subhakiṇhā Vism 422.

:: Āyukin (adjective) [from āyu] = āyuka; in appāyukin short lived Vv 416.

:: Āyuta (adjective) [Sanskrit ayuta, past participle of ā + yu, yuvati] 1. connected with, endowed, furnished with Thag 753 (dve pannarasāyuta due to twice fifteen); Snp 301 (nārī-varagaṇ° = °saṃyutta Pj II 320); Pv II 124 (nānā-saragaṇ° = °yutta Pv-a 157). 2. seized, conquered, in dur° hard to conquer, invincible Ja VI 271 (= paccatthikehi durāsada commentary).

:: Āyutta [Sanskrit āyukta; past participle of ā + yuj] 1. yoked, to connected with, full of Pv I 1014 (tejasāyuta Text, but Pv-a 52 reads °āyutta and explains as samāyutta); Pv-a 157 (= ākiṇṇa of Pv II 124). 2. intent upon, devoted to S I 67.

:: Āyuttaka (adjective/noun) [āyutta + ka] one who is devoted to or entrusted with, a trustee, agent, superintendent, overseer Ja I 230 (°vesa); IV 492; Dhp-a I 101, 103, 180.

:: Āyudha is the Vedic form of the common Pāli form āvudha weapon, and occurs only spuriously at D I 9 (v.l. āvudha).

:: Āyuvant (adjective) [from āyu] advanced in years, old, of age Thag 234.

:: Āyusmant (adjective) [Sanskrit āyuṣmant; see also the regular Pāli form āyasmant] — having life or vitality Pv-a 63 (āyusmāviññāṇa feeling or sense of vitality; is reading correct?).

:: Āyussa (adjective) [Sanskrit āyuṣya] connected with life, bringing (long) life A III 145 dhamma).


:: Āyūhaka (adjective) [from āyūhati] keen, eager, active Miln 207 (+ viriyavā).

:: Āyūhati [ā + y + ūhati with euphonic y, from Vedic ūhati, ūh1, a gradation of vah (see etymology under vahati). Kern's etymology on Toev. 99 = āyodhati is to be doubted, more acceptable is Morris' explained at JPTS 1885, 58f., although contradictory in part.] — literally to push on or forward, aim at, go for, i.e.
1. to endeavour, strain, exert oneself S I 1 (present participle anāyūhaṃ unstriving), 48; Ja VI 35 (= viriyaṃ karoti commentary), 283 (= vāyamati commentary).
2. to be keen on (with accusative), to cultivate, pursue, do Snp 210 (= karoti Pj II 258); Miln 108 (kammaṃ ūyūhitvā), 214 (kammaṃ āyūhi), 326 (maggaṃ). — past participle āyūhita (q.v.).

:: Āyūhana (adjective/noun) [from āyūhati]
1. endeavouring, striving, Paṭis I 10f., 32, 52; II 218; Vism 103, 212, 462, 579. feminine āyūhanī Dhs 1059 ("she who toils" translation) = Vibh 361 = Nidd II taṇhā 1. (has āyūhanā).
2. furTherance, pursuit Sv I 64 (bhavassa).

:: Āyūhā feminine [āyu + ūhā] life, lifetime, only in °pariyosāna at the end of (his) life Pv-a 136, 162; Vv-a 319.

:: Āyūhāpeti [causative II from āyūhati] to cause somebody to toil or strive after As 364.

:: Āyūhita [Sanskrit ā + ūhita, past participle of ūh] busy, eager, active Miln 181.

:: Āyoga [Sanskrit āyoga, of ā + yuj; cf. āyutta]
1. binding, bandage Vin II 135; Vv 3341; Vv-a 142 (°paṭṭa).
2. yoke Dhs 1061 (avijj°), 1162.
3. ornament, decoration Nidd I 226; Ja III 447 (°vatta, for v.l. °vanta?).
4. occupation, devotion to, pursuit, exertion D I 187; Dhp 185 (= payoga-karaṇa Dhp-a III 238).
5. (technical term) obligation, guarantee(?) Pj II 179. — Cf. sam°.

:: Ārakatta (neuter) [°ārakāt + tvaṃ] warding off, keeping away, holding aloof, being far from (with genitive); occurring only in popular etymology of Arahant at A IV 145; Dhp-a IV 228; Sv I 146 = Vv-a 105, 106 = Pv-a 7; cf. As 349.

:: Ārakā (adverb) [Sanskrit ārāt and ārakāt, ablative formation from *āraka, see ārā2] — far off, far from, away from, also used as preposition with ablative and as adjective plural keeping away from, removed, far Vin II 239 = A IV 202 (saṅghamhā); D I 99, 102 (adjective) 167; M I 280 (adjective) S II 99; IV 43f.; A I 281; It 91; Ja I 272; III 525; V 451; Miln 243; Vv-a 72, 73 (adjective + viratā).

:: Ārakkha [ā + rakkha] watch, guard, protection, care D II 59; III 289; S IV 97, 175, 195; A II 120; III 38; IV 266, 270, 281 (°sampadā), 322 (the same), 400; V 29f.; Ja I 203; II 326; IV 29 (°purisa); V 212 (°ṭ-ṭhāna, i.e. harem), 374 (°parivāra); Pp 21 (an°), 24; Miln 154; Vism 19 {107} (°gocara preventive behaviour, cautiousness); Pj II 476 (°devatā); Pj I 120 (the same), 169; Dhp-a II 146; Pv-a 195; Saddh 357, 365.

:: Ārakkhika [from ārakkha] a guard, watchman Ja IV 29.

:: Ārakkheyya see arakkheyya.
[DPL]: has an entry for this spelling: 'That ought to be guarded against.

:: Āragga (neuter) [ārā + agga; Sanskrit ārāgra of ārā an awl, a prick] — the point of an awl, the head of certain arrows, having the shape of an awl, or an arrow of that kind (see Abhidh-r-m page 151) A I 65; Snp 625, 631; Dhp 401, 407; Vism 306; Dhp-a II 51; IV 181.

:: Āracayāracayā [ā + racayā a gerund or ablative formation from ā + *rac, in usual Sanskrit meaning "to produce", but here as a sound-root for slashing noise, in reduplication for sake of intensification. Altogether problematic] — by means of hammering, slashing or beating (like beating a hide) Snp 673 (gloss ārajayārajayā from ā + *rañj or *raj). — Pj II 481 explains the passage as follows: ārajayārajayā; i.e. yathā manussā allacammaṃ bhūmiyaṃ pattharitvā khīlehi ākoṭenti, evaṃ ākoṭetvā pharasūhi phāḷetvā ekam ekaṃ koṭiṃ chinditvā vihananti, chinnachinnakoṭi punappuna samuṭṭhāti; āracayāracayā ti pi pāṭho, āviñjitvā (v.l. āvijjhitvā) āviñjitvā ti attho. — Cf. ārañjita.

:: Ārañjita [in form = Sanskrit ārañjita, ā + past participle of rañjayati, causative of rañj or raj, but in meaning different. Perhaps to rac (as *racita) to furnish with, prepare, or better still to be regarded as an idiomatic Pāli form of soundroot *rac (see āracayā°) mixed with rañj, of which we find another example in the double spelling of āracayā (and ārajayā) q.v.] — furrowed, cut open, dug up, slashed, torn (perhaps also "beaten") M I 178 (hatthipadaṃ dantehi ārañjitaṃ an elephant track bearing the marks of tusks, i.e. occasional slashes or furrows).

:: Āraññaka (adjective) [from arañña + ka] belonging to solitude or the forest, sequestered; living in the forest, fond of seclusion, living as hermits (bhikkhū). Frequently spelt araññaka (q.v.). — Vin I 92 (bhikkhū); II 32, 197, 217 (bh.), 265 (bh.); M I 214; A III 100f., 219; IV 21; V 66; Ja III 174 (v.l. a°); Miln 342; Dhp-a II 94 (vihāra).

:: Āraññakatta (neuter) [abstract from āraññaka, see also araññakatta] — the habit of sequestration or living in solitude M I 214; III 40; A I 38.

:: Āraññika (adjective) = āraññaka Vin III 15; A I 24; Pp 69; Vism 61, 71 (where defined); Miln 341.

:: Ārata [Sanskrit ārata, past participle of ā + ram, cf. ārati] leaving off, keeping away from, abstaining Ja IV 372 (= virata); Nidd II §591 (+ virata paṭivirata).

:: Ārati (feminine) [Sanskrit ārati, ā + ram] leaving off, abstinence Vv 639 (= paṭivirati Vv-a 263); in exegetical style occurring in typical combination with virati paṭivirati veramaṇī, e.g. at Nidd II §462; Dhs 299.

:: Āratta (neuter?) [Sanskrit cf. ārakta, past participle of ā + raj] time, period (original affected, tinted with), only in compound vassāratta the rainy season, Ja IV 444; Dāṭh II 74.

:: Āraddha (adjective) [past participle of ā + rabh] begun, started, bent on, undertaking, holding on to, resolved, firm A I 148 (āraddhaṃ me viriyaṃ It 30; Pv-a 73 (ṭhapetuṃ began to place), 212 (gantuṃ). Cf. ārādhaka 1.

-citta concentrated of mind, decided, settled D I 176; M I 414; S II 21; Snp 102; Pj II 436. Cf. ārādheti 1;
-viriya (adjective) strenuous, energetic, resolute Vin I 182; D III 252, 268, 282, 285; A I 24; Snp 68, 344; It 71 (opposite hīna-viriya); Nidd II §131; Paṭis I 171; Thig-a 95. Cf. viriyārambha; feminine abstract °viriyatā M I 19.

[bd]: Viraddho; neglected sn5.51.2.

:: Ārabbha (indeclinable) [gerund of ārabhati2 in absolute function; cf. Sanskrit ārabhya meaning since, from]
1. beginning, undertaking etc., in compound °vatthu occasion for making an effort, concern, duty, obligation D III 256 = A IV 334 (eight such occasions enumerated).
2. (with accusative) literally beginning with, taking (into consideration), referring to, concerning, with reference to, about D I 180; A II 27 = It 103 (senāsanaṃ ā.); Snp 972 (upekhaṃ; v.l. ārambha; commentary uppādetvā); Pv I 41 (pubbe pete ā.); Dhp-a I 3; II 37; Pv-a 3 (seṭṭhiputta-petaṃ ā.), 16, and passim.

:: Ārabhati1 [not with Morris JPTS 1889, 202 from rabh and identical with ārabhati2, but with Kern, Toev. sub voce identical with Sanskrit ālabhate, ā + labh meaning to seize the sacrificial animal in order to kill it; cf. nirārambha] — to kill, destroy M I 371 (pāṇaṃ).

:: Ārabhati2 and ārabbhati [ā + rabhati, Sanskrit ārabhati and ārambhati, — + rabh] to begin, start, undertake, attempt S I 156 (ārabbhatha "bestir yourselves") = Miln 245 = Thag 256 (-bh-); Pp 64 (-bh-); viriyaṃ ārabhati to make an effort, to exert oneself (cf. ārambha) A IV 334. preterit ārabhi Dhp-a II 38 and ārabbhi Pv-a 35. — gerund ārabbha, see seperate — past participle āraddha (q.v.).

:: Ārambha [Sanskrit ārambha in meaning "beginning", fr ā + rabh (rambh) cf. ārabhati]
1. attempt, effort, inception of energy (cf. BMPE 13 note 2 and K.S. I 318 giving commentary definition as kicca, karaṇīya, attha, i.e. 1. undertaking and duty, 2. object) S I 76 (mah°); V 66, 104f. (°dhātu); III 338 (the same), 166 (°ja; Text arabbhaja, v.l. ārambhaja to be preferred) = Pp 64; Miln 244; Net 41; As 145. — viriyārambha (cf. āraddha-viriya) zeal, resolution, energy Vin II 197; S IV 175; A I 12, 16.
2. support, ground, object, thing Nett 70f., 107; an° unsupported, independent Snp 743 (= Nibbāna Pj II 507). Cf. also nirambha, upārambha, sārambha.

:: Ārammaṇa (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit ālambana, lamb, but in meaning confused with rambh] — primary meaning "foundation", from this applied in the following senses:
1. support, help, footing, expedient, anything to be depended upon as a means of achieving what is desired, i.e. basis of operation, chance Snp 1069 (= ālambana, nissaya, upa- {96} nissaya Nidd II §132); Pv I 41 (yaṃ kiñcārammaṇaṃ katvā); ārammaṇaṃ labhati (+ otāraṃ labhati) to get the chance S II 268; IV 185.
2. condition, ground, cause, means, especially a cause of desire or clinging to life, plural °ā causes of rebirth (interpreted by taṇhā at Nidd I 429), lust Snp 474 (= paccayā Pj II 410), 945 (= Nidd I 429); Pj I 23; Dhp-a I 288 (sappāy°); Pv-a 279.
3. a basis for the working of the mind and intellect; i.e. sense-object, object of thought or consciousness, the outward constituent in the relation of subject and object, object in general. In this meaning of "relation" it is closely connected with āyatana (see āyatana 3), so that it sometimes takes its place, it is also similar to visaya. Cpd. 3 distinguishes a fivefold object, viz. citta, cetasika, pasāda-, and sukhuma-rūpa, paññatti, Nibbāna. See on term especially Cpd. 3, 14; BMPE xlix and 192 note 1. — A I 36; IV 385; Snp 506; Paṭis I 57f., 84 (four ā.); II 97, 118, 143; Dhs 1 (dhamm° object of ideation), 180, 584, 1186 et passivem; Vibh 12, 79, 92, 319, 332 (four); Nett 191 (six); Vism 87f., 375 (°saṅkantika), 430f. (in various sets with reference to various objects), 533; As 48, 127; Vv-a 11, 38. — rūpārammaṇa literally dependence on form, i.e. object of sight, visible form, especially striking appearance, visibility, sight D III 228; S III 53; A I 82; Ja I 304; II 439, 442; Pv-a 265. ārammaṇaṃ karoti to make it an object (of intellection or intention), to make it one's concern (cf. Pv I 41, above 1).

-kusala clever in the objects (of meditation) S III 266;
-paccayatā relation of presentation (i.e. of subject and object) Nett 80.

4. (—°) (adjective) being supported by, depending on, centred in, concentrated upon Pv-a 8 (nissay°), 98 (ek°); Vv-a 119 (buddh° pīti rapture centred in the Buddha).

:: Āraha1 (adjective) metri causā for araha deserving Ja VI 164.

:: Āraha2 (neuter) only in plural gihīnaṃ ārahāni, things proper to laymen, D III 163.


:: Ārā1 (feminine) [Sanskrit ārā; °el "pointed", as in Old High German āla = German ahle, Anglo-Saxon āel = E awl; Old-Icelandic alr] an awl; see cf. āragga. Perhaps a derivative of ārā is āḷakā (q.v.).

:: Ārā2 (indeclinable) [Vedic ārād, ablative as adverb; originally a root derived from *ara remoteness, as in Sanskrit araṇa foreign and araṇya solitude q.v. under araṇa1 and arañña] — far from, remote (from) (adverb as well as preposition with ablative) Snp 156 (pamādamhā), 736; Dhp 253 (āsavakkhayā; Dhp-a III 377 explains by dūragata); Ja II 449 (jhānabhūmiyā; = dūre ṭhita commentary); V 78 (saṃyame; = dūrato commentary). See also ārakā.

-cāra [in this combination by Kern, Toev. sub voce unecessarily explained as ārā = ārya; cf. similar phrases under ārakā] a life remote (from evil) A IV 389;
-cārin living far from evil leading a virtuous life D I 4; M I 179; III 33; A III 216, 348; IV 249; V 138, 205; Sv I 72 (= abrahmacariyato dūra-cārin).

:: Ārādhaka (adjective/noun) [from ā + rādh]
1. [perhaps for *āraddhaka because of analogy to āraddha of ā + rabh] — successful, accomplishing or accomplished, undertaking, eager Vin I 70 (an° one who fails); M I 491; II 197 = A I 69 = Miln 243; S V 19; A V 329 (in correlation with āraddhaviriya).
2. pleasing propitiating Miln 227; Vv-a 220 (°ikā feminine).

:: Ārādhana (neuter) and °ā (feminine) (either from ā + rādh or ā + rabh, cf. ārādhaka] — satisfying, accomplishing; satisfaction, accomplishment D II 287 (opposite virādhanā failure); M I 479; II 199; A V 211f.; Ja IV 427.

:: Ārādhanīya (adjective) [gerundive from ārādheti] to be attained, to be won; successful Vin I 70 (an°); Ja II 233 (dur°).

:: Ārādhita [past participle of ārādheti; Sanskrit ārādhita, but BHS ārāgita, e.g. Divy 131, 233] — pleased Saddh 510.

:: Ārādheti [causative of ā + rādh, in meaning 2 confused with ārabhati. In BHS strangely distorted to ārāgayati; frequent in Divy as well as Avś]
1. to please, win favour, propitiate, convince Ja I 337 (dārake), 421, 452; II 72 (manusse); IV 274 (for ābhirādheti Text); Vism 73 (ārādhayanto Nāthassa vana-vāsena mānasaṃ); Dhp-a II 71; Dāṭh III 93 (ārādhayi sabbajanaṃ); Miln 352. In older literature only in phrase cittaṃ ārādheti to please one's heart, to gladden, win over, propitiate D I 118f., 175 (but cf. āraddha-citta to ārabhati); M I 85, 341; S II 107; V 109; Ja II 372; Miln 25.
2. to attain, accomplish, fulfill, succeed S V 23 (maggaṃ), 82, 180, 294; It III (v.l. ārām°); Snp 488 = 509. Cf. ārādhaka 1. — past participle ārādhita (q.v.). — See also parābhetvā.

:: Ārāma Ārāma [Sanskrit ārāma, ā + ram]
1. pleasure, fondness of (—°), delight, always as adjective (—°) delighting in, enjoying, finding pleasure in (usually combined with rata, e.g. dhammārāma dhammarata finding delight in the Dhamma) S I 235; IV 389f. (bhav°, upādān°); A I 35, 37, 130; II 28 (bhāvan°); It 82 (dhamm°); Snp 327 (the same.; explained by Pj II 333 as rati and "dhamme ārāmo assā ti"); Pp 53 (samagg°); Vibh 351.
2. a pleasure-ground, park, garden (literal sport, sporting); classified at Vin III 49 as pupph° and phal° a park with flowers or with fruit (i.e. orchard), definition at Dhp-a III 246 as Veḷuvana-Jīvakambavanādayo, i.e. the park of Veḷuvana, or the park belonging to Jīvaka or mango-groves in general. Therefore:
(a) (in general) a park, resort for pastime etc. Vin II 109; D I 106; Dhp 188; Vv 795 (amb° garden of mangoes); Vv-a 305 (the same); Pv II 78 (plural ārāmāni = ārāmūpavanāni Pv-a 102).
(b) (in special) a private park, given to the Buddha or the Saṅgha for the benefit of the bhikkhus, where they meet and hold discussions about sacred and secular matters; a place of recreation and meditation, a meeting place for religious gatherings. Amongst the many ārāmas given to the bhikkhus the most renowned is that of Anāthapiṇḍika (Jetavana; see Ja I 92-94) D I 178; Vin IV 69; others less frequently mentioned are e.g. the park of Ambapālī (Vin I 233); of Mallikā (D I 178), etc. — Vin I 39, 140, 283, 291; II 170; III 6, 45, 162; IV 85; A II 176; Dīp V 18.

-pāla keeper of a park or orchard, gardener Vin II 109; Vv-a 288;
-ropa, °ropana planter, planting of pleasure groves S I 33; Pv-a 151;
-vatthu the site of an ārāma Vin I 140; II 170; III 50, 90.

:: Ārāmatā (feminine) [abstract from ārāma 1] pleasure, satisfaction A II 28; III 116; Vibh 381; Miln 233.

:: Ārāmika (adjective) [from ārāma
1. (to ārāma 1) finding delight in, fond of (with genitive) (or servant in general?) Miln 6 (saṅghassa translated at the service of the order).
2. (to ārāma 2) belonging to an ārāma, one who shares the congregation, an attendant of the ārāma Vin I 207f.; II 177 (and °pesaka), 211; III 24; IV 40; V 204; A II 78 (°samaṇuddesa); III 109 (the same), 275 (°pesaka); Ja I 38 (°kicca) Vism 74 (°samaṇuddesa). — feminine ārāmakiṇī a female attendant or visitor of an ārāma Vin I 208.

:: Ārāmikinī (feminine) see ārāmika.

:: Ārāva [cf. Sanskrit ārāva, from ā + ru] cry, sound, noise Dāṭh IV 46.

:: Āriya in anāriya at Snp 815 is metri causā for anariya (q.v.).

:: Āruṇṇa (neuter) [originally past participle of ā + rud] weeping, crying, lamenting Miln 357.

:: Āruppa (noun and adjective) [from arūpa as ā (= a2) — *rūpya] formless, incorporeal; neuter formless existence D III 275; M I 410, cf. 472; III 163; S I 131 (°ṭṭhāyin); II 123; A IV 316; It 61; Snp 754; Ja I 406; Dhs 1385 (cf. BMPE 57); Vism 338; Sv I 224; Pj II 488, 508; Saddh 5, 10; the four: Vism III, 326f.

:: Āruhati [ā + ruh] to climb, ascend, go up or on to Snp 1014 (preterit āruhaṃ); Saddh 188; gerund āruhitvā Snp 321 and āruyha Ja VI 452; Snp 139 (v.l. abhiruyha); It 71. causative āropeti (q.v.).

:: Ārūgya see ārogya.

:: Ārūḷha [past participle of āruhati]
1. ascended, mounted, gone up, gone on to IV 137; Ja VI 452 (Text āruḷha); Vism 135 (nekkhamma-paṭipadaṃ an°); Vv-a 64 (magga°); Pv-a 47 (°nāva), 56 (hatthi°).
2. come about, effected, made, done Pv-a 2, 144 (cf. BHS pratijñām ārūḍha having taken a vow Divy 26).
3. (of an ornament) put on (to), arrayed Ja VI 153, 488.

:: Ārūha see āroha.


:: Ārogatā (feminine) [abstract from ā + roga + tā] freedom from illness, health Miln 341.

:: Ārogya Ārogya (neuter) [abstract from aroga, i.e. + ā (= a2) + roga + ya] absence of illness, health D I 11; III 220 (°mada), 235 (°sampadā); M I 451 (Text ārūgya, v.l. ārogya), 508, 509; S II 109; A I 146 (°mada); II 143; III 72; V 135f.; Snp 749, 257 = Dhp 204 = Ja III 196; Nidd I 160; Vism 77 (°mada pride of health); Pv-a 129, 198; Saddh 234.

:: Ārocāpana (neuter) [from ārocāpeti, causative of āroceti] announcement Dhp-a II 167.

:: Ārocāpeti (causative II of āroceti] to make some one announce, to let somebody know, usually in phrase kālaṃ ā. Snp page 111; Ja I 115, 125; Dhp-a II 89; Pv-a 141.

:: Ārocita [past participle of āroceti] announced, called Vin II 213 (kāla).

:: Āroceti Āroceti [ā + roceti, causative of ruc; cf. BHS ārocayati Avś I 9 etc.] — to relate, to tell, announce, speak to, address D I 109, 224; Pv II 89 (preterit, ārocayi); Pv-a 4, 13 {109} (aññamaññaṃ anārocetvā not speaking to each other), 81, 274 and passim. — past participle ārocita; causative II ārocāpeti (q.v.).

:: Ārodana (neuter) [from ā + rud, cf. āruṇṇa] crying, lamenting A III 268f.; Ja I 34; Dhp-a I 184; II 100.

:: Āropana (neuter) [from āropeti] "putting onto", impaling Miln 197 (sūl°), 290 (the same).

:: Āropita [past participle of āropeti]
1. produced, come forward, set up Pv-a 2.
2. effected, made S III 12; Pv-a 92, 257.
3. put on (to a stake), impaled Pv-a 220 (= āvuta).

:: Āropeti [causative of āruhati].
1. to make ascend, to lead up to (with accusative) Pv-a 76 (pāsādaṃ), 160 (the same)
2. to put on, take up to (with accusative or locative) Pv II 92 (yakkhaṃ yānaṃ āropayitvāna); Pv-a 62 (sarīraṃ citakaṃ ā.), 100 (bhaṇḍaṃ sakaṭesu ā.).
3. to put on, commit to the care of, entrust, give over to (with locative) Ja I 227; Pv-a 154 (rajjaṃ amaccesu ā.).
4. to bring about, get ready, make Pv-a 73, 257 (saṅgahaṃ ā. make a collection); Pj II 51, 142.
5. to exhibit, tell, show, give S I 160 (ovādaṃ); Miln 176 (dosaṃ); Dhp-a II 75 (the same)
6. vādaṃ āropeti to refute a person, to get the better of (genitive) Vin I 60; M II 122; S I 160. — past participle āropita (q.v.).

:: Āroha (—°) [from ā + ruh]
1. climbing up, growth, increase, extent, in compound °pariṇāha length and circumference S II 206; A I 288; II 250; IV 397; V 19; Ja III 192; V 299; VI 20; Vibh 345 (°māna + pariṇāha-māna); Pj II 382.
2. one who has climbed up, mounted on, a rider, usually in compound ass° and hatth° horse-rider and elephant rider S IV 310; A II 166 = III 162 (Text ārūha); IV 107; As 305.
3. outfit, possession (or increase, as 1?) Snp 420 (vaṇṇ°).

:: Ārohaṇa (neuter) [from ā + ruh] climbing, ascending; ascent Ja I 70; VI 488; Miln 352; Vism 244; Pv-a 74.

:: Ālaka-manda [ālaya°?] at Vin II 152 is of uncertain reading and meaning ("open to view"? or "not having pegs" = āḷaka?) vv.ll. āḷakamanta and ālakamandāra; Buddhaghosa at Sp 1219 explains āḷakamandā ti ekaṅgaṇā manussābhikiṇṇā, i.e. full of a crowd of people, Childers quotes ālakamandā as "the city of Kuvera" (cf. Sanskrit alakā).

:: Ālaggeti [ā + causative of lag] to (make) hang onto (locative), to stick on, fasten to Vin II 110 (pattaṃ veḷagge ālaggetvā).

:: Ālapati [ā + lapati] to address S I 177, 212; Ja V 201; Pj II 42, 347, 383, 394 (= āmantayi of Snp 997), 487 ( avhayati); Pv-a 11, 13, 33, 69.

:: Ālapana (neuter) and °ā (feminine) [from ā + lap] talking to, addressing conversation Vin III 73 (with reference to exclamation "ambho"); Ja V 253 (°ā); Vism 23 (°ā); Pj II 396; Pv-a 131 (re ti ā.).

:: Ālapanatā (feminine) [abstract from ālapana] speaking to, conversing with, conversation M I 331) (an°).

:: Ālamba [Sanskrit ālamba, ā + lamb] anything to hang on, support S I 53 (an° without support); Snp 173 (the same + appatiṭṭha); Ja III 396; Miln 343; Saddh 245, 463.

:: Ālambati [ā + lamb] to hang on to or up, to take hold of, to fasten to Vin I 28, Ja I 57; VI 192; Vv 8448; Thig-a 34. — ālambeti the same Vv-a 32.

:: Ālambana (adjective/noun) [from ā + lamb, cf. ālamba] (adjective) hanging down from, hanging up Ja III 396; IV 457; Pj II 214. — (neuter) support, balustrade (or screen?) Vin II 117, 152 (°bāha) Miln 126.

:: Ālambara and āḷambara (neuter) [Sanskrit āḍambara] a drum Vin I 15 (-l-); Ja II 344 (-ḷ-); V 390 (-l-); Vv 5418 (-ḷ-).

:: Ālaya (masculine and neuter) [cf. Sanskrit ālaya, ā + lī, līyate, cf. allīna and allīyati, also nirālaya]
1. originally roosting place, perch, i.e. abode settling place, house Ja I 10 (geh°); Miln 213; Dhp-a II 162 (an° = anoka), 170 (= oka).
2. "hanging on", attachment, desire, clinging, lust S I 136 = Vin I 4 (°rāma "devoted to the things to which it clings" K.S. I 171); Vin III 20, 111; S IV 372 (an°); V 421f. (the same); A II 34, 131 (°rāma); III 35; It 88; Snp 177 (kām° = kāmesu taṇhā-diṭṭhi-vasena duvidho ālayo Pj II 216), 535 (+ āsavāni), 635; Nett 121, 123 (°samugghāta); Vism 293 (the same), 497; Miln 203 (Buddhālayaṃ akāsi?); Dhp-a I 121; IV 186 (= taṇhā); Pj II 468 (= anoka of Snp 366).
3. pretence, pretext, feint [cf. BHS ālaya Mvu III 314] Ja I 157 (gilān°), 438; III 533 (mat°); IV 37 (gabbhinī); VI 20, 262 (gilān°). [BD]: -rāmā dwelling on delight,

-ratā dwelling on pleasure,
-samuditā dwelling on pleasantries.

[DPL]: °rāmā, delighting in lusts,

:: Ālayati for meanings see allīyati.

:: Ālassa (neuter) [Derived from alasa] sloth, idleness, laziness S I 43; D III 182; A IV 59; V 136; Saddh 567. Spelling also ālasya S I 43 (v.l.); Vibh 352; Miln 289, and ālasiya Ja I 427; Sv I 310; Dhp-a I 299; Vv-a 43.

:: Ālāna and āḷāna (neuter) [for ānāhana with substitution of l for n (cf. apilandhana for apinandh° and contraction of °āhana to °āna originally meaning "tying to" then the thing to which anything is tied] — a peg, stake, post, especially one to which an elephant is tied Ja I 415; IV 308; Dhp-a I 126 (-ḷ-) where all mss have āḷāhana, perhaps correctly.

:: Āli1 (masculine or feminine? [Sanskrit āḷi] a certain kind of fish Ja V 405.

:: Āli2 and āḷi (feminine) [Sanskrit ālī] a dike, embankment Vin II 256; M III 96; A II 166 (°pabbheda); III 28; Ja I 336; III 533, 334.

:: Ālika in saccālika at S IV 306 is saccalika distortion of truth, falsehood S IV 306.

:: Ālikhati [ā + likhati] to draw, delineate, copy in writing or drawing Ja I 71; Miln 51.

:: Āliṅga [ā + liṅg] a small drum Ja V 156 (suvaṇṇ°-tala).

:: Āliṅgati [ā + liṅg] to embrace, enfold D I 230; III 73; Ja I 281; IV 21, 316, 438; V 8; Miln 7; Dhp-a I 101: Vv-a 260.

:: Ālitta [past participle of ālimpati; Sanskrit ālipta] besmeared, stained Thag 737.

:: Ālinda (and āḷinda) [Sanskrit alinda] a terrace or verandah before the house door Vin I 248; II 153; D I 89; M II 119; S IV 290 (-ḷ-); A V 65 (-ḷ-); Ja VI 429; Sv I 252; Dhp-a I 26; IV 196; Pj II 55 (°ka-vāsin; v.l. alindaka); Mhv 35, 3. As ālindaka at Ja III 283.

:: Ālippati passive of ālimpeti (q.v.).

:: Ālimpana (neuter) [for āḷimp° = Sanskrit ādīpana, see ālimpeti2] conflagration, burning, flame Miln 43.

:: Ālimpita [past participle of ālimpeti2] ignited, literally A IV 102 (v.l. ālepita).

:: Ālimpeti1 [Sanskrit ālimpayati or ālepayati. ā + lip or limp] to smear, anoint Vin II 107; S IV 177 (vaṇaṃ). — causative II ālimpāpeti Vin IV 316. — passive ālimpīyati Miln 74 and ālippati Dhp-a IV 166 (v.l. for lippati). — past participle ālitta (q.v.).

:: Ālimpeti2 [for Sanskrit ādīpayati, with change of d to l rather than ḷ and substitution of limp for ḷīp after analogy of roots in °mp, like lup > lump, lip > limp] — to kindle, ignite, set fire to Vin II 138 (dāyo ālimpetabbo); III 85; D II 163 (citakaṃ); A I 257; Dhp-a I 177 (āvāsaṃ read āvāpaṃ), 225; Pv-a 62 (kaṭṭhāni). — past participle ālimpita (q.v.).

:: Ālu (neuter) [Sanskrit ālu and °ka; cognate with Latin ālum and alium, see Walde Latin Wtb. under alium] — a bulbous plant, Radix {110} globosa esculenta or amorphophallus (Kern), Arum campanulatum (Hardy) Ja IV 371 = VI 578; IV 373.


:: Āluka1 = ālu Ja IV 46 (commentary for ālupa).

:: Āluka2 (adjective) [etymology?] susceptible to, longing for, affected with (—°) Vin I 288 (sīt°); Sv I 198 (the same); Ja II 278 (taṇh° greedy).

:: Ālupa (neuter) [etymology? Kern, Toev. sub voce suggests ālu-a > ālupa = āluka the edible root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus Ja IV 46 (= āluka-kaṇḍa commentary). The form āluva occurs at Ap 237.

:: Ālumpakāra [reading not sure, to ālumpati or ālopa] — breaking off, falling off (?) or forming into bits(?) Dhp-a II 55 (°gūtha).

:: Ālumpati [ā + lup or lump, cf. ālopa] to pull out, break off M I 324.

:: Āluḷa (adjective [from ā + luḷ] being in motion, confusion or agitation, disturbed, agitated Ja VI 431.

:: Āluḷati [ā + luḷ; Sanskrit ālolati, cf. also Pāli āloḷeti] to move here and there, present participle medium āluḷamāna agitated, whirling about Dhp-a IV 47 (Text ālūl°; v.l. āḷul°) confuse As 375. causative āluḷeti to set in motion, agitate, confound Ja II 9, 33. — past participle āluḷita (q.v.).

:: Āluḷita [past participle of āluḷeti] agitated, confused Ja II 101; Miln 397 (+ khalita).

:: Ālepa [cf. Sanskrit ālepa, of ā + lip] ointment, salve, liniment Vin I 274; Miln 74; As 249.

:: Ālepana (neuter) [from ā + lip] anointing, application of salve D I 7 (mukkh°).

:: Āloka [ā + lok, Sanskrit āloka] seeing, sight (object and subject), i.e.
1. sight, view, look S IV 128 = Snp 763; A III 236 (āloke nikkhitta laid before one's eye). anāloka without sight, blind Miln 296 (andha + a.).
2. light A I 164 (tamo vigato ā. uppanno) = It 100 (vihato); A II 139 (four lights, i.e. canda°, suriya°, agg°, paññ°, of the moon, sun, fire and wisdom); Ja II 34; Dhs 617 (opposite andhakāra); Vv-a 51 (dīp°).
3. (clear) sight, power of observation, intuition, in combination with vijjā knowledge D II 33 = S II 7 = 105, cf. Paṭis II 150f. (obhāsaṭṭhena, Spk II 22 on II 7).
4. splendour Vv-a 53; DvA 71.

-kara making light, bringing light, name light-bringer It 108;
-karaṇa making light, illumining It 108;
-da giving light or insight Thag 3;
-dassana seeing light, i.e. perceiving Thag 422;
-pharaṇa diffusing light or diffusion of light Vibh 334; Nett 89;
-bahula good in sight, figurative full of foresight A III 432;
-bhūta light Ja VI 459;
-saññā consciousness or faculty of sight or perception D III 223; A II 45; III 93
-saññin conscious of sight, i.e. susceptible to sight or insight D III 49; M III 3; A II 211; III 92, 323; IV 437; V 207; Pp 69;
-sandhi "break for the light", a slit to look through, an opening, a crack or casement Vin I 48 = II 209 = 218; II 172; III 65; IV 47; Ja IV 310; Pv-a 24.

:: Ālokana (neuter) [from ā + lok] looking at, regarding Sv I 194.

:: Ālokita (neuter) [past participle of āloketi] looking before, looking at, looking forward (opposite vilokitaṃ looking behind or backward), always in combination ālokita-vilokita in stereotype phrase at D I 70 = e.g. A II 104, 106, 210; Pp 44, 45, 50; Vism 19; Vv-a 6; Sv I 193 (ālokitaṃ purato pekkhanaṃ vil° anudisā p.).

:: Āloketar [agent noun to āloketi] one who looks forward or before, a beholder Sv I 194 (opposite viloketar).

:: Āloketi [Sanskrit ālokayati, ā + lok] to look before, look at, regard, see Sv I 193, 194. — past participle ālokita (q.v.).

:: Ālopa [ā + lup, cf. ālumpati; BHS ālopa, e.g. Avś I 173, 341; Divy 290, 481] — a piece (cut off), a bit (of food) morsel, especially bits of food gathered by bhikkhus D I 5 = A V 206; III 176; A II 209; III 304; IV 318; Thag 1055; It 18; Pv II 17; Pp 58; Miln 231, 406; Vism 106; Sv I 80 (= vilopa-karaṇaṃ).

:: Ālopati [ālopeti? ā + lopeti, causative of ālumpati] to break in, plunder, violate Thag 743.

:: Ālopika (adjective) [ālopa + ika] getting or having, or consisting of pieces (of food) A I 295; II 206; Pp 55.

:: Āloḷa [from ā + luḷ, cf. āluḷati and āloḷeti] confusion, uproar, agitation Dhp-a I 38.

:: Āloḷī (feminine) [a + luḷ] that which is stirred up, mud, in compound sītāloḷī mud or loam from the furrow adhering to the plough Vin I 206.

:: Āloḷeti [causative of āluḷati, cf. āluḷeti] to confuse, mix, shake together, jumble S I 175; Ja II 272, 363; IV 333; VI 331; Vism 105.

:: Āḷaka or Āḷakā (feminine) [diminutive of aḷa (?) or of ārā1 (?). See Morris JPTS 1886, 158]
1. a thorn, sting, dart, spike, used either as arrow-straightener Miln 418; Dhp-a I 288; or (perhaps also for piece of bone, fishbone) in making up a comb Vv-a 349 (°sandhāpana = combined how Hardy got the meaning of "alum" in Index to Vv-a is incomprehensible).
2. a peg, spike, stake or post (to tie an elephant to, cf. ālāna). Cp II 1, 3.

:: Āḷamba = āḷambara Vv 189 = 5024. See ālambara.

:: Āḷavaka (and °ika) (adjective/noun) [= āṭavika] dwelling in forests, a forest-dweller S II 235. as proper name at Vism 208.

:: Āḷādvāraka (adjective) at Ja V 81, 82 is corrupt and should with v.l. perhaps better be read advāraka without doors. Cf. Kern, Toev. 29 (ālāraka?). Ja V 81 has āḷāraka only.

:: Āḷāra (adjective) [= aḷāra or uḷāra or = Sanskrit arāla?] thick, massed, dense or crooked, arched (?), only in compound °pamha with thick eyelashes Vv 6411 (= gopakhuma Vv-a 279); Pv III 35 (= vellita-dīgha-nīla-pamukha). Cf. alāra.

:: Āḷārika and °iya (adjective/noun) [Sanskrit ārālika, of uncertain etymology] a cook D I 51 (= bhattakāraka Sv I 157); Ja V 296 (= bhattakāraka commentary); 307; VI 276 (°iya, commentary °ika = sūpika); Miln 331.

:: Āḷāhana (neuter) [from ā + ḍah or dah, see dahati2] a place of cremation, cemetery D I 55; Ja I 287 (here meaning the funereal fire) 402; III 505; Pv II 122; Vism 76; Miln 350; Sv I 166; Dhp-a I 26; III 276; Pv-a 92, 161, 163 (= sarīrassa daḍḍha-ṭṭhāna). — Note: For āḷāhana in meaning "peg, stake" see ālāna.

:: Āḷika at A III 352, 384 (an°) is preferably to be read āḷhika, see āḷhaka.

:: Āḷha (neuter) = āḷhaka; only at A III 52 (udak°), where perhaps better with v.l. to be read as āḷhaka. The the same passage at A II 55 has ālhaka only.

:: Āḷhaka (masculine and neuter) [Sanskrit āḍhaka, from *āḍha probably meaning "grain"] a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka°). Its size is given by Buddhaghosa at Pj II 476 as follows: "cattāro patthā āḷhakāni doṇaṃ etc." — udakāḷhaka S V 400; A II 55 = III 337; Vv-a 155. — In other connections at Ja I 419 (aḍḍh°); III 541 (mitaṃ āḷhakena = dhañña-māpaka-kammaṃ kataṃ commentary); Miln 229 (patt°); Dhp-a III 367 (aḍḍh°). {111}

-thālikā a bowl of the capacity of an āḷhaka Vin I 240; A III 369; Dhp-a III 370 (v.l. bhatta-thālikā).

:: Āḷhiya (and āḷhika) (adjective) [from °āḷha, Sanskrit āḍhya, originally possessing grain, rich in grain, i.e. wealth; semantically cf. dhañña2] — rich, happy, fortunate; only in negative anāḷhiya poor, unlucky, miserable M I 450; II 178 (+ daḷidda); A III 352f. (so read with v.l. °āḷhika for Text °āḷika; combined with daḷidda; v.l. anaddhika); Ja V 96, 97 (+ daḷidda; commentary na āḷhika).

:: Āvajati [ā + vajati, vraj]
1. to go into, to or towards Ja III 434; IV 49, 107.
2. to return, come back Ja V 24, 479.

:: Āvajjati [not with Senart Mvu 377 = ava + dhyā, but = Sanskrit āvr̥ṇakti ā + vr̥j, with present active āvajjeti = Sanskrit āvarjayati]
1. to reflect upon, notice, take in, advert to, catch (a sound), listen Ja I 81; II 423; V 3; Miln 106.
2. to remove, upset (a vessel), pour out Vin I 286 (kumbhiṃ); Ja II 102 (gloss āsiñcati). — causative āvajjeti (q.v.).

:: Āvajjana (neuter) [from āvajjati, cf. BHS āvarjana in different meaning] — turning to, paying attention, apprehending; adverting the mind — See discussion of term at Cpd. 85, 227 (the commentary derive āvajjana from āvaṭṭeti to turn towards, this confusion being due to close resemblance of jj and ṭṭ in writing); also PtsC. 221 note 4 (on Kv 380 which has āvaṭṭanā), 282 note 2 (on Kv 491 āvaṭṭanā). — Paṭis II 5, 120; Ja II 243; Vibh 320; Miln 102f.; Vism 432; Sv I 271.


:: Āvajjita [past participle of āvajjeti cf. BHS āvarjita, e.g. Divy 171; Jtm 221] — bent, turned to, inclined; noticed, observed Miln 297; Vism 432 (citta); Saddh 433.

:: Āvajjitatta (neuter) [abstract from āvajjita] inclination of mind, observation, paying attention Paṭis II 27f.

:: Āvajjeti [causative of āvajjati
1. to turn over, incline, bend M III 96; Ja IV 56 (so read for āvijjhanto); Sv I 10 (kāyaṃ).
2. to incline (the mind); observe, reflect, muse, think, heed, listen for. According to Cpd. 227 often paraphrased in commentary by pariṇāmeti. — Ja I 69, 74, 81, 89, 108, 200; Miln 297; Dhp-a II 96; Pv-a 181 (= manasikaroti).
3. to cause to yield A III 27 (perhaps better āvaṭṭ°). past participle āvajjita (q.v.).

:: Āvaṭa [Sanskrit āvr̥ta, past participle of ā + vr̥] covered, veiled, shut off against, prohibited D I 97, 246; M I 381 (°dvāra); Ja VI 267. — anāvaṭa uncovered, unveiled, exposed, open D I 137 (°dvāra); III 191 (°dvāratā); S I 55; Ja V 213; Pv III 64; Miln 283. Cf. āvuta2 and vy°.

:: Āvaṭṭa (adjective/noun) [Sanskrit āvarta, ā + vr̥t]
1. turning round, winding, twisting M I 382; S I 32 (dvi-r-ā° turning twice); Ja II 217; Pj II 439 (°gaṅgā).
2. turned, brought round, changed, enticed M I 381; Dhp-a II 153.
3. an eddy, whirlpool, vortex M I 461 = A II 123 (°bhaya); Miln 122, 196, 377.
4. circumference Ja V 337; Dāṭh V 24; Dhp-a III 184.

:: Āvaṭṭati [= āvattati] in phrase ā. vivaṭṭati to turn forward and backward Vism 504.

:: Āvaṭṭana (neuter) [from ā + vr̥t, cf. āvaṭṭa 2 and āvaṭṭanin] turning, twisting; enticement, snare, temptation Ja III 494; Dhp-a II 153.

:: Āvaṭṭanā (feminine) [most likely for āvajjana. q.v. and see also PtsC. 221, 282] — turning to (of the mind), adverting, apprehending Kv 380, 491.

:: Āvaṭṭanin (adjective) [from āvaṭṭana] turning (away or towards), changing, tempting, enticing M I 375, 381; A II 190; Ja II 330 = IV 471; Sv I 250. — Cf. etymologically the same, but semantically different āvattanin.

:: Āvaṭṭin (adjective/noun) [from āvaṭṭa instead of āvaṭṭana] only at M I 91 in negative an° not enticed by (locative), i.e. kāmesu. Cf. āvattin.

:: Āvaṭṭeti [ā + vatteti, causative of vr̥t, cf. BHS āvartayati to employ spells Divy 438] — to turn round, entice, change, convert, bring or win over M I 375, 381, 383, 505; A III 27; Sv I 272.

:: Āvatta1 (adjective) [past participle of āvattati] gone away to, fallen back to, in phrase hīnāy'āvatta (see same phrase under āvattati) M I 460; S II 50; Ja I 206.

:: Āvatta2 (neuter) [Sanskrit āvarta, of ā + vr̥t, cf. āvaṭṭa] winding, turn, bent Ja I 70 (in a river); Nett 81 (v.l. āvaṭṭa°), 105 (°hārasampāta).

:: Āvattaka (adjective) [āvatta + ka] turning, in dakkhiṇ° turning to the right, dextrorsal D II 18; cf. dakkhiṇāvatta at Sv I 259.

:: Āvattati [ā + vattati, of vr̥t] to turn round, come to, go back, go away to, turn to; only in phrase hīnāya āvattati to turn to "the low", i.e. to give up orders and return to the world Vin I 17; M I 460; S II 231; IV 191; Snp page 92 (= osakkati Pj II 423); Ud 21; Pp 66; Miln 246. past participle āvatta (q.v.). Cf. āvaṭṭati.

:: Āvattana (adjective/noun) [Sanskrit āvartana] turning; turn, return Nett 113; Miln 251.

:: Āvattanin (adjective) [from āvattana] turning round or back Thag 16 (cf. āvaṭṭanin).

:: Āvattin (adjective/noun) [from āvatta, cf. āvaṭṭin in different meaning] — returning, coming back, one who returns, in speculative meaning of one who comes back in a new birth, synonymous with āgāmin (an°), only in negative anāvattin not returning, a non-returner, with °dhamma not liable to return at D I 156; III 132; S V 346, 357, 376, 406; M I 91; Sv I 313.

:: Āvatthika (adjective) [ā + vatthika] befitting, original, inherent (one of the 4 kinds of nomenclature) Vism 210 = Pj I 107.

:: Āvapati [a + vap] to give away, to offer, to deposit as a pledge Miln 279.

:: Āvapana (neuter) [from āvapati] sowing, dispersing, offering, depositing, scattering Ja I 321.

:: Āvara (adjective) [from ā + vr̥] obstructing, keeping off from Ja V 325 (so to be read in ariya-magg-āvara).

:: Āvaraṇa (adjective/noun) [from ā + vr̥, cf. āvarati; BHS āvaraṇa in pañcāvaraṇāni Divy 378] — shutting off, barring out, withstanding; neuter hindrance, obstruction, bar Vin I 84 (°ṃ karoti to prohibit, hinder); II 262 (the same); D I 246 (synonym of pañca nīvaraṇāni); S V 93f.; A III 63; Ja I 78 (an°); V 412 (nadiṃ °ena bandhāpeti to obstruct or dam off the river); Snp 66 (pahāya pañcāvaraṇāni cetaso, cf. Nidd II §379), 1005 (an°-dassāviṇ); Paṭis I 131f.; II 158 (an°); Pp 13; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vibh 341, 342; Miln 21 (dur° hard to withstand or oppose). — dant° "screen of the teeth", lip Ja IV 188; VI 590.

:: Āvaraṇatā (feminine) [abstract from āvaraṇa] keeping away from, withholding from A III 436.

:: Āvaraṇīya (adjective) [gerundive from āvarati], M I 273; an° not to be obstructed, impossible to obstruct M III 3; Miln 157.

:: Āvarati [ā + vr̥, cf. āvuṇāti] to shut out from (ablative), hold back from, refuse, withhold, obstruct M I 380 (dvāraṃ); Snp 922 (potential °aye, cf. Nidd I 368); Sv I 235 (dvāraṃ); Dīp I 38. — past participle āvaṭa and āvuta2 (q.v.).

:: Āvalī (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit āvalī and see valī] a row, range Ja V 69; Sv I 140.


:: Āvasati [ā + vas] to live at or in, to inhabit, reside, stay M II 72; S I 42; Snp 43, 805, 1134; Nidd I 123, 127; Nidd II §133; Ja VI 317. — past participle āvuttha (q.v.).

:: Āvasatha [Sanskrit āvasatha, from ā + vas] dwelling-place, habitation; abode, house, dwelling Vin I 226 (°āgāra resting-house); IV 304 (= kavāṭabaddha); S I 94, 229; IV 329; Snp 287, 672; Ja IV 396; VI 425; Pp 51; Miln 279.

:: Āvaha (adjective) (—°) [from ā + vah] bringing, going, causing Pv II 924 (sukh°); Vv 2211 (the same); Dāṭh II 37; Pv-a 86 (upakār°), 116 (anatth°); Saddh 15, 98, 206.

:: Āvahati [ā + vahati] to bring, cause, entail, give S I 42 = Snp 181, 182 (āvahāti sukhaṃ metri causā ); Ja III 169; V 80; Snp 823; Nidd I 302; Pv-a 6. — passive āvuyhati Vv-a 237 (present participle °amāna).

:: Āvahana (adjective) (—°) [= āvaha] bringing, causing Thag, 519; Snp 256.

:: Āvahanaka (adjective/noun) [= āvahana] one who brings Vv-a 114 (sukhassa).

:: Āva (misery, misfortune) see avā.

:: Āvāṭa [etymology?] a hole dug in the ground, a pit, a well D I 142 (yaññ°); Ja I 99, 264; II 406; III 286; IV 46 (caturassa); VI 10; Dhp-a I 223; Vv-a 63; Pv-a 225.

:: Āvāpa [if correct, from ā + vā2 to blow with causative — Cf. JRAS 1898, pp. 750f,] — a potter's furnace Dhp-a I 177 (read for āvāsa?), 178.

:: Āvāra [Sanskrit āvāra, from ā + vr̥] warding off, protection, guard Ja VI 432 (yanta-yutta°, does it mean "cover, shield"?). For compound khandhāvāra see khandha.

:: Āvāreti [Sanskrit āvārayati, ā + causative of vr̥] to ward off, hold back, bar, S IV 298; Nett 99.

:: Āvāsa [Sanskrit āvāsa; ā + vas] sojourn, stay, dwelling, living; dwelling-place, residence Vin I 92; D III 234; S IV 91; A II 68, 168; III 46, 262; Snp 406; Dhp 73 (cf. Dhp-a II 77); Nidd I 128; Ja VI 105; Dhs 1122; Pp 15, 19, 57; Pj I 40; Dhp-a I 177 (āvāsaṃ ālimpeti: read āvāpaṃ); Pv-a 13, 14, 36; Vv-a 113; Saddh 247. — anāvāsa (noun and adjective) uninhabited, without a home; an uninhabited place A IV 345; Ja II 77; Pv II 333; Pv-a 80 (= anāgāra); Vv-a 46.

-kappa the practice of (holding Uposatha in different) residence (within the same boundary) Vin II 294, 300, 306; Dīp IV 47, cf. V 18;
-palibodha the obstruction of having a home (in set of 10 Pālibodhas) Pj I 39; cf. Vism 90f.
-sappāyatā suitability of residence Vism 127.

:: Āvāsika (adjective) [āvāsa + ika] living in, residing at home, being in (constant or fixed) residence, usually applied to bhikkhus (opposite āgantuka) Vin I 128f.; II 15, 170; III 65; V 203f.; M I 473; A I {100} 236; III 261f., 366; Ja IV 310; Pv IV 84 (= nibaddha-vasanaka Pv-a 267).

:: Āvāha [ā + vah] taking in marriage, literally carrying away to oneself, marriage D I 99; Ja VI 363; Pj II 273, 448; Dhp-a IV 7. Often in compound ā° vivāha(ka) literally leading to (one's home) and leading away (from the bride's home), wedding feast D III 183 (°ka); Ja I 452; Vv-a 109, 157. (v.l. °ka).

:: Āvāhana (neuter) [ā + vāhana, of vah]
1. = āvāha, i.e. marriage, taking a wife D I 11 (= āvāha-karaṇa Sv I 96).
2. "getting up, bringing together", i.e. a mass, a group or formation, in senā° a contingent of an army Ja IV 91.

:: Āvi (adverb) [Sanskrit āviḥ, to Greek ἀίω to hear, Latin audio (from °auizdio) to hear] — clear, manifest, evident; openly, before one's eyes, in full view. Only in phrase āvi vā raho openly or secret A V 350, 353; Pv II 716 = Dhp-a IV 21 (āvī v.l.), explained at Pv-a 103 by pakāsanaṃ paresaṃ pākaṭavasana. Otherwise in following compounds (with kar and bhū):

-kamma making clear, evidence, explanation Vin II 88; III 24; Pp 19, 23;
-karoti to make clear, show, explain D III 121; Snp 84, 85, 349; Ja V 457; Pp 57; Vv-a 79, 150;
-bhavati (°bhoti) to become visible or evident, to be explained, to get clear Ja I 136; Vism 287 (future āvibhavissati); Dhp-a II 51, 82;
-bhāva appearance, manifestation D I 78; A III 17; Ja II 50, 111; Vism 390f. (revelation, opposite tirobhāva). Cf. pātur.

:: Āvijjhati (āviñjati, āviñchati) [ā + vijjhati of vyadh to pierce; thus recognised by Morris JPTS 1884, 72, against Trenckner, "Notes" 59 (to piñj) and Hardy Nett Index = vicchāy]
1. to encircle, encompass comprise, go round, usually in gerund āvijjhitvā (with accusative) used as preposition round about, near Ja I 153 (khettaṃ), 170 (pokkharaṇiṃ); Sv I 245 (nagaraṃ bahi avijjhitvā round the outer circle of the town). Ordinarily = go round (accusative) at Ja IV 59 (chārika-puñjaṃ).
2. [as in literal Sanskrit] to swing round, brandish, twirl, whirl round Vin III 127 (daṇḍaṃ āviñji); M III 141 (matthena āviñjati to churn); Ja I 313; V 291 (cakkaṃ, of a potter's wheel); Pj II 481 (Text āviñj°, v.l. āvijjh°; see āracaya°); Dhp-a II 277 (āviñchamāna Text; v.l. āsiñciy°, āvajiy°, āgañch°).
3. to resort to, go to, approach, incline to S IV 199 (Text āviñch°; v.l. avicch° and āviñj°); Nett 13.
4. to arrange, set in order Ja II 406.
5. to pull (?) A IV 86 (kaṇṇasotani āvijjeyyāsi, v.l. āvijj°, āviñj°, āvicc°, āviñch°; cf. Trenckner, "Notes" 59 āviñjati "to pull"). — past participle āviddha (q.v.).

:: Āvijjhana (so for āviñchana and āviñjana) (adjective/noun) [from āvijjhati, literally piercing through, i.e. revolving axis]
1. (= āvijjhati 2) swinging round, hanging loose, spinning in āvijjhana-rajju a loose, rope, especially in mythology the swinging or whirling rope by which Sakka holds the world's wheel or axis, in the latter sense at Dhp-a II 143 (Text āviñch° (v.l. āvijj°) = III 97, 98 (where āviñjanaṭṭhāna for °rajju). Otherwise a rope used in connection with the opening and shutting of a door (pulling rope?) Vin II 120, 148; Ja V 298, 299 (Text āviñj°, v.l. āvicch° and āvij°).
2. (cf. āvijjhati 3) going to, approach, contact with As 312 (°rasa, Text āviñj°, v.l. āviñch°; or is it "encompassing ? = āvijjhati 1?); Vism 444 (āviñjanarasa).
3. (cf. āvijjhati 5) pulling, drawing along Vin III 121 (= ākaḍḍhanā nāma).

:: Āvijjhanaka (neuter) [from āvijjhati in meaning 2] whirlirg round, that which spins round, the whirling-round wheel (or pole) of the world (cf. the potter's wheel), the world axis Dhp-a II 146 (Text āviñch°).

:: Āviddha [past participle of āvijjhati 2, cf. BHS āviddha in meaning curved, crooked Avś I 87 Lal 207] — whirling or spinning round, revolving; swung round, set into whirling motion Ja IV 6 (cakkaṃ = kumbhakāra-cakkam iva bhamati commentary); V 291. What does an-āviddha at Pv-a 135 mean?

:: Āvila (adjective) [is it a haplological contraction from ā + vi + lul to roll about?] stirred up, agitated, disturbed, stained, soiled, dirty A I 9; III 233; Ja V 16, 90 (ābila); Nidd I 488 (+ luḷita), 489; Thig-a 251; Sv I 226. More frequent as anāvila undisturbed, clean, pure, serene D I 76; S III 83; IV, 118; A I 9; III 236; Snp 160; Dhp 82, 413; Ja III 157; Miln 35; Vv-a 29, 30; Thig-a 251.

:: Āvilati [from āvila or is it a direct contraction of ā + vi + lulati?] to whirl round, to be agitated, to be in motion Miln 259 (+ luḷati).

:: Āvilatta (neuter) [abstract from āvila] confusion, disturbance, agitation Snp 967; Nidd I 488.

:: Āvisati [ā + vīś] to approach, to enter Vin IV 334; Snp 936 (preterit āvisi); Ja IV 410, 496; Vism 42.


:: Āvuṇāti [in form = *avr̥ṇoti, ā + vr̥, cf. āvarati, but in meaning = *āvayati, ā + vā to weave, thus a confusion of the two roots, the latter being merged into the former] — to string upon, to fix on to (with locative), to impale Ja I 430; III 35; V 145; VI 105. — causative II āvuṇāpeti Ja III 218 (sūle). — past participle āvuta1 (q.v.), whereas the other past participle āvaṭa is the true derivative of ā + vr̥.

:: Āvuta1 [past participle of āvuṇāti in meaning of Sanskrit āvayati, the corresponding Sanskrit form being ā + uta = ota]
1. strung upon, tied on, fixed onto D I 76 (suttaṃ); II 13 (the same); A I 286 (tantāvutaṃ web); Ja III 52 (valliyā); VI 346 (suttakena); Sv I 94 (°sutta).
2. impaled, stuck on (sūle on the pale) Ja I 430; III 35; V 497; VI 105; Pv-a 217, 220.

:: Āvuta2 = āvaṭa (see āvuṇāti and āvuta1) covered, obstructed, hindered It 8 (mohena); also in phrase āvuta nivuta ophuta etc. Nidd I 24 (-ṭ-) = Nidd II §365 = Sv I 59.

:: Āvuttha [past participle of āvasati] inhabited D II 50 (an°); S I 33.

:: Āvudha (neuter) [Vedic āyudha, from ā + yudh to fight] an instrument to fight with, a weapon, stick etc. D III 219; M II 100; A IV 107, 110; Snp 1008; Ja I 150; II 110; III 467; IV 160, 283, 437; Nidd II on Snp 72; Miln 8, 339; Dhp-a II 2; IV 207; Pj II 225, 466 (°jīvika = issattha). See also āyudha.

:: Āvuyhamāna present participle of āvuyhati (passive of āvahati), being conveyed or brought Vv-a 237 (reading uncertain).

:: Āvuso Āvuso (vocative plural masculine) [a contracted form of āyusmanto plural of āyusman, of which the regular Pāli form is āyasmant, with v for y as frequently in Pāli, e.g. āvudha for āyudha] — friend, a form of polite address "friend, brother, Sir", usually in conversation between bhikkhus. The grammatical construction is with the plural of the verb, like bhavaṃ and bhavanto. — Vin II 302; D I 151, 157; II 8; Pj II 227; Dhp-a I 9; II 93; Pv-a 12, 13, 38, 208.

:: Āveṭhana (neuter) [ā + veṭhana, veṣṭ] rolling up, winding up or round, figurative explanation Miln 28 (+ nibbeṭhana, literally rolling up and rolling down, ravelling and unravelling), 231 (°viniveṭhana).

:: Āveṭhita [past participle of āveṭheti, ā + veṣṭ, cf. āvedhikā] turned round, slung round or over Ja IV 383f. (v.l. āvedhita and āveḷita, commentary explains by parivattita).

:: Āveṇi (adjective) (—°) [according to Trenckner, "Notes" 75 from ā + vinā "Sine quā non", but very doubtful] — special, peculiar, separate Vin II 204 (°uposatha etc.); Ja I 490 (°saṅgha-kammāni).

:: Āveṇika (adjective) [from āveṇi; cf. BHS āveṇika Avś I 14, 108; Divy 2, 182, 268, 302] special, extraordinary, exceptional S IV 239; A V 74f.; Vism 268; Vv-a 112 (°bhāva peculiarity, specialty), Pj I 23, 35.

:: Āveṇiya (adjective) = āveṇika Vin I 71; Ja IV 358; VI 128.

:: Āvedha [cf. Sanskrit āviddha, ā + past participle of vyadh] piercing, hole, wound Ja II 276 (v.l. aveddha; commentary = viddha-ṭṭhāne vaṇa).

:: Āvedhika (adjective feminine scilicet pannā) [ā + vedhaka of āvedha, vyadh, but confused with āveṭh° of ā + veṣṭ, cf. āveṭhana and nibbedhaka] — piercing, penetrating; or ravelling, turning, rolling up or round (cf. āvijjhati which is derived from ā + vyadh, but takes its meaning from āveṭheti), discrimination, thinking over Ja II 9 (+ nibbedhikā, v.l. for both ṭh).

:: Āvelita (-ḷ-?) [past participle of ā + vell, cf. āveḷa and BHS āviddha curved, crooked Avś I 87, Lal 207] — turned round, wound, curved Ja VI 354 (°siṅgika with curved horns, v.l. āvellita).


:: Āveḷa (adjective and °ā feminine) [not with Müller P.Gram. 10, 30, 37 = Sanskrit āpīḍa, but from ā + veṣṭh to wind or turn round, which in Pāli is represented by āveṭheti as well as āvijjhati; ḷ then standing for either ḍh (ṭh) or dh (āvedha, q.v.). There may have been an analogy influence through vell to move to and fro, cf. āveḷita. Müller refers to āveḷā rightly the late dialect (Prākrit) āmela]
1. turning round, swinging round; diffusion, radiation; protuberance, with reference to the rays of the Buddha at Ja I 12, 95, 501.
2. (feminine) a garland or other ornament slung round and worn over the head Vv 362 (kañcan°; = āveḷa-pilandhana Vv-a 167). See āveḷin.

:: Āveḷin (adjective) [from āveḷā] wearing garlands or other head ornaments, usually in feminine °inī Ja V 409 (= kaṇṇālaṅkārehi yuttā commentary); Vv 302 (vocative āvelinī, but Vv 482 āveḷine), 323; Vv-a 125 (on Vv 302 explains as ratana-maya-pupphāveḷavatī).

:: Āvesana (neuter) [from āvisati] entrance; workshop; living-place, house Vin II 117 (°vitthaka, meaning?); M II 53; Pv II 915.

:: Āsa1 contracted form of aṃsa in compound koṭṭhāsa particle, portion etc.: see aṃsa1. Can we compare BHS āsapātrī (see next).

:: Āsa2 [Sanskrit āśa] food, only in compound pātarāsa morning food, breakfast Snp 387 (pāto asitabbo ti pātar-āso piṇḍapātass'etaṃ nāmaṃ Pj II 374); Dhp-a IV 211; see further reference under pātar; and pacchā-āsa aftermath S I 74. Can we compare BHS āsa-pātrī (vessel) Divy 246? derived from āsa is āsaka with abstract ending āsakattaṃ "eating", food, in nānā° various food or na + anāsak°) Snp 249. See also nirāsa, which may be taken either as nir + *āśa or nir + °āsā.

:: Āsa3 the adjective form of āsā (feminine), wish, hope. See under āsā.

:: Āsa4 archaic 3rd singular perfect of atthi to be, only in compound itihāsa = iti ha āsa "thus it has been".

:: Āsaṃsa (adjective) [of *āśaṃsā, see next] hoping, expecting something, longing for A I 108 = Pp 27 (explained by Pp-a 208 as "so hi Arahattaṃ āsaṃsati patthetī ti āsaṃso"); Pj II 321, 336. Cf. nir°.

:: Āsaṃsati [for the usual āsiṃsati, ā + śaṃs] to expect, hope for, wish Pp-a 208 (= pattheti). See also āsamāna.

:: Āsaṃsā (feminine) [from ā + śaṃs] wish, desire, expectation, hope Ja IV 92. — Cf. nirāsaṃsa.

:: Āsaṃsuka (adjective) [from āsaṃsā] full of expectation, longing, hankering after, Thig 273 (= āsiṃsanaka Thig-a 217; translated "cadging").

:: Āsaka (adjective) [of āsa2] belonging to food, having food, only in negative an° fasting S IV 118; Dhp 141 (feminine ā fasting = bhatta-paṭikkhepa Dhp-a III 77); Ja V 17; VI 63.

:: Āsakatta (neuter) [abstract from āsaka] having food, feeding, in an° fasting Snp 249 (= abhojana Pj II 292).

:: Āsaṅkati [ā + śaṅk] to be doubtful or afraid, to suspect, distrust, Ja I 151 (preterit āsaṅkittha), 163 (preterit āsaṅki); II 203; Pj II 298. — past participle āsaṅkita (q.v.),

:: Āsaṅkā (feminine) [Sanskrit āśaṅkā from ā + śaṅk] fear, apprehension, doubt, suspicion Ja I 338; II 383; III 533; VI 350, 370; Dhp-a III 485; Vv-a 110. — Cf. sāsaṅka and nirāsaṅka.

:: Āsaṅkita (adjective) [past participle of āsaṅkati] suspected, in fear, afraid, apprehensive, doubtful (object and subject) Miln 173, 372 (°parisaṅkita full of apprehension and suspicion); Dhp-a I 223; Vv-a 110. — Cf. ussaṅkita and parisaṅkita.

:: Āsaṅkin (—°) (adjective) [from āsaṅkā] fearing, anxious, apprehensive Snp 255 (bhedā°); Ja III 192 (the same).


:: Āsaṅga [ā + saṅga from sañj to hang on, cf. Sanskrit āsaṅga and āsakti]
1. adhering, clinging to, attachment, pursuit Ja IV 11.
2. that which hangs on (the body), clothing, garment, dress; adjective dressed or clothed in (—°); usually in compound uttarāsaṅga a loose (hanging) outer robe e.g. Vin I 289; S IV 290; Pv-a 73; Vv-a 33 (suddh°), 51 (the same).

:: Āsaṅgin (adjective) [from āsaṅga] hanging on, attached to Ja IV 11.

:: Āsajja (indeclinable) [gerund of āsādeti, causative of āsīdati, ā + sad; Sanskrit āsādya]
1. sitting on, going to, approaching; allocated, belonging to; sometimes merely as preposition accusative "near" (cf. āsanna) Snp 418 (āsajja naṃ upāvisi he came up near to him), 448 (kāko va selaṃ ā. nibbijjāpema Gotamaṃ); Ja II 95; VI 194; Miln 271.
2. put on to (literal sitting or sticking on), hitting, striking S I 127 (khaṇuṃ va urasā ā. nibbijjapetha Gotamā "ye've thust as 't were your breast against a stake. Disgusted, come ye hence from Gotama" K.S. I 159; commentary explains by paharitvā, which comes near the usual paraphrase ghaṭṭetvā)
3. knocking against or "giving one a setting-to", insulting, offending, assailing D I 107 (ā. ā. avocāsi = ghaṭṭetvā Sv I 276); A III 373 (tādisaṃ bhikkhuṃ ā.); Ja V 267 (isiṃ ā. Gotamaṃ; commentary page 272 āsādetvā); Pv IV 710 (isiṃ ā. = āsādetvā Pv-a 266).
4. "sitting on", i.e. attending constantly to, persevering, energetically, with energy or emphasis, willingly, spontaneously M I 250; D III 258 = A IV 236 (dānaṃ deti); Vv 106 (dānaṃ adāsiṃ; cf. Vv-a 55 samāgantvā). See āsada, āsādeti, āsīdeti, āsajjana.

:: Āsajjana (neuter) [from āsajja in meaning of no. 3] "knocking against", setting on, insult, offence Vin II 203 (°ṃ Tathāgataṃ an insult to the Tathāgata; quoted as such at Vv-a 55, where two meanings of ā. are given, corresponding to āsajja 1 and 3, viz. samāgama and ghaṭṭana, the latter in this quotation) = It 86 (so to be read with v.l.; Text has āpajja naṃ); S I 114 (apuññaṃ pasavi Māro āsajjanaṃ Tathāgataṃ; translated "in seeking the Tathāgatat to assail"); Ja V 208.

:: Āsati [from as] to sit Sv I 208; 2nd singular āsi S I 130. past participle āsīna (q.v.).

:: Āsatta1 [past participle of ā + sañj] (a) literally hanging on, in phrase kaṇṭhe āsatto kuṇapo a corpse hanging round one's neck M I 120; Ja I 5. — (b) figurative attached to, clinging to Ja I 377 (+ satta lagga); Thig-a 259 (an°).

:: Āsatta2 [past participle of ā + śap] accursed, cursed Ja V 446 (an°).

:: Āsatti (feminine) [ā + sañj] attachment, hanging on (with locative), dependence, clinging Vin II 156 = A I 138; S I 212; Snp 777 (bhavesu); Nidd I 51, 221; Nett 12, 128. — Cf. nirāsattin.

:: Āsada [ā + sad; cf. āsajja and āsādeti]
1. approach, dealing with, business with (accusative), concern, affair, means of acting or getting Vin II 195 = Ja V 336 (mā kuñjara nāgam āsado); M I 326 (m'etaṃ āsado = mā etaṃ āsado do not meddle with this, literally, be not this any affair); Ja I 414 (cakkaṃ āsado you have to do with the wheel; interpreted as adjective in meaning patto = finding, getting); VI 528 (interpreted as aṅkusa a hook, i.e. means of getting something).
2. (as adjective) in phrase durāsada hard to sit on, i.e. hard to get at, unapproachable, difficult to attack or manage or conquer Snp 107 (cf. Pj II 451); Ja VI 272; Vv 5016 (= anupagamanīyato kenaci pi anāsādanīyato ca durāsado Vv-a 213); Miln 21; Dīp V 21; VI 38; Saddh 384.

:: Āsana1 Āsana (neuter) [from āsati] sitting, sitting down; a seat, throne M I 469; Vin I 272 (= pallaṅkassa okāsa); S I 46 (ek° sitting alone, a solitary seat); A III 389 (an° without a seat); Snp 338, 718, 810, 981; Nidd I 131; Ja IV 435 (āsānūdaka-dāyin giving seat and drink); V 403 (the same); VI 413; Dhp-a II 31 (dhamm° the preacher's seat or throne); Pj II 401; Pv-a 16, 23, 141.

-ābhihara gift or distinction of the seat Ja I 81;
-ūpagata endowed with a seat, sitting down Snp 708 (= nisinna Pj II 495);
-paññāpaka one who appoints seats Vin II 305;
-paṭikkhitta one who rejects all seats, or objects to sitting down D I 167; A I 296; II 206; Pp 55;
-sālā a hall with seating accommodation Vism 69; Dhp-a II 65; IV 46.

:: Āsana2 (?) eating Vism 116 (visam°, cf. visam-āsita Miln 302). See, however, māsana.

:: Āsanaka (neuter) [āsana + ka] a small seat Vv 15.

:: Āsanika (adjective) [from āsana] having a seat; in ek° sitting by oneself Vism 69.

:: Āsandi (feminine) [from ā + sad] an extra long chair, a deck-chair Vin I 192; II 142, 163, 169, 170; D I 7 (= pamāṇātikkantāsanaṃ Sv I 86), 55 = M I 515 = S III 307 (used as a bier) A I 181; Ja I 108. See note at D.B. I 11.


:: Āsandikā (feminine) from āsandi] a small chair Vin II 149; Pj I 44.

:: Āsanna (adjective) [past participle of ā + sad, see āsīdati] near (cf. āsajja 1), opposite dūra Ja II 154; Dhp-a II 91; Pv-a 42, 243.

:: Āsappanā (from) [from + sr̥p] literally "creeping onto", doubt, mistrust, always combined with parisappanā Nidd II §1; Dhs 1004 (translation "evasion", cf. BMPE p 107 note 4), 1118, 1235; Sv I 69.

:: Āsabha [the guṇa- and compound form of usabha, corresponding to Sanskrit ārṣabha < r̥ṣabha, see usabha] (in compounds) a bull, peculiar to a bull, bull-like, figurative a man of strong and eminent qualities, a hero or great man, a leader, thus in tār° Snp 687; nar° Snp 684, 696; āsabha-camma bull's hide Ja VI 453 (v.l. usabha°).

-ṭ-ṭhāna (as āsabhaṇṭhāna) "bull's place", first place, distinguished position, leadership M I 69; S II 27; A II 8 (commentary seṭṭha-ṭ-ṭhāna uttama-ṭ-ṭhāna); III 9; V 33f.; Sv I 31; Pj I 104.

:: Āsabhin (adjective) [from āsabha] bull-like, becoming to a bull, lordly, majestic, imposing, bold; only in phrase °ṃ vācaṃ bhāsati "speak the lordly word" D II 15, 82; M III 123j Ja I 53; Sv I 91; cf. Dāṭh I 28 (nicchārayi vācaṃ āsabhiṃ).

:: Āsamāna (adjective) [present participle of āsaṃsati or āsiṃsati, for the usual earlier āsasāna] — wishing, desiring, hoping, expecting Vv 846 (kiṃ ā = kiṃ paccāsiṃ santo Vv-a 336); Pv IV 124 (= āsiṃsamāna patthayamana Pv-a 226).

:: Āsaya [ā + śī, cf. in similar meaning and derivation anusaya. The semantically related Sanskrit āśraya from ā + śri is in Pāli represented by assaya. Cf. also BHS āśayataḥ intentionally, in earnest Divy 281; Avś II 161]
1. abode, haunt, receptacle; dependence on, refuge, support, condition S I 38; Vin III 151; Ja II 99; Miln 257; Vv-a 60; Pv-a 210; jal° river Vv-a 47; Pañca-g 80; adjective depending on, living in (—°) Miln 317; Nidd I 362 (bil°, dak° etc.). See also āmāsaya, pakkosaya.
2. (figurative) inclination, intention, will, hope; often combined and compared with anusaya (inclination, hankering, disposition), e.g. at Paṭis I 133; II 158; Vibh 340; Vism 140 (°posana); Pv-a 197. Pj II 182 (°vipatti), 314 (°suddhi), Pj I 103 (°sampatti). Cf. nirāsaya.
3. outflow, excretion Pv III 53 (gabbh° = gabbha-mala Pv-a 198); Vism 344.

:: Āsayati [ā + śī; literally "lie on", cf. German anliegen and Sanskrit āshaya = German Angelegenheit] — to wish, desire, hope, intend Ja IV 291 (gerundive āsāyana, gloss esamāna). See āsaya.

:: Āsava [from ā + sru, would correspond to a Sanskrit āsrava, cf. Sanskrit āsrāva. The BHS āśrava is a (wrong) Saṅkritisation of the Pāli āsava, cf. Divy 391 and kṣīṇāśrava] — that which {115} flows (out or onto) outflow and influx.
1. spirit, the intoxicating extract or secretion of a tree or flower, word analysis in Vin IV 110 (four kinds); Buddhaghosa on D III 182 (five kinds) As 48; Pj I 26; Ja IV 222; VI 9.
2. discharge from a sore, A I 124, 127 = Pp 30.
3. in psychological technical term for certain specified ideas which intoxicate the mind (bemuddle it, befuddle it, so that it cannot rise to higher things). Freedom from the āsavas constitutes Arahantship, and the fight for the extinction of these āsavas forms one of the main duties of man. On the difficulty of translating the term see Cpd. 227. See also discussion of term āsava (= āsavantī ti āsavā) at As 48 (cf. Expositor pages 63 sq). See also Cpd. 227f., and especially BMPE 268f. — The 4 āsavas are kām°, bhav°, diṭṭh°, avijj°, i.e. sensuality, rebirth (lust of life), speculation and ignorance. — They are mentioned as such at D II 81, 84, 91, 94, 98, 123, 126; A I 165f., 196; II 211; III 93, 414; IV 79; Paṭis I 94, 117; Dhs 1099, 1448; Nidd II §134; Nett 31, 114f. — The set of 3, which is probably older (kāma°, bhava°, avijjā°) occurs at M I 55; A I 165; III 414; S IV 256; V 56, 189; It 49; Vibh 364. For other connections see Vin I 14 (anupādāya āsavehi cittani vimucciṃsu), 17, 20, 182; II 202; III 5 (°samudaya, °nirodha etc.); D I 83, 167; III 78, 108, 130, 220, 223, 230, 240, 283; M I 7f., 23, 35, 76, 219, 279, 445 (°ṭhāniya); II 22; III 72, 277; S II 187f. (°ehi cittaṃ vimucci); III 45 (the same); IV 107 (the same), 20; V 8, 28, 410; A I 85f. (vaḍḍhanti), 98, 165 (°samudaya, °nirodha etc.), 187; II 154 (°ehi cittaṃ vimuttaṃ), 196; III 21, 93 (°samudaya, °nirodha etc.), 245, 387f., 410, 414; IV 13, 146 (°pariyādāna end of the ā.), 161 (°vighāta-pariḷāha); V 70, 237; Thig 4, 99, 101 (pahāsi āsave sabbe); Snp 162, 374, 535 (plural āsavāni), 546, 749, 915, 1100; Dhp 93, 253, 292; Nidd I 331 (pubb°); Vibh 42, 64, 426; Pp 11, 13, 27, 30f.; Miln 419; As 48; Thig-a 94, 173; Pj I 26; Sv I 224; Saddh 1; Pañca-g 65 (piyāsava-surā, meaning?).
Referring specially to the extinction (khaya) of the āsavas and to Arahantship following as a result are the following passages:
1. āsavānaṃ khaya D I 156; S II 29, 214; III 57, 96 sq, 152 sq; IV 105, 175; V 92, 203, 220, 271, 284; A I 107f., 123f., 232f., 273, 291; II 6, 36, 44f., 149f., 214; III 69, 114, 131, 202, 306, 319f.; IV 83f., 119, 140f., 314f.; V 10f., 36, 69, 94 sq, 105, 132, 174f., 343f.; It 49; Pp 27, 62; Vibh 334, 344; Vism 9; Sv I 224; cf. °parikkhaya A V 343f. See also Arahatta formula commentary
2. khīṇāsava (adjective) one whose āsavas are destroyed (see khīṇa) S I 13, 48, 53, 146; II 83, 239; III 199, 128, 178; IV 217; A I 77, 109, 241, 266; IV 120, 224, 370f.; V 40, 253f.; Paṭis II 173; cf. parikkhīṇā āsavā A IV 418, 434, 451f.; āsavakhīṇa Snp 370.
3. anāsava (adjective) one who is free from the āsavas, an Arahant Vin II 148 = 164; D III 112; S I 130; II 214, 222; III 83; IV 128; A I 81, 107 sq, 123f., 273, 291; II 6, 36, 87, 146; III 19, 29, 114, 166; IV 98, 140f., 314f., 400; A V 10 sq., 36, 242, 340; Snp 1105, 1133; Dhp 94, 126, 386; Thag 100; It 75; Nidd II §44; Pv II 615; Pp 27; Vibh 426; Dhs 1101, 1451; Vv-a 9. Cf. nirāsava Thig-a 148. — Opposite sāsava S III 47; V 232; A I 81 V 242; Dhs 990; Nett 10; Vism 13, 438.

:: Āsavati [ā + sru, cf. Sanskrit āsravati; its doublet is assavati] to flow towards, come to, occur, happen Nett 116.

:: Āsasāna [either gerundive for *āsaṃsāna or contracted form of present participle medium of āsaṃsati (= āsiṃsati) for *asaṃsamāna] — hoping, wishing, desiring, longing for Snp 369 (an°; Pj II 365 however reads āsayāna), 1090; Thag 528; Ja IV 18 (= āsiṃsanto commentary), 381; V 391 (= āsiṃsanto commentary). See anāsasāna, āsaṃsati and āsamāna.

:: Āsā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit āśaḥ feminine] expectation, hope, wish, longing, desire; adjective āsa (—°) longing for, anticipating, desirous of Vin I 255 (°avacchedika hope-destroying), 259; D II 206; III 88; M III 138 (āsaṃ karoti); A I 86 (dve āsā), 107 (vigatāso one whose longings have gone); Snp 474, 634, 794, 864; Ja I 267, 285; V 401; VI 452 (°chinna = chinnāsa commentary); Nidd I 99, 261, 213 sq; Vv 3713 (perhaps better to be read with v.l. ahaṃ, cf. Vv-a 172); Pp 27 (vigat° = arahattāsāya vigatattā vigatāso Pp-a 208); Dhs 1059 (+ āsiṃsanā etc.), 1136; Pv-a 22 (chinn° disappointed), 29 (°ābhibhūta), 105; Dāṭh V 13; Saddh 78, 111, 498, 609.

:: Āsāṭikā (feminine) [cf. Mārāṭhi āsāḍī] a fly's egg, a nit M I 220f.; A V 347f., 351, 359; Nett 59; Ja III 176.

:: Āsādeti [causative of āsīdati, ā + sad; cf. āsajja and āsanna
1. to lay hand on, to touch, strike; figurative to offend, assail, insult M I 371; Ja I 481; V 197; preterit āsādesi Thag 280 (mā ā. Tathāgate); gerund āsādetvā Ja V 272; Miln 100, 205 (°ayitvā); Pv-a 266 (isiṃ), āsādiya Ja V 154 (āsādiya metri causa; isiṃ, cf. āsajja 3), and āsajja (q.v.); infinitive āsāduṃ Ja V 154 and āsādituṃ ibid.; gerundive āsādanīya Miln 205; Vv-a 213 (an°).
2. to come near to (with accusative), approach, get Ja III 206 (khuracakkaṃ).

:: Āsāḷhā and āsāḷhī (feminine) [Sanskrit āṣāḍha] name of a month (June/July) and of a Nakkhatta; only in compounds as Āsāḷha° and Āsāḷhi°, viz. °nakkhatta Ja I 50; Pj II 208; °puṇṇamā Ja I 63; Dhp-a I 87; Pj II 199; Vv-a 66; Pv-a 137; °—°māsa Pj II 378 (= vassūpanāyikāya purimabhāge Ā.); Vv-a 307 (= gimhānaṃ pacchimo māso).

:: Āsāvati (feminine) name of a creeper (growing at the celestial grove Cittalatā) Ja III 250, 251.

:: Āsāsati [cf. Sanskrit āśāsati and āśāsti, ā + śās] to pray for, expect, hope; confused with śaṃs in āsaṃsati and āsiṃsati (q.v.) and their derivations. — past participle āsiṭṭha (q.v.).

:: Āsi and āsiṃ 3rd and 1st singular preterit of atthi (q.v.).


:: Āsiṃsaka (adjective) [from ā + siṃsati, cf. āsaṃsā] wishing, aspiring after, praying for Miln 342.

:: Āsiṃsati [Sanskrit āśaṃsati, ā + śaṃs, cf. also śās and āsāsati, further abhisaṃsati, abhisiṃsati and āsaṃsati] to hope for, wish, pray for (literal praise for the sake of gain), desire, (with accusative) S I 34, 62; Snp 779, 1044, 1046 (see Nidd II §135); Ja I 267; III 251; IV 18; V 435; VI 43; Nidd I 60; Mhv 30, 100; Vv-a 337; Pv-a 226 (present participle āsiṃsamāna for āsamāna, q.v.).

:: Āsiṃsanaka (adjective) [from āsiṃsanā] hoping for something, literally praising somebody for the sake of gain, cadging Thig-a 217 (for āsaṃsuka Thig 273).

:: Āsiṃsanā (feminine) [abstract from ā + śaṃs, cf. āsiṃsati] desire, wish, craving Ja V 28; Dhs 1059, 1136 (+ āsiṃsitatta). As āsīsanā at Nett 53.

:: Āsiṃsaniya (adjective) [gerund of āsiṃsati] to be wished for, desirable Miln 2 (°ratana).

:: Āsikkhita [past participle of ā + śikṣ, Sanskrit āśikṣita] sohooled, instructed Pv-a 67, 68.

:: Āsiñcati [ā + sic, cf. abhisiñcati] to sprinkle, besprinkle Vin I 44; II 208; Ja IV 376; Vv 796 (= siñcati Vv-a 307); Pv-a 41 (udakena), 104, 213 (gerund °itvā). past participle āsitta (q.v.). Cf. vy°.

:: Āsiṭṭha [past participle of āsāsati, Sanskrit āśiṣṭa] wished or longed for Pv-a 104.

:: Āsita
*Āsita1 [= asita1?] "having eaten", but probably māsita (past participle of mr̥ś to touch, cf. Sanskrit mr̥śita, which normally becomes massita), since it only occurs in combinations where m precedes, viz. Ja II 446 (dumapakkani-m-asita, where commentary reading is māsita and explains khāditvā asita (v.l. āsita) dhāta); Miln 302 (visam-āsita affected with poison = visamāsita). {116} Cf. also the form māsi(n) touching, eating at Ja VI 354 (tiṇa°, explained by commentary as khādaka). — āsita at Ja V 70 is very doubtful, v.l. āsina and asita; commentary explains by dhāta suhita page 73.

:: *Āsita2 [registered as such with meaning "performed" by Hardy in Nett Index] — at Vv-a 276 is better read with v.l. bhāsita (°vādana etc.).

:: Āsitta [past participle of āsiñcati, Sanskrit āsikta] sprinkled, poured out, anointed Ja V 87; Pp 31; Miln 286; As 307; Dhp-a I 10; Vv-a 69.

:: Āsittaka (adjective) [āsitta + ka] mixed, mingled, adulterated Vin II 123 (°ūpadhāna "decorated divan"?); Thig-a 61, 168 (an° for asecanaka, q.v.).

:: Āsītika (adjective) [from asīti] 80 years old M II 124; Ja III 395; Pj II 172.

:: Āsītika (masculine) [etymology? Cf. BHS āsītakī Lal 319] a certain plant M I 80 = 245 (°pabba).

:: Āsīdati [cf. Sanskrit āsīdati, ā + sad]
1. to come together, literally to sit by D I 248 (v.l. ādisitvā for āsīditvā, to be preferred?).
2. to come or go near, to approach (with accusative), to get (to) A III 69 (āsīvisaṃ), 373 (na sādhurūpaṃ āsīde, should perhaps be read without the na); Ja IV 56.
3. to knock against, insult, offend, attack Ja V 267 (potential āsīde = pharusa-vacanehi kāyakammena vā ghaṭṭento upagaccheyya commentary). — past participle āsanna (q.v.). See also āsajja, āsajjana, āsada and causative āsādeti.

:: Āsīna (adjective) [past participle of ās, see āsati] sitting S I 195 = Nidd II §136; Snp 1105, 1136; Dhp 227, 386; Ja I 390; III 95; V 340; VI 297; Dāṭh II 17.

:: Āsīyati [etymology doubtful; Trenckner Miln page 422= ā + śyā to freeze or dry up, but taken by him in meaning to thaw, to warm oneself; Müller P.Gram. 40 same with meaning "cool oneself"; Morris' JPTS 1884, 72 as ā + śrā or śrī to become ripe, come to perfection, evidently at fault because of śrā etc. not found in Sanskrit More likely as a passive formation to be referred to ā + śī as in āsaya, i.e. to abide etc.] — to have one's home, one's abode or support in (locative), to live in, thrive by means of, to depend on Miln 75 (kaddame jāyati udake āsīyati i.e. the lotus is born in the mud and is supported or thrives by means of the water).

:: Āsīvisa [derivation uncertain. The BHS āsīviṣa (e.g. Jm 3161) is a Sanskritization of the Pāli. To suppose this to come from ahi + visa (snake's poison) would give a wrong meaning, and leave unexplained the change from ahi to āsi] — a snake Vin IV 108; S IV 172; A II 110; III 69; Ja I 245; II 274; IV 30, 496; V 82, 267; Pp 48; Vism 470 (in comparison); Dhp-a I 139; II 8, 38; Pj II 334, 458, 465; Vv-a 308.

:: Āsīsanā see āsiṃsanā.

:: Āsu expletive particle = assu3 Ja V 241 (v.l. assu; nipātamattaṃ commentary page 243).

:: Āsuṃ 3rd plural preterit of atthi.

:: Āsumbhati (and āsumhati) [ā + śumbh to glide] to bring to fall, throw down or round, sling round Vin IV 263, 265; Vv 5011 (°itvāna); Ja III 435 (preterit āsumhi, gloss khipi).

:: Āsevati [ā + sev] to frequent, visit; to practise, pursue, indulge, enjoy A I 10; Snp 73 (cf. Nidd II §94); Paṭis II 93 (maggaṃ). — past participle āsevita.

:: Āsevana (neuter) and āsevanā (feminine) [from āsevati]
1. practice, pursuit, indulgence in Vin II 117; Pv-a 45.
2. succession, repetition Dhs 1367; Kv 510 (cf. PtsC. 294, 362); Vism 538.

:: Āsevita [past participle of āsevati] frequented, indulged, practised, enjoyed Ja I 21 (V 141; āsevita-nisevita); II 60; Saddh 93, 237.

:: Āha [Vedic āha, original perfect of ah to speak, meaning "he began to speak", thus in meaning of present "he says"] — a perfect in meaning of preterit and present "he says or he said", he spoke, also spoke to somebody (with accusative), as at Ja I 197 (culla-lohitaṃ āha). Usually in 3rd person, very rarely used of 2nd person, as at Snp 839, 840 (= kathesi bhaṇasi Nidd 188, 191). — 3rd singular āha Vin II 191; Snp 790 (= bhaṇati Nidd I 87), 888; Ja I 280; III 53 and passim; 3rd plural āhu Snp 87, 181; Dhp 345; Ja I 59; Pj II 377, and āhaṃsu Ja I 222; III 278 and frequent.

:: Āhacca1 gerund of āhanati.

:: Āhacca2 (adjective) [gerund of āharati, corresponding to a Sanskrit āhr̥tya
1. (cf. āharati 1) to be removed, removable, in °pādaka-pīṭha and °mañca a collapsible bed or chair, i e. whose legs or feet can be put on and taken away at pleasure (by drawing out a pin) Vin II 149 (cf. Vinaya Texts III 164 note 5); IV 40, 46 (defined as "aṅge vijjhitvā ṭhito hoti" it stands by means of a perforated limb), 168, 169.
2. (cf. āharati 2) reciting, repeating, or to be quoted, recitation (of the scriptures); by authority or by tradition M III 139; As 9, and in compounds

-pada a text quoted from Scripture), tradition Miln 148 (°ena by reference to the text of the scriptures);
-vacana a saying of the scriptures, a traditional or proverbial saying Nett 21 (in definition of suttaṃ).

:: Āhaṭa [past participle of āharati] brought, carried, obtained Vin I 121; III 53; D II 180 (spelt āhata); Ja III 512 (gloss ānīta); Dāṭh I 58.

:: Āhata [past participle of āhanati] struck, beaten, stamped; afflicted, affected with (—°) Vin IV 236 = D III 238 (kupito anattamano āhata-citto); Vin I 75, 76; S I 170 (tilak°, so read for tilakā-hata, affected with freckles, commentary kāḷa-setādi vaṇṇehi tilakehi āhatagatta, K.S. I 318); Ja III 456; Saddh 187, 401.

:: Āhataka [from āhata] "one who is beaten", a slave, a worker (of low grade) Vin IV 224 (in definition of kammakāra, as bhaṭaka + ā).

:: Āhanati [ā + han] to beat, strike, press against, touch; 1st singular future āhañhi Vin I 8; D II 72, where probably to be read as āhañh' (= āhañhaṃ) (See Geiger, Pāli Grammar §153, note 3); present participle āhananto Mil 21 (dhamma-bheriṃ); Dāṭh IV 50, gerund āhacca touching M I 493; Ja I 330; VI 2, 200; Sn 716 = uppīḷetvā Pj II 498; Vism 420. — past participle āhata (q.v.).

:: Āhanana (neuter) [from ā + han] beating, striking, coming into touch, "impinging" Vism 142 (+ pariyāhanana, in definition of vitakka) = As 114 (cf. Expositor 151); Vism 515 (the same).

:: Āharaṇa (adjective/noun) [from āharati] to be taken; taking away; only in phrase acorāharaṇo nidhi a treasure not to be taken by thieves Miln 320; Khp VIII 9; Pj I 224; Saddh 589.

:: Āharaṇaka [āharaṇa + ka] one who has to take or bring, a messenger Ja II 199; III 328.


:: Āharati Āharati [ā + hr̥]
1. to take, take up, take hold of, take out, take away M I 429 (sallaṃ); S I 121; III 123; Ja I 40 (gerund āharitvā "with"), 293 (te hatthaṃ); Nidd II §540 C3 (puttamaṃsaṃ, read āhāreyya?); Pv II 310; Sv I 186, 188
2. to bring, bring down, fetch D II 245; Ja IV 159 (nāvaṃ; v.l. āhāhitvā); V 466; Vv-a 63 (bhattaṃ); Pv-a 75.
3. to get, acquire, bring upon oneself Ja V 433 (padosaṃ); Dhp-a II 89.
4. to bring onto, put into (with locative); figurative and intransitive to hold onto, put oneself to, touch, resort to M I 395 (kaṭhalaṃ mukhe ā.; also infinitive āhattuṃ); Thag 1156 (pāpacitte ā.; Mrs. Rh.D. Ps.B. verse 1156, not as "accost" page 419, note).
5. to assault, strike, offend (for pāhari?) Thag 1173.
6. (figurative) to take up, fall or go back on {117} (with accusative), recite, quote, repeat (usually with desanaṃ and dasseti of an instructive story or sermon or homily) Ja III 383 (desanaṃ), 401; V 462 (vatthuṃ āharitvā dassesi told a story for example); Pj II 376; Pv-a 38, 39 (atītaṃ), 42, 66, 99 (dhamma-desanaṃ). See also payirudāharati. past participle āhaṭa (q.v.). — causative II āhārapeti to cause to be brought or fetched; to wish to take, to call or ask for Ja III 88, 342; V 466; Pv-a 215.

:: Āharima (adjective) [from āharati] "fetching", fascinating, captivating, charming Vin IV 299; Thig 299; Thig-a 227; Vv-a 14, 15, 77.

:: Āhariya [gerund of āharati] one who is to bring something Ja III 328.

:: Āhavana and āhavanīya see under āhuneyya.

:: Āhāra Āhāra [from ā + hr̥, literally taking up or onto oneself] feeding, support, food, nutriment (literal and figurative). The term is used comprehensively and the usual enumeration comprises four kinds of nutriment, viz.
(1) kabaḷiṅkāra-āhāro (bodily nutriment, either oḷāriko gross, solid, or sukhumo fine),
(2) phassāhāro noun of contact,
(3) manosañcetanā° noun of volition (= cetanā Sp on S II 11f.),
(4) viññāṇ° of consciousness. Thus at M I 261; D III 228, 276; Dhs 71-73; Vism 341. Another definition of Dhammapāla's refers it to the fourfold tasting as asita (eaten), pīta (drunk), khāyita (chewed), sāyita (tasted) food Pv-a 25. A synonym with mūla, hetu, etc. for cause, Yamaka, I 3; Yam-a (JPTS, 1910-12) 54. See on term also BMPE 28 note 1. — Vin I 84; D I 166; S I 172; II 11, 13, 98f. (the 4 kinds, in detail); III 54 (sa°); V 64, 391; A III 51 (sukhass°), 79, 142f., 192f.; IV 49, 108; V 52 (the four), 108, 113 (avijjāya etc.), 116 (bhavataṇhāya), 269f. (nerayikānaṃ etc.); Snp 78, 165, 707, 747; Nidd I 25; Paṭis I 22 (the four) 122 (the same), 55, 76 sq; Kv 508; Pp 21, 55; Vibh 2, 13, 72, 89, 320, 383, 401f. (the four); Dhs 58, 121, 358, 646; Nett 31, 114, 124; As 153, 401; Dhp-a I 183 (°ṃ pacchindati to bring up food, to vomit); II 87; Vv-a 118; Pv-a 14, 35, 112, 148 (utu° physical nutriment); Saddh 100, 395, 406; A V 136 gives ten āhāra opposed to ten paripanthā. — an° without food, unfed M I 487 (aggi); S III 126; V 105; Snp 985.

-ūpahāra consumption of food, feeding, eating Vin III 136;
-ṭhitika subsisting or living on food D III 211, 273; A V 50, 55; Paṭis I 5, 122;
-pariggaha taking up or acquirement of food Miln 244 or is it "restraint or abstinence in food"? Same combination at Miln 313;
-maya "food-like", feeding stuff, food Ja III 523;
-lolatā greed after food Pj II 35;
-samudaya origin of nutriment S III 59.

:: Āhāratthaṃ [āhāra + tta] the state of being food. In the idiom āhārattaṃ pharati; Vin I 199, of medicine, "to penetrate into foodness", to come under the category of food; Miln 152, of poison, to turn into food. [According to Oldenberg (Vin I 381) his mss read about equally °attaṃ and °atthaṃ. Trenckner prints °atthaṃ, and records no variant (see page 425)].

:: Āhāreti [denominative from āhāra] to take food, eat, feed on S II 13; III 240; IV 104; A I 114, 295; II 40, 145, 206; IV 167; Nidd II §540 C2 (āhāraṃ