The Integrated Pāli-English Dictionary

Based on The Pāli Text Society's Pāli-English Dictionary by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede

Edited by Michael Olds

Foreword to the Pāli Text Society Edition

It is somewhat hard to realize, seeing how important and valuable the work has been, that when ROBERT CAESAR CHILDERS published, in 1872, the first volume of his Pāli Dictionary, he only had at his command a few pages of the canonical Pāli books. Since then, owing mainly to the persistent labours of the Pāli Text Society, practically the whole of these books, amounting to between ten and twelve thousand pages, have been made available to scholars. These books had no authors. They are anthologies which gradually grew up in the community. Their composition, as to the Vinaya and the four Nikāyas (with the possible exception of the supplements) was complete within about a century of the Buddha's death; and the rest belong to the following century. When scholars have leisure to collect and study the data to be found in this pre-Sanskrit literature, it will necessarily throw as much light on the history of ideas and language as the study of such names and places as are mentioned in it (quite incidentally) has already thrown upon the political divisions, social customs, and economic conditions of ancient India.

Some of these latter facts I have endeavoured to collect in my "Buddhist India" ; and perhaps the most salient discovery is the quite unexpected conclusion that, for about two centuries (both before the Buddha's birth and after his death), the paramount power in India was Kosala - a kingdom stretching from Nepal on the North to the Ganges on the South, and from the Ganges on the West to the territories of the Vajjian confederacy on the East. In this, the most powerful kingdom in India; there had naturally arisen a standard vernacular differing from the local forms of speech just as standard English differs from the local (usually county) dialects. The Pāli of the canonical books is based on that standard Kosala vernacular as spoken in the 6th and 7th centuries B. C. It cannot be called the "literary" form of that vernacular, for it was not written at all till long afterwards. That vernacular was the mother tongue of the Buddha. He was born in what is now Nepal, but was then a district under the suzerainty of Kosala and in one of the earliest Pāli documents he is represented as calling himself a Kosalan.

When, about a thousand years afterwards, some pandits in Ceylon began to write in Pāli, they wrote in a style strikingly different from that of the old texts. Part of that difference is no doubt due simply to a greater power of fluent expression unhampered by the necessity of constantly considering that the words composed had to be learnt by heart. When the Sinhalese used Pāli, they were so familiar with the method of writing on palmleaves that the question of memorizing simply did not arise. It came up again later. But none of the works belonging to this period were intended to be learnt. They were intended to be read. On the other hand they were for the most part reproductions of older material that had, till then, been preserved in Sinhalese. Though the Sinhalese pandits were writing in Pāli, to them, of course, a dead language, they probably did their thinking in their own mother tongue. Now they had had then, for many generations, so close and intimate an intercourse with their Dravidian neighbours that Dravidian habits of speech had crept into Sinhalese. It was inevitable that some of the peculiarities of their own tongue, and especially these Dravidanisms, should have influenced their style when they wrote in Pāli. It will be for future scholars to ascertain exactly how far this influence can be traced in the idioms and in the order of the arrangement of the matter of these Ceylon Pāli books of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D.

There is no evidence that the Sinhalese at that time knew Sanskrit. Some centuries afterwards a few of them learnt the elements of classical Sanskrit and very proud they were of it. They introduced the Sanskrit forms of Sinhalese words when writing "high" Sinhalese. And the authors of such works as the Dāṭhāvaṃsa, the Saddhammopāyana, and the Mahābodhivaṃsa, make use of Pāli words derived from Sanskrit that is, they turned into Pāli form certain Sanskrit words they found either in the, or in the course of their very limited reading, and used them as Pāli. It would be very desirable to have a list of such Pāli words thus derived from Sanskrit. It would not be a long one.

Here we come once more to the question of memory. From the 11th cent. onwards it became a sort of fashion to write manuals in verse, or in prose and verse, on such subjects as it was deemed expedient for novices to know. Just as the first book written in Pāli in Ceylon was a chain of memoriter verses strung together by very indifferent Pāli verses, so at the end we have these scarcely intelligible memoriter verses meant to be learned by heart by the pupils.

According to the traditions handed down among the Sinhalese, Pāli, that is, the language used in the texts, could also be called Māgadhī. What exactly did they mean by that* They could not be referring to the Māgadhī of the Prakrit grammarians, for the latter wrote some centuries afterwards. Could they have meant the dialect spoken in Magadha at the date when they used the phrase, say, the sixth century A. D.* That could only be if they had any exact knowledge of the different vernaculars of North India at the time. For that there is no evidence, and it is in itself very improbable. What they did mean is probably simply the language used by Asoka, the king of Magadha. For their traditions also stated that the texts had been brought to them officially by Asoka's son Mahinda; and not in writing, but in the memory of Mahinda and his companions. Now we know something of the language of Asoka. We have his edicts engraved in different parts of India, differing slightly in compliance with local varieties of speech. Disregarding these local differences, what is left may be considered the language of head-quarters where these edicts were certainly drafted. This "Māgadhī" contains none of the peculiar characteristics we associate with the Māgadhī dialect. It is in fact a younger form of that standard Kosalan lingua franca mentioned above.

Now it is very suggestive that we hear nothing of how the king of Magadha became also king of Kosala. Had this happened quietly, by succession, the event would have scarcely altered the relation of the languages of the two kingdoms. That of the older and larger would still have retained its supremacy. So when the Scottish dynasty succeeded to the English throne, the two languages remained distinct, but English became more and more the standard. However this may be, it has become of essential importance to have a Dictionary of a language the history of whose literature is bound up with so many delicate and interesting problems. The Pāli Text Society, after long continued exertion and many cruel rebuffs and disappointments is now at last in a position to offer to scholars the first instalment of such a dictionary.

The merits and demerits of the work will be sufficiently plain even from the first fasciculus. But one or two remarks are necessary to make the position of my colleague and myself clear.

We have given throughout the Sanskrit roots corresponding to the Pāli roots, and have omitted the latter. It may be objected that this is a strange method to use in a Pāli dictionary, especially as the vernacular on which Pāli is based had never passed through the stage of Sanskrit. That may be so; and it may not be possible, historically, that any Pāli word in the canon could have been actually derived from the corresponding Sanskrit word. Nevertheless the Sanskrit form, though arisen quite independently, may throw light upon the Pāli form; and as Pāli roots have not yet been adequately studied in Europe, the plan adopted will probably, at least for the present, be more useful.

This work is essentially preliminary. There is a large number of words of which we do not know the derivation. There is a still larger number of which the derivation does not give the meaning, but rather the reverse. It is so in every living language. Who could guess, from the derivation, the complicated meaning of such words as "conscience" , "emotion" , "disposition" * The derivation would be as likely to mislead as to guide. We have made much progress. No one needs now to use the one English word "desire" as a translation of sixteen distinct Pāli words, no one of which means precisely desire. Yet this was done in Vol. X of the Sacred Books of the East by MAX MuLLER and FAUSBoLL See Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS in J R A S., 1898, p. 58.. The same argument applies to as many concrete words as abstract ones. Here again we claim to have made much advance. But in either case, to wait for perfection would postpone the much needed dictionary to the Greek kalends. It has therefore been decided to proceed as rapidly as possible with the completion of this first edition, and to reserve the proceeds of the sale for the eventual issue of a second edition which shall come nearer to our ideals of what a Pāli Dictionary should be.

We have to thank Mrs. STEDE for valuable help in copying out material noted in my interleaved copy of Childers, and in collating indexes published by the Society; Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS for revising certain articles on the technical terms of psychology and philosophy; and the following scholars for kindly placing at our disposal the material they had collected for the now abandoned scheme of an international Pāli Dictionary:

Prof. STEN KONOW. Words beginning with S or H. (Published in J P T S. 1909 and 1907, revised by Prof. Dr. D. ANDERSEN). Dr. MABEL H. BODE. B, Bh and M. Prof. DUROISELLE. K. Dr. W. H. D. ROUSE. C-Ñ.

In this connection I should wish to refer to the work of Dr. EDMOND HARDY. When he died he left a great deal of material; some of which has reached us in time to be made available. He was giving his whole time, and all his enthusiasm to the work, and had he lived the dictionary would probably have been finished before the war. His loss was really the beginning of the end of the international undertaking.

Anybody familiar with this sort of work will know what care and patience, what scholarly knowledge and judgment are involved in the collection of such material, in the sorting, the sifting and final arrangement of it, in the adding of cross references, in the consideration of etymological puzzles, in the comparison and correction of various or faulty readings, and in the verification of references given by others, or found in the indexes. For all this work the users of the Dictionary will have to thank my colleague, Dr. WILLIAM STEDE. It may be interesting to notice here that the total number of references to appear in this first edition of the new dictionary is estimated to be between one hundred and fifty and one hundred and sixty thousand. The Bavarian Academy has awarded to Dr. STEDE a personal grant of 3100 marks for his work on this Dictionary.

Chipstead, Surrey. July, 1921. T. W. RHYS DAVIDS.

---[ Page IX ]---

A List of the Chief Books consulted for Vocabulary (with Abbreviations).

-----[ 1. PALI BOOKS ]-----

-----[ 1a Canonical ]-----

Anguttara-Nikāya 5 vols. P T S. 1885 1900 (A). Buddha-Vaṃsa P T S. 1882 (Bu). Cariyā-Piṭaka P T S. 1882 (Cp.). Dhammapada P T S. 1914 (Dh). Dhamma-Sangaṇi P T S. 1885 (Dhs). Dīgha-Nikāya 3 vols. P T S. (D). Iti-vuttaka P T S. 1890 (It.). Kathā-Vatthu 2 vols. P T S. 1894, 95 (Kvu). Khuddaka-Pāṭha P T S. 1915 (Kh). Majjhima-Nikāya 3 vols. P T S. 1887 1902 (M). Niddesa I Mahā* 2 vols. P T S. 1916, 17 (Nd1). Niddesa II Culla* P T S. 1918 (Nd2). Paṭisambhidāmagga 2 vols. P T S. 1905, 1907 (Ps). Peta-Vatthu P T S. 1889 (Pv). Puggala-Paññatti P T S. 1883 (Pug). Saŋyutta-Nikāya 5 vols. P T S. 1884 1898 (S). Sutta-Nipāta P T S. 1913 (Sn). Thera-therīgāthā P T S. 1883 (Th 1) and (Th 2). Udāna P T S. 1885 (Ud). Vibhanga P T S. 1904 (Vbh). Vimāna-Vatthu P T S. 1886 (Vv). Vinaya-Piṭaka 5 vols. London 1879 83 (Vin). Apadāna Pāli Text Society 1925 (Ap). Dukapaṭṭhāna, Pāli Text Society 1906 (Dukp). Tikapaṭṭhāna, 3 vols. Pāli Text Society 1921-23 (Tikp).

-----[ 1b Post-Canonical ]-----

Atthasālinī, P T S. 1897 (DhsA). Buddhadatta's Manuals, P T S. 1915 (Bdhd). Dāṭhāvaṃsa, J P T S. 1884 (Dāvs). Dhammapada Commentary, 4 vols. P T S. 1906-14 (DhA). Dīpavaṃsa, London 1879 (Dpvs). Jātaka, 6 vols. London 1877-96 (J). Khuddaka-Pāṭha Commentary, P T S. 1915 (KhA). Khuddhasikkhā, J.T.PāliS. 1883 (Khus). Mahāvaṃsa, P T S. 1908 (Mhvs). Mahā-Bodhi-Vaṃsa, P T S. 1891 (Mhbv). Milindapañha, London 1880 (Miln). Mūlasikkhā, J.Pāli Text Society 1883 (Mūls). Netti-Pakaraṇa, P T S. 1902 (Nett). Pañca-gati-dīpana, J P T S. 1884 (Pgdp). Peta-Vatthu Commentary, P T S. 1894 (PvA). Puggala-Paññatti Commentary, J P T S. 1914 (Pug A). Saddhammopāyana, J P T S. 1887 (Sdhp). Sumangala-Vilāsinī, vol. I, P T S. 1886 (DA I). Manoratha-pūraṇī Pāli Text Society 1924 (AA); Samanta-pāsādikā Pāli Text Society 1924 (Sam. Pās. or Vin A). Papañca Sūdanī, pt. I, Pāli Text Society 1922 (MA). Sammoha-Vinodanī, Pāli Text Society 1923 (VbhA).

---[ Page X ]---

Sutta-Nipāta Commentary, 2 vols. P T S. 1916-17 (SnA). Therīgāthā Commentary, P T S. 1891 (ThA). Vimāna-Vatthu Commentary, P T S. 1901 (VvA). Visuddhi-Magga, 2 vols. P T S. 1920 21 (Vism). Yogāvacara's Manual, Pāli Text Society 1896 (Yog). Note. The system adopted in quotations of passages from Pāli text is that proposed in J P T S. 1909, pp. 385-87, with this modification that Peta-vatthu (Pv) is quoted by canto and verse, and Culla-Niddesa (Nd2) by number of word in "Explanatory Matter".

-----[ 2. BUDDHIST SANSKRIT ]-----

Avadāna-shataka, ed. J. S. Speyer (Bibl. Buddhica III), 2 vols., St. Petersbourg 1906. (Av. SH.). Divya-vadāna, ed. Cowell and Neil, Cambridge 1886. (Divy). Jātaka-mālā, ed. H. Kern (Harvard Or. Ser. I), Boston 1891. (Jtm). Lalita-vistara, ed. S. Lefmann, I. Halle 1902. (Lal. V.). Mahā-vastu, ed. É. Senart, 3 vols., Paris 1882-1897. (Mvst). Shiks.ā-samuccaya. Ed. C. Bendall, St. Petersburg, 1902 (SHiks.). The ed. of Lalitavistara which I have used, and from which I quote, is the Calcutta ed. (1877), by Rājendralāla Mitra (Bibl. Indica), and not Lefmann's.

-----[ 3. TRANSLATIONS ]-----

Buddh. Manual of Psychological Ethics (trsl. of the Dhamma-sangaṇi) by Mrs. Rhys Davids (R. As. Soc. Trsl. Fund XII), London 1900. (Dhs trsl.). Compendium of Philosophy (trsl. of the Abhidhamm' attha-sangaha) by S. Z. Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1910. (Cpd.). Dialogues of the Buddha, trsl. by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, London I. 1899; II. 1910; III. 1921. (Dial.). Expositor (trsl. of the Attha-sālinī), by Maung Tin, P T S. Trsl. 1920, 21. Kathāvatthu trsl. ("Points of Controversy), by Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1915. (Kvu trsl.). Kindred Sayings (Saŋyutta Nikāya I), by Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1917. (K S.). Mahāvaṃsa trsl. by W. Geiger, P T S. Trsl. 1912. Manual of a Mystic (Yoga-vacara), trs. by F. L. Woodward, P T S. Trsl. 1916. (Mystic). Neumann, K. E., Lieder der Monche und Nonnen, Berlin 1899. Psalms of the Brethren (trsl. Mrs. Rhys Davids), P T S. Trsl. 1913. Psalms of the Sistereotype (trsl. Mrs. Rhys Davids), P T S. Trsl. 1909. Questions of Milinda (trsl. T. W. Rhys Davids), S B E. vols. 35, 36. (Miln). Vinaya Texts (trsl. Rhys Davids and Oldenberg), S B E. vols. 13, 17, 20. (Vin T.). Neumann, Die Reden Gotamo Buddha's (Mittlere Sammlung), Vols. I to III2 1921. Human Types, Pāli Text Society trsl. 1924 (Pug trsl.) and insert accordingly on p. xi under B 1. Path of Purity, Pāli Text Society trsl. 1923, 1st pt. (Vism. Trsl.). 4. GRAMMATICAL and OTHER LITERATURE; PERIODICALS, ETC. Abhidhānappadīpikā, ed. W. Subhūti, Colombo1 1883. (Abhp.). Andersen, D., A Pāli Reader, 2 pts; Copenhagen 1901, 1907. Aufrecht, Th., Halāyudha's Abhidhāna-ratna-mā'ā, London 1861. Brugmann, K., Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogerm. Sprachen, Strassburg 1902. Childers, R. C., A Dictionary of the Pāli Language, London 1874. Brāhmaṇa (Br.). Dhātupāṭha and Dhātumañjūsā, ed. Andersen and Smith, Copenhagen 1921 (Dhtp, Dhtm). SHatapatha-Brāhmaṇa (trsl. J. Eggeling) (SHat. Br.) SBE vols.

---[ XI]---

Geiger, W., Pāli Literatur und Sprache, Strassburg 1916. (Geiger, Pāli Gr.). Grassmann, W., Worterbuch zum Rig Veda, Leipzig 1873. Journal of the American Oriental Society (J A O S.). Journal Asiatique, Paris (J. As.) Journal of the Pāli Text Society (J P T S.). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London (J R A S.). Kaccāyana-ppakaraṇa, ed. and trsl. Senart (J. As. 1871) (Kacc). Kern, H., Toevoegselen op 't Woordenboek van Childers; 2 pts (Verhandelingen Kon. Ak. van Wetenschappen te Amstereotypeam N. R. XVI, 5), Amstereotypeam 1916. (Toev.). Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung (K Z.). Mahāvyutpatti, ed. Mironow (Bibl. Buddhica XIII) St. Petersbourg 1910, 11. (Mvyut). Muller, Ed., Simplified Grammar of the Pāli Language, London 1884. Trenckner, V., Notes on the Milindapañho, in J P T S. 1908, 102 sq. Uhlenbeck, H., Kurzgefasstes Etym. Worterbuch d. Altindischen Sprache, Amstereotypeam 1898. Walde, A., Lateinisches Etymologisches Worterbuch, Heidelberg2 1910. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Leipzig 1847 sq. (Z D M S.). Kirfel, W. Kosmographie der Inder, Bonn and Leipzig 1920.


-----[ 1. Titles of Books (the no. refers to section of A) ]-----

A Anguttara . . . . . . 1a Abhp Abhidhānappadīpikā. . . 4 Ap Apadāna. . . . . . . 1a Av. SH. Avadāna-shataka . . . . 2 Bdhd Buddhadatta . . . . . 1 Brethren: see Psalms. . . . . . 3 Bu Buddha-vaṃsa . . . . . 1a Cp Cariyā-piṭaka . . . . . 1a Cpd Compendium . . . . . 3 D Dīgha. . . . . . . . 1a Dāvs Dāṭhā-vaṃsa . . . . . 1b Dh Dhammapada . . . . . 1a Dhs Dhammasangaṇi . . . . 1a Dhs trsl. Atthasālinī . . . . . . 3 Dial. Dialogues . . . . . . 3 Divy Divya-vadāna . . . . . 2 Dpvs Dīpavaṃsa . . . . . . 1b Halāyudha: see Aufrecht . . . . 4 It Itivuttaka . . . . . . 1a J Jātaka . . . . . . . 1b J A O S. Journal Amer. Or. Soc. . 4 J As. Journal Asiatique. . . . 4 J P T S. Journal Pāli Text Soc. . 4 J R A S. Journal Royal Asiatic Soc. 4 Jtm Jātakamālā . . . . . . 2 Kacc Kaccāyana . . . . . . 4 Kh Khuddakapāṭha . . . . 1a K S Kindred Sayings. . . . 3 Kvu Kathāvatthu . . . . . 1a K Z Kuhn's Zeitschrift . . . 4 Lal. V. Lalita Vistara. . . . . 2 M Majjhima . . . . . . 1a Mhbv Mahābodhi-vaṃsa. . . . 1b Mhvs Mahāvaṃsa . . . . . . 1b Miln Milinda-pañha . . . . . 1b M Vastu Mahā-vastu . . . . . . 2 Mvyut Mahāvyutpatti. . . . . 4 Mystic: see Manual . . . . . . 3 Nd1 Mahāniddesa . . . . . 1a Nd2 Cullaniddesa . . . . . 1a Nett Netti-pakaraṇa. . . . . 1b Pgdp Pañcagati-dīpana . . . . 1b Ps Paṭisambhidā-magga. . . 1a Pug Puggala-paññatti . . . . 1a Pv Petavatthu . . . . . . 1a S Saŋyutta. . . . . . . 1a S B E Sacred Books of the East. 3 Sdhp Saddhammopāyana . . . 1b SHiks. SHiks.āsamuccaya . . . . 2 Sistereotype: see Psalms . . . . . . 3 Sn Sutta-nipāta . . . . . 1a Th 1 Theragāthā. . . . . . 1a Th 2 Therīgāthā . . . . . . 1a Toev. Toevoegselen . . . . . 4 BR. Boehtlingk and Roth. Dhtm Dhātumañjūsa . . . 4. Dhtp Dhātupāṭha . . . 4. Dukp = Dukapaṭṭhāna . . . 1a. Paṭṭh = Paṭṭhāna: see Duka* and Tika* . . . 1a. Tikp = Tikapaṭṭhāna . . . 1a. VbhA = Sammoha-Vinodanī . . . 1b. Vism. Trsl. = Path of Purity . . . 3.

---[ Page XII ]---

Ud Udāna . . . . . . . 1a Vbh Vibhanga . . . . . . 1a Vin Vinaya . . . . . . . 1a Vism Visuddhi-magga . . . . 1b Vv Vimānavatthu . . . . . 1a Z D M G. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. . . . . . . . 4

-----[ 2. General and grammatical terms ]-----

A in combination with a Title letter (e.g. DhA) = Commentary (on Dh) abl. ablative abs. absolute(ly) abstr. abstract acc. accusative act. active add. addition adj. adjective adv. adverb Ags. Anglo-Saxon aor. aorist applied applied art. article attr. attribute Av. Avesta BB Burmese MSS bef. before BSanskrit Buddhist Sanskrit C (and Cy) Commentary (when cited in explination of a Text passage). caus. causative cert. certain coll. collective combined, combination combined, combination comp. comparative, comparison, composition cond. conditional cons. consonant corr. correct(ed) correl. correlation, correlative cp. compare cpd. compound dat. dative den. denominative der. derived, derivation des. desiderative dial. dialect(ical) different different dist. distinct, distinguished E. English e. g. for instance encl. enclitic ep. epithet esp. especially etymology etymology exc. except excl. exclamation, exclusive expl. explanation, explained f. feminine fig. figurative(ly) following following form. formation from from frequent frequently, frequentative fut. future Gall. Gallic gen. genitive ger. gerund Ger. German Goth. Gothic Gr. Greek gram. grammar, *atical grd. gerundive ibid. at the same passage id. the same id. p. identical passage i. e. that is i. g. in general imper. imperative impers. impersonal impf. imperfect Ind. Index ind. indicative indecl. indeclinable indefinite indefinite inf. infinitive instr. instrumental interr. interrogative intrs. intransitive iter. iterative Latin Latin l. c. loco citato lit. literal(ly), literary Lit. Lithuanian loc. locative m. masculine med. medium (middle) N. Name n. noun, note nom. nominative Np. Name of person Npl. Name of place nt. neuter num. numeral Obulg. Old-bulgarian Ohg. Old-high-german Oicel. Old-icelandic Oir. Old-irish onom. onomatopoetic opp. opposed, opposite ord. ordinal, ordinary orig. original(ly) Pāli Pāli part. particle

---[ Page XIII ]---

pass. passive perf. perfect pers. personal pl. plural pop. popular poss. possessive pot. potential pp. past participle ppr. present participle prec. preceding pred. predicative prefix prefix prep. preposition pres. present pret. preterite Prk. Prākrit prob. probably pronoun. pronoun pt. part P T S. Pāli Text Society q. v. quod vide (which see) ref. reference, referred refl. reflexive rel. relation, relative sep. separate(ly) sg. singular Skt Sanskrit sq. and following SS. Singhalese MSS. ster. stereotypeotype suff. suffix sup. superlative s. v. sub voce (under the word mentioned) syn. synonym(ous) T. Text trans. transitive trsl. translated, translation t. t. technical term t. t. g. technical term in grammar v. verse var. variant, various var. lect. various reading voc. vocative Wtb. Worterbuch

-----[ 3. Typographical ]-----

*(s)quel indicates a (reconstructed or conjectured) Indogermanic root. *Sk means, that the Sanskrit word is constructed after the Pāli word; or as Sanskrit form is only found in lexicographical lists. ¢-: the cap over a vowel indicates that the ¢ is the result of a syncope a + a (e. g. khudda-nukhudda), whereas ā represents the proper ā, either pure or contracted with a preceding a (khīṇāsava = khīṇa + āsava). * represents the head-word either as first (*-) or second (-*) part of a compound; sometimes also an easily supplemented part of a word. > indicates an etymological relation or line of development between the words mentioned. ~ and ~ means "at similar" or "at identical, parallel passages". The meaning of all other abbreviations may easily be inferred from the context.

-----[ Key to Integrated Materials ]-----

Use: { [SOURCE]: [ENTRY] }

Entry keyword is a link to a sound-file with pronunciation of that word.

{ ed: Editorial comment }

---[ Page 1 ]---

-----[ A ]-----

A1 the prep. ā shortened before double cons., as akkosati (ā + krush), akkhāti (ā + khyā), abbahati (ā + brh). - Best to be classed here is the a- we call expletive. It represents a reduction of ā- (mostly before liquids and nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus anantaka (for ā-nantaka = nantaka) Vv.807; amajjapa (for ā-majjapa = majjapa) J VI.328; amāpaya (for āmāpaya = māpaya) J VI.518; apassato ( = passantassa) J VI.552.

A2 (an- before vowels) [Vedic a-, an-; Idg. *n*, gradation form to *ne (see na2); Gr. x), a)n, a)n-; Latin *en-, in-; Goth., Ohg. and Ags. un-; Oir. an-, in-] negative part. prefixed to (1) nouns and adjectives; (2) verbal forms, used like (1), whether part., ger., grd. or inf.; (3) finite verbal forms. In compounds. with words having originally two initial cons. the latter reappear in their assimilated form (e. g. appaṭicchavin). In meaning it equals na-, nir- and vi-. Often we find it opp. to sa-. Verbal negatives which occur in specific verb. function will be enumerated separately, while examples of negative form. of (1) and (2) are given under their positive form unless the negative involves a distinctly new concept, or if its form is likely to lead to confusion or misunderstanding. - Concerning the combining and contrasting (orig. negative) -a- (a-) in redupl. formations like bhava-¢-bhava see ā4.

A3 [Vedic a-; Idg. *e (loc. of pronoun. stem, cp. ayaŋ; orig. a deictic adv. with specific reference to the past, cp. Sk sma); Gr. e)-; also in Gr. e)kei_, Latin equidem, enim] the augment (sign of action in the past), prefixed to the root in pret., aor. and cond. tenses; often omitted in ordinary prose. See forms under each verb; cp. also ajja. Identical with this a- is the a- which functions as base of some pronoun. forms like ato, attha, asu etc. (q. v.).

A4 the sound a (a-kāra) J VI.328, 552; VvA 279, 307, 311.

Aŋsa1 [Vedic aŋsa; cp. Gr. w)_mos, Latin umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us] (a) the shoulder A v. 110; Sn 609. aŋse karoti to put on the shoulder, to shoulder J I.9. (b.) a part (lit. side) (cp. *āsa in koṭṭhāsa and explination of ansa as koṭṭhāsa at DA I.312, also v. l. mettāsa for mettaŋsa at It 22). - atīt'aŋse in former times, formerly D II.224; Th 2, 314. mettaŋsa sharing friendship (with) A IV.151 = It 22 = J IV.71 (in which connection Miln 402 reads ahiŋsā). - Disjunctive ekena aŋsena . . . ekena aŋsena on the one hand (side) . . . on the other, partly . . . partly A I.61. From this: ekaŋsa (adj.) on the one hand (only), i. e. incomplete (opp. ubhayaŋsa) or (as not admitting of a counterpart) definite, certain, without doubt (opp. dvidhā): see ekaŋsa. -- paccansena according to each one's share A III.38. puṭaŋsena with a knapsack for provisions D I.117; A II 183; cp. DA I.288, with v. l. puṭosena at both passages. -kūṭa "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin III.127; DhA III.214; IV.136; VvA 121. -- vaṭṭaka a shoulder strap (mostly combined with kāyabandhana; vv. ll. *vaddhaka, *bandhaka) Vin I.204 (T. *bandhaka); II.114 (ddh); IV.170 (ddh); Vv 3340 (T. *bandhana, C. v. l. *vaṭṭaka); DhA III.452.

Aŋsa2 [see next] point, corner, edge; freg. in combination with numerals, e. g. catur* four-cornered, cha'*, aṭṭh*, so'as* etc. (q. v.) all at Dhs 617 (cp. DhsA 317). In connection with a Vimāna: ayat* with wide or protruding capitals (of its pillars) Vv 8415; as part of a carriage-pole Vv 642 ( = kubbara-phale patiṭṭhita heṭṭhima-aŋsā VvA 265).

Aŋsi (f.) [cp. Vedic a.sri, a.sra, a.sani; Gr. a)/kros pointed, a)/kris, also o)cu/s sharp: Latin ācer sharp. Further connections in Walde Latin Wtb. under ācer] a corner, edge ( = aŋsa2) Vv 782 ( = aŋsa-bhāga VvA 303).

Aŋsu [cp. Sanskrit (Halāyudha) a ray of light] a thread Vin III.224. -mālin, sun 1.

Akaṭa (adj.) [a + kaṭa] not made, not artificial, natural; *yūsa natural juice Vin I.206

Akampiyatta (nt.) [abstr. from akampiya, grd. of a + kampati] the condition of not being shaken, stableness Miln 354.

Akalu (cp. agalu) an ointment J IV.440 (akaluñ candanañ ca, v. l. BB aggalu*; C. expls as kāl¢kaluñ ca rattacandanañ ca, thus implying a blacking or dark ointment); VI.144 (*candana-vilitta; v. l. BB aggalu*); Miln 338 (*tagara-tālisaka-lohita-candana).

Akāca (adj.) [a + kāca] pure, flawless, clear D II.244; Sn 476; J V.203.

Akācin (adj.) = akāca Vv 601. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) proposes reading akkācin ( = Sanskrit arka-arcin shining as the sun), but VvA 253 expls by niddosa, and there is no v. l. to warrant a misreading.

Akāsiya (adj. -n.) [a + kāsika*] "not from the Kāsi-country" (*); official name of certain tax-gatherers in the king's service J VI.212 (akāsiya-sankhātā rāja-purisā C.).

Akiccakāra (adj.) [a + kicca + kāra] 1. not doing one's duty, doing what ought not to be done A II.67; Dh 292; Miln 66; DA I.296. -- 2. ineffective (of medicine) Miln 151.

Akiriya (adj.) [a + kiriya] not practical, unwise, foolish J III.530 (*rūpa = akattabba-rūpa C.); Miln 250.

Akilāsu (adj.) [a + kilāsu] not lazy, diligent, active, untiring S I.47; V.162; J I.109; Miln 382.

Akissava at S I.149 is probably faulty reading for akiñcana.

Akutobhaya (adj.) see ku*.

Akuppa (adj.) [a + kuppa, grd. of kup, cp. BSanskrit akopya M Vastu III.200] not to be shaken, immovable; sure, steadfast, safe Vin I.11 (akuppā me ceto-vimutti) = S II.239; Vin II.69; IV.214; D III.273; M I.205, 298; S II.171; A III.119, 198; Miln 361.

Akuppatā (f.) [abstr. from last] "state of not being shaken", surety, safety; Ep. of Nibbana Th 1, 364.

Akka [cp. Sanskrit arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis Gigantea, swallow-wort M I.429 (*assa jiyā bowstrings made from that plant). -nāla a kind of dress material Vin I.306 (vv. ll. agga* and akkha*). -vāṭa a kind of gate to a plantation, a movable fence made of the akka plant Vin II.154 (cp. akkha-vāṭa).

Akkanta [pp. of akkamati] stepped upon, mounted on A I.8; J I.71; Miln 152; DhA I.200.

Akkandati [ā + kandati, krand] to lament, wail, cry S IV.206.

Akkamana (nt.) [cp. BSanskrit ākramaṇa Jtm 3158] going near, approaching, stepping upon, walking to J I.62.

Akkamati [ā + kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, attack J I.7, 279; ThA 9; -- to rise Vin III. 38. -- ger. akkamma Cp. III.72. --pp. akkanta (q. v.).

Akkuṭṭha (adj. n.) [pp. of akkosati] 1. (adj.) being reviled, scolded, railed at Sn 366 ( = dasahi akkosavatthūhi abhisatto SnA 364); J VI.187. -- 2. (nt.) reviling, scolding, swearing at; in combination akkuṭṭha-vandita Sn 702 ( = akkosa-vandana SnA 492) Th 2, 388 (explination ThA 256 as above).

Akkula (adj.) [ = akula] confused, perplexed, agitated, frightened Ud 5 (akkulopakkula and akkulapakkulika). See ākula.

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Akkosa [ā + krush = kruñc, see kuñca and koñca2; to sound, root kr*, see note on gala] shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling Sn 623; Miln 8 (+ paribhāsa); SnA 492; ThA 256; PvA 243; DhA II.61. -vatthu always as dasa a*-vatthūni 10 bases of abuse, 10 expressions of cursing J I.191; SnA 364, 467; DhA I.212; IV.2.

Akkosaka (adj.) [from last] one who abuses, scolds or reviles, + paribhāsaka A II.58; III.252; IV.156; V.317; PvA 251.

Akkosati [to krus see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, revile J I.191; II.416; III.27; DhA I.211; II.44. Often combined with paribhāsati, e. g. Vin II.296; DhA IV.2; PvA 10. - aor. akkocchi Dh 3; J III.212 ( = akkosi DhA I.43. Der. wrongly from krudh by Kacc. VI.417; cp. Franke, Einh. Pāli-gramm. 37, and Geiger, Pāli Gr. * 164). -pp. akkuṭṭha (q. v.).

Akkha1 [Vedic; Av.; Gr. a)/cwn a(/maca chariot with one axle); Latin axis; Ohg. etc. ahsa, E. axle, to root of Latin ago, Sanskrit aj] the axle of a wheel D II.96; S V.6; A I.112; J I.109, 192; V.155 (akkhassa phalakaṃ yathā; C.: suvaṇṇaphalakaṃ viya, i. e. shiny, like the polished surface of an axle); Miln 27 (+ īsā + cakka), 277 (atibhārena sakaṭassa akkho bhijjati: the axle of the cart breaks when the load is too heavy); PvA 277. --akkhaṃ abbhañjati to lubricate the axle S IV.177; Miln 367. -chinna one whose axle is broken; with broken axle S I.57; Miln 67. -bhagga with a broken axle J V.433. -bhañjana the breaking of the axle DhA I.375; PvA 277.

Akkha2 [Vedic, prob. to and Latin oculus, "that which has eyes" i. e. a die; cp. also Latin ālea game at dice (from* asclea*)] a die D I.6 (but explained at DA I.86 as ball-game: gu'akī'a); S I.149 = A V.171 = Sn 659 (appamatto ayaŋ kali yo akkhesu dhanaparājayo); J I.379 (kūṭ* a false player, sharper, cheat) anakkha one who is not a gambler J V.116 (C.: ajūtakara). Cp. also accha3. -dassa (cp. Sanskrit ak.sadarshaka) one who looks at (i. e. examines) the dice, an umpire, a judge Vin III.47; Miln 114, 327, 343 (dhamma-nagare). -dhutta one who has the vice of gambling D II.348; III.183; M III.170; Sn 106 (+ itthidhutta and surādhutta). -vāṭa fence round an arena for wrestling J IV.81. (* read akka-).

Akkha3 (adj.) (-*) [to akkhi] having eyes, with eyes PvA 39 (BB. rattakkha with eyes red from weeping, gloss on assumukha). Prob. akkhaṇa is connected with akkha.

Akkhaka [akkha1 + ka] the collar-bone Vin IV.213 (adhakkhakaṃ); Y.216.

Akkhaṇa [a + khaṇa, BSanskrit ak.saṇa AvSH I.291 = 332] wrong time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 enumd at D III.263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D III.287; VvA 193; Sdhp 4 sq. See also khaṇa. -vedhin (adj. n.) a skilled archer, one who shoots on the moment, i. e. without losing time, explained as one who shoots without missing (the target) or as quickly as lightning (akkhaṇa = vijju). In var. combinations.; mostly as durepātin a. A I.284 (+ mahato kāyassa padāletā); II.170 sq. (id.), 202; IV.423, 425; J II.91 (explained as either "avirādhita-vedhī" or "akkhaṇaṃ vuccati vijju": one who takes and shoots his arrows as fast as lightning), III.322; IV.494 (C. explinations aviraddha-vedhin vijju-ālokena vijjhana-samattha p. 497). In other combination at J I.58 (akkhaṇavedhin + vālavedhin); V.129 (the 4 kinds of archers: a., vālavedhin, saddavedhin and saravedhin). In BSanskrit we find ak.suṇṇavedha (a Sanskritised Pāli form, cp. Mathurā k.suṇa = Sanskrit k.saṇa) at Divy 58, 100, 442 (always with dūrevedha), where MSS. however read ak .suṇa*; also at Lal. Vist. 178. See Divy Index, where translation is given as "an act of throwing the spear so as to graze the mark" (Schiefner gives "Streifschuss"). - Note. The explanations are not satisfactory. We should expect either an etymology bearing on the meaning "hitting the centre of the target" (i. e. its "eye") (cp. E. bull's eye), in which case a direct relation to akkha = akkhi eye would not seem improbable (cp. formation ikkhana) or an etymology like "hitting without mishap", in which case the expression would be derived directly from ak khaṇa (see prec.) with the omission of the negative an-; akkhaṇa in the meaning of "lightning" (J II.91 C.) is not supported by literary evidence.

Akkhata (adj.) [pp. of a + k.san, cp. parikkhata1] unhurt, without fault Mhvs 19, 56 (C. niddosa). - acc. akkhataṃ (adv.) in safety, unhurt. Only in one phrase Vv 8452 (paccāgamuṃ Pāṭaliputtaṃ akkhataṃ) and Pv IV.111 (nessāmi taṃ Pāṭaliputtaṃ akkhataṃ); see VvA 351 and PvA 272.

Akkhaya (adj.) [a + khaya,] not decaying, in akkhayapaṭibhāna, of unfailing skill in exposition Miln 3, 21.

Akkhara (adj.) [Vedic ak.sara] constant, durable, lasting D III.86. As tt. for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning (D I.88) it is Phonetics which probably included Grammar, and is explained by sikkhā (DA I.247 = SnA 477) pl. nt. akkharāni sounds, tones, words. citt'akkhara of a discourse (suttanta) having variety and beauty of words or sounds (opposed to beauty of thought) A I.72 = III.107 = S II.267. Akkharāni are the sauce, flavour (vyañjana) of poetry S I.38. To know the context of the a* the words of the texts, is characteristic of an Arahant Dh 352 (C. is ambiguous DhA IV.70). Later: akkharaṃ a syllable or sound PvA 280 (called sadda in next line); akkharāni an inscription J II.90; IV.7 (likhitāni written), 489; VI.390, 407. In Grammar: a letter Kacc. 1. -cintaka a grammarian or versifier KhA 17; SnA 16, 23, 321. cp. 466; PvA 120. -pabheda in phrase sakkharappabheda phonology and etymology D I.88 (akkharappabhedo ti sikkhā ca nirutti ca SnA 447 = DA i.247) = A III.223 = Sn p. 105. -piṇḍa "word-ball", i. e. sequence of words or sounds DhA IV.70 ( = akkharānaṃ sannipāto Dh 352).

Akkharikā (f.) a game (recognising syllables written in the air or on one's back). D I.7; Vin II.10; III.180. So explained at DA I.86. It may be translated "letter game"; but all Indian letters of that date were syllables.

Akkhāta (adj.) [pp. of akkhāti] announced, proclaimed, told, shown A I.34 (dur*); II.195; IV.285, 322; V.265, 283; Sn 172, 276, 595, 718.

Akkhātar one who relates, a speaker, preacher, story-teller S I.11, 191; III.66; Sn 167.

Akkhāti [ā + khyā, Idg. *sequ; cp. Sanskrit ākhyāti, Latin inquam, Gr. e)nne/pw, Goth. saihvan, Ger. sehen etc. See also akkhi and cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Sn 87, 172; imper. akkhāhi Sn 988, 1085; aor. akkhāsi Sn 251, 504, 1131 ( = ācikkhi etc. Nd2 465); fut. akkhissati Pv IV.163; cond. akkhissaŋ Sn 997; J VI.523. - Pass. akkhāyati to be proclaimed, in phrase aggaṃ a. to be deemed chief or superior, to be first, to excel Miln 118, 182 (also in BSanskrit agram ākhyāyate M Vastu III.390); ger. akkheyya to be pronounced S I.11; It 53. -pp. akkhāta (q. v.). - Intensive or Frequentative is ācikkhati.

Akkhāna (nt.) [Sanskrit ākhyāna] telling stories, recitation; tale, legend D I.6 ( = DA I.84: Bhārata-Rāmāyanādi); III.183; M I.503; III.167; Sdhp. 237. - preaching, teaching Nd1 91 (dhamm*). The 5th Veda J V.450. (vedam akkhānapañcamaṃ; C: itihāsapañcamaṃ vedacatukkaṃ). - The spelling ākhyāna also occurs (q. v.).

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Akkhāyika (adj.) relating, narrating J III.535; lokakkhāyikā kathā talk about nature-lore D I.8; Miln 316.

Akkhāyin (adj.) telling, relating, announcing S II.35; III.7; J III.105.

Akkhi (nt.) [to *oks, an enlarged form of *oqu, cp. Sanskrit īk.sate, k.saṇa, pratīka, anīka; Gr. o)/sse, w)/y (*ku/klwy), o)fqalmo/s, pro/swpon; Latin oculus, Ags. eowan ( = E eye and wind-ow); Goth. augo. See also cakkhu and cp. akkha2 and ikkhaṇika] the eye M I.383 (ubbhatehi akkhīhi); Sn 197, 608; J I.223, 279; V.77; VI.336; Pv II.926 (akkhīni paggharanti: shed tears, cp. PvA 123); VvA 65 (*īni bhamanti, my eyes swim) cp. akkhīni me dhūmāyanti DhA I.475; DhA II.26; III.196 (*īni ummīletvā opening the eyes); Sdhp 103, 380. - In combination with sa- as sacchi and sakkhi (q. v.). As adj. (-*) akkha3 (q.v.). -añjana eye ointment, collyrium DhA III.354. -kūpa the socket of the eye J IV.407. -gaṇḍa eye-protuberance, i. e. eye-brow (*) J VI.504 (for pamukha T.). -gūtha secretion from the eye PvA 198. -gūthaka id. Sn 197 ( = dvīhi akkhicchiddehi apanīta-ttaca-maṃsasadiso a*-gūthako SnA 248). -chidda the eye-hole SnA 248. -dala the eye-lid DA I.194; ThA 259; DhsA 378. -pāta "fall of the eye", i. e. a look, in mand* of soft looks (adj.) PvA 57. -pūra an eye-full, in akkhipūraṃ assuṃ (assu*) an eye full of tears J VI.191. -mala dirt from the eye Pv III.53 ( = *gūtha C.). -roga eye disease DhA I.9.

Akkhika1 (-*) (adj.) having eyes, with eyes Th 1,960 (añjan* with eyes anointed); DhA IV.98 (aḍḍh* with half an eye, i. e. stealthily); Sdhp 286 (tamb* red-eyed). -an* having no eyes DhA I.11.

Akkhika2 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit] the mesh of a net J I.208. -hāraka one who takes up a mesh (*) M I.383 (corresponds with aṇḍahāraka).

Akkhitta1 see khitta.

Akkhitta2 (adj.) [BSk āk.sipta Divy 363, pp. of ā + k.sip] hit, struck, thrown J III.255 ( = ākaḍḍhita C.).

Akkhin (adj.) = akkhika J III.190 (mand* softeyed); Vv 323 (tamb* red-eyed); DhA I.11.

Akkhobbha (adj.) [a + k.subh, see khobha] not to be shaken, imperturbable Miln 21.

Akkhobhana (adj) = akkhobbha J V.322 ( = khobhetun na sakkhā C.).

Akkhohiṇī (f.) [ = akkhobhiṇī] one of the highest numerals (1 followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) J V.319; VI.395.

Akhaṇḍaphulla see khaṇḍa.

Akhāta (adj.) not dug: see khāta.

Akhetta barren-soil: see khetta. - In cpd. *ññu the negative belongs to the whole: not knowing a good field (for alms) J IV.371.

Agati see I.58, 89. - kūṭ* a house with a peaked roof, or with gables S II.103. 263; III.156; IV.186; V.43; A I.230; III.10, 364; IV.231; V.21. -koṭṭh* storehouse, granary D I.134 (cp. DA I.295); S I.89. -tiṇ* a house covered with grass S IV.185; A I.101. -bhus* threshing shed, barn A I.241. -santh* a council hall D I.91; II.147; S IV.182; V.453; A II.207; IV.179 sq. -suññ* an uninhabited shed; solitude S V.89, 157, 310 sq., 329 sq.; A I.241 (v. l. for bhusa-gāra); III.353; IV.139, 392, 437; V.88, 109, 323 sq.

Agāraka (nt.) [from agāra] a small house, a cottage M I.450; J VI.81.

Agārika (adj.) 1. having a house, in eka*, dva* etc. D I.166 = A I.295 = II.206. - 2. a householder, layman Vin I.17. f. agārikā a housewife Vin I.272. See also āgārika.

Agārin (adj.) [from agāra] one who has or inhabits a house, a householder Sn 376, Th I,1009; J III.234. - f. agārinī a housewife Vv 527 ( = gehassāmmī VvA 225); Pv III.43 (id. PvA 194).

Agāriya = agārika, a layman M I.504 (*bhūta). - Usually in negative anagāriyā (f.) the homeless state ( = anagāraṃ) as opp. to agāra (q. v.) in formula agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajita (gone out from the house into the homeless state) Vin I.15; M I.16; II.55, 75; A I.49; D III.30 sq., 145 sq.; Sn 274, 1003; Pv II.1316; DA I.112.

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Agga1 (adj. n.) [Vedic agra; cp. Av. agro first; Lith. agrs early] 1. (adj;) (a.) of time: the first, foremost Dpvs IV.13 (sangahaṃ first collection). See compounds - (b.) of space: the highest, topmost, J I.52 (*sākhā). - (c.) of quality: illustricus, excellent, the best, highest, chief Vin IV.232 (agga-m-agga) most excellent, D II.4: S I.29 (a. sattassa SamBuddha); A II.17 = Pv IV.347 (lokassa Buddho aggo [A: aggaṃ] pavuccati); It 88, 89; Sn 875 (suddhi); PvA 5. Often combined. with seṭṭha (best), e. g. D II.15; S III.83, 264. - 2. (nt.) top, point. (a.) lit.: the top or tip (nearly always -*); as ār* point of an awl Sn 625, 631; Dh 401; kus* tip of a blade of grass Dh 70; Sdhp 349; tiṇ* id PvA 241; dum* top of a tree J II.155; dhaj* of a banner S I.219; pabbat* of a mountain Sdhp 352; sākh* of a branch PvA 157; etc. - (b.) fig. the best part, the ideal, excellence, prominence, first place, often to be trsl. as adj. the highest, best of all etc. S II.29 (aggena aggassa patti hoti: only the best attain to the highest); Mhvs 7, 26. Usually as -*; e. g. dum* the best of trees, an excellent tree Vv 3541 (cp. VvA 161); dhan* plenty D III.164; madhur* S I.41, 161, 237; bhav* the best existence S III.83; rūp* extraordinary beauty J I.291; lābh* highest gain J III.127; sambodhi-y-agga highest wisdom Sn 693 ( = sabbaññuta-ñāṇan SnA 489; the best part or quality of anything, in enumn of the five "excellencies" of first-fruits (panca aggāni, after which the N. Pañcaggadāyaka), viz. khettaggan rās* koṭṭh* kumbhi* bhojan* SnA 270. sukh* perfect bliss Sdhp 243. Thus frequent in phrase aggaṃ akkhāyati to deserve or receive the highest praise, to be the most excellent D I.124; S III.156, 264; A II.17 (Tathāgato); It 87 (id.); Nd2 517 D (appamādo); Miln 183. - 3. Cases as adv.: aggena (instr.) in the beginning, beginning from, from (as prep.), by (id.) Vin II.167. (aggena gaṇhāti to take from, to subtract, to find the difference; Kern Toev. s. v. unnecessarily changes aggena into agghena), 257 (yadaggena at the moment when or from, following by tad eva "then"; cp. agge), 294 (bhikkh* from alms); Vbh 423 (vass* by the number of years). aggato (abl.) in the beginning Sn 217 (+ majjhato, sesato). aggato kata taken by its worth, valued, esteemed Th 2, 386, 394. agge (loc) 1. at the top A II.201 (opp. mūle at the root); J IV.156 (id.); Sn 233 (phusit* with flowers at the top: supupphitaggasākhā KhA 192); J II.153 (ukkh*); III.126 (kūp*). - 2 (as prep.) from. After, since, usually in phrases yad* (following by tad*) from what time, since what date D I.152; II.206; and ajja-t-agge from this day, after today D I.85; M I.528; A V.300; Sn p. 25 (cp. BSanskrit adyāgrena Av. SH II.13); at the end: bhattagge after a meal Vin II.212. -angulī the main finger, i. e. index finger J VI.404. -āsana main seat DA I.267. -upaṭṭhāka chief personal attendant D II.6. -kārikā first taste, sample Vin III.80. -kulika of an esteemed clan Pv III.55 ( = seṭṭh* PvA 199). -ñña recognized as primitive primeval, D III.225 (porāṇa +), A II.27 sq.; IV.246, Kvu 341. -danta one who is most excellently self-restrained (of the Buddha) Th I.354. -dāna a splendid gift Vin III.39. -dvāra main door J I.114. -nakha tip of the nail Vin IV.221. -nagara the first or most splendid of cities Vin I.229. -nikkhitta highly praised or famed Miln 343. -nikkhittaka an original depository of the Faith Dpvs IV.5. -pakatimant of the highest character J V.351 ( = aggasabhāva). -patta having attained perfection D III.48 sq. -pasāda the highest grace A II.34; It 87. -piṇḍa the best oblation or alms I.141; M I. 28; II.204. -piṇḍika receiving the best oblations J VI.140. -puggala the best of men (of the Buddha) Sn 684; DhA II.39; Sdhp. 92, 558. -purohita chief or prime ministereotypeJ VI.391. -phala the highest or supreme fruit (i. e. Arahantship) J I.148; Pv IV.188; PvA 230. -bīja having eggs from above (opp. mūla*), i. e. propagated by slips or cuttings D I.5; DA I.81. -magga (adj.) having reached the top of the path, i. e. Arahantship ThA 20. -mahesi the king's chief wife, queen-consort J I.262; III.187, 393; V.88; DhA I.199; PvA 76. -rājā the chief king J VI.391; Miln 27. -vara most meritorious, best Dpvs VI.68. -vāda the original doctrine ( = theravāda) Dpvs IV.13. -vādin one who proclaims the highest good (of the Buddha) Th 1, 1142.

Agga2 (nt.) (only -*) [a contracted form of agāra] a (small) house, housing, accomodation; shelter, hut; hall. dān* a house of donation, i. e. a public or private house where alms are given J III.470; IV.379, 403; VI.487; PvA 121; Miln 2. salāk.r a hut where food is distributed to the bhikkhus by tickets, a food office J I.123, VvA 75.

Aggatā (f.) [abstr. of agga] pre-eminence, prominence, superiority Kvu 556 (*ṃ gata); Dpvs IV.1 (guṇaggataṃ gatā). - (adj.) mahaggata of great value or superiority D I.80; III.224.

Aggatta (nt.) [abstr. of agga = Sanskrit agratvan] the state or condition of being the first, pre-eminence PvA 9, 89.

Aggavant (adj.) occupying the first place, of great eminence A I.70, 243.

Aggalu see agalu.

Agga'a and Agga'ā (f.) (also occasionally with l.) [cp. Sanskrit argala and argalā to *areg to protect, ward off, secure etc., as in Ags. reced house; *aleg in Sanskrit rak.sati to protect, Gr. a)le/cw id., Ags. ealh temple. Cp. also *areq in Gr. a)rke/w = Latin arceo, Orcus, Ohg rigil bolt.] a contrivance to fasten anything for security or obstruction: 1. a bolt or cross-bar Vin I.290; D I.89 (*ṃ ākoteṭi to knock upon the cross-bar; a. = kavāṭa DA I.252); A IV.359 (id.); S. IV.290; A I.101 = 137 = IV.231. (phusit* with fastened bolts, securely shut Th 1,385 (id.); Vin IV.47; J. V.293 (*ṃ uppī'eti to lift up the cross-bar. - 2. a strip of cloth for strengthening a dress etc., a gusset Vin I.290 (+ tunna), 392 (Bdhgh on MV VIII.21, 1); J I.8 (+ tunna) VI.71 (*ṃ datvā); Vin IV.121. -dāna putting in a gusset J I.8. -phalaka the post or board, in which the cross-bar is fixed (cp. *vaṭṭi) M III.95. -vaṭṭi = *phalaka Vin II.120, 148. -sūci bolting pin M I.126.

Aggi [Vedic agni = Latin ignis. Besides the contracted form aggi we find the diaeretic forms gini (q. v.) and aggini (see below)] fire. - 1. fire, flames, sparks; conflagration, Vin II.120 (fire in bathroom); M I.487 (anāhāro nibbuto f. gone out for lack of fuel); S IV.185, 399 (sa-upādāno jalati provided with fuel blazes); Sn 62; Dh 70 ( = asaniaggi DhA III.71); J I.216 (sparks), 294 (pyre); II.102; III.55; IV.139; VvA 20 (aggimhi tāpanaṃ + udake temanaṃ). - The var. phases of lighting and extinguishing the fire are given at A IV.45: aggiṃ ujjāleti (kindle, make burn), ajjhupekkhati (look after, keep up), nibbāpeti (extinguish, put out), nikkhipati (put down, lay). Other phrases are e. g. aggiṃ jāleti (kindle) J II.44; gaṇhāti (make or take) J I.494 (cp. below b); deti (set light to) J I.294; nibbāpeti (put out) It 93; Sdhp 552. aggi nibkhāyati the f. goes out S II.85; M I.487; J I.212 (udake through water); Miln 304. aggi nibbuto the f. is extinguished (cp. *nibbāna) J I.61; Miln 304. agginā dahati to burn by means of fire, to set fire to A I.136, 199; PvA 20. udar* the fire supposed to regulate digestion PvA 33; cp. Dial. II.208, note 2; kapp*uṭṭhān* the universal conflagration J III.185; dāv* a wood or jungle fire J I.212; na'* the burning of a reed J VI.100; padīp* fire of a lamp Miln 47. 2. the sacrificial fire: In one or two of the passages in the older texts this use of Aggi is ambiguous. It may possibly be intended to denote the personal Agni, the fire-god. But the commentators do not think so, and the Jātaka commentary, when it means Agni, has the phrase Aggi Bhagavā the Lord Agni, e. g. at J I.285, 494; II.44. The ancient ceremony of kindling a holy fire on the day the child is born and keeping it up throughout his life, is also referred to by that commentary e. g. J I.285; II.43. Aggiṃ paricarati (cp. *paricāriyā) to serve the sacred fire Vin I.31 (jaṭilā

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aggī paricaritukāmā); A V.263, 266; Th 2, 143 ( = aggihuttaṃ paric* ThA 136); Dh 107; J I.494; DhA II.232. aggiṃ juhati (cp. *homa, *hutta) to sacrifice (in)to the fire A II.207; often combined. with aggihuttaṃ paricarati, e. g. S I.166; Sn p. 79. aggiṃ namati and santappeti to worship the fire A V.235. aggissa (gen.) paricāriko J YI.207 (cp. below *paricārika); aggissa ādhānaṃ A IV.41. - 3. (ethical, always -*) the fire of burning, consuming, feverish sensations. Freq. in standard set of 3 fires, viz. rāg*, dos*, moh*, or the fires of lust, anger and bewilderment. The number three may possibly have been chosen with reference to the three sacrificial fires of Vedic ritual. At S IV.19; A IV.41 sq. there are 7 fires, the 4 last of which are āhuneyy*, gahapat*, dakkhiṇeyy*, kaṭṭh*. But this trinity of cardinal sins lies at the basis of Buddhist ethics, and the fire simile was more probably suggested by the number. D III.217; It 92, Vbh 368. In late books are found others: ind* the fire of the senses PvA 56; dukkh* the glow of suffering ib. 60; bhavadukkh* of the misery of becomings Sdhp. 552; vippaṭisār* burning remorse PvA 60; sok.r burning grief ib. 41. Note. The form aggini occurs only at Sn 668 and 670 in the meaning of "pyre", and in combination. with sama "like", viz. aggini-samaṃ jalitaṃ 668 ( = samantato jali taṃ aggiṃ Sn A 480); aggini-samāsu 670 ( = aggisamāsu Sn A 481). The form agginī in phrase niccagginī can either be referred to gini (q. v.) or has to be taken as nom. of aggini (in adj. function with ī metri causa; otherwise as adj. agginiṃ), meaning looking constantly after the fire, i. e. careful, observant, alert. -agāra (agya-gāra) a heated room or hut with a fire Vin I.24; IV.109; D I.101, 102 (as v. l. BB for agāra); M I.501; A V.234, 250. -khandha a great mass of fire, a huge fire, fire-brand S II.85; A IV. 128; Th 2, 351 (*samākāmā); J IV.139; VI.330; Ps I.125; Dpvs VI.37; Miln 304. -gata having become (like) fire Miln 302. -ja fire-born J V.404 (C; text aggijāta). -ṭṭha fire-place J V.155. -ṭṭhāna fire-place Vin II.120 (jantāghare, in bathroom). -daḍḍha consumed by fire Dh 136; Pv I.74. -dāha (mahā*) a holocaust A I.178. -nikāsin like fire J III.320 (suriya). -nibbāna the extinction of fire J I.212. -pajjota fire-light A II.140 (one of the 4 lights, viz. canda*, suriya*, a*, paññā*). -paricaraṇa (-ṭṭhāna) the place where the (sacrificial) fire is attended to DhA I.199. -paricariyā fire-worship DhA II.232; Sn A 291 (pāri*) 456. -paricārika one who worship the fire a v.263 (brāhmaṇa). -sālā a heated hall or refectory Vin I.25, 49 = II.210; I.139; II.154. -sikhā the crest of the fire, the flame, in simile *ūpama, like a flaming fire Sn 703; Dh 308 = It 43, 90 (ayogu'a). -hutta (nt.) the sacrificial fire (see above 2), Vin I.33, 36 = J I.83; Vin I.246 = Sn 568 (*mukha-yañña); S I.166; Dh 392; Sn 249, p. 79; J IV.211; VI.525; ThA 136 ( = aggi); DhA IV.151 (*ṃ brāhmaṇo namati). -huttaka (nt.) fire-offering J VI.522 ( = aggi-jūhana C.). -hotta = *hutta SnA 456 (v. l. BB *hutta). -homa fire-oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni) D I.9 ( = aggi-jūhana DA I.93).

Aggika (adj.) [aggi + ka] one who worships the fire Vin I.71 (jaṭilaka); D II.339 sq. (jaṭila); S I.166 (brāhmaṇa).

Aggha [see agghati] 1. price, value, worth, Miln 244; Mhvs 26, 22; 30, 76; VvA 77. - mahaggha (adj.) of great value J IV.138; V.414; VI.209; Pv II.118. See also maha-raha. appaggha (adj.) of little value J. IV.139; V.414. - anaggha (nt.) pricelessness, J V.484; cattari anagghāni the four priceless things, viz. setacchatta, nisīdanapallanka, ādhāraka, pādapīṭhikā DhA III.120, 186. (adj.) priceless, invaluable J V.414; Mhvs 26, 25; DhA IV.216. - agghena (instr.) for the price of Vin II.52, cp. Bdhgh on p. 311, 312. - 2. an oblation made to a guest D II.240; J IV.396 = 476. -kāraka a valuator J I.124. -pada valuableness J V.473 (*lakkhaṇaṃ nāma mantaṃ).

Agghaka (adj.) = aggha; worth, having the value of (-*) Mhvs 30, 77. an* priceless Mhvs 30, 72.

Agghati (intr.) [Sanskrit arghati, argh = arh (see arhati), cp. Gr. a)lfh/ reward, a)lfa/nw to deserve] to be worth, to have the value of (acc.), to deserve J I.112 (satasahassaŋ; aḍḍhamāsakaṃ); VI.174, 367 (padarajaṃ); DhA III.35 (maṇin na-gghāma); Mhvs 32, 28. Freq. in stock phrase kalaṃ na-gghati (na-gghanti) so'asiṃ not to be worth the 16th part of (cp. kalā) Vin II.156; S I.233; Dh 70; Vv 207 ( = na-nubhoti VvA 104), 437; J V.284. - Causative agghāpeti to value, to appraise, to have a price put on (acc.) J I.124; IV.137, 278; Miln 192; Mhvs 27, 23. Cp. agghāpanaka and agghāpaniya.

Agghanaka (adj.) (-*) [from *agghana, abstr. to agghati] having the value of, equal to, worth Vin IV.226; J I.61 (satasahass*), 112; DA I.80 (kahāpaṇ*); DhA III.120 (cuddasakoṭi*); Mhvs 26, 22; 34, 87. - f. *ikā J I.178 (satasahass*).

Agghaniya (adj.) [in function and form grd. of agghati] priceless, invaluable, beyond the reach of money Miln 192.

Agghāpanaka [from agghāpana to agghāpeti, Causative of agghati] a valuator, appraiser J I.124, 125; V.276 (*ika).

Agghāpaniya (adj.) [grd. of agghāpeti, see agghati] that which is to be valued, in *kamma the business of a valuator J IV.137.

Agghika (nt.) (-*) [ = agghiya] an oblation, decoration or salutation in the form of garlands, flowers etc., therefore meaning "string, garland" (cp. Sinhalese aga "festoon work") Mhvs 19, 38 (pupph*) 34, 73 (ratan*) 34, 76 (dhaj*); Dāvs I.39 (pupphamay*); V.51 (kusum*).

Agghiya (adj. -n.) [grd. form from agghati] 1. (adj.) valuable, precious, worth J VI.265 (maṇi); DhA II.41 (ratan* of jewel's worth); Mhvs 30, 92. - 2. (nt.) a respectful oblation J V.324 = VI.516; Dpvs VI.65; VII.4.

Agha1 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit agha, of uncertain etymology] evil, grief, pain, suffering, misfortune S I 22; M I.500 (roga gaṇḍa salla agha); A II.128 (id.); J V.100; Th 2, 491; Sdhp 51. - adj. painful, bringing pain J VI.507 (agha-m-miga = aghakara m. C.). -bhūta a source of pain S III.189 (+ agha and salla).

Agha2 (m. nt.) [the etymology suggested by Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1889, 200 (with reference to M I.500, which belongs under agha1) is untenable (to Sanskrit kha, as a-kha = agha, cp. Jain Prk. khaha). Neither does the pop. etymology of Bdhgh. offer any clue ( = a + gha from ghan that which does not strike or aghaṭṭaniya is not strikeable DhsA 326, cp. Dhs. trsl. 194 and J IV.154 aghe ṭhitā = appaṭighe ākāse ṭhitā the air which does not offer any resistance). On the other hand the primary meaning is darkness, as seen from the phrase lokantarikā aghā asaŋvutā andhakārā D II.12; S V.454, and BSanskrit aghasaŋvrta M Vastu I.240, adj. dark M Vastu I.41; II.162; Lal Vist 552] the sky, orig. the dark sky, dark space, the abyss of space D II.12; S V.45; Vv 161 (aghasi gama, loc. = vehāsaŋ gama VvA 78); J IV.154; Dhs 638 (+ aghagata); Vbh 84 (id.). -gata going through or being in the sky or atmosphere Dhs 638, 722; Vbh 84. -gāmin moving through the atmosphere or space i. e. a planet S I.67 = Miln 242 (ādicco seṭṭho aghagāminaṃ).

Aghata at Th 1, 321 may be read as agha-gata or (preferably) with v. l. as aggha-gataṃ, or (with Neumann) as agghaṃ agghatānaṃ. See also Mrs. Rh. D, Psalms of the Brethren, p. 191.

Aghammiga [to agha1*] a sort of wild animal J VI.247 ( = aghāvaha miga) 507 ( = aghakara). Cp. BSanskrit agharika Divy 475.

Aghavin (adj.) [to agha1] suffering pain, being in misery Sn 694 ( = dukkhita SnA 489).

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Anka1 = anga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; *karana branding J IV.366, 375. See also anketi.

Anka2 [Vedic anka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. ankura and ankusa. Gr. a)gkw/n elbow, a)/gkura = anchor; Latin uncus nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle] (a.) a hook J V.322 = VI.218 (v. l. BB anga). - (b.) the lap (i. e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindoo mothers or nurses (ankena vahati) Vin II.114; D II.19 (anke pariharati to hold on one's lap or carry on one's hips), 20 (nisīdāpeti seat on one's lap); M II.97 (ankena vahitvā); Th 1, 299; J I.262 (anke nisinna); II.127, 236; VI.513; DhA I.170 (ankena vahitvā) PvA 17 (nisīdāpeti).

Ankita [pp. of anketi] marked, branded J I.231 (cakkankitā Satthu padā); II.185 (*kaṇṇaka with perforated ears).

Ankura [cp. Sanskrit ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout (lit. or fig.) J II.105; VI.331 (Buddh *a nascent Buddha), 486; Dhs 617 (*vaṇṇa); Miln 50, 251 269; Sdhp 273; Mhvs 15, 43.

Ankusa [Vedic ankusha; to anc, see anka2] a hook, a pole with a hook, used (1) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook J I.9 (*pacchi hook and basket); V.89 = VI.520 (pacchikhanitti*), 529 ( = phalānaṃ gaṇhanatthaṃ ankusaŋ). (2) to drive an elephant, a goad (cp patoda and tutta) Vin II.196 (+ kasā); J VI.489; ThA 173 (ovādaṃ ankusaŋ katvā, fig. guide); Sdhp 147 (daṇḍ*). - (3) N. of a certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting in inferring certain mental states of a general character from respective traits where they are to be found Nett 2, 4, 127; Nett A 208; - acc* beyond the reach of the goad D II.266 (nāga). See also ankusaka. -gayha (the art) how to grasp and handle an eleph. driver's hook M II.94 (sippa). -gaha an eleph.-driver Dh 326.

Ankusaka [see anka2, cp. ankusa] 1. a crook for plucking fruit J III.22. - 2. an eleph.-driver's hook J III.431. -yattha a crooked stick, alpenstock, staff (of an ascetic) J II.68 (+ pacchi).

Anketi [Denominitive from anka1] to mark out, brand J I.451 lakkhaṇena); II.399. -pp. ankita, q. v.

Ankola [dial. for ankura] a species of tree Alangium Hexapetalum J VI.535. Cp. next.

Ankolaka = ankola J IV.440; V.420.

Anga (nt.) [Vedic anga, anc cp. Latin angulus = angle, corner etc., ungulus finger-ring = Sanskrit angulīya. See also anka, anguṭṭha and angula] (1) (lit.) a constituent part of the body, a limb, member; also of objects: part, member (see cpd. ---sambhāra); uttam-anga the reproductive organ J V.197; also as "head" at ThA 209. Usually in compounds (see below, esp. -paccanga), as sabbanga-kalyāṇī perfect in all limbs Pv III.35 ( = sobhaṇa-sabbanga-paccangī PvA 189) and in redupln. anga-m-angāni limb by limb, with all limbs (see also below anga + paccanga) Vin III.119; Vv 382 (*ehi naccamāna); Pv II.1210, 13, 18 (sunakho te khādati). - (2) (fig.) a constituent part of a whole or system or collection, e. g. uposath* the vows of the fast J I.50; bhavanga the constituents or the condition of becoming (see bhava and cp. Cpd.265 sq.); bojjhanga (q. v.). Esp. with numerals: cattāri angāni 4 constituents A II.79 (viz. sīla, samādhi, paññā. vimutti and rūpa, vedanā, saññā, bhava), aṭṭhangika (q. v.) magga the Path with its eight constituents or the eightfold Path (KhA 85: aṭṭh- angāni assā ti) navanga Buddha-sāsana see nava. - (3) a constituent part as characteristic, prominent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality D I.113 sq., 117 (iminā p* angena by this quality, or: in this respect, cp. below 4; DA I.281 expls tena kāra ṇena). In a special sense striking (abnormal) sign or mark on the body D I.9, from which a prophesy is made (: hattha-pādādisu yena kenaci evarūpena angena samannāgato dīghāyu . . hotī ti . . angasatthan = chiromantics DA I.92). Thus in combination. with samannāgata and sampanna always meaning endowed with "good", superior, remarkable "qualities", e. g. J I.3 (sabbanga-sampanna nagaraṃ a city possessing all marks of perfection); II.207. In enumn. with var. numerals: tīhi angehi s. A I.115; cattāri sotapannassa a- D III.227 = A IV.405 sq.; pañcanga-vippahīno (i. e. giving up the 5 hindrances, see nīvaraṇa) and pañcanga-samannāgato (i. e. endowed with the 5 good qualities, viz. the sīla-kkhandha, see kkhandha II.A d) S I.99 = A I.161; V.15, 29. Similarly the 5 attributes of a brahmin (viz. sujāta of pure birth, ajjhāyaka a student of the Vedas, abhirūpa handsome, sīlava of good conduct, paṇḍita clever) D I.119, 120. Eight qualities of a king D I.137. Ten qualities of an Arahant (cp. dasa1 B 2) S III.83; Kh IV.10 = KhA 88; cp. M I.446 (dasah- angehi samannāgato rañño assājāniyo). - (4) (modally) part, share, interest, concern; ajjhattikaṃ angaṃ my own part or interest (opp. bāhiraṃ the interest in the outside world). A I.16 sq. = S V.101 sq.; It 9. rañño angaṃ an asset or profit for the king M I.446. Thus adv. tadanga (see also ta* I.a) as a matter of fact, in this respect, for sure, certainly and tadangena by these means, through this, therefore M I.492; A IV.411; Sdhp 455, 456; iminā p* angena for that reason M II.168. - In compounds. with verbs angi* (angī*): angigata having limbs or ports, divided DA I.313; cp. samangi (-bhūta). -jāta "the distinguishing member", i. e. sign of male or female (see above 3); membrum virile and muliebre Vin I.191 (of cows); III.20, 37, 205; J II.359; Miln 124. -paccanga one limb or the other, limbs great and small M I.81; J VI-20, used (a) collectively: the condition of perfect limbs, or adj. with perfect limbs, having all limbs Pv II.1212 ( = paripuṇṇa-sabbanga-paccangavatī PvA 158); SnA 383; DhA I.390; ThA 288; Sdhp 83 fig. rathassa angapaccangan M I.395; sabbanga-paccangāni all limbs Miln 148. - (b) distributively (cp. similar redupl. formations like chidda-vachidda, seṭṭha-nu-seṭṭhi, khaṇḍākhaṇḍa, cuṇṇavicuṇṇa) limb after limb, one limb after the other (like angamangāni above 1), piecemeal M I.133 (*e daseyya), 366; J I.20; IV.324 (chinditvā). -paccangatā the condition or state of perfect limbs, i. e. a perfect body VvA 134 (suvisuddh*). -paccangin having all limbs (perfect) D I.34 (sabbanga-peccangī); PvA 189. -rāga painting or rouging the body Vin II.107 (+ mukha*). -laṭṭhi sprout, offshoot ThA 226. -vāta gout Vin I.205. -vijjā the art of prognosticating from marks on the body, chiromantics, palmistry etc. (cp. above 3) D I.9 (see expl. at DA I.93); J I.290 (*āya cheka clever in fortune-telling); *a-nubhāva the power of knowing the art of signs on the body J II.200; V.284; *pāṭhaka one who in versed in palmistry etc. J II.21, 250; V.458. -vekalla bodily deformity DhA II.26. -sattha the science of prognosticating from certain bodily marks DA I.92. -sambhāra the combination of parts Miln 28 = S I.135; Miln 41. -hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests J VI.538.

Angaṇa1 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit angaṇa and *na; to anga*] an open space, a clearing, Vin II.218; J I.109 ( = manussānan sañcaraṇa-ṭṭhāne anāvaṭe bhūmibhāge C.); II.243, 290, 357; Dāvs I.27. - cetiy* an open space before a Chaitya Miln 366, DA I.191, 197; VvA 254. rāj* the empty space before the king's palace, the royal square J I.124, 152; II.2; DhA II.45. -ṭṭhāna a clearing (in a wood or park) J I.249, 421. -pariyanta the end or border of a clearing J II.200.

Angaṇa2 [prob. to anj, thus a variant of añjana, q. v.]; a speck or freckle (on the face) A V.92, 94 sq. (+ raja). Usually in negative anangana (adj.) free from fleck or blemish, clear, (of the mind) (opp. sa-ngana Sn 279); D I.76; M I.24 sq.; 100 (+ raja); A II.211; Sn 517 (+ vigata

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raja = angaṇānan abhāvā malānañ ca vigamā . . . SnA 427), 622 = Dh 125 ( = nikkilesa DhA III.34); Dh 236, 351; Pug 60; Nett 87.

Angada [cp. Sanskrit angada; prob. anga + da that which is given to the limbs] a bracelet J V.9, 410 (citt*, adj. with manifold bracelets).

Angadin (adj.) [to angada] wearing a bracelet J V.9.

Angāra (m. nt.) [Vedic angāra] charcoal, burning coal, embers A III.97, 380, 407; J I.73; III.54, 55; V.488; Sn 668; Sdhp 32. kul* the charcoal of the family, a squanderer S IV.324 (see under kula). -kaṭāha a pot for holding burning coal, a charcoal pan DA I.261. -kapalla an earthenware pan for ashes DhA I.260; Dhs A 333; VvA 142. -kammakara a charcoal burner J VI.209. -kāsu a charcoal pit M I.74, 365; Th 2, 491; J I.233; Sn 396; ThA 288; DhA I.442; Sdhp 208. -pacchi a basket for ashes DhA IV.191. -pabbata the mountain of live embers, the glowing mount (in Niraya) A I.141; Miln 303; PvA 221 (*āropaṇa); Sdhp 208. -maṃsa roast meat Mhvs 10, 16. -masi ashes DhA III.309. -rāsi a heap of burning coal J III.55.

Angāraka [Aŋgāraka] (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit angāraka] like charcoal, of red colour, N. of the planet Mars DA I.95; cp. J I.73.

Angārika a charcoal-burner J VI.206 ( = angāra-kammakara p. 209).

Angārin (adj.) [to angāra] (burning) like coal, of brightred colour, crimson Th 1, 527 = J I.87 (dumā trees in full bloom).

Angika (-*) (adj.) [from anga] consisting of parts, - fold; only in compounds. with num. like aṭṭh*, duv* (see dve), catur*, pañc* etc., q. v.

Angin (adj.) limbed, having limbs or parts, - fold, see catur* and pacc* (under anga-paccangin). - f. anginī having sprouts or shoots (of a tree) Th 2, 297 ( = ThA 226).

Anguṭṭha [cp. Sanskrit angus.ṭha, see etymology under anga] 1. the thumb Vin III.34; Miln 123; PvA 198. - 2. the great toe J II.92; Mhvs 35, 43. -pada thumb-mark A IV.127 = S III.154. -sineha love drawn from the thumb, i. e. extraordinary love Pv III.52, cp. PvA 198.

Anguṭṭhaka = anguṭṭha J IV.378; V.281; pād* the great toe S V.270.

Angula [Vedic angula, lit. "limblet" see anga for etymology] 1. a finger or toe M I.395 (vank- angulaṇ karoti to bend the fingers, v. l. anguliṇ); A III.6 (id.); J V 70 (goṇ* adj. with ox toes, explained. by C. as with toes like an ox's tail; vv. ll. *anguṭṭha and *angulī). - 2. a finger as measure, i. e. a finger-breadth, an inch Vin II.294, 306 (dvangula 2 inches wide); Mhvs 19, 11 (aṭṭh*); DhA III.127 (ek.r). -aṭṭhi (* cp. anga-laṭṭhi) fingers (or toes) and bones DA I.93. -anguli fingers and toes DhA III.214. -antarikā the interstices between the fingers Vin III.39; Miln 180; DhA III.214.

Angulika (nt.) [ = angulī] a finger J III.13 (pañc*); V.204 (vaṭṭ* = pavā'* ankurasadisā vaṭṭangulī p. 207). See also pañcangulika.

Angulī and Anguli (thus always in compounds) (f.) [Vedic angulī and *i; see anga] a finger A IV.127; Sn 610; J III.416; IV.474; V.215 (vaṭṭ* with rounded fingers); Miln 395; DhA II.59; IV.210; SnA 229. -patodaka nudging with the fingers Vin III.84 = IV.110; D I.91 = A IV.343. -pada finger-mark A IV.127 = S III.154. -poṭha snapping or cracking the fingers J V.67. -muddikā a signet ring Vin II.106; J IV.498; V.439, 467. -sanghaṭṭana* = poṭha DA I.256.

Anguleyyaka (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit angulīyaka that which belongs to the finger, Mhg. vingerl^in = ring; E. bracelet, Fr. bras; thimble thumb etc.] an ornament for the finger, a finger-ring J II.444 ( = nikkha).

Acankama (avj.) [a + cankama] not fit for walking, not level or even Th 1, 1174 (magga).

Acittaka (adj.) [a + citta2 + ka] 1. without thought or intention, unconscious, unintentional DhA II.42. - 2. without heart or feeling, instr. acittakena (adv.) heartlessly J IV.58 (C. for acetasā).

Acittikata (adj.) [a + citta2 + kata; cp. cittikāra] not well thought of Miln 229.

Acira see cira and cp. nacira.

Acela (adj. -n.) [a + cela] one who is not clothed, esp. t. t. for an anti-Buddhist naked ascetic D I.161, 165; III.6, 12, 17 sq.; S I.78; J V.75.

Acelaka = acela D I.166; III.40; A I.295; II.206; III.384 (*sāvaka); J III.246; VI.229; Pug 55; DhA III.489.

Acc- 1. a + c*, e. g. accuta = a + cuta. - 2. Assimilation group of (a) ati + vowel; (b) c + cons. e. g. acci = arci.

Accagā [ati + agā] 3rd sg. pret. of ati-gacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he overcame, should or could overcome Sn 1040 (explained. wrongly as pp. = atikkanta at Nd2 10 and as atīta at DhA IV.494); Dh 414.

Accankusa (adj.) [ati + ankusa] beyond the reach of the goad D II.266 (nāga).

Accatari see atitarati.

Accati [Vedic arcati, rc, orig. meaning to be clear and to sing i. e. to sound clear, cp. arci] to praise, honour, celebrate Dāvs V.66 (accayittha, pret.) - pp accita, q. v.

Accanta (adj. - and adv. *-) [ati + anta, lit. "up to the end"] 1. uninterrupted, continuous, perpetual J I.223; Miln 413; VvA 71; PvA 73, 125, 266; Sdhp 288. 2. final, absolute, complete; adv. thoroughly S I.130 (*ṃ hataputtā- mhi); III.13 = A I.291 sq.; V.326 sq. (*niṭṭha, *yogakkhemin); Kvu 586 (*niyāmatā final assurance; cp. Kvu trsl. 340). - 3. (*-) exceedingly, extremely, very much A I.145 (*sukhumāla, extremely delicate), Miln 26 (id.); Sn 794 (*suddhi = param ttha-accantasuddhi SnA 528); Th 1, 692 (*ruci); Dh 162 (*dussīlya = ekanta* DhA III.153).

Accaya [from acceti, ati + i, going on or beyond; cp. Sanskrit atyaya] (1) (temporal) lapse, passing; passing away, end, death. Usually as instr. accayena after the lapse of, at the end or death of, after Vin I.25; D II.127 (rattiyā a.), 154 (mam* when I shall be dead); M I.438 (temās* after 3 months); S I.69; Snp. 102 (catunnaṃ māsānaṃ), p. 110 (rattiyā); J I.253 (ekāha-dvīh*), 291 (katipāh* after a few days); PvA 47 (katipāh*), 82 (dasamās*), 145 (vassasatānaṃ). - (2) (modal) passing or getting over, overcoming, conquering, only in phrase dur-accaya difficult to overcome, of kāmapanka Sn 945 ( = dur-atikkamanīya SnA 568), of sanga Sn 948: taṇhā Dh 336; sota It 95. - (3) (fig.) going beyond (the norm), transgression, offence Vin I.133 (thull* a grave offence), 167 (id.); II.110, 170; esp. in following phrases: accayo maṃ accagamā a fault has overcome me, i. e. has been committed by me (in confession formula) D I.85 ( = abhibhavitvā pavatto has overwhelmed me DA I.236); A I.54; M I.438 (id.); accayaŋ accayato passati to recognise a breach of the regulation as such Vin I.315; A I.103; II.146 sq.; *ṃ deseti to confess the transgression S I.239; *ṃ accayato paṭigaṇhāti to accept (the confession of) the fault, i. e. to pardon the transgression, in confession formula at D I.85 = (Vin II.192; M I.438 etc.). In the

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same sense accaya-paṭiggahaṇa pardon, absolution J V.380; accayena desanaṃ paṭigaṇhāti J I.379; accayaŋ khamati to forgive Miln 420.

Accasara (adj.) [a form. from aor. accasari (ati + sr), influenced in meaning by analogy of ati + a + sara (smr). Not with Morris (J.Pāli Text Society 1889, 200) a corruption of accaya + sara (smr), thus meaning "mindful of a fault"] 1. going beyond the limits (of proper behaviour), too self-sure, overbearing, arrogant, proud S I.239 (v. l. accayasara caused by prolepsis of following accaya); J IV.6 (+ atisara); DhA IV.230 ( = expecting too much). - 2. going beyond the limits (of understanding), beyond grasp, transcendental (of pañha a question) M I.304; S V.218 (v. l. SS for BB reading ajjhapara). Cp. accasārin.

Accasarā (f.) [abstr. to accasara] overbearing, pride, selfsurity Vbh 358 (+ māyā). Note. In id. p. at Pug 23 we read acchādanā instead of accasarā.

Accasari [from ati + sr] aor 3. sg. of atisarati to go beyond the limit, to go astray J V.70.

Accasārin (adj.) = accasara 1., aspiring too high Sn 8 sq. (yo na-ccasārī, opp. to na paccasārī; explained. at SnA 21 by yo na-tidhāvi, opp. na ohiyyi).

Accahasi [from ati + hr] aor 3 sg. of atiharati to bring over, to bring, to take J III.484 ( = ativiya āhari C.).

Acca-bhikkhaṇa (*-) [ati + abhikkhaṇa] too often J V.233 (*saŋsagga; C. expls. ativiya abhiṇha).

Accāraddha (adj. adv.) [ati + āraddha] exerting oneself very or too much, with great exertion Vin I.182; Th 1, 638; SnA 21.

Accāyata (adj.) [ati + āyata] too long A III.375.

Accāyika (adj.) [from accaya] out of time, viz. 1. irregular, extraordinary J VI.549, 553. - 2. urgent, pressing M I.149 (karaṇiyan business) II.112; J I.338; V.17 *ṃ (nt.) hurry DhA I.18. See also acceka.

Accāvadati [ati + āvadati; or is it = ajjhāvadati = adhi + āvadati*] to speak more or better, to surpass in talk or speech; to talk somebody down, to persuade, entice Vin IV.224, 263; S II.204 sq.; J V.433 (v. l. BB ajjhārati), 434 (v. l. BB aghācarati for ajjhācarati = ajjhāvadati*).

Accāsanna (adj.) [ati + asanna] very near, too near PvA 42 (na a. n'a-tidūra neither too near nor too far, at an easy distance).

Acca-hita (adj.) [ati + ahita] very cruel, very unfriendly, terrible J IV.46 = V.146 ( = ati ahita C.) = VI.306 (id.).

Acci and (in verse) accī (f.) [Vedic arci m. and arcis nt. and f. to rc, cp. accati] a ray of light, a beam, flame S IV.290 (spelt acchi), 399; A IV.103; V.9; Sn 1074 (vuccati jālasikhā Nd2 11); J V.213; Miln 40; ThA 154 (dīp-); Sdhp 250.

Accikā (f.) [from acci] a flame M I.74; S II.99.

Accita [pp. of accati] honoured, praised, esteemed J VI.180.

Accimant (adj.) [from acci, cp. Vedic arcimant and arcis.mant] flaming, glowing, fiery; brilliant Th 1, 527; J V.266; VI.248; Vv 388.

Acci-bandha (adj.) [ = accibaddha*] at Vin I.287 is explained. by Bdhgh as caturassa-kedāra-baddha ("divided into short pieces" Vin Texts II.207), i. e. with squares of irrigated fields. The vv. ll. are acca* and acchi*, and we should prefer the conjecture acchi-baddha "in the shape of cubes or dice", i. e. with square fields.

Accuggacchati [ati + uggacchati] to rise out (of), ger. accuggamma D II.38; A V.152 (in simile of lotus).

Accuggata (adj.) [ati + uggata] 1. very high or lofty Miln 346 (giri); VvA 197; DhA II.65. - 2. too high, i. e. too shrill or loud J VI.133 (sadda), 516 (fig. = atikuddha very angry C.).

Accuṇha (adj.) [ati + uṇha] very hot, too hot Sn 966; Nd1 487; DhA II.85, 87 (v. l. for abbhuṇha). See also ati-uṇha.

Accuta (adj.) [a + cuta] immoveable; everlasting, eternal; nt. *ṃ Ep. of Nibbāna (see also cuta) A IV.295, 327; Sn 204, 1086 ( = nicca etc. Nd2 12); Dh 225 ( = sassata DhA III.321); Sdhp 47.

Accupaṭṭhapeti at J V.124 is to be read with v.l. as apaccupaṭṭhapeti (does not indulge in or care for).

Accupati at J IV.250 read accuppati, aor. 3rd sg. of accuppatati to fall in between (lit. on to), to interfere (with two people quarelling). C. expls. atigantvā uppati. There is no need for Kern's corr. acchupati (Toev. s. v.).

Accussanna (adj.) [ati + ussanna] too full, too thick Vin II.151.

Acceka = accāyika, special; *cīvara a spccial robe Vin III.261; cp. Vin Texts I.293.

Acceti [ati + eti from i] 1. to pass (of time), to go by, to elapse Th 1, 145 (accayanti ahorattā). - 2. to overcome, to get over Miln 36 (dukkhaṃ). - Causative acceti to make go on (loc.), to put on J VI.17 (sūlasmiṃ; C. āvuṇeti), but at this passage prob. to be read appeti (q. v.).

Accogā'ha (adj.) [ati + ogā'ha] too abundant, too plentiful (of riches), lit. plunged into A IV.282, 287, 323 sq.

Accodaka (nt.) [ati + udaka] too much water (opp. anodaka no water) DhA I.52.

Accodara (nt.) [ati + udara] too much eating, greediness, lit. too much of a belly J IV.279 (C. ati-udara).

Accha1 (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit accha, dial., to rc (see accati), thus "shining"; cp. Sanskrit bald, bare and Vedic rkvan bright. Monier-Williams however takes it as a + cha from chad, thus "not covered, not shaded"] clear, transparent Vin I.206 (*kañjika); D I.76 (maṇi = tanucchavi DA I.221), 80 (udakapatta), 84 (udaka-rahada); M I.100; S II.281 (*patta); III.105 (id.); A I.9; J II.100 (udaka); Vv 7910 (vāri); DA I.113 (yāgu). -odaka having clear water, with clear water (of lotus ponds) Vv 4411; 815; f. *odikā Vv 412 = 602.

Accha2 [Vedic = Gr. a)/rktos, Latin ursus, Cymr. arth] a bear Vin I.200; A III.101; J V.197, 406, 416; Miln 23, 149. At J VI.507 accha figures as N. of an animal, but is in explination. taken in the sense of accha4 (acchā nāma aghammigā C.). Note. Another peculiar form of accha is Pāli ikka (q. v.).

Accha3 = akkha2 (a die) see acci-bandha.

Accha4 (adj.) [Ved.] hurtful, painful, bad DhA IV.163 (*ruja).

Acchaka = accha2, a bear J V.71.

Acchati [Vedic āsyati and āste, ās; cp. Gr. h_(stai] 1. to sit, to sit still Vin I.289; A II.15; It 120 (in set carati tiṭṭhati a. sayati, where otherwise nisinna stands for acchati); Vv 741 ( = nisīdati VvA 298); PvA 4. - 2. to stay, remain, to leave alone Th 1, 936; J IV.306. - 3. to be, behave, live Vin II.195; D I.102; S I.212; Vv 112; Pv III.31 ( = nisīdati vasati PvA 188); Miln 88; DhA I.424. In this sense often pleonastic for finite verb, thus aggiṃ karitvā a. ( = aggiṃ karoti) D I.102; aggiṃ paricaranto a. ( = aggiṃ paricarati) DA I.270; tantaṃ pasārento a. ( = tantaṃ pasāreti) DhA I.424. - Pot. acche It 110; aor. acchi Vin IV.308; DhA I.424.

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Acchanna (adj.) [pp. of acchādeti] covered with, clothed in, fig. steeped in (c. loe.) J JII.323 (lohite a. = nimugga C.). At D I.91 nacchanna is for na channa (see channa2) = not fair, not suitable or proper (paṭirūpa).

Acchambhin (adj.) [a + chambhin] not frightened, undismayed, fearless Sn 42 (reading achambhin; Nd2 13 expls. abhīru anutrāsi etc.); J VI.322 ( = nikkampa C.). See chambhin.

Accharā1 (f.) [etymology uncertain, but certainly dialectical; Trenckner connects it with ācchurita (Notes 76); Childers compares Sanskrit ak.sara (see akkhara); there may be a connection with akkhaṇa in akkhaṇa-vedhin (cp. BSanskrit acchaṭā Divy 555), or possibly a relation to ā + tsar, thus meaning "stealthily", although the primary meaning is "snapping, a quick sound"] the snapping of the fingers, the bringing together of the finger-tips: 1. (lit.) accharaṃ paharati to snap the fingers J II.447; III.191; IV.124, 126; V.314; VI.366; DhA I.38, 424. - As measure: as much as one may hold with the finger-tips, a pinch J V.385; DhA II.273 (*gahaṇamattaṃ); cp. ekacchara-matta DhA II.274. - 2. (fig.) a finger's snap, i. e. a short moment, in ek.racchara-kkhaṇe in one moment Miln 102, and in def. of acchariya (q. v.) at DA I.43; VvA 329. -sanghāta the snapping of the fingers as signifying a short duration of time, a moment, *matta momentary, only for one moment (cp. BSanskrit acchaṭāsanghāta Divy 142) A I.10, 34, 38; IV.396; Th 1, 405; 2, 67 (explained. at ThA 76 as ghaṭikāmattam pi khaṇaṃ angulipoṭhanamattam pi kālaṃ). -sadda the sound of the snapping of a finger J III.127.

Accharā2 (f.) [Vedic apsaras = āpa, water + sarati, orig; water nymph] a celestial nymph M I.253 (pl. accharāyo) II.64; Th 2, 374 ( = devaccharā ThA 252); J V.152 sq. (Alambusā a.) Vv 55 ( = devakaññā VvA 37); Vv 172; 1811 etc.; DhA III.8, 19; PvA 46 (dev*); Miln 169; Sdhp 298.

Accharika (nt. or f.*) [from accharā2] in *ṃ vādeti to make heavenly music (lit. the sounds of an accharā or heavenly nymph) A IV.265.

Acchariya (adj.-nt.) [cp. Sanskrit āshcarya since Upanishads of uncertain etymology - The conventional etymology of Pāli grammarians connects it with accharā1 (which is prob. correct and thus reduces Sanskrit āshcarya to a Sanskritisation of acchariya) viz. Dhammapāla: anabhiṇha-ppavattitāya accharāpaharaṇa-yoggaṃ that which happens without a moment's notice, at the snap of a finger; i. e. causally unconnected (cp. Goth. silda-leiks in similar meaning) VvA 329; and Buddhaghosa: accharā-yoggan ti acchariyaṃ accharaṃ paharituṃ yuttan ti attho DA I.43] wonderful, surprising, strange, marvellous D II.155; M I.79; III.118, 125, 144 (an*); S IV.371; A I.181; Miln 28, 253; DhA III.171; PvA 121; VvA 71 (an*). As nt. often in exclamations: how wonderful! what a marvel! J I.223, 279; IV.138; VI.94 (a. vata bho); DhA IV.51 (aho a.); VvA 103 (aho ti acchariyatthena nipāto). Thus frequent combined. with abbhutaṃ = how wonderful and strange, marvellous, beyond comprehension, e. g. D I.2, 60, 206, 210; II.8; and in phrase acchariyā abbhutā dhammā strange and wonderful things, i. e. wonderful signs, portents marvels, M III.118, 125; A IV.198; Miln 8; also as adj. in phrase acchariyaabbhuta-(citta-)jātā with their hearts full of wonder and surprise DhA IV.52; PvA 6, 50. - See also acchera and accheraka.

Acchādana (nt.) [from acchādeti] covering, clothing Th 1, 698; Miln 279. - fig. protection, sheltering J I.307.

Acchādanā (f.) [ = prec.] covering, hiding, concealment Pug 19, 23. - Note. In id. p. at Vbh 358 we read accasarā for acchādanā. Is the latter merely a gloss*

Acchādeti [ā + chādeti1, Causative of chad, cp. BSanskrit ācchādayati jīvitena to keep alive Av. SH, I.300; Divy 136, 137] to cover, to clothe, to put on D I.63 = It 75; J I.254; III.189; IV.318; Pug 57; Pv I.105 (ger. acchādayitvāna); DA I.181 ( = paridahitvā); PvA 49, 50. - fig. to envelop, to fill J VI.581 (abbhaṃ rajo acchādesi dust filled the air). -pp. acchanna (q. v.).

Acchi at S IV.290 is faulty spelling for acci (q. v.).

Acchijja (v. l. accheja) destroying (*) S I.127. Is the reading warranted* Cp. acchecchi.

Acchidda see chidda.

Acchindati [ā + chindati, lit. to break for oneself] to remove forcibly, to take away, rob, plunder Vin IV.247 (sayaŋ a. to appropriate); J II.422; III.179; IV.343; Miln 20; Sdhp 122. - ger. acchinditvā J II.422; DhA I.349; PvA 241 (sayaŋ); and acchetvā M I.434. Causative II. acchindāpeti to induce a person to theft Vin IV.224, 247.

Acchinna (adj.) [ā + chinna, pp. of acchindati] removed, taken away, stolen, robbed Vin IV.278, 303; J II.78; IV.45; V.212.

Acchiva [*Sanskrit aks.iba and aks.ība] a certain species of tree (Hypanthera Moringa) J VI.535.

Acchupeti [ā + chupeti, Causative of chupati] to procure or provide a hold, to insert, to put on or in Vin I.290 (agga'aṃ) II.112.

Acchecchi [Sanskrit acchaitsīt] 3rd sg. aor. of chindati "he has cut out or broken, has destroyed" (see also chindati 3), in combination. with taṇhaṃ M I.122; S I.12, 23, 127 (so read for acchejja); IV.105, 207. It 47; A III.246, 445; DhA IV.70 (gloss acchindi, for acchidda pret. of Dh 351). The v. l. at all passages is acchejji, which is to be accounted for on graphological grounds, chandj being substituted in MSS. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) mistakes the form and tries to explain acchejji as adj. = ati-ejin (ejā), acchecchi = ati-icchin (icchā). The syntactical construction however clearly points to an aor.

Acchejja = a + chejja not to be destroyed, indestructible, see chindati.

Acchedana (nt.) [abstr. to acchindati] robbing, plundering J VI.544.

Acchera (adj.) = acchariya wonderful, marvellous S I.181; Vv 8413 (comp. accheratara); Pv III.51 (*rūpa = acchariyasabhāva PvA 197); Sdhp 244, 398.

Accheraka (adj.) = acchera (acchariya) J I.279; Bu I.9 (pāṭihīraṃ).

Aja [Vedic aja from aj (Latin ago to drive), cp. ajina] a hegoat, a ram D I.6, 127; A II.207; J I.241; III.278 sq.; V.241; Pug 56; PvA 80. -e'aka [Sanskrit ajaiḍaka] goats and sheep D I.5, 141; A II.42 sq., 209; J I.166; VI.110; Pug 58. As pl. *ā S I.76; It 36; J IV.363. -pada goat-footed M I.134. aja-pada refers to a stick cloven like a goat's hoof; so also at Vism 161. -pāla goatherd, in *nigrodharukkha (Npl.) "goatherds' Nigrodha-tree" Vin I.2 sq. Dpvs I.29 (cp. M Vastu III.302). -pālikā a woman goatherd Vin III.38. -lakkhaṇa "goat-sign", i. e. prophesying from signs on a goat etc. D I.9 (explained. DA I.94 as "evarūpānaṃ ajānaṃ mansaŋ khāditabbaṃ evarūpānaṃ na khāditabban ti"). -laṇḍikā (pl.) goats' dung, in phrase nā'imattā a. a cup full of goats' dung (which is put down a bad ministereotypes throat as punishment) J I.419; DhA II.70; PvA 282. -vata "goats' habit", a practice of certain ascetics (to live after the fashion of goats) J IV.318.

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Ajaka a goat, pl. goats Vin II.154. - f. ajikā J III.278 and ajiyā J V.241.

Ajagara [aja + gara = gala from *gel to devour, thus "goateater"] a large snake (rock-snake*), Boa Constrictor J VI.507; Miln 23, 303, 364, 406; DhA III.60. Also as ajakara at J III.484 (cp. Trenckner, Notes p. 64).

Ajacca (adj.) [a + jacca] of low birth J III.19; VI.100.

Ajajjara see jajjara.

Ajaddhuka and Ajaddhumāra see jaddhu.

Ajamoja [Sanskrit ajamoda, cp. Sanskrit ajājī] cummin-seed VvA 186.

Ajā (f.) a she-goat J III.125; IV.251.

Ajānana (*-) (nt.) [a + jānana] not knowing, ignorance (of) J V.199 (*bhāva); VI.177 (*kāla).

Ajina (nt.) [Vedic ajina, to aja, orig. goats' skin] the hide of the black antelope, worn as a garment by ascetics D I.167; Sn 1027; J I.12, 53; IV.387; V.407. kharājina a rough skin (as garment) M I.343; S IV.118; A II.207; Sn 249 ( = kharāni a*-cammāni SnA 291). dantājina* ivory (q. v.). -khipa a cloak made of a network of strips of a black antelope's hide D I.167; S I.117; A I.240, 295; II.206; Vin I.306; III.34; J VI.569. -paveṇi a cloth of the size of a couch made from pieces of ant. skin sewn together Vin I.192; D I.7 ( = ajina-cammehi mañcappamāṇena sibbitvā katā paveṇi DA I.87); A I.181. -sāṭī a garment of skins ( = ajina-camma-sāṭī DhA IV.156) Dh 394 = J I.481 = III.85.

Ajini aor 3rd sg. jayati, q. v.

Ajiya = ajikā (see ajaka).

Ajira (nt.). [Vedic ajira to aj, cp. Gr. a)gro/s, Latin ager, Goth. akrs = Ger. Acker, = E. acre] a court, a yard Mhvs 35, 3.

Ajīraka (nt.) [a + jīraka] indigestion J I.404; II.181, 291; III.213, 225.

Ajeyya1 and Ajjeyya (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jayati, q. v.] (a) not to be taken by force Kh VIII.8 (cp. KhA 223). (b) not to be overpowered, invincible Sn 288; J V.509.

Ajeyya2 (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jīyati, q. v.] not decaying, not growing old, permanent J VI.323.

Ajja and Ajjā (adv.) [Vedic adya and adyā, a + dyā, a* being base of demonstr. pronoun. (see a3) and dyā an old loc. of dyaus (see diva), thus "on this day"] to-day, now Sn 75, 153, 158, 970, 998; Dh 326; J I.279; III.425 (read bahutaṃ ajjā; not with Kern, Toev. s. v. as "food"); Pv I.117 ( = idāni PvA 59); PvA 6, 23; Mhvs 15, 64. Freq. in phrase ajjatagge ( = ajjato + agge(*) or ajja-tagge, see agga3) from this day onward, henceforth Vin I.18; D I.85; DA I.235. -kālaṃ (adv.) this morning J VI.180; -divasa the present day Mhvs 32, 23.

Ajjatana (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit adyatana] referring to the day, today's, present, modern (opp. porāṇa) Th 1, 552; Dh 227; J II.409. - dat. ajjatanāya for today Vin I.17; PvA 171 and passim.

Ajjatā (f.) [abstr. from ajja] the present time, in ajjatañ ca this very day S I.83 (v. l. ajjeva).

Ajjati [Vedic arjati, rj, a variant of arh, see arahati] to get, procure, obtain J III.263 (*). pp. ajjita (q. v.).

Ajjava (adj.-n.) [cp. Sanskrit ārjava, to rju, see uju] straight, upright (usually combined. with maddava gentle, soft) D III.213; A I.94; II.113; III.248; Sn 250 (+ maddava), 292 (id.); J III.274; Dhs 1339; Vbh 359 (an*); SnA 292 ( = ujubhāva), 317 (id.).

Ajjavatā (f.) [from prec.] straight forwardness, rectitude, uprightness Dhs 1339. (+ ajimhatā and avankatā).

Ajjita [pp. of ajjati] obtained Sdhp 98.

Ajjuka [*Sanskrit arjaka] N. of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum Vin IV.35; DA I.81 (all MSS. have ajjaka).

Ajjukaṇṇa [*Sanskrit arjakarṇa] N. of a tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J VI.535 (nn).

Ajjuṇho (adv.) [haplology from ajja-juṇho; see juṇhā] this moonlight night Vin I.25; IV.80.

Ajjuna [Vedic arjuna, to raj; cp. Gr. a)rgo/s white, a)/rguros silver, Latin argentum] the tree Pentaptera Arjuna J VI.535; DhA I.105 (*rukkha).

Ajjh- Assimilation group of adhi + vowel.

Ajjhagā [adhi + agā 3rd sg. pret. of adhigacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he came to, got to, found, obtained, experienced S I.12 (vimānaṃ); Sn 225 (explained. at KhA 180 by vindi paṭilabhi), 956 (ratiṃ; explained. at Nd1 457 by adhigacchi); It 69 (jātimaraṇaṃ); Dh 154 (taṇhānaṃ khayaŋ); Vv 327 (visesaŋ attained distinction; explained. at VvA 135 by adhigata); 5021 (amataṃ santiṃ; explained. VvA 215 by v. l. SS adhigañchi, T. adhigacchati).

Ajjhatta (adj. -n.) [cp. Sanskrit adhyātma, cp. attā], that which is personal, subjective, arises from within (in contrast to anything outside, objective or impersonal); as adv. and *interior, personal, inwardly (opp. bahiddhā bāhira etc. outward, outwardly); Cp. ajjhattika and see Dhs. trsl. 272. D I.37 (subjective, inward, of the peace of the 2nd jhāna), 70 = A II.210; V.206 (inward happiness. a. sukkhaṃ = niyakajjhattaṃ attano santāne ti attho DA I.183 cp. DhsA 169, 338, 361); S I.70, 169; II..27 (kathaṃ kathī hoti is in inward doubt), 40 (sukhaṃ dukkhaṃ); III.180 (id.); IV.1 sg. (āyatanāni), 139, 196; V.74 (ṭhitaṃ cittaṃ ajjhattaṃ susaṇṭhitaṃ suvimuttaṃ a mind firm, inwardly well planted, quite set free), 110, 143, 263, 297, 390; A I.40 (rūpasaññī), 272 (kāmacchanda etc.); II.158. (sukhadukkhaṃ), 211; III.86 (cetosamatha), 92 (vūpasantacitta); IV.32 (sankhittaṃ), 57 (itthindriyaṃ), 299 (cittaṃ), 305 (rūpasaññī), 360 (cetosamatha), 437 (vūpasantacitta); V 79 sq., 335 sq. (sati); It 39 (cetosamatha inward peace), 80, 82, 94; J I.045 (chātajjhatta with hungry insides); V.338 (id.); Ps I.76 (cakkhu etc.); Dhs 161 ( = attano jātaṃ DhsA 169), 204, 1044; Pug 59; Vbh 1 sq. (khandhā), 228 (sati), 327 (paññā), 342 (arū*pasaññī). - adv. *ṃ inwardly, personally (in contrast-pair ajjhattaṃ vā bahiddhā vā; see also cpd. *bahiddhā) A I.284; II.171; IV.305; V.61; Sn 917 ( = upajjhayassa vā ā ācariyassa vā te guṇā assū ti Nd1 350). -ārammaṇa a subjective object of thought Dhs 1047. -cintin thought occupied with internal things Sn 174, 388. -bahiddhā inside and outside, personal-external, mutual, interacting S II.252 sq.; III.47; IV.382; Nd2 15; Dhs 1049 etc. (see also bahiddhā). -rata with inward joy D II.107 = S V.263 = Dh 362 = Ud 64 (+ samāhita); Th 1, 981; A IV.312; DhA IV.90 ( = gocar- ajjhatta-sankhātāya kammaṭṭhāna-bhāvanāya rata). -rūpa one's own or inner form Vin III.113 (opp. bahiddhā-rūpa and ajjh*-bah* r.). -saññojana an inner fetter, inward bond A I.63 sq.; Pug 22; Vbh 361. -santi inner peace Sn 837 ( = ajjhattānaṃ rāgādīnaṃ santibhāva SnA 545; cp. Nd1 185). -samuṭṭhāna originating from within J I.207 (of hiri; opp. bahiddhā*).

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Ajjhattika (adj.) [ajjhatta + ika], personal, inward (cp. Dhs trsl. 207 and Nd1 346: ajjhattikaṃ vuccati cittaṃ); opp. bāhira outward (q. v.). See also āyatana. - M I.62; S I.73 (*ā rakkhā na bāhirā); IV.7 sq. (āyatanāni); V.101 (anga); A I.16 (anga); II.164 (dhātuyo); III.400 (āyatanāni); V.52 (id.); It 114 (id.), 9 (anga); Kh IV. ( = KhA 82); J IV.402 (bāhira-vatthuṃ ayācitvā ajjhattikassa nāmaṃ gaṇhati); Dhs 673, 751; Vbh 13, 67, 82 sq., 119, 131, 392 sq.

Ajjhapara S V.218: substitute v. l. accasara (q. v.).

Ajjhappatta (and Ajjhapatta) [adhi + ā + *prāpta] 1. having reached, approached, coming near to J II.450; VI.566 (p; C. attano santikaṃ patta). - 2. having fallen upon, attacked J II.59; V.198 (p; C. sampatta) - 3. attained, found, got Sn 1134 ( = adhigacchi Nd2); J III.296 (p. C. sampatta); V.158 (ajjhāpatta; C. sampatta).

Ajjhabhavi 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati to conquer, overpower, overcome S I.240 (prohib. mā vo kodho ajjhabhavi); J II.336. Cp. ajjhabhu and ajjhobhavati.

Ajjhabhāsi 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhāseti to address S IV.117 (gāthāhi); Kh V. = Sn p. 46 (gāthāya); PvA 56, 90.

Ajjhabhu (3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati (q. v.) to overcome, conquer It 76 (dujjayaŋ a. he conquered him who is hard to conquer; v. l. ajjhabhi for ajjhabhavi). Cp. ajjhabhavi.

Ajjhayana (nt.) [adhi + i] study (learning by heart) of the Vedas Miln 225. See also ajjhena.

Ajjhavodahi 3rd sg. aor. of ajjhodahati [Sanskrit adhyavadhāti] to put down J V.365 ( = odahi, ṭhapesi C.). Kern, Toev. s. v. proposes reading ajjhavādahi ( = Sanskrit avādhāt).

Ajjhāgāre (adv.) [adhi + agāre, loc. of agāra] at home, in one's own house A I.132 = It 109; A II.70.

Ajjhācarati [adhi (or ati*) + ā + car] 1. to conduct oneself according to Vin II.301; M I.523; Miln 266. - 2. to flirt with (perhaps to embrace) J IV.231 (aññam-aññaṃ). pp. ajjhāciṇṇa. See also accāvadati and aticarati.

Ajjhācāra [to adhi (ati*) + ā + car] 1. minor conduct (conduct of a bhikkhu as to those minor rules not included in the Pārājika's or Saŋghādisesa's) Vin I.63 (see note in Vin. Texts, I.184. - 2. flirtation Vin III.128 (in the Old Cy as explination of avabhāsati). - 3. sexual intercourse J I.396; V.327 (*cara v. l. for ajjhāvara); Miln 127 (an*).

Ajjhāciṇṇa [pp. of ajjhācarati] habitually done Vin II.80 sq., 301.

Ajjhājīva [adhi (ati*) + ā + jīv] too rigorous or strenuous a livelihood M II.245 (+ adhipāṭimokkha).

Ajjhāpajjati [adhi + ā + pad] to commit an offence, to incur, to become guilty of (acc.) Vin IV.237. pp. ajjhāpanna (q. v.).

Ajjhāpatti (f.) [abstr. to ajjhāpajjati] incurring guilt Dhs 299 (an*).

Ajjhāpana1 (nt.) [from Causative II. of ajjheti] teaching of the sacred writ, instruction Miln 225.

Ajjhāpana2 (nt.) [ā + jhāpana from ks.ā] burning, conflagration J VI.311.

Ajjhāpanna [pp. of adhi + āpajjati] become guilty of offence D I.245; III.43; S II.270; A IV.277, 280; V.178, 181. an* guiltless, innocent Vin I.103; D III.46; S II.194, 269; A V.181; Miln 401. For all passages except A IV.277, 280, cp. ajjhopanna.

Ajjhāpī'ita [adhi + ā + pī'ita] harassed, overpowered, tormented PvA 180 (khuppipāsāya by hunger and thirst).

Ajjhābhava [cp. Sanskrit adhyābhava] excessive power, predominance J II.357.

Ajjhābhavati [adhi + ā + bhū, in meaning of abhi + bhu] to predominate J II.357.

Ajjhāyaka [cp. Sanskrit adhyāyaka, cp. ajjhayana] (a brahmin) engaged in learning the Veda (mantajjhāyaka J VI.209; SnA 192), a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious, learned person D I.88, 120; III.94; A I.163; III.223; Sn 140 (*kula: thus for ajjhāyakula Fsb.); Th 1, 1171; J I.3; VI.201, 498; DA I.247.

Ajjhāruha (and *rūha) (adj.) [to adhi + ā + ruh] growing up over, overwhelming A III.63 sq. = S V.96; J III.399.

Ajjhārū'ha (adj.) [pp. of adhi + ā + ruh] grown up or high over J III.399.

Ajjhārūhati [adhi + ārohati cp. atyārohati] to rise into the air, to climb over, spread over S I.221 = Nett 173 ( = ajjhottharati SA; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred Sayings I.285).

Ajjhāvadati see accāvadati.

Ajjhāvara [from adhi + ā + var] surrounding; waiting on, service, retinue J V.322, 324, 326, 327 (explained at all passages by parisā). Should we read ajjhācara* Cp. ajjhācāra.

Ajjhāvasatar [n. ag. to ajjhāvasati] one who inhabits D I.63 (agāraṃ).

Ajjhāvasati [adhi + ā + vas] to inhabit (agāraṃ a house; i. e. to be settled or live the settled life of a householder) D II.16; M I.353; Vin IV.224; J I.50; Pug 57; Miln 348. -pp. ajjhāvuttha (q. v.).

Ajjhāvuttha [cp. Sanskrit adhyus.ita; pp. of ajjhāvasati] inhabited, occupied (of a house) Vin II.210; J I.145; II.333; PvA 24 (*ghara); fig. (not) occupied by SnA 566 ( = anosita).

Ajjhāsaya [from adhi + ā + shri, orig. hanging on, leaning on, BSanskrit however adhyāshaya Divy 586] intention, desire, wish, disposition, bent D II.224 (adj.: intent on, practising); J I.88, 90; II.352; V.382; DhsA 314, 334; PvA 88, 116, 133 (adj. dān* intent on giving alms), 168; Sdhp 219, 518. Freq. in phrase ajjhāsaya-nurūpa according to his wish, as he wanted PvA 61, 106, 128.

Ajjhāsayatā (f.) [abstr. to ajjhāsaya] desire, longing PvA 127 (u'ār* great desire for c. loc.).

Ajjhāsita [pp. of adhi + ā + shri] intent on, bent on Miln 361 (jhān*). Cp. ajjhosita and nissita.

Ajjhiṭṭha [pp. of ajjhesati] requested, asked, invited Vin I.113 (an* unbidden); D II.289 (Buddhaghosa and text read ajjhitta); Sn p. 218 ( = ajjhesita Nd2 16); J VI.292 ( = āṇatta C.); DhA IV.100 (v. l. abhijjhiṭṭha). See also an*.

Ajjhupagacchati [adhi + upa + gam] to come to, to reach, obtain; to consent to, agree, submit Th 2, 474 ( = sampaṭicchati ThA 285); J II.403; Miln 300; pp. ajjhupagata (q. v.).

Ajjhupagata [pp. of ajjhupagacchati] come to, obtained, reached A V.87, cp. 210; V.187 sq.

Ajjhupagamana (nt.) [adhi + upa + gam] consent, agreement, justification Vin II.97, 104.

Ajjhupaharati [adhi + upa + hr; cp. upaharati] to take (food) to oneself J II.293 (aor. ajjhupāhari = ajjhohari C.).

Ajjhupekkhati [adhi + upa + iks.; cp. BSanskrit adhyupek.sati] 1. to look on A I.257; Miln 275. - 2. to look

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on intently or with care, to oversee, to take care of A IV.45 (kaṭṭh-aggi, has to be looked after); PvA 149 (sisaŋ colaṃ vā). - 3. to look on indifferently to be indifferent, to neglect Vin II.78 = III.162, cp. J I.147; M I.155; II.223; A III.194, 435; J V.229; DhA IV.125.

Ajjhupekkhana (nt.) and *ā (f.) [abstr. from ajjhupekkhati] care, diligence, attention Ps I.16; II.119; Vbh 230 sq.; DhA IV.3.

Ajjhupekkhitar [n. ag. to ajjhupekkhati] one who looks on (carefully), one who takes care or controls, an overseer, caretaker S V.69 (sādhukaṃ), 324 (id.), 331 sq.; Vbh 227.

Ajjhupeti [cp. Sanskrit abhyupeti; adhi + upa + i] to go to meet, to receive J IV.440.

Ajjheti [Sanskrit ādhyāyati, Denominitive from adhyāya] to be anxious about, to fret, worry Sn 948 (socati +); explained at Nd1 433 by nijjhāyati, at SnA 568 by abhijjhati (gloss BB gijjhati).

Ajjhena (nt.) [Sanskrit adhyayana, see also ajjhayana] study (esp. of the Vedas) M III.1; J II.327 (as v. l. to be preferred to ajjhesanā); III.114 ( = japa); V.10 (pl. = vede); VI.201 = 207; Vbh 353; SnA 314 (mant-). -kujja (*kūta v. l.*) a hypocrite, a pharisee Sn 242; cp. SnA 286.

Ajjhesati (adhi + is.; cp. BSanskrit adhye.sate Divy 160] to request, ask, bid DhA IV.18; aor. ajjhesi Vin II.200; pp. ajjhiṭṭha and ajjhesita (q. v.), with which cp. pariyiṭṭha and *esita.

Ajjhesanā (f.) [see ajjhesati] request, entreaty Vin I.6 = D II.38 = S I.138; J II.327 (better v. l. ajjhena).

Ajjhesita [pp. of ajjhesati; cp. ajjhiṭṭha] requested, asked, bidden Nd2 16 ( = ajjhiṭṭha).

Ajjhokāsa [adhi + okāsa] the open air, only in loc. ajjhokāse in the open Vin I.15; S I.212; DhA IV.100.

Ajjhogā'ha [pp. of ajjhogāhati] plunged into, immersed; having entered M I.457; S I.201; Miln 348.

Ajjhogāhati (and *gāheti) [Sanskrit *abhyavagāhate; adhi ( = abhi) + ava + gāh] to plunge into, to enter, to go into D I.101 (vanaṃ), 222 (samuddaṃ); M I.359, 536; A III.75, 368; IV.356; V.133; Vin III.18; J I.7; Nd1 152 (ogāhati +); Miln 87 (samuddaṃ); 300 (vanaṃ). -pp. ajjhogā'ha (q. v.). Cp. pariyogāhati.

Ajjhoṭhapeti [adhi + ava + ṭhapeti, Causative of sthā] to bring to PvA 148 (gāmaṃ), where we should read *ṭṭhapeti.

Ajjhotthata [pp. of ajjhottharati] spread over; covered, filled; overcome, crushed, overpowered J I.363 (ajjhottaṭa), 410; V.91 ( = adhipanna); DhA I.278; PvA 55; Dāvs V.5.

Ajjhottharati [adhi + ava + str] to cover over, spread out, spread over, cover; to submerge, flood Vin I.111; J I.61, 72, 73; Miln 296, 336; Dh I.264; Pass. *tthariyati to be overrun with (instr.), to be smothered, to be flooded A III.92 = Pug 67; aor. ajjhotthari VvA 48 (gāmapadeso: was flooded). pp. ajjhotthata (q. v.).

Ajjhopanna (*) only found in one stock phrase, viz. gathita (q. v.) mucchita ajjhopanna with reference to selfishness, greed, bonds of craving. The reading ajjhopanna is the lectio difficilior, but the accredited reading ajjhosāna seems to be clearer and to harmonize better with the cognate ajjhosita and ajjhosāna (n.) in the same context. The confusion between the two is old-standing and hard to be accounted for. Trenckner under v. l. to M I.162 on p. 543 gives ajjhopanna as BB ( = adhi-opanna). The MSS. of Nd2 clearly show ajjhopanna as inferior reading, which may well be attributable to the very frequent SS sub stitution of p for s (see Nd2 Introd. XIX.). Besides this mixture of vv. ll. with s and p there is another confusion between the vv. ll. ajjhāpanna and ajjhopanna which adds to the complication of the case. However since the evidence of a better reading between these two preponderates for ajjhopanna we may consider the o as established, and, with a little more clearness to be desired, may in the end decide for ajjhosāna (q. v.), which in this case would have been liable to change through analogy with ajjhāpanna, from which it took the ā and p. Cp. also ajjhosita. The following is a synopsis of readings as preferred or confused by the Ed. of the var. texts. - 1. ajjhopanna as T. reading: M I.162, 173, 369; A I.74; II.28; III.68, 242; Md 75, 76; DA I.59; as v. l.: D I.245. 2. ajjhosāna as v. l.: A I.74 (C. expls. ajjhosāya gilitvā ṭhita); Nd2 under nissita and passim; Ud 75, 76 (ajjhosanna); DA I.59 (id.). - 3. ajjhāpanna as T. reading: D I.245; III.43, 46; S. II.194, 270: IV.332 (ajjhapaṇṇa); A V.178, 181; Nd2 under nissita; Miln 401; as v. l.: M I.162; A III.242; Ud 75, 76.

Ajjhobhavati [adhi + ava + bhu, Sanskrit abhi*] to overcome, overpower, destroy J II.80 (aor. ajjhobhavi = adhibhavi C.).

Ajjhomaddati [adhi + ava + mrd] to crush down A IV.191, 193.

Ajjhomucchita [pp. adhi + ava + mūrch, cp. adhimuccita] stiffened out (in a swoon), lying in a faint (*) A III.57 sq. (v. l. ajjhomuñcïta or *muccita better: sarīre attached to her body, clinging to her b.).

Ajjholambati [adhi + ava + lamb] to hang or hold on to (acc.), to cling to S III 137; M III.164 = Nett 179, cp. Sdhp 284 and 296.

Ajjhosa = ajjhosāya, in verse only as ajjhosa tiṭṭhati to cleave or cling to S IV.73; Th 1, 98, 794.

Ajjhosati [adhi + ava + sayati, sā, to bind, pp. sita: see ajjhosita] to be bound to, to be attached, bent on; to desire, cleave to, indulge in. Fut. ajjhosissati (does it belong here*) M I.328 (c. acc. paṭhaviṃ, better as ajjhesati). grd. ajjhositabha M I.109 (+ abhin and itabba, v. l. *etabba); DhsA 5 (id.); ger. ajjhosāya (q. v.) pp. ajjhosita (q. v.).

Ajjhosāna (nt.) cleaving to (earthly joys), attachment, D II.58 sq.; III.289; M I.498 (+ abhin and ana); S III.187; A I.66; II.11 (diṭṭhi*, kāma* + taṇhā). In combination. with (icchā) and mucchā at Nd2 under chanda and nissita and taṇhā (see also ajjhopanna), and at Dhs 1059 of lābha, (the explination. at DhsA 363, 370, from as to eat, is popular etymology) Nett 23 sq. (of taṇhā).

Ajjhosāya [ger. of ajjhosati, cp. BSanskrit adhyavasāya tis.ṭhati Divy 37, 534] being tied to, hanging on, attached to, only in phrase a. tiṭṭhati (+ abhinandati, same in Divy) M I.266; S. IV.36 sq.; 60, 71 sq.; Miln 69. See also ajjhosa.

Ajjhosita [cp. Sanskrit adhyavasita, from adhi + ava + sā; but sita is liable to confusion with sita = Sanskrit shrita, also through likeness of meaning with esita; see ajjhāsita and ajjhesita] hanging on, cleaving to, being bent on, (c. loc.) S II.94 (+ mamāyita); A II.25 (diṭṭha suta muta +); Nd1 75, 106, 163 = Nd2 under nissita; Th 2, 470 (asāre = taṇhāvasena abhiniviṭṭha ThA 284); Pv IV.84 (mayhaṃ ghare = taṇhābhinivisena abhiniviṭṭha PvA 267; v. l. BB ajjhesita, SS ajjhāsita). -an* S IV.213; V.319; Nd1 411; Miln 74 (pabbajita).

Ajjhohata [pp. of ajjhoharati] having swallowed Sdhp 610 (balisaŋ maccho viya: like a fish the fishhook).

Ajjhoharaṇa (nt.) = ajjhohāra 1. A V.324; J VI.213.

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Ajjhoharaṇiya (adj.) [grd. of ajjhoharati] something fit to eat, eatable, for eating J VI.258; DhA I.284.

Ajjhoharati [Sanskrit abhyavaharati; adhi ( = abhi) + ava + hr] to swallow, eat, take as food M I.245; J I.460; II.293; VI.205, 213; Miln 366; PvA 283 (aor.) -pp. ajjhohaṭa (q.v.).

Ajjhohāra [Sanskrit abhyavahāra] 1. taking food, swallowing, eating and drinking Vin IV.233; Miln 176, 366. - 2. N. of a fabulous fish (swallower"; cp. timingala) J V.462.

Añcati J I.417, read añchati (see next).

Añchati [in meaning = ākaḍḍhati, which latter is also the Sanskrit gloss (ākār.sayati) to the Jain Prk. aṃchāvei = añQhati: see Morris, J. Pāli T. S. 1893, 60] to pull, drag, pull along, to turn on a lathe D II.291 (bhamakāro dīghaṃ a., where K has note: añjanto ti pi acchanto ti pi pātho) = M I.56 (vv. ll. p. 532 acch* and añj*); Th 1, 750 (añcāmi T., v.l. aññāmi). Añchati should also be read at J I 417 for udakaṃ añcanti (in explination. of udañcanī pulling the water up from a well, q. v.), where it corresponds to udakaṃ ākkaḍḍhati in the same sentence.

Añja (adv.) [orig. imper. of añjati1; cp. Sanskrit anjasā (instr.) quickly, Goth. anaks suddenly, lit. with a pull or jerk] pull on! go on! gee up! J I.192.

Añjati1 [ = Sanskrit rñjati, rjyati to stretch, pull along, draw out, erect; cp. Sanskrit rju straight, caus. irajyati; Gr. o)re/gw; Latin rego, rectus = erect. See also Pāli uju, añchati, ajjita, ānañja-ānejja]. See añja, añjaya, añjali, añjasa.

Añjati2 and Añjeti [ = Sanskrit añjayati, Causative of anakti to smear etc.; cp. Sanskrit añji ointment, ājya butter; Latin unguo to anoint, unguentum ointment; Ohg. ancho = Ger. Anke butter] to smear, anoint, paint S II.281; J IV.219 (akkhīni añjetvā, v. l. BB añcitvā). Causative II. añjāpeti DhA I.21. pp. añjita (q. v.).

Añjana (nt.) [from añjati2] ointment, esp. a collyrium for the eyes, made of antimony, adj. anointed, smeary; glossy, black (cp. kaṇha II. and kāla1 note). - 1. Vin I.203 (five kinds viz. kā'*, ras*, sot*, geruka, kapalla); D I.7, 12; DA I.98 (khār*); 284; DhA III.354 (akkhi* eye-salve). - 2. glossy, jet-black J I.194; II.369; V.416. The reading añjana at A IV.468 is wrong, it should be corrected into thanamajjanamattaṃ. See also pacc*. In meaning collyrium box at Th 2, 413 ( = añjana-nā'i ThA 267); DhA II.25. -akkhiha with anointed eyes Th 1, 960. -upapisana perfume to mix with ointment Vin I.203; II.112. -cuṇṇa aromatic powder DhsA 13. -nā'i an ointment tube, collyrium box ThA 267. -rukkha N. of a tree ("black" tree) J I.331. -vaṇṇa of the colour of collyrium, i. e. shiny, glossy, dark, black D II.18 (lomāni); J I.138 (kesā), 194; II.369; PvA 258 (vana).

Añjanī (f.) [from añjana] a box for ointment, a collyrium pot Vin I.203, 204; II.135; IV.168; M II.65 = Th 1, 773.

Añjanisalākā (f.) a stick to put the ointment on with Vin I.203; II.135; J III.419.

Añjaya (adj.) [from añjati1] straight J III.12 (vv. ll. ajjava and and ājjava better*) explained by C. as ujuka, akuṭila. See also ajjava. Should we assume misreading for añjasa*

Añjali [cp. Sanskrit añjali, from añjati1] extending, stretching forth, gesture of lifting up the hands as a token of reverence (cp. E. to "tender" one's respect), putting the ten fingers together and raising them to the head (VvA 7: dasanakha-samodhāna-samujjalaṃ añjaliṃ paggayha). Only in stock phrases (a.) añjaliṃ paṇāmeti to bend forth the outstretched hands Vin II.188; D I.118; Sn 352; Sn p. 79. (b.) *ṃ paggaṇhāti to perform the a. salutation J I.54; DhA IV.212; VvA 7, 312 (sirasmiṃ on one's head); PvA 93. (c.) *ṃ karoti id. PvA 178; cp. katañjali (adj.) with raised hands Sn 1023; J I.17; PvA 50, and añjalikata id. Pv II.1220. Cp. pañjali -kamma respectful salutation, as above A I.123; II.180; IV.130; Vv 788, 8316; DhA I.32. -karaṇīya (adj.) that is worthy of being thus honoured D III.5; A II.34; III.36; IV.13 sq.; It 88.

Añjalikā (f.) [ = añjali] the raising of the hands as a sign of respectful salutation Vv 15 (explained at VvA 24 as dasanakha-samodhāna samujjalaṃ añjaliṃ sirasi paggaṇhantī guṇa-visiṭṭhānaṃ apacayānaṃ akāsiṃ).

Añjasa [Sanskrit āñjasa (*). Cp. ārjava = Pāli ajjava, see añjati1 and añjaya] straight, straightforward (of a road) D I.235; J I.5; Th 2, 99; Vv 5020 (cp. VvA 215); VvA 84 ( = akuṭila); Mhvs 25, 5; Miln 217; Sdhp 328, 595. Cp. pañjasa.

Añjita [Sanskrit ankta and añjayita, pp. of añjeti] smeared, anointed J I.77 (su-añjitāni akkhīni); IV.421 (añjit-akkha).

Añña (pronoun.) [Vedic anya, with compar. suff. ya; Goth. anpar; Ohg. andar; formation with n analagous to those with l in Gr. a)/llos (a)/ljos), Latin alius (cp. alter), Goth. aljis Ags. elles = E. else. From demonstr. base *eno, see na1 and cp. a3] another etc. - A. By itself: 1. other, not the same, different, another, somebody else (opp. oneself) Vin III.144 (aññena, scil. maggena, gacchati to take a different route); Sn 459, 789, 904; Dh 158 (opp. attānaṃ), 165; J I.151 (opp. attano); II.333 (aññaṃ vyākaroti give a different answer). - 2. another one, a second; nt. else, further Sn 1052 ( = uttariṃ nt. Nd2 17); else J I.294. aññaṃ kiñci (indefinite) anything else J I.151. yo añño every other, whoever else J I.256. - 3. aññe (pl.) (the) others, the rest Sn 189, 663, 911; Dh 43, 252, 355; J I.254. - B. del. in correlation: 1. copulative. añña . . añña the one . . the other (. . the third etc.); this, that and the other; some . . some Vin I.15; Miln 40; etc. 2. reciprocative añño aññaṃ, aññamaññaṃ, aññoññaṃ one another, each other, mutually, reciprocally (in ordinary construction and declension of a noun or adj. in sg.; cp. Gr. a)llh/lwn, allh/lous in pl.). (a.) añño aññaṃ Dh 165. (b.) aññamañña (cp. BSanskrit añyamañya M Vastu II.436), as pronoun.: n'ālaṃ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā D I.56 = S III 211. n'aññamaññassa dukkhaṃ iccheyya do not wish evil to each other Sn 148. daṇḍehi aññamaññaṃ upakkamanti (approach each other) M I.86 = Nd2 199. *ṃ agāravo viharati A III.247. dve janā *ṃ ghātayiṃsu (slew each other) J I.254. aññamaññaṃ hasanti J V.111; *ṃ musale hantvā J V.267. *ṃ daṇḍa-bhigāṭena PvA 58; or adj.: aññamaññaṃ veraṃ bandhiṃsu (established mutual enmity) J II.353; *ṃ piyasaŋvāsaŋ vasiṃsu J II.153; aññamaññaṃ accayaŋ desetvā (their mutual mistake) DhA I.57; or adv. dve pi aññamaññaṃ paṭibaddha citta ahesuṃ (in love with each other) J III.188; or *-: aññamañña-paccaya mutually dependent, interrelated Ps II.49, 58. (c.) aññoñña (*-) J V.251 (*nissita); Dāvs V.45 (*bhinna). - 3. disjunctive añña . . añña one . . the other, this one . . . that one, different, different from aññaṃ jīvaṃ . . aññaṃ sarīraṃ one is the soul . . the other is the body, i. e. the soul is different from the body D I.157; M I.430; A V.193; aññā va saññā bhavissati añño attā D I.187. Thus also in phrase aññena aññaṃ opposite, the contrary, differently, contradictory (lit. other from that which is other) Vin II.85 (paṭicarati make counter-charges); D I.57 (vyākāsi gave the opposite or contradictory reply); Miln 171 (aññaṃ kayiramānaṃ aññena sambharati). anañña (1) not another, i. e. the same, self-same, identical M I.256 ( = ayaŋ). - (2) not anotber, i. e. alone, by oneself, oneself only Sn 65 (*posin; opp. paraṃ) = Nd 4, cp. Nd2 36. - (3) not another, i. e. no more, only, alone Sn p. 106 (dve va gatiyo bhavanti anaññā: and no other or no more, only two). See also under compounds -ādisa different J VI.212, *tā difference PvA 243. -khantika acquiescing in different views, following another

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faith (see khantika) D I.187; M I.487. -titthiya an adherent of another sect, a non-Buddhist.; D III.115; M I.494, 512; P II.21, 32 sq., 119; III.116 sq.; IV.51, 228; V.6, 27 sq.; A I.65, 240; II.176; IV.35 sq.; Vin I.60; J I.93; II.415. -diṭṭhika having different views (combined. with añña-khantika) D I.187; M I.487. -neyya (an*) not to be guided by somebody else, i. e. independent in one's views, having attained the right knowledge by oneself (opp. para*) Sn 55, 213, 364. -mano (an*) (adj.) not setting one's heart upon others Vv 115 (see VvA 58). -vāda holding other views, an* (adj.) Dpvs IV.24. -vādaka one who gives a different account of things, one who distorts a matter, a prevaricator Vin IV.36. -vihita being occupied with something else, distracted, absent-minded Vin IV.269; DhA III.352, 381; *tā distraction, absentmindedness DhA I.181. -saraṇa (an*) not betaking oneself to others for refuge, i. e. of independent, sure knowledge S III.42 = V.154. -sita dependent or relying on others Sn 825.

Aññatama (pronoun. adj.) [añña + superl. suff. tama; see also aññatara] one out of many, the one or the other of, a certain, any Mhvs 38, 14.

Aññatara (pronoun. adj.) [Sanskrit anyatara, añña + compar. suff. tara, cp. Latin alter, Goth. anpar etc.] one of a certain number, a certain, somebody, some; often used (like eka) as indefinite article "a". Very frequent, e. g. Sn 35, 210; It 103; Dh 137, 157; J I.221, 253; II.132 etc. devaññatara a certain god, i. e. any kind of god S IV.180 = A IV.461.

Aññattha (adv.) [from añña = aññatra, adv. of place, cp. kattha, ettha] somewhere or anywhere else, elsewhere (either place where or whereto) J I.291; II.154; DhsA 163; DhA I.212; III.351; PvA 45; Mhvs 4, 37; 22, 14.

Aññatra (adv.) [anya + tra, see also aññattha] elsewhere, somewhere else J V.252; Pv IV.162. In compounds. also = añña*, e. g. aññatra-yoga (adj.) following another discipline D I.187; M I.487. - As prep. c. abl. (and instr.) but, besides, except, e. g. a. iminā tapo- pakkamena D I.168; kiṃ karaṇīyaṃ a. dhammacariyāya S I.101; ko nu aññatram-ariyehi who else but the Nobles Sn 886 ( = ṭhapetvā saññā-mattena SnA 555). -kiṃ aññatra what but, i. e. what else is the cause but, or: this is due to; but for D I.90 (vusitavā-mānī k. a. avusitattā); S I.29 (k. k. a. adassanā except from blindness); Sn 206 (id.).

Aññathatta (nt.) [aññathā + tta] 1. change, alteration S III.37; IV.40; A I.153; III.66; Kvu 227 ( = jarā C, cp. Kvu trsl. 55 n. 2); Miln 209. - 2. difference J I.147; It 11. - 3. erroneous supposition, mistake Vin II.2; S III.91; IV.329. - 4. fickleness, change of mind, doubt, wavering, M I.448, 457 (+ domanassa); J I.33 (cittaṃ); PvA 195 (cittassa).

Aññathā (adv.) [añña + thā] in a different manner, otherwise, differently S I.24; Sn 588, 757; DhsA 163; PvA 125, 133. anaññathā without mistake Vv 4418; anaññatha (nt.) certainty, truth Ps II.104 ( = tatha). -bhāva (1) a different existence A II.10; It 9 = 94; Sn 729, 740, 752; (2) a state of difference; i. e. change, alteration, unstableness D I.36; S II.274; III.8, 16, 42; Vbh 379. -bhāvin based on difference S III.225 sq.; IV.23 sq., 66 sq.; an* free from difference Vin I.36.

Aññadatthu (adv.) [lit. aññad atthu let there be anything else, i. e. be it what it will, there is nothing else, all, everything, surely] part. of affirmation = surely, all-round, absolutely (ekaṃsa-vacane nipāto DA I.111) only, at any rate D I.91; II.284; Sn 828 (na h- aññadatth- atthi pasaŋsa-lābhā, explained. SnA 541 as na hi ettha pasaŋsa-lābhato añño attho atthi, cp. also Nd1 168); Miln 133; VvA 58; PvA 97, 114. -dasa sure-seeing, seeing everything, all pervading D I.18; III.135, 185; A II.24; III.202; IV.89, 105; It 15.

Aññadā (adv.) [añña + dā, cp. kadā, tadā, yadā] at another time, else, once S IV.285; J V.12; DhA IV.125.

Aññā (f.) [Sanskrit ājñā, = ā + jñā, cp. ājānāti] knowledge, recognition, perfect knowledge, philosophic insight, knowledge par excellence, viz. Arahantship, saving knowledge, gnosis (cp. on term Compend. 176 n. 3 and Psalms of Brethren introd. XXXIII.) M I.445; S I.4 (sammad*), 24 (aññāya nibbuta); II.221; V.69, 129 (diṭṭh-eva dhamme), 133, 237; A III.82, 143, 192; V.108; It 39 sq., 53, 104; Dh 75, 96; Kh VII.11; Miln 334. - aññaṃ vyākaroti to manifest ones Arahantship (by a discourse or by mere exclamation) Vin I.183; S II.51 sq., 120; IV.139; V.222; J I.140; II.333. See also arahatta. -atthika desirous of higher knowledge Pv IV.114. -ārādhana the attainment of full insight M I.479. -indriya the faculty of perfect knowledge or of knowledge made perfect D III.219; S V.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 362, 505, 552; Nett 15, 54, 60. -citta the thought of gnosis, the intention of gaining Arahantship S II.267; A III.437. -paṭivedha comprehension of insight Vin II.238. -vimokkha deliverance by the highest insight Sn 1105, 1107 (Nd2 19: vuccati arahatta-vimokkho).

Aññāṇa (nt.) [a + ñāṇa] ignorance; see ñāṇa 3 e.

Aññāṇaka (nt.) [Demin. of aññāṇa] ignorance Vin IV.144.

Aññāṇin (adj.) [a + ñāṇin] ignorant, not knowing DhA III.106.

Aññāta1 [pp. of ājānāti, q. v.] known, recognised Sn 699. an* what is not known, in phrase anaññāta-ññassāmī- t- indriya the faculty of him (who believes): "I shall know what is not known (yet)" D III.219; S V.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 296 (cp. Dhs trsl. 86); Nett 15, 54, 60, 191. -mānin one who prides himself in having perfect knowledge, one who imagines to be in possession of right insight A III.175 sq.; Th 1, 953.

Aññāta2 [a + ñāta] unknown, see ñāta.

Aññātaka1 [a + ñātaka, cp. Sanskrit ajñāti] he who is not a kinsman DhA I.222.

Aññātaka2 (adj.) [Demin. of aññāta2] unknown, unrecognisable, only in phrase *vesena in unknown form, in disguise J I.14; III.116; V.102.

Aññātar [n. ag. to ājānāti] one who knows, a knower of D II.286; M I.169; S I.106 (Dhammassa); Kvu 561.

Aññātāvin (adj. -n.) [from ājānāti] one who has complete insight DhsA 291. -indriya (*tāv- indr.) the faculty of one whose knowledge is made perfect Dhs 555 (cp. Dhs trsl. 150) and same loci as under aññindriya (see aññā).

Aññātukāma (adj.) [ā + jñātuṃ + kāma] desirous of gaining right knowledge A III.192. See ājānāti.

Aññāya [ger. of ājānāti, q. v. for detail] reeognising, knowing, in the conviction of S I.24; A III.41; Dh 275, 411.

Aññoñña see añña B 2 c.

Añhamāna [Sanskrit ashnāna, ppr. med. of ashnāti, ash to eat] eating, taking food; enjoying: only SS at Sn 240; all MSS at 239 have asamāna. SnA 284 expls. by āhārayamāna.

Aṭaṭa [BSanskrit aṭaṭa (e. g. Divy 67), prob. to aṭ roam about. On this notion cp. description of roaming about in Niraya at Nd1 405 bottom] N. of a certain purgatory or Niraya A V.173 = Sn p. 126.

Aṭaṇaka (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit aṭana, to aṭ] roaming about, wild J V.105 (*gāvī).

Aṭanī (f.) a support a stand inserted under the leg of a bedstead Vin IV.168; Sām. Pās. on Pāc. 14 (quoted Min.

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Pāt. 86 and Vin IV.357); DhA I.234; J II.387, 425, 484 supports of a seat. Morris J. Pāli T. S. 1884, 69 compares Marāthi aḍaṇī a three-legged stand. See also Vin Texts II.53.

Aṭala (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit aṭṭa and aṭṭālaka stronghold] solid, firm, strong, only in phrase aṭaliyo upāhanā strong sandals M II.155 (vv. ll. paṭaliye and agaliyo) = S I.226 (vv. ll. āṭaliyo and āṭaliko). At the latter passage Bdhgh. expls. gaṇangaṇ-ūpāhanā, Mrs. Rh. D. (Kindred Sayings I.291) translations. "buskined shoes".

Aṭavī (f.) [Sanskrit aṭavī: Non-Aryan, prob. Dravidian] 1. forest, woods J I.306; II.117; III.220; DhA I.13; PvA 277. 2. inhabitant of the forest, man of the woods, wild tribe J VI.55 ( = aṭavicorā C.). -rakkhika guardian of the forest J II.335. -sankhepa at A I.178 = III.66 is prob. faulty reading for v. l. *sankopa "inroad of savage tribes".

Aṭṭa1 [cp. see aṭṭaka] a platform to be used as a watchtower Vin I.140; DA I.209.

Aṭṭa2 [cp. Sanskrit artha, see also attha 5 b] lawsuit, case, cause Vin IV.224; J II.2, 75; IV.129 (*ṃ vinicchināti to judge a cause), 150 (*ṃ tīreti to see a suit through); VI.336.

Aṭṭa3 [Sanskrit ārta, pp. of ardati, rd to dissolve, afflict etc.; cp. Sanskrit ārdra ( = Pāli adda and alla); Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)/rda dirt. See also aṭṭīyati and aṭṭita] distressed, tormented, afflicted; molested, plagued, hurt Sn 694 (+ vyasanagata; SnA 489 ātura); Th 2, 439 ( = aṭṭita ThA 270), 441 ( = pī'ita ThA 271); J IV.293 ( = ātura C.); Vv 809 ( = attita upadduta VvA 311). Often -*: iṇaṭṭa oppressed by debt M I.463; Miln 32; chāt* tormented by hunger VvA 76; vedan* afflicted by pain Vin II.61; III.100; J I.293; sūcik.r (read for sūcikaṭṭha) pained by stitch Pv III.23. -ssara cry of distress Vin III.105; S II.255; J I.265; II.117; Miln 357; PvA 285.

Aṭṭaka [Demin. of aṭṭa1] a platform to be used as a watchhouse on piles, or in a tree Vin I.173; II.416; III.322, 372; DA I.209.

Aṭṭāna at Vin II.106 is obscure, should it not rather be read with Bdhgh as aṭṭhāna* (cp. Bdhgh on p. 315).

Aṭṭāla [from aṭṭa] a watch-tower, a room at the top of a house, or above a gate (koṭṭhaka) Th 1, 863; J III.160; V.373; Miln 1, 330; DhA III.488.

Aṭṭālaka [Sanskrit aṭṭālaka] = aṭṭāla; J II.94, 220, 224; VI.390, 433; Miln 66, 81.

Aṭṭita (and occasionally addita, e. g. Pv II.62; Th 2, 77, 89; Th 1, 406) [Sanskrit ardita, pp. of ardayati, Causative of ardati, see aṭṭa3] pained, distressed, grieved, terrified Th 1, 157; J II.436; IV.85 (v. l. addhita); V.84; VvA 311; ThA 270; Mhvs 1, 25; 6, 21; Dpvs I.66; II.23; XIII.9; Sdhp 205. See remarks of Morris J. Pāli T. S. 1886, 104, and 1887. 47.

Aṭṭiyati and Aṭṭiyati [Denominitive from aṭṭa3, q. v.] to be in trouble or anxiety, to be worried, to be incommodated, usually combined. with harāyati, e. g. D I.213 (+ jigucchati); S I.131; M I.423; Pv I.102 ( = aṭṭā dukkhitā PvA 48), frequent in ppr. aṭṭiyamāna harayāmāna (+ jigucchamāna) Vin II.292; J I.66, 292; It 43; Nd2 566; Ps I.159. Spelling sometimes addiyāmi, e. g. Th 2, 140. -pp. aṭṭita and addita.

Aṭṭiyana (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ardana, to aṭṭiyati] fright, terror, amazement DhA II.179.

Aṭṭha1 [Vedic as.ṭau, old dual, Idg. *octou, pointing to a system of counting by tetrads (see also nava); Av. a.sta, Gr. o)ktw/, Latin octo, Goth. ahtau = Ohg. ahto, Ger. acht, E. eight] num. card, eight, decl. like pl. of adj. in-a. A. The number in objective significance, based on natural phenomena: see compounds *angula, *nakha, *pada, *pāda. B. The number in subjective significance. - (1) As mark of respectability and honour, based on the idea of the double square: (a) in meaning "a couple" aṭṭha matakukkuṭe aṭṭha jīva-k. gahetvā (with 8 dead and 8 live cocks; eight instead of 2 because gift intended for a king) DhA I.213. sanghassa a salākabhattaṃ dāpesi VvA 75 = DhA III.104. a. piṇḍapātāni adadaṃ Vv 348. a. vattha-yugāni (a double pair as offering) PvA 232, a therā PvA 32. - The highest respectability is expressed by 8 X 8 = 64, and in this sense is frequent applied to gifts, where the giver gives a higher potency of a pair (23). Thus a "royal" gift goes under the name of sabb-aṭṭhakaṃ dānaṃ (8 elephants, 8 horses, 8 slaves etc.) where each of 8 constituents is presented in 8 exemplars DhA II.45, 46, 71. In the same sense aṭṭh- aṭṭha kahāpaṇā (as gift) DhA II.41; aṭṭh-aṭṭhakā dibbākaññā Vv 673 ( = catusaṭṭhi VvA 290); aṭṭhaṭṭhaka Dpvs VI.56. Quite conspicuous is the meaning of a "couple" in the phrase satt-aṭṭha 7 or 8 = a couple, e. g. sattaṭṭha divasā, a weck or so J I.86; J II.101; VvA 264 (saŋvaccharā years). - (b.) used as definite measure of quantity and distance, where it also implies the respectability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that may be given decently. Thus frequent as aṭṭha kahāpaṇā J I.483; IV.138; VvA 76; Miln 291. - In distances: a. karīsā DhA II.80; IV.217; PvA 258; a. usabhā J IV.142. (c.) in combination. with 100 and 1000 it assumes the meaning of "a great many", hundreds, thousands. Thus aṭṭha sataṃ 800, Sn 227. As denotation of wealt (cp. below under 18 and 80): a-*sata-sahassa-vibhava DhA IV.7. But aṭṭhasata at S IV.232 means 108 (3 X 36), probably also at J V.377. - aṭṭha sahassaŋ 8000 J V.39 (nāgā). The same meaning applies to 80 as well as to its use as unit in combination. with any other decimal (18, 28, 38 etc.): (a) 80 (asīti) a great many. Here belong the 80 smaller signs of a Mahāpurisa (see anuvyañjana), besides the 32 main signs (see dvattiṃsa) VvA 213 etc. Freq. as measure of riches, e. g. 80 waggon loads Pv II.75; asīti-koṭivibhava DhA III.129; PvA 196; asīti hatth- ubbedho rāsi (of gold) VvA 66, etc. See further references under asīti. - (b) The following are examples of 8 with other decimals: 18 aṭṭhādasa (only M III.239: manopavicārā) and aṭṭhārasa (this the later form) VvA 213 (avenika-Buddhadhammā: Bhagavant's qualities); as measure J VI.432 (18 hands high, of a fence); of a great mass or multitue: aṭṭhārasa koṭiyo or *koṭi, 18 koṭis J I.92 (of gold), 227; IV.378 (*dhana, riches); DhA II.43 (of people); Miln 20 (id.); a. akkhohini-sankhāsenā J VI.395. a. vatthū Vin II.204. - 28 aṭṭhavīsati nakkhattāni Nd1 382; paṭisallāṇaguṇā Miln 140. - 38 aṭṭhatiṃsā Miln 359 (rājaparisā). - 48 aṭṭhacattārīsaŋ vassāni Sn 289. - 68 aṭṭhasaṭṭhi Th 1, 1217 *sitā savitakkā, where id. p. at S I.187 however reads atha saṭṭhi-tasitā vitakkā); J I.64 (turiya-satasahassāni) 98 aṭṭhanavuti (cp. 98 the age of Eli, 1 Sam. IV.15) Sn 311 (rogā, a higher set than the original 3 diseases, cp. navuti). (2) As number of symmetry or of an intrinsic, harmonious, symmetrical set, aṭṭha denotes, like dasa (q. v.) a comprehensive unity. See esp. the compounds for this application. *aṃsa and *angika. Closely related to nos. 2 and 4 aṭṭha is in the geometrical progression of 2. 4. 8. 16. 32. where each subsequent number shows a higher symmetry or involves a greater importance (cp. 8 X 8 under 1 a) - J V.409 (a. mangalena samannāgata, of Indra's chariot: with the 8 lucky signs); VvA 193 (aṭṭhahi akkhaṇehi Vajjitaṃ manussabhāvaṃ: the 8 unlucky signs). In progression: J IV.3 (aṭṭha petiyo, following after 4, then following by 8, 16, 32); PvA 75 (a. kapparukkhā at each point of the compass, 32 in all). Further: 8 expressions of bad language DhA IV.3. -aŋsa with eight edges, octagonal, octahedral, implying perfect or divine symmetry (see above B. 2), of a diamond D I.76 = M III.121 (maṇi veḷuriyo a.); Miln 282 (maṇiratanaṃ subhaṃ jātimantaṃ a.) of the pillars of a heavenly palace (Vimāna) J VI.127 = 173 = Vv 782 (a. sukatā thambhā); Vv 8415 (āyataṃsa = āyatā hutvā aṭṭha-so'asadvattiṃsādi-aṃsavanto VvA 339). Of a ball of string Pv

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IV.328 (gulaparimaṇḍala, cp. PvA 254). Of geometrical figures in general Dhs 617. -anga (of) eight parts, eightfold, consisting of eight ingredients or constituents (see also next and above B 2 on significance of aṭṭha in this connection), in compounds. with *upeta characterised by the eight parts (i. e. the observance of the first eight of the commandments or vows, see sīla and cp. anga 2), of uposatha, the fast-day A I.215; Sn 402 (Sn A 378 expls. ekam pi divasaŋ apariccajanto aṭṭhangupetaṃ uposathaṃ upavassa); cp. aṭṭhanguposathin (adj.) Mhvs 36, 84. In BSanskrit always in phrase as.ṭānga-samanvāgata upavāsa, e. g. Divy 398; Sp. Av. SH I.338, 399; also vrata Av. SH I.170. In the same sense aṭṭhangupeta pāṭihāriyapakkha (q. v.) Sn 402, where Vv 156 has *susamāgata (explained. at VvA 72 by pānāṭipātā veramaṇī-ādīhi aṭṭhah- angehi samannāgata). *samannāgata endowed with the eight qualities (see anga 3), of rājā, a king D I.137 sq., of brahmassara, the supreme or most excellent voice (of the Buddha) D II.211; J I.95; VvA 217. Also in Buddh. Sanskrit as.ṭāngopeta svara of the voice of the Buddha, e. g. Sp. Av. SH I.149. -angika having eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts, embracing eight items (see above B 2); of the uposatha (as in prec. aṭṭhang- uposatha) Sn 401; of the "Eightfold Noble Path" (ariyo a. maggo). (Also in BSanskrit as as.ṭāngika mārga, e. g. Lal. Vist. 540, cp. as.ṭāngamārgadeshika of the Buddha, Divy 124, 265); D I.156, 157, 165; M I.118; It 18; Sn 1130 (magga uttama); Dh 191, 273; Th 2, 158, 171; Kh IV.; Vin I.10; Nd2 485; DA I.313; DhA III.402. -angula eight finger-breadths thick, eight inches thick, i. e. very thick, of double thickness J II.91 (in contrast to caturangula); Mhvs 29, 11 (with sattangula). -aḍḍha (v. l. aḍḍhaṭṭha) half of eight, i. e. four (*pāda) J VI.354, see also aḍḍha1. -nakha having eight nails or claws J VI.354 (: ekekasmiṃ pāde dvinnaṃ dvinnaṃ khurānaṃ vasena C.). -nava eight or nine DhA III.179. -pada 1. a chequered board for gambling or playing drafts etc., lit. having eight squares, i. e. on each side (DA I.85: ekekāya pantiyā aṭṭha aṭṭha padāni assā ti), cp. dasapada D I.6. - 2. eightfold, folded or plaited in eight, cross-plaited (of hair) Th 1, 772 (aṭṭhāpada-katā kesā); J II.5 (*ṭṭhapana = cross-plaiting). -padaka a small square (1/8), i. e. a patch Vin I.297; II.150. -pāda an octopod, a kind of (fabulous) spider (or deer*) J V.377; VI.538; cp. Sanskrit as.ṭapāda = sharabha a fabulous eight-legged animal. -mangala having eight anspicious signs J V.409 (explained. here to mean a horse with white hair on the face, tail, mane, and breast, and above each of the four hoofs). -vanka with eight facets, lit. eight-crooked, i. e. polished on eight sides, of a jewel J VI.388. -vidha eightfold Dhs 219.

Aṭṭha2 see attha.

Aṭṭhaka (adj.) [Sanskrit as.ṭaka] - 1. eightfold Vin I.196 = Ud 59 (*vaggikāni); VvA 75 = DhA III.104 (*bhatta). - 2. *ā (f.) the eight day of the lunar month (cp. aṭṭhamī), in phrase rattīsu antar-aṭṭhakāsu in the nights between the eighths, i. e. the 8th day before and after the full moon Vin I.31, 288 (see Vin Texst I.130n); M I.79; A I.136; Miln 396; J I.390. - 3. *ṃ (nt.) an octad Vv 672 (aṭṭh* eight octads = 64); VvA 289, 290. On sabbaṭṭhaka see aṭṭha B 1 a. See also antara.

Aṭṭhama (num. ord.) [Sanskrit as.ṭama, see aṭṭha1] the eighth Sn 107, 230 (cp. KhA 187), 437. - f. *ī the eighth day of the lunar half month (cp. aṭṭhakā) A I.144; Sn 402; Vv 166 (in all three pass. as pakkhassa cātuddasī pañcadasī ca aṭṭhamī); A I.142; Sn 570 (ito atthami, scil. divase, loc.).

Aṭṭhamaka = aṭṭhama the eighth. - 1. lit. Miln 291 (att* self-eighth). - 2. as tt. the eighth of eight persons who strive after the highest perfection, reckoned from the first or Arahant. Hence the eighth is he who stands on the lowest step of the Path and is called a sotāpanna (q. v.) Kvu 243-251 (cp. Kvu trsl. 146 sq.); Nett 19, 49, 50; Ps II.193 (+ sotāpanna).

Aṭṭhāna (nt.) [ā + ṭṭhāna] stand, post; name of the rubbing-post which, well cut and with incised rows of squares, was let into the ground of a bathing-place, serving as a rubber to people bathing Vin II.105, 106 (read aṭṭhāne with BB; cp. Vin II.315).

Aṭṭhi*1 [ = attha (aṭṭha) in compounds. with karandbhū, as frequent in Sanskrit and Pāli with i for a, like citti-kata (for citta*), angi-bhūta (for anga*); cp. the frequent combination. (with similar meaning) manasi-kata (besides manasā-k.), also upadhikaroti and others. This combination. is restricted to the pp and der. (*kata and *katvā). Other explinations. by Morris J. Pāli T. S. 1886, 107; Windisch, M. and B. 100], in combination. with katvā: to make something one's attha, i. e. object, to find out the essence or profitableness or value of anything, to recognise the nature of, to realise, understand, know. Nearly always in stock phrase aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā D II.204; M I.325, 445; S I.112 sq. = 189, 220; V.76; A II.116; III.163; J I.189; V.151 (: attano atthikabhāvaṃ katvā atthiko hutvā sakkaccaṃ suṇeyya C.); Ud 80 (: adhikicca, ayaŋ no attho adhigantabbo evaṃ sallakkhetvā tāya desanāya atthikā hutvā C.); Sdhp 220 (*katvāna).

Aṭṭhi2 (nt.) [Sanskrit asthi = Av. asti, Gr. o)/steon, o)/strakon, a)stra/galos; Latin os (*oss); also Gr. o)/zos branch Goth. asts] 1. a bone A I.50; IV.129; Sn 194 (*nahāru bones and tendons); Dh 149, 150; J I.70; III.26, 184; VI.448 (*vedhin); DhA III.109 (300 bones of the human body, as also at Sushruta III.5); KhA 49; PvA 68 (*camma-nahāru), 215 (gosīs*); Sdhp 46, 103. - 2. the stone of a fruit J II.104. -kankala [Sanskrit *kankāla] a skeleton M I.364; cp. *sankhalika. -kadali a special kind of the plantain tree (Musa Sapientum) J V.406. -kalyāṇa beauty of bones DhA I.387. -camma bones and skin J II.339; DhA III.43; PvA 68 -taca id. J II.295. -maya made of bone Vin II.115. -miñjā marrow A IV.129; DhA I.181; III.361; KhA 52. -yaka (T. aṭṭhīyaka) bones and liver S I.206. -sankhalikā [B. Sanskrit *shakalā Sp. Av. SH I.274 sq., see also aṭṭhika*] a chain of bones, i. e. a skeleton DhA III.479; PvA 152. -sanghāṭa conjunction of bones, i. e. skeleton Vism 21; DhA II.28; PvA 206. -sañcaya a heap of bones It 17 = Bdhd 87. -saññā the idea of bones (cp. aṭṭhika*) Th 1, 18. -saṇṭhāna a skeleton Sdhp 101.

Aṭṭhika1 (nt.) [from aṭṭhi] 1. = aṭṭhi 1 a bone M III.92; J I.265, 428; VI.404; PvA 41. - 2 = aṭṭhi 2 kernel, stone DhA II.53 (tāl*); Mhvs 15, 42. -sankhalikā a chain of bones, a skeleton A III.324 see also under kaṭaṭṭhika. -saññā the idea of a skeleton S V.129 sq.; A II.17; Dhs 264.

Aṭṭhika2 at PvA 180 (sūcik.r) to be read aṭṭita (q. v.) for aṭṭika.

Aṭṭhita1 see ṭhita.

Aṭṭhita2 [ā + ṭhita] undertaken, arrived at, looked after, considered J II.247 ( = adhiṭṭhita C.).

Aṭṭhita3 see atthika.

Aṭṭhilla at Vin II.266 is explained. by Bdhgh on p. 327 by gojanghaṭṭika, perhaps more likely = Sanskrit as.ṭhīlā a round pebble or stone.

Aḍḍha1 (and addha) [etymology uncertain, Sanskrit ardha] one half, half; usually in compounds. (see below), like diyaḍḍha 1 1/2 (*sata 150) PvA 155 (see as to meaning Stede, Peta Vatthu p. 107). Note. aḍḍha is never used by itself, for "half" in absolute position upaḍḍha (q. v.) is always used. -akkhika with furtive glance ("half an eye") DhA IV.98. -aṭṭha half of eight, i. e. four (cp. aṭṭhaḍḍha) S II.222 (*ratana); J VI.354 (*pāda quadruped; v. l. for aṭṭhaḍḍha). -a'haka 1/2 an a'haka (measure) DhA III.367. -uḍḍha [cp.

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Mahārās.ṭrī form cauṭṭha = Sanskrit caturtha] three and a half J I.82; IV.180; V.417, 420; DhA I.87; Mhvs 12, 53. -ocitaka half plucked off J I.120. -karīsa (-matta) half a k. in extent VvA 64 (cp. aṭṭha-karīsa). -kahāpaṇa 1/2 kahāpaṇa A V.83. -kāsika (or *ya) worth half a thousand kāsiyas (i. e. of Benares monetary standard) Vin I.281 (kambala, a woollen garment of that value; cp. Vin Texts II.195); II.150 (bimbohanāni, pillows; so read for aḍḍhakāyikāni in T.); J V.447 (a*-kāsigaṇikā for a-*kāsiya* a courtezan who charges that price, in phrase a*-k.r-gaṇikā viya na bahunnaṃ piyā manāpā). -kumbha a half (-filled) pitcher Sn 721. -kusi (tt. of tailoring) a short intermediate cross-seam Vin I.287. -kosa half a room, a small room J VI.81 ( = a* kosantara C.). -gāvuta half a league J VI 55. -cū'a (*vāhā vīhi) 1/2 a measure (of rice) Miln 102, perhaps misread for aḍḍhā'ha (ā'ha = ā'haka, cp. A III.52), a half ā'ha of rice. -tiya the third (unit) less half, i. e. two and a half VvA 66 (māsā); J I.49, 206, 255 (*sata 250). Cp. next. -teyya = *tiya 2 1/2 Vin IV.117; J II.129 (*sata); DA I.173 (v. l. BB for *tiya); DhA I.95 (*sata), 279; PvA 20 (*sahassa). -telasa [cp. BSanskrit ardhatrayodasha] twelve and a half Vin I 243, 247; D II.6 (*bhikkhusatāni, cp. tayo B 1 b); DhA III.369. -daṇḍaka a short stick M I.87 = A I.47; II.122 = Nd2 604 = Miln 197. -duka see *ruka. -nā'ika (-matta) half a nā'i-measure full J VI.366. -pallanka half a divan Vin II.280. -bhāga half a share, one half Vv 136 ( = upaḍḍhabhāga VvA 61); Pv I.115. -maṇḍala semi-circle, semi circular sewing Vin I.287. -māna half a māna measure J I.468 (m. = aṭṭhannaṃ nā'inaṃ nāmaṃ C.). -māsa half a month, a half month, a fortnight Vin III.254 (ūnak.r); A V.85; J III.218; VvA 66. Freq. in acc. as adv. for a fortnight, e. g. Vin IV.117; VvA 67; PvA 55. -māsaka half a bean (as weight or measure of value, see māsaka) J I.111. -māsika halfmonthly Pug 55. -muṇḍaka shaven over half the head (sign of loss of freedom) Mhvs 6, 42. -yoga a certain kind of house (usually with pāsāda) Vin I.58 = 96, 107, 139, 239, 284; II.146. Acc. to Vin T. I.174 "a gold coloured Bengal house" (Bdhgh), an interpretation which is not correct: we have to read supaṇṇa vankageha "like a Garu'a bird's crooked wing", i. e. where the roof is bent on one side. -yojana half a yojana (in distance) J V.410; DA I.35 (in explination. of addhāna-magga); DhA I.147; II.74. -rattā midnight A III.40Q (*aṃ adv. at m.); Vv 8116 (*rattāyaṃ adv. = aḍḍharattiyaṃ VvA 315); J I.264 (samaye); IV.159 (id.). -ratti = *rattā VvA 255, 315 ( = majjhimayāma-samaya); PvA 155. -ruka (v. l. *duka) a certain fashion of wearing the hair Vin II.134; Bdhgh explination. on p. 319: aḍhadukan ti udare lomarāji-ṭhapanaṃ "leaving a stripe of hair on the stomach". -vivata (dvāra) half open J V.293.

Aḍḍha2 (adj.) [Sanskrit āḍhya from rddha pp. of rdh, rdhnote and rdhyate (see ijjhati) to thrive cp. Gr. a)/lqomai thrive, Latin alo to nourish. Cp. also Vedic iḍā refreshment and Pāli iddhi power. See also ā'hiya] rich, opulent, wealthy, well-to-do; usually in combination. with mahaddhana and mahābhoga of great wealth and resources (following by pahūta-jātarūparajata pahūta vittūpakaraṇa etc.). Thus at D I.115, 134, 137; III.163; Pug 52; DhA I.3; VvA 322; PvA 3, 78 etc. In other combination. Vv 314 (*kula); Nd2 615 (Sakka = aḍḍho mahaddhano dhanavā); DA I.281 ( = issara); DhA II.37 (*kula); Sdhp 270 (satasākh*), 312 (guṇ*), 540 sq. (id.), 561.

Aḍḍhaka (adj.) wealthy, rich, influential J IV.495; Pv II.82 ( = mahāvibhava PvA 107).

Aḍḍhatā (f.) [abstr. to aḍḍha] riches, wealth, opulence Sdhp 316.

Aṇa [Sanskrit rṇa; see etymology under iṇa, of which aṇa is a doublet. See also āṇaṇya] debt, only in negative anaṇa (adj.) free from debt Vin I.6 = S I.137, 234 = D II.39; Th 2, 364 (i. e. without a new birth); A II.69; J V.481; ThA 245.

Aṇu (adj.) [Sanskrit aṇu; as to etymology see Walde Latin Wtb. under ulna. See also āṇi] small, minute, atomic, subtle (opp. thūla, q. v.) D I.223; S I.136; V.96 (*bīja); Sn 299 (anuto aṇuṃ gradually); J III.12 ( = appamattaka); IV.203; Dhs 230, 617 ( = kisa); ThA 173; Miln 361. Note aṇu is frequent spelt anu, thus usually in cpd. *matta. -thūla (aṇuṃthūla) fine and coarse, small and large Dh 31 ( = mahantañ ca khuddakañ ca DhA I.282), 409 = Sn 633; J IV.192; DhA IV.184. -matta of small size, atomic, least Sn 431; Vbh 244, 247 (cp. M III.134; A II.22); Dpvs IV.20. The spelling is anumatta at D I.63 = It 118; Dh 284; DA I.181; Sdhp 347. -sahagata accompanied by a minimum of, i. e. residuum Kvu 81, cp. Kvu trsl. 66 n. 3.

Aṇuka (adj.) = aṇu Sn 146, KhA 246.

Aṇḍa (nt.) [Etym. unknown. Cp. Sanskrit aṇḍa] 1. an egg Vin III.3; S II.258; M I.104; A IV.125 sq. - 2. (pl.) the testicles Vin III.106. - 3. (in camm*) a water-bag J I.249 (see Morris J. Pāli T. S. 1884, 69). -kosa shell of eggs Vin III.3 = M I.104; A IV.126, 176. -cheda(ka) one who castrates, a gelder J IV.364, 366. -ja 1. born from eggs S III.241 (of snakes); M I.73; J II.53 = V.85; Miln 267. - 2. a bird J. V.189. -bhārin bearing his testicles S II.258 = Vin III.100. -sambhava the product of an egg, i. e. a bird Th 1, 599. -hāraka one who takes or exstirpates the testicles M I.383.

Aṇḍaka1 (nt.) = aṇḍa, egg DhA I.60; III.137 (sakuṇ*).

Aṇḍaka2 (adj.) [Sanskrit* prob. an inorganic form; the diaeresis of caṇḍaka into c* aṇḍaka seems very plausible. As to meaning cp. DhsA 396 and see Dhs trsl. 349, also Morris J. Pāli T. S. 1893, 6, who, not satisfactorily, tries to establish a relation to ard, as in aṭṭaQ] only used of vācā, speech: harsh, rough, insolent M I.286; A V.265, 283, 293 (gloss kaṇṭakā); J III.260; Dhs 1343, cp. DhsA 396.

Aṇṇa (food, cereal). See passages under aparaṇṇa and pubbaṇṇa.

Aṇṇava (nt.) [Sanskrit arṇa and arṇava to r, rṇoti to move, Idg. *er to be in quick motion, cp. Gr. o)/rnumi; Latin orior; Goth. rinnan = E. run; Ohg. runs, river, flow.] 1. a great flood ( = ogha), the sea or ocean (often as mah*, cp. BSanskrit mahārṇava, e. g. Jtm 3175) M I.134; S I.214; IV.157 (mahā udak.r); Sn 173 (fig. for saŋsāra see SnA 214), 183, 184; J I.119 (*kucchi), 227 (id.); V.159 (mah*); Mhvs 5, 60; 19, 16 (mah*). - 2. a stream, river J III. 521; V.255.

Aṇha [Sanskrit ahna, day, see ahan] day, only as -* in apar*, pubb*, majjh*, sāy*, q. v.

Atakkaka (adj.) [a + takka2] not mixed with buttermilk J YI.21.

Ataccha (nt.) [a + taccha2] falsehood, untruth D I.3; J VI.207.

Ati (indecl.) [sk. ati = Gr. e)/ti moreover, yet, and; Latin et and, Goth. ip; also connected with Gr. ata/r but, Latin at but ( = over, outside) Goth. appan] adv. and prep. of direction (forward motion), in primary meaning "on, and further", then "up to and beyond". I. in abstr. position adverbially (only as ttg.): in excess, extremely, very (cp. II.3) J VI.133 (ati uggata C. = accuggata T.), 307 (ati ahitaṃ C. = accāhitaṃ T.). II. as prefix, meaning. - 1. on to, up to, towards, until); as far as: accanta up to the end; aticchati to go further, pass on; atipāta "falling on to"; attack slaying; atimāpeti to put damage on to, i. e. to destroy. - 2. over, beyond, past, by, trans-; with verbs: (a.) trs. atikkamati to pass beyond, surpass; atimaññati to put one's "manas" over, to despise; atirocati to surpass in splendour. (b.) intr. atikkanta passed by; atikkama traversing; aticca transgressing; atīta past, gone beyond. - Also with

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verbal derivations: accaya lapse, also sin, transgression ("going over"); atireka remainder, left over; atisaya overflow, abundance; atisāra stepping over, sin. - 3. exceedingly, in a high or excessive degree either very (much) or too (much); in nominal compounds. (a), rarely also in verbal compounds. see (b). - (a) with nouns and adj.: *āsanna too near; *uttama the very highest; *udaka too much water; *khippa too soon; *dāna excessive alms giving; *dāruṇa very cruel; *dīgha extremely long; *dūra too near; deva a super-god *pago too early; *bālha too much; *bhāra a too heavy load; *manāpa very lovely; *manohara very charming; *mahant too great; *vikāla very inconvenient; *vela a very long time; *sambādha too tight, etc. etc. (b.) with verb: atibhuñjati to eat excessively. III. A peculiar use of ati is its' function in reduplication-compounds, expressing "and, adding further, and so on, even more, etc." like that of the other comparing or contrasting prefixes a (ā), anu, ava, paṭi, vi (e. g. khaṇḍa-khaṇḍa, seṭṭha-nuseṭṭhi, chidda-vacchidda, angapaccanga, cuṇṇavicuṇṇa). In this function it is however restricted to comparatively few expressions and has not by far the wide range of ā (q. v.), the only phrases being the following viz. cakka-ticakkaṃ mañca-timañ caṃ bandhati to heap carts upon carts, couches upon couches (in order to see a procession) Vin IV.360 (Bdhgh); J II.331; IV.81; DhA IV.61. -deva-tideva god upon god, god and more than a god (see atideva); māna-timāna all kinds of conceit; vanka-tivanka crooked all over J I.160. - IV. Semantically ati is closely related to abhi, so that in consequence of dialectical variation we frequently find ati in Pāli, where the corresponds expression in later Sanskrit shows abhi. See e. g. the following cases for comparison: accuṇha ati-jāta, *pī'ita *brūheti, *vassati, *vāyati, *veṭheti. Note The contracted (assimilation-) form of ati before vowels is acc- (q. v.). See also for adv. use atiriva, ativiya, atīva.

Ati-ambila (adj.) [ati + ambila] too sour DhA II.85.

Ati-arahant [ati + arahant] a super-Arahant, one who surpasses even other Arahants Miln 277.

Ati-issara (adj.) very powerful(*) J V.441 (*bhesajja, medicin).

Ati-uṇha (adj.) too hot PvA 37 (*ātapa glow). See also accuṇha (which is the usual form).

Ati-uttama (adj.) by far the best or highest VvA 80.

Ati-udaka too much water, excess of water DhA I.52.

Ati-ussura (adj.) only in loc. *Q (adv.) too soon after sunrise, too early VvA 65 (laddhabhattatā eating too early).

Ati-eti [ati + i] to go past or beyond, see ger. aticca and pp. atīta.

Atikata (pp.) more than done to, i. e. retaliated; paid back in an excessive degree A I.62.

Atikaddhati [ati + kaḍḍhati] to pull too hard, to labour, trouble, drudge Vin III.17.

Atikaṇha (adj.) [ati + kaṇha] too black Vin IV.7.

Atikaruṇa (adj.) [ati + karuṇa] very pitiful, extremely miserable J I.202; IV.142; VI.53.

Atikassa (ger.) [from atikassati ati + krs.; Sanskrit atikrs.ya] pulling (right) through J V.173 (rajjuṃ, a rope, through the nostrils; v. l. BB. anti*).

Atikāla [ati + kāla] in instr. atikālena adv. in very good time very early Vin I.70 (+ atidivā).

Atikkanta [pp. of atikamati] passed beyond, passed by, gone by, elapsed; passed over, passing beyond, surpassing J II.128 (tīṇi saŋvaccharāni); DhA III.133 (tayo vaye pas sed beyond the 3 ages of life); PvA 55 (māse *e after the lapse of a month), 74 (kati divasā *ā how many days have passed). -mānusaka superhuman It 100; Pug 60; cp. BSanskrit atikrānta-mānus.yaka M Vastu III.321.

Atikkantikā (f.) [Der. abstr. from prec.] transgressing, overstepping the bounds (of good behaviour), lawlessness Miln 122.

Atikkama [Sanskrit atikrama] going over or further, passing beyond, traversing; fig. overcoming of, overstepping, failing against, transgression Dh 191; Dhs 299; PvA 154 (katipayayojan*), 159 (*caraṇa sinful mode of life); Miln 158 (dur* hard to overcome); Sdhp 64.

Atikkamaṇaka (adj.) [atikkamaṇa + ka] exceeding J I.153.

Atikkamati [ati + kamati] (1) to go beyond, to pass over, to cross, to pass by. (2) to overcome, to conquer, to surpass, to be superior to. - J IV.141; Dh 221 (Pot. *eyya, overcome); PvA 67 (maggena: passes by). grd. atikkamanīya to be overcome D II.13 (an*); SnA 568 (dur*). ger. atikkamma D II.12 (surpassing); It 51 (māradheyyaṃ, passing over), cp. vv. ll. under adhigayha; and atikkamitva going beyond, overcoming, transcending (J IV.139 (samuddaṃ); Pug 17; J I.162 (raṭṭhaṃ having left). Often to be trsl. as adv. "beyond", e. g. pare beyond others PvA 15; Vasabhagāmaṃ beyond the village of V. PvA 168. -pp. atikkanta (q. v.).

Atikkameti [Causative of atikkamati] to make pass, to cause to pass over J I.151.

Atikkhippaṃ (adv.) [ati + khippa] too soon Vin II.284.

Atikhaṇa (nt.) [ati + khaṇa(na)] too much digging J II.296.

Atikhāta (nt.) = prec. J II.296.

Atikhiṇa (adj.) [ati + khīṇa] in cāpa-tikhīṇa broken bow (*) Dh 156 (explained. at DhA III.132 as cāpāto atikhīṇā cāpā vinimmuttā).

Atiga (-*) (adj.) [ati + ga] going over, overcoming, surmounting, getting over Sn 250 (sanga*); Dh 370 (id.); Sn 795 (sīma*, cp. Nd1 99), 1096 (ogha*); Nd1 100 ( = atikkanta); Nd2 180 (id.).

Atigacchati [ati + gacchati] to go over, i. e. to overcome, surmount, conquer, get the better of, only in pret. (aor.) 3rd sg. accagā (q. v. and see gacchati 3) Sn 1040; Dh 414 and accagamā (see gacchati 2) Vin II.192; D I.85; S II.205; DA I.236 ( = abhibhavitvā pavatta). Also 3rd pl. accaguṃ It 93, 95.

Atigā'eti [ati + gā'eti, Causative of galati, cp. Sanskrit vi-gālayati] to destroy, make perish, waste away J VI.211 ( = atigālayati vināseti C. p. 215). Perhaps reading should be atigā'heti (see atigā'hita.

Atigā'ha (adj.) [ati + gā'ha 1] very tight or close, intensive J I.62. Cp. atigā'hita.

Atigā'hita [pp. of atigā'heti, Denominitive from atigā'ha; cp. Sanskrit atigāhate to overcome] oppressed, harmed, overcome, defeated, destroyed J V.401 ( = atipī'ita C.).

Atighora (adj.) [ati + ghora] very terrible or fierce Sdhp 285.

Aticaraṇa (nt.) [from aticarati] transgression PvA 159.

Aticarati [ati + carati] 1. to go about, to roam about Pv II.1215; PvA 57. - 2. to transgress, to commit adultery J I.496. Cp. next.

Aticaritar [n. ag. of. aticarati] one who transgresses, esp. a woman who commits adultery A II.61 (all MSS. read aticaritvā); IV.66 (T. aticarittā).

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Aticariyā (f.) [ati + cariyā] transgression, sin, adultery D III.190.

Aticāra [from aticarati] transgression Vv 158 ( = aticca cāra VvA 72).

Aticārin (adj. n.) [from aticarati] transgressing, sinning, esp. as f. aticārinī an adulteress S II.259; IV.242; D III.190; A III.261; Pv II.1214; PvA 151 (v. l. BB), 152; VvA 110.

Aticitra (adj.) [ati + citra] very splendid, brilliant, quite exceptional Miln 28.

Aticca (grd.) [ger. of ati + eti, ati + i] 1. passing beyond, traversing, overcoming, surmounting Sn 519, 529, 531. Used adverbially = beyond, in access, more than usual, exceedingly Sn 373, 804 ( = vassasataṃ atikkamitvā Nd1 120). - 2. failing, transgressing, sinning, esp. committing adultery J V,424; VvA 72,

Aticchati [*Sanskrit ati-rcchati, ati + r, cp. aṇṇava] to go on, only occurring in imper. aticchatha (bhante) "please go on, Sir", asking a bhikkhu to seek alms elsewhere, thus refusing a gift in a civil way. [The interpretation given by Trenckner, as quoted by Childers, is from ati + 'is. "go and beg further on". (Tr. Notes 65) but this would entail a meaning like "desire in excess", since is. does not convey the notion of movement] J III.462; DhA IV.98 (T. aticcha, vv. ll. *atha); VvA 101; Miln 8. - Causative aticchāpeti to make go on, to ask to go further J III.462. Cp. icchatā.

Aticchatta [ati + chatta] a "super"-sunshade, a sunshade of extraordinary size and colours DhsA 2.

Atitāta (adj.) [ati + jāta, perhaps ati in sense of abhi, cp. abhijāta] well-born, well behaved, gentlemanly It 14 (opp. avajāta).

Atitarati [ati + tarati] to pass over, cross, go beyond aor. accatari S IV.157 = It 57 (*āri).

Atituccha (adj.) [ati + tuccha] very, or quite empty Sdhp 430.

Atituṭṭhi (f.) [ati + tuṭṭhi] extreme joy J I.207.

Atitula (adj.) [ati + tula] beyond compare, incomparable Th 1, 831 = Sn 561 ( = tulaṃ atīto nirupamo ti attho SnA 455).

Atitta (adj.) [a + titta] dissatisfied, unsatisfied J I.440; Dh 48.

Atittha (nt.) [a + tittha] "that which is not a fordingplace". i. e. not the right way, manner or time; as *wrongly in the wrong way J I.343; IV.379; VI.241; DhA III.347; DA I.38.

Atithi [Sanskrit atithi of at = at, see aṭati; orig. the wanderer, cp. Vedic atithin wandering] a guest, stranger, newcomer D I.117 ( = āgantuka-navaka pāhuṇaka DA I.288); A II.68; III.45, 260; J IV.31, 274; V.388; Kh VIII.7 ( = n- atthi assa ṭhiti yamhi vā tamhi vā divase āgacchatī ti atithi KhA 222); VvA 24 ( = āgantuka).

Atidāna (nt.) [ati + dāna] too generous giving, an excessive gift of alms Miln 277; PvA 129, 130.

Atidāruṇa (adj.) [Sanskrit atidāruṇa, ati + dāruṇa] very cruel, extremely fierce Pv III.73.

Atiditthi (f.) [ati + diṭṭhi] higher doctrine, super knowledge (*) Vin I.63 = II.4 (+ adhisīla; should we read adhi-diṭṭhi*)

Atidivā (adv.) [ati + divā] late in the day, in the afternoon Vin I.70 (+ atikālena); S I.200; A III.117.

Atidisati [ati + disati] to give further explanation, to explain in detail Miln 304.

Atidīgha (adj.) [ati + dīgha] too long, extremely long J IV. 165; Pv II.102; VvA 103 (opp. atirassa).

Atidukkha [ati + dukkha] great evil, exceedingly painful excessive suffering PvA 65; Sdhp 95. In atidukkhavāca PvA 15 ati belongs to the whole cpd., i. e. of very hurtful speech.

Atidūra (adj.) [ati + dūra] very or too far Vin I.46; J II.154; Pv II.965 = DhA III.220 (vv. ll. suvidūre); PvA 42 (opp. accāsanna).

Atideva [ati + deva] a super god, god above gods, usually Ep. of the Buddha S I.141; Th 1, 489; Nd2 307 (cp. adhi*); Miln 277. atidevadeva id. Miln 203, 209. deva-tideva god over the gods (of the Buddha) Nd2 307 a.

Atidhamati [ati + dhamati] to beat a drum too hard J I.283; pp. atidhanta ibid.

Atidhātatā [ati + dhāta + ta] oversatiation J II.193.

Atidhāvati [ati + dhāvati 1] to run past, to outstrip or get ahead of S III.103; IV.230; M III.19; It 43; Miln 136; SnA 21.

Atidhonacārin [ati + dhonacārin] indulging too much in the use of the "dhonas", i. e. the four requisites of the bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use or normal application of the requisites (explination. at DhA III.344, cp. dhona) Dh 240 = Nett 129.

Atināmeti [BSanskrit atināmayati, e. g. Divy 82, 443; ati + nāmeti] to pass time A I.206; Miln 345.

Atiniggaṇhāti [ati + niggaṇhāti] to rebuke too much J VI.417.

Atinicaka (adj.) [ati + nīcaka] too low, only in phrase cakkavā'aṃ atisambādhaṃ Brahmaloko atinīcako the World is too narrow and Heaven too low (to comprehend the merit of a person, as sign of exceeding merit) DhA I.310; III.310 = VvA 68.

Atineti [ati + neti] to bring up to, to fetch, to provide with Vin II.180 (udakaṃ).

Atipaṇḍita (adj. [ati + paṇḍita] too clever DhA IV.38.

Atipaṇḍitatā (f.) [abstr. of atipaṇḍita] too much cleverness DhA II.29.

Atipadāna (nt.) [ati + pa + dāna] too much alms-giving Pv II.943 ( = atidāna PvA 130).

Atipapañca [ati + p.] too great a delay, excessive tarrying J I.64; II.93.

Atipariccāga [ati + pariccāga] excess in liberality DhA III.11.

Atipassati [ati + passati; cp. Sanskrit anupashyati] to look for, catch sight of, discover M III.132 (nāgaṃ).

Atipāta [ati + pat] attack, only in phrase pāṇa-tipāta destruction of life, slaying, killing, murder D I.4 (pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, refraining from killing, the first of the dasasīla or decalogue); DA I.69 ( = pāṇavadha, pāṇaghāta); Sn 242; Kh II. cp. KhA 26; PvA 28, 33 etc.

Atipātin (adj. -n.) one who attacks or destroys Sn 248; J VI.449 (in war nāgakkhandh* = hatthikkhande khaggena chinditvā C.); PvA 27 (pāṇ*).

Atipāteti [Denominitive from atipāta] to destroy S V.453; Dh 246 (v. l. for atimāpeti, q. v.). Cp. paripāteti.

Atipīṇita (adj.) [ati + pīṇita] too much beloved, too dear, too lovely DhA V.70.

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Atipī'ita [ati + pī'ita, cp. Sanskrit abhipīḍita] pressed against, oppressed, harassed, vexed J V.401 ( = atigā'hita).

Atippago (adv.) [cp. Sanskrit atiprage] too early, usually elliptical = it is too early (with inf. carituṃ etc.) D I.178; M I.84; A IV.35.

Atibaddha [pp. of atibandhati; cp. Sanskrit anubaddha] tied to, coupled J I.192 = Vin IV.5.

Atibandhati [ati + bandhati; cp. Sanskrit anubandhati] to tie close to, to harness on, to couple J I.191 sq. -pp. atibaddha q. v.

Atibahala (adj.) [ati + bahala] very thick J VI.365.

Atibā'ha (adj.) [ati + bā'ha] very great or strong PvA 178; nt. adv. *ṃ too much D I.93, 95; M I.253.

Atibāheti [ati + bāheti, Causative to brh1; cp. Sanskrit ābrhati] to drive away, to pull out J IV.366 ( = abbāheti).

AtiBrahmā [ati + Brahmā] a greater Brahma, a super-god Miln 277; DhA II.60 (Brahmuṇā a. greater than B.).

Atibrūheti [ati + brūheti, brh2, but by C. taken incorrectly to brū; cp. Sanskrit abhi-brṇhayati] to shout out, roar, cry J V.361 ( = mahāsaddaṃ nicchāreti).

Atibhagini-putta [ati + bh.-p.] a very dear nephew J I.223.

Atibhāra [ati + bhāra] too heavy a load Miln 277 (*ena sakaṭassa akkho bhijjati).

Atibhārita (adj.) [ati + bhārita] too heavily weighed, overloaded Vtn IV.47.

Atibhāriya (adj.) too serious DhA I.70.

Atibhuñjati [ati + bhuñjati] to eat too much, to overeat Miln 153.

Atibhutta (nt.) [ati + bhutta] overeating Miln 135.

Atibhoti [ati + bhavati, cp. Sanskrit atibhavati and abhibhavati] to excel, overcome, to get the better of, to deceive J I.163 ( = ajjhottharati vañceti C.).

Atimaññati [Sanskrit atimanyate; ati + man] to despise, slighten, neglect Sn 148 ( = KhA 247 atikkamitvā maññati); Dh 365, 366; J II.347; Pv I.76 (*issaŋ, v. l. *asiṃ = atikkamitvā avamaññiṃ PvA 37); PvA 36; Sdhp 609.

Atimaññanā (f.) [abstr. to prec., cp. atimāna] arrogance, contempt, neglect Miln 122.

Atimanāpa (adj.) [ati + manāpa] very lovely PvA 77 (+ abhirūpa).

Atimanorama (adj.) [ati + manorama] very charming J I.60.

Atimanohara (adj.) [ati + manohara] very charming PvA 46.

Atimanda(ka) (adj.) [ati + manda] too slow, too weak Sdhp 204, 273, 488.

Atimamāyati [ati + mamāyati, cp. Sanskrit atīmamāyate in different meaning = envy] to favour too much, to spoil or fondle J II.316.

Atimahant (adj.) [ati + mahant] very or too great J I.221; PvA 75.

Atimāna [Sanskrit atimāna, ati + māna] high opinion (of oneself), pride, arrogance, conceit, M I.363; Sn 853 (see explination. at Nd1 233), 942, 968; J VI.235; Nd1 490; Miln 289. Cp. atimaññanā.

Atimānin (adj.) [from atimāna] D II.45 (thaddha +); Sn 143 (an*) 244; KhA 236.

Atimāpeti [ati + māpeti, Causative of mī, mināte, orig. meaning "to do damage to"] to injure, destroy, kill; only in the stock phrase pāṇaṃ atimāpeti (with v. l. atipāteti) to destroy life, to kill D I.52 (v. l. *pāteti) = DA I.159 (: pāṇaṃ hanati pi parehi hanāpeti either to kill or incite others to murder); M I.404, 516; S IV.343; A III.205 (correct T. reading atimāteti; v. l. pāteti); Dh 246 (v. l. *pāteti) = DhA III.356 (: parassa jīvitindriyaṃ upacchindati).

Atimukhara (adj.) [ati + mukhara] very talkative, a chatterbox J I.418; DhA II.70. atimukharatā (f. abstr.) ibid.

Atimuttaka [Sanskrit atimuktaka] N. of a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa Vin II.256 = M I.32; Miln 338.

Atimuduka (adj.) [ati + muduka] very soft, mild or feeble J I.262.

Atiyakkha (ati + yakkha] a sorcerer, wizard, fortuneteller J VI.502 (C.: bhūta-vijjā ikkhaṇīka).

Atiyācaka (adj.) [ati + yācaka] one who asks too much Vin III.147.

Atiyācanā (f.) [ati + yācanā] asking or begging too much Vin III.147.

Atirattiṃ (adv.) [ati + ratti; cp. atidivā] late in the night, at midnight J I.436 (opp. atipabhāte).

Atirassa (adj.) [ati + rassa] too short (opp. atidīgha) Vin IV.7; J VI.457; VvA 103.

Atirājā [ati + rājā] a higher king, the greatest king, more than a king DhA II.60; Miln 277.

Atiriccati [ati + riccati, see ritta] to be left over, to remain Sdhp 23, 126.

Atiritta (adj.) [pp. of ati + rlc, see ritta] left over, only as negative an* applied to food, i. e. food which is not the leavings of a meal, fresh food Vin I.213 sq, 238; II.301; IV.82 sq., 85.

Atiriva (ati-r-iva) see ativiya.

Atireka (adj.) [Sanskrit atireka, ati + ric, rinakti; see ritta] surplus, too much; exceeding, excessive, in a high degree; extra Vin I.255; J I.72 (*padasata), 109; 441 (in higher positions); Miln 216; DhsA 2; DhA II.98. -cīvara an extra robe Vin I.289. -pāda exceeding the worth of a pāda, more than a pāda, Vin III.47.

Atirekatā (f.) [abstr. to prec.] excessiveness, surplus, excess Kvu 607.

Atirocati [ati + ruc] to shine magnificently (trs.) to outshine, to surpass in splendour D II.208; Dh 59; Pv II.958; Miln 336 (+ virocati); DhA I.446 ( = atikkamitvā virocati); III.219; PvA 139 ( = ativiya virocati).

Ativankin (adj.) [ati + vankin] very crooked J I.160 (vanka-tivankin crooked all over; cp. ati III.).

Ativaṇṇati [ati + vaṇṇati] to surpass, excel D II.267.

Ativatta [pp. of ativattati: Sanskrit ativrtta] passed beyond, surpassed, overcome (act. and pass.), conquered Sn 1133 (bhava*); Nd2 21 ( = atikkanta, vītivatta); J V.84 (bhaya*); Miln 146, 154.

Ativattati [ati + vrt, Sanskrit ativartate] to pass, pass over, go beyond; to overcome, get over; conquer Vin II.237 (samuddo velaṃ n-); S II.92 (saŋsāraṃ); IV.158 (id.) It 9 (saŋsāraṃ) = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; Th 1, 412; J I.58, 280; IV.134; VI.113, 114; PvA 276. -pp. ativatta (q. v.).

Ativattar1 [Sanskrit *ativaktr, n. ag. to ati-vacati; cp. ativākya] one who insults or offends J V.266 (isīnaṃ ativattāro = dharusavācāhi atikkamitvā vattāro C.).

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Ativattar2 [Sanskrit *ativartr, n. ag. to ati-vattati] one who overcomes or is to be overcome Sn 785 (svātivattā = durativattā duttarā duppatarā Nd1 76).

Ativasa (adj.) [ati + vasa from vas] being under somebody's rule, dependent upon (c. gen.) Dh 74 ( = vase vattati DhA II.79).

Ativassati [ati + vassati, cp. Sanskrit abhivar.sati] to rain down on, upon or into Th 1, 447 = Vin II.240.

Ativākya (nt.) [ati + vac, cp. Sanskrit ativāda, from ati + vad] abuse, blame, reproach Dh 320, 321 ( = aṭṭha-anariyavohāra-vasena pavattaṃ vītikkama-vacanaṃ DhA IV.3); J VI.508.

Ativāta [ati + vāta] too much wind, a wind which is too strong, a gale, storm Miln 277.

Ativāyati [ati + vāyati] to fill (excessively) with an odour or perfume, to satiate, permeate, pervade Miln 333 (+ vāyati; cp. abhivāyati ibid 385).

Ativāha [from ati + vah, cp. Sanskrit ativahati and abhivāha] carrying, carrying over; a conveyance; one who conveys, i. e. a conductor, guide Th 1, 616 (said of sīla, good character); J V.433. - Cp. ativāhika.

Ativāhika [from ativāha] one who belongs to a conveyance, one who conveys or guides, a conductor (of a caravan) J V.471, 472 (*purisa).

Ativikāla (adj.) [ati + vikāla] at a very inconvenient time, much too late D I 108 ( = suṭṭhu vikāla DA I.277).

Ativijjhati [Sanskrit atividhyati, ati + vyadh] to pierce, to enter into (fig.), to see through, only in phrase paññāya ativijjha (ger.) passati to recognise in all details M I.480; S V.226; A II.178.

Ativiya (adv.) [Sanskrit atīva] = ati + iva, orig. "much-like" like an excess = excessive-ly. There are three forms of this expression, viz. (1) ati + iva in contraction atīva (q. v.); - (2) ati + iva with epenthetic r: atiriva D II.264 (v. l. SS. atīva); Sn 679, 680, 683; SnA 486; (3) ati + viya (the doublet of iva) = ativiya J I.61, 263; DhA II.71 (a. upakāra of great service); PvA 22, 56, 139.

Ativisā (f.) [Sanskrit ativis.ā] N. of a plant Vin I.201; IV.35.

Ativissaṭṭha (adj.) [ati + vissaṭṭha] too abundant, in *vākya one who talks too much, a chatterbox J V.204.

Ativissāsika (adj.) [ati + vissāsika] very, or too confidential J I.86.

Ativissuta (adj.) [ati + vissuta] very famous, renowned Sdhp 473.

Ativeṭheti [ati + ves.ṭ, cp. Sanskrit abhives.ṭate] to wrap over, to cover, to enclose; to press, oppress, stifle Vin II.101; J V.452 (-ativiya veṭheti pi'eti C.).

Ativela (adj.) [ati + vela] excessive (of time); nt. adv. *ṃ a very long time; excessively D I.19 ( = atikālaṃ aticiran ti attho DA I.113); M I.122; Sn 973 (see explination. at Nd1 504); J III.103 = Nd1 504.

Atilīna (adj.) [ati + līna] too much attached to worldly matters S V.263.

Atilūkha (adj.) [ati + lūkha] too wretched, very miserable Sdhp 409.

Atiloma (adj.) [ati + loma] too hairy, having too much hair J VI.457 (opp. aloma).

Atisañcara (*cāra*) [ati + sañcāra] wandering about too much Miln 277.

Atisaṇha (adj.) [ati + saṇha] too subtle DhA III.326.

Atisanta (adj.) [ati + santa1] extremely peaceful Sdhp 496.

Atisambādha (adj.) [ati + sambādha] too tight, crowded or narrow DhA I.310; III.310 = VvA 68; cp. atinīcaka. f. abstr. atisambādhatā the state of being too narrow J I.7.

Atisaya [cp. Sanskrit atishaya, from ati + shī] superiority, distinction, excellence, abundance VvA 135 ( = visesa); PvA 86; Dāvs II.62.

Atisayati [ati + shī] to surpass, excel; ger. atisayitvā Miln 336 (+ atikkamitvā).

Atisara (adj.) [from atisarati; cp. accasara] transgressing, sinning J IV.6; cp. atisāra.

Atisarati [ati + sr] to go too far, to go beyond the limit, to overstep, transgress, aor. accasari (q. v.) Sn 8 sq. (opp. paccasari; C. atidhāvi); J V.70 and atisari J IV.6. ger. atisitvā (for *atisaritvā) D I.222; S IV.94; A I.145; V.226, 256; Sn 908 ( = Nd1 324 atikkamitvā etc.).

Atisāyaṃ (adv.) [ati + sāyaṃ] very late, late in the evening J V.94.

Atisāra [from ati + sr, see atisarati. Cp. Sanskrit atisāra in different meaning but BSanskrit atisāra (sa-tisāra) in the same meaning) going too far, overstepping the limit, trespassing, false step, slip, danger Vin I.55 (sa-tisāra), 326 (id.); S I.74; M III.237; Sn 889 (atisāraṃ diṭṭhiyo = diṭṭhi-gatāni Nd1 297; going beyond the proper limits of the right faith), J V.221 (dhamm*), 379; DhA I.182; DhsA 28. See also atisara.

Atisithila (adj.) [ati + sithila] very loose, shaky or weak A III.375.

Atisīta (adj.) [ati + sīta] too cold DhA II.85.

Atisītala (adj.) [ati + sītala] very cold J III.55.

Atihaṭṭha (adj.) [ati + haṭṭha] very pleased Sdhp 323.

Atiharati [ati + hr] to carry over, to bring over, bring, draw over Vin II.209; IV.264; S I.89; J I.292; V.347. Causative atiharāpeti to cause to bring over, bring in, reap, collect, harvest Vin II.181; III.18; Miln 66; DhA IV.77. See also atihita.

Atihita [ati + hr, pp. of atiharati, hita unusual for hata, perhaps through analogy with Sanskrit abhi + dhā] brought over (from the field into the house), harvested, borne home Th 1, 381 (vīhi).

Atihīna (adj.) [ati + hīna] very poor or destitute A IV.282, 287; 323 (opp. accogā'ha).

Atihī'eti [ati + hīḍ] to despise J IV.331 ( = atimaññati C.).

Atīta (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit atīta, ati + ita, pp. of i. Cp. accaya and ati eti] 1. (temporal) past, gone by (cp. accaya 1) (a) adj. atītaṃ addhānaṃ in the time which is past S III.86; A IV.219; V.32. - Pv II.1212 (atītānaṃ, scil. attabhāvāuaṃ, pariyanto na dissati); khaṇa-tīta with the right moment past Dh 315 = Sn 333; atītayobbana he who is past youth or whose youth is past Sn 110. - (b) nt. the past: atīte (loc.) once upon a time J I.98 etc. atītaṃ āhari he told (a tale of) the past, i. e. a Jātaka J I.213, 218, 221 etc. - S I.5 (atītaṃ na-nusocati); A III.400 (a. eko anto); Sn 851, 1112. In this sense very frequently combined. with or opposed to anāgata the future and paccuppanna the present, e. g. atīta-nāgate in past and future S II.58; Sn 373; J VI.364. Or all three in stereotype combination. atīt--anāgata-paccuppanna (this the usual order) D III.100, 135; S II.26, 110, 252; III.19, 47, 187; IV.4 sq.; 151 sq.; A I.264 sq., 284; II.171, 202; III.151; V.33; It 53; Nd2 22; but also occasionally atīta paccuppanna anāgata,

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e. g. PvA 100. - 2. (modal) passed out of, having overcome or surmounted, gone over, free from (cp. accaya 2) S I.97 (maraṇaṃ an* not free from death), 121 (sabbavera-bhaya*); A II.21; III.346 (sabbasaŋyojana*); Sn 373 (kappa*), 598 (khaya*, of the moon = ūnabhāvaṃ atīta Sn A 463); Th 1, 413 (c. abl.) - 3. (id.) overstepping, having transgressed or neglected (cp. accaya 3) Dh 176 (dhammaṃ). -aṃsa the past ( = atīta koṭṭhāse, atikkantabhavesū ti attho ThA 233) D II.222; III.275; Th 2, 314. -ārammaṇa state of mind arising out of the past Dhs 1041.

Atīradassin (adj.-n.) [a + tīra + dassin] not seeing the shore J I.46; VI.440; also as atīradassanī (f.) J V.75 (nāvā). Cp. D I 222.

Atīva (indecl.) [ati + iva, see also ativiya] very much, exceedingly J II.413; Mhvs 33, 2 etc.

Ato (adv.) [Sanskrit ata*] hence, now, therefore S I.15; M I.498; Miln 87; J V.398 ( = tato C.).

Atoṇa [etymology*) a class of jugglers or acrobats(*) Miln 191.

Atta1 [ā + d + ta; that is, pp. of ādadāti with the base form reduced to d. Idg *d-to; cp. Sanskrit ātta] that which has been taken up, assumed. atta-daṇḍa, he who has taken a stick in hand, a violent person, S I.236; IV.117; Sn 630, 935; Dh 406. Attañjaha, rejecting what had been assumed, Sn 790. Attaṃ pahāya Sn 800. The opp. is niratta, that which has not been assumed, has been thrown off, rejected. The Arahant has neither atta nor niratta (Sn 787, 858, 919), neither assumption nor rejection, he keeps an open mind on all speculative theories. See Nd I.82, 90, 107, 352; II.271; SnA 523; DhA IV.180 for the traditional exegesis. As legal t. t. attādānaṃ ādīyati is to take upon oneself the conduct, before the Chapter, of a legal point already raised. Vin II.247 (quoted V.91).

Atta2 see attan.

Atta3 [Sanskrit akta, pp. of añjati] see upatta.

Attan (m.) and atta (the latter is the form used in compounds.) [Vedic ātman, not to Gr. a)\nemos = Latin animus, but to Gr. a)tmo/s steam, Ohg. ātum breath, Ags. aepm]. - I. Inflection. (1) of attan- (n. stem); the following cases are the most frequent: acc. attānaṃ D I.13, 185; S I.24; Sn 132, 451. - gen. dat. attano Sn 334, 592 etc., also as abl. A III.337 (attano ca parato ca as regards himself and others). - instr. abl. attanā S I.24; Sn 132, 451; DhA II.75; PvA 15, 214 etc. On use of attanā see below III.1 C. - loc. attani S V.177; A I.149 (attanī metri causa); II.52 (anattani); III.181; M I.138; Sn 666, 756, 784; Vbh 376 (an*). - (2) of atta- (a-stem) we find the following cases: acc. attaṃ Dh 379. - instr. attena S IV.54. - abl. attato S I.188; Ps I.143; II.48; Vbh 336. Meanings. 1. The soul as postulated in the animistic theories held in N India in the 6th and 7th cent. B. C. It is described in the Upanishads as a small creature, in shape like a man, dwelling in ordinary times in the heart. It escapes from the body in sleep or trance; when it returns to the body life and motion reappear. It escapes from the body at death, then continues to carry on an everlasting life of its own. For numerous other details see Rh. D. Theory of Soul in the Upanishads J R A S 1899. Bt. India 251-255. Buddhism repudiated all such theories, thus differing from other religions. Sixteen such theories about the soul D I.31. Seven other theories D I.34. Three others D I.186/7. A "soul" according to general belief was some thing permanent, unchangeable, not affected by sorrow S IV.54 = Kvu 67; Vin I.14; M I.138. See also M I.233; III.265, 271; S II.17, 109; III.135; A I.284; II.164, 171; V.188; S IV.400. Cp. ātuman, tuma, puggala, jīva, satta, pāṇa and nāma-rūpa. 2. Oneself, himself, yourself. Nom. attā, very rare. S I.71, 169; III.120; A I.57, 149 (you yourself know whether that is true or false. Cp. Manu VIII.84. Here attā comes very near to the European idea of conscience. But conscience as a unity or entity is not accepted by Buddhism) Sn 284; Dh 166, 380; Miln 54 (the image, outward appearance, of oneself). Acc. attānaṃ S I.44 (would not give for himself, as a slave) A I.89; Sn 709. Acc. attaṃ Dh 379. Abl. attato as oneself S I.188; Ps I.143; II.48; Vbh 336. Loc. attani A I.149; III.181; Sn 666, 784. Instr. attanā S I.57 = Dh 66; S I.75; II.68; A I.53; III.211; IV.405; Dh 165. On one's own account, spontaneously S IV.307; V.354; A I.297; II.99, 218; III.81; J I.156; PvA 15, 20. In composition with numerals attadutiya himself and one other D II.147; *catuttha with himself as fourth M I.393; A III.36; *pañcama Dpvs VIII.2; *sattama J I.233; *aṭṭhama VvA 149 (as atta-naṭṭhama Vv 3413), and *aṭṭhamaka Miln 291. anattā (n. and predicative adj.) not a soul, without a soul. Most frequent in combination. with dukkha and anicca - (1) as noun: S III.141 (*anupassin); IV.49; V.345 (*saññin); A II.52 = Ps II.80 (anattani anattā; opp. to anattani attā, the opinion of the micchādiṭṭhigatā sattā); Dh 279; Ps II.37, 45 sq. (*anupassanā), 106 (yaṃ aniccañ ca dukkhañ ca taṃ anattā); DhA III. 406 (*lakkhaṇa). - (2) as adj. (pred.): S IV.152 sq.; S IV.166; S IV.130 sq., 148 sq.; Vin I.13 = S III.66 = Nd2 680 Q 1; S III.20 sq.; 178 sq., 196 sq.; sabbe dhammā anattā Vin V.86; S III.133; IV.28, 401. -attha one's own profit or interest Sn 75; Nd2 23; J IV.56, 96; otherwise as atta-d-attha, e. g. Sn 284. -atthiya looking after one's own needs Th 1, 1097. -a-dhipaka mastereotypeof oneself, self-mastereotyped A I.150. -adhipateyya selfdependence, self-reliance, independence A I.147. -a-dhīna independent D I.72. -a-nudiṭṭhi speculation about souls S III.185; IV.148; A III.447; Sn 1119; Ps I.143; Vbh 368; MilnQ 146. -a-nuyogin one who concentrates his attention on himself Dh 209; DhA III.275. -a-nuvāda blaming oneself A II.121; Vbh 376. -uññā self-humiliation Vbh 353 (+ att-avaññā). -uddesa relation to oneself Vin III.149 ( = attano atthāya), also *ika ibid. 144. -kata self-made S I.134 (opp. para*). -kāma love of self A II.21; adj. a lover of "soul", one who cares for his own soul S I.75. -kāra individual self, fixed individuality, oneself (cp. ahaṃkāra) D I.53 (opp. para*); A III 337 (id.) DA I.160; as nt. at J V.401 in the sense of service (self-doing", slavery) (attakārāni karonti bhattusu). -kilamatha self-mortification D III.113; S IV.330; V.421; M III.230. -garahin self-censuring Sn 778. -gutta selfguarded Dh 379. -gutti watchfulness as regards one's self, self-care A II.72. -ghañña self-destruction Dh 164. -ja proceeding from oneself Dh 161 (pāpa). -ñū knowing oneself A IV.113, cp. D III.252. -(n)tapa self-mortifying, self-vexing D III.232 = A II.205 (opp. paran*); M I.341, 411; II.159; Pug 55, 56. -daṇḍa see atta1. -danta selfrestrained, self-controlled Dh 104, 322. -diṭṭhi speculation concerning the nature of the soul Nd1 107; SnA 523, 527. -dīpa relying on oneself, independent, founded on oneself (+ attasaraṇa, opp. añña*) D II.100 = III.42; S V.154; Sn 501 ( = attano guṇe eva attano dīpaṃ katvā SnA 416). -paccakkha only in instr. *ena by or with his own presence, i. e. himself J V.119. -paccakkhika eye-witness J V.119. -paccatthika hostile to oneself Vin II.94, 96. -paṭilābha acquisition of a personality D I.195 (tayo: o'ārika, manomaya, arūpa). -paritāpana self-chastisement, mortification D III.232 = A II.205; M I.341; PvA 18, 30. -parittā charm (protection) for oneself Vin II.110. -paribhava disrespect for one's own person Vbh 353. -bhāva one's own nature (1) person, personality, individuality, living creature; form, appearance [cp. Dhs trsl. LXXI and BSanskrit ātmabhāva body Divy 70, 73 (*pratilambha), 230; Sp. Av. SH I.162 (pratilambha), 167, 171] Vin II.238 (living beings, forms); S V.442 (bodily appearance); A I.279 (o'ārika a substantial creature); II.17 (creature); DhA II.64, 69 (appearance); SnA 132 (personality). - (2) life, rebirth A I.134 sq.; III.412;

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DhA II.68; PvA 8, 15, 166 (atītā *ā former lives). *ṃ pavatteti to lead a life, to live PvA 29, 181. Thus in cpd. paṭilābha assumption of an existence, becoming reborn as an individual Vin II.185; III.105; D III.231; M III.46; S II.255, 272, 283; III.144; A II.159, 188; III.122 sq. - (3) character, quality of heart Sn 388 ( = citta SnA 374); J I.61. -rūpa "of the form of self", self-like only in instr. *ena as adv. by oneself, on one's own account, for the sake of oneself S IV.97; A II.120. -vadha self-destruction S II.241; A II.73. -vāda theory of (a persistent) soul D III.230; M I.66; D II.58; S II.3, 245 sq.; III.103, 165, 203; IV.1 sq., 43 sq., 153 sq.; Ps I.156 sq.; Vbh 136, 375. For var. points of an "attavādic" doctrine see Index to Saŋyutta Nikāya. -vyābādha personal harm or distress self-suffering, one's own disastereotype(opp. para*) M I 369; S IV.339 = A I.157; A II.179. -vetana supporting oneself, earning one's own living Sn 24. -sañcetanā self-perception, self-consciousness (opp. para*) D III.231; A II.159. -sambhava originating from one's self S I.70; A IV.312; Dh 161 (pāpa); Th 1, 260. -sambhūta arisen from oneself Sn 272. -sammāpaṇidhi thorough pursuit or development of one's personality A II.32; Sn 260, cp. KhA 132. -saraṇa see *dipa. -sukha happiness of oneself, self-success Dpvs I.66, cp. II.11. -hita personal welfare one's own good (opp. para*) D III.233; A II.95 sq. -hetu for one's own sake, out of self-consideration Sn 122; Dh 328.

Attaniya (adj.) [from attā] belonging to the soul, having a soul, of the nature of soul, soul-like; usually nt. anything of the nature of soul M I.138 = Kvu 67; M I.297; II.263; S III.78 (yaṃ kho anattaniyaṃ whatever has no soul), 127; IV.54 = Nd2 680 F; S IV.82 = III.33 = Nd2 680 Q 3; S IV.168; V.6; Nd2 680 D. Cp. Dhs trsl. XXXV ff.

Attamana [atta1 + mano, having an up raised mind. Bdhgh's explination. is saka-mano DA I.255 = attā + mano. He applies the same explination. to attamanatā (at Dhs 9, see Dhs trsl. 12) = attano manatā mentality of one's self] delighted, pleased, enraptured D I.3, 90 (an*); II.14; A III.337, 343; IV.344; Sn 45 = Dh 328 ( = upaṭṭhita-satt DhA IV.29); Sn 995; Nd2 24 ( = tuṭṭha-mano haṭṭha-mano etc.); Vv 14; Pug 33 (an*); Miln 18; DA I.52; DhA I.89 (an*-dhātuka displeased); PvA 23, 132; VvA 21 (where Dhpāla gives two explinations, either tuṭṭhamano or sakamano).

Attamanatā (f.) [abstr. to prec.] satisfaction, joy, pleasure, transport of mind M I.114; A I.276; IV.62; Pug 18 (an*); Dhs 9, 86, 418 (an*); PvA 132; VvA 67 (an*).

Attāṇa (adj.) [a + tāṇa] without shelter or protection J I.229; Miln 148, 325; ThA 285.

Attha1 (also aṭṭha, esp. in combinations mentioned under 3) (m. and nt.) [Vedic artha from r, arti and rṇoti to reach, attain or to proceed (to or from), thus originally result (or cause), profit, attainment. Cp. semantically Fr. chose, Latin causa] 1. interest, advantage, gain; (moral) good, blessing, welfare; profit, prosperity, well-being M I.111 (atthassa ninnetar, of the Buddha, bringer of good); S IV.94 (id.); S I.34 (attano a. one's own welfare), 55 (id.) 86, 102, 126 = A II.46 (atthassa patti); S I.162 (attano ca parassa ca); II.222 (id.); IV.347 (*ṃ bhañjati destroy the good or welfare, always with musāvādena by lying, cp. attha-bhañjanaka); A I.61 (*ṃ anubhoti to fare well, to have a (good) result); III.364 (samparāyika a. profit in the future life); A V.223 sq. (anattho ca attho ca detriment and profit); It 44 (v. l. attā better); Sn 37, 58 ( = Nd2 26, where the six kinds of advantages are enumerated as att* par* ubhay*, i. e. advantage, resulting for oneself, for others, for both; diṭṭhadhammik* samparāyik* param* gain for this life, for a future life, and highest gain of all, i. e. Arahantship); Sn 331 (ko attho supitena what good is it to sleep = na hiQ sakkā supantena koci attho papuṇituṃ SnA 338; cp. ko attho supinena te Pv II.61); PvA 30 (atthaṃ sādheti does good, results in good, 69 (samparāyikena atthena). - dat. atthāya for the good, for the benefit of (gen.); to advantage, often combined. with hitāya sukhāya, e. g. D III.211 sq.; It 79. - Kh VIII.1 (to my benefit); Pv I.43 ( = upakārāya PvA 18), II.129 (to great advantage). See also below 6. Sometimes in a more concrete meaning = riches, wealth, e. g. J I.256 ( = vaḍḍhiṃ C.); III.394 (id.); Pv IV.14 ( = dhanaṃ PvA 219). - Often as -*: att*, one's own wellfare, usually combined. with par* and ubhay* (see above) S II.29; V.121; A I.158, 216; III.63 sq.; IV.134; Sn 75 (att-aṭṭha, v. l. attha Nd2), 284 (atta-d-attha); uttam* the highest gain, the very best thing Dh 386 ( = arahatta DhA IV.142); Sn 324 ( = arahatta SnA 332); param* id. Nd2 26; sad* one's own weal D II.141; M I.4; S II.29; V.145; A I.144; sāttha (adj.) connected with advantage, beneficial, profitable (of the Dhamma; or should we take it as "with the meaning, in spirit"* see sāttha) D I.62; S V.352; A II.147; III.152; Nd2 316. - 2. need, want (c. instr.), use (for = instr.) S I.37 (*jāta when need has arisen, in need); J I.254; III.126, 281; IV.1; DhA I.398 (n- atthi eteh- attho I have no use for them); VvA 250; PvA 24 (yāvadattha, adj. as much as is needed, sufficient = anappaka). - 3. sense, meaning, import (of a word), denotation, signification. In this application attha is always spelt aṭṭha in compounds aṭṭh-uppatti and aṭṭha-kathā (see below). On term see also Cpd.4. - S III.93 (atthaṃ vibhajati explain the sense); A I.23 (id.), 60 (nīt* primary meaning, literal meaning; neyy* secondary or inferred meaning); II.189 (*ṃ ācikkhati to interpret); Sn 126 (*ṃ pucchita asked the (correct) sense, the lit. meaning), 251 (*ṃ akkhāti); Th 1, 374; attho paramo the highest sense, the ultimate sense or intrinsic meaning It 98, cp. Cpd.6, 81, 223; Miln 28 (paramatthato in the absolute sense); Miln 18 (atthato according to its meaning, opp. vyañjanato by letter, orthographically); DhA II.82; III.175; KhA 81 (pad* meaning of a word); SnA 91 (id.); PvA 15 (*ṃ vadati to explain, interpret), 16, 19 (hitatthadhammatā "fitness of the best sense", i. e. practical application), 71. Very frequent in Commentary style at the conclusion of an explained passage as ti attho "this is the meaning", thus it is meant, this is the sense, e. g. DA I.65; DhA IV.140, 141; PvA 33, etc. -4. Contrasted with dhamma in the combination. attho ca dhammo ca it (attha) refers to the (primary, natural) meaning of the word, while dhamma relates to the (interpreted) meaning of the text, to its bearing on the norm and conduct; or one might say they represent the theoretical and practical side of the text (Pāli) to be discussed, the "letter" and the "spirit". Thus at A I.69; V.222, 254; Sn 326 ( = bhāsitatthañ ca Pālidhammañ ca SnA 333); It 84 (duṭṭho atthaṃ na jānāti dhammaṃ na passati: he realises neither the meaning nor the importance); Dh 363 ( = bhāsitatthañ c- eva desanādhammañ ca); J II.353; VI.368; Nd2 386 (meaning and proper nature); Pv III.96 (but explained. by PvA 211 as hita = benefit, good, thus referring it to above 1). For the same use see compounds *dhamma, *paṭisambhidā, esp. in adv. use (see under 6) Sn 430 (yen- atthena for which purpose), 508 (kena atthena v. l. BB for T attanā), J I.411 (atthaṃ vā kāraṇaṃ vā reason and cause); DhA II.95 (+ kāraṇa(; PvA 11 (ayaŋ h- ettha attho this is the reason why). - 5. (in very wide application, covering the same ground as Latin res and Fr. chose): (a) matter, affair, thing, often untranslatable and simply to be given as "this" or "that" S II.36 (ekena-padena sabbo attho vutto the whole matter is said with one word); J I.151 (taṃ atthaṃ the matter); II.160 (imaṃ a. this); VI.289 (taṃ atthaṃ pakāsento); PvA 6 (taṃ atthaṃ pucchi asked it), 11 (visajjeti explains it), 29 (vuttaṃ atthaṃ what had been said), 82 (id.). - (b) affair, cause, case (cp. aṭṭa2 and Latin causa) Dh 256, 331; Miln 47 (kassa atthaṃ dhāresi whose cause do you support, with whom do you agree*). See also alamattha. - 6. Adv. use of oblique cases in the sense of a prep.: (a) dat. atthāya for the

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sake of, in order to, for J I.254 dhan- atthāya for wealth, kim* what for, why*), 279; II.133; III.54; DhA II.82; PvA 55, 75, 78. - (b) acc. atthaṃ on account of, in order to, often instead of an infinitive or with another inf. substitute J I.279 (kim*); III.53 (id.); I.253; II.128; Dpvs VI.79; DhA I.397; PvA 32 (dassan* in order to see), 78, 167, etc. - (c) abl. atthā J III.518 (pitu atthā = atthāya C.). - (d) loc. atthe instead of, for VvA 10; PvA 33; etc. anattha (m. and nt.) 1. unprofitable situation or condition, mischief, harm, misery, misfortune S I.103; II.196 (anatthāya saŋvattati); A IV.96 (*ṃ adhipajjati) It 84 (*janano doso ill-will brings discomfort); J I.63, 196; Pug 37; Dhs 1060, 1231; Sdhp 87; DA I.52 (anatthajanano kodho, cp. It 83 and Nd2 420 Q2); DhA II.73; PvA 13, 61, 114, 199. - 2. ( = attha 3) incorrect sense, false meaning, as adj. senseless (and therefore unprofitable, no good, irrelevant) A V.222, 254 (adhammo ca); Dh 100 ( = aniyyānad*īpaka DhA II.208); Sn 126 (explained. at SnA 180 as ahitaṃ). -akkhāyin showing what is profitable D III.187. -attha riches J VI.290 ( = atthabhūtaṃ atthaṃ C.). -antara difference between the (two) meanings Miln 158. At Th 1, 374, Oldenberg's reading, but the v. l. (also C. reading) atthandhara is much better = he who knows the (correct) meaning, esp. as it corresponds with dhamma-dhara (q. v.). -abhisamaya grasp of the proficient S I.87 (see abhisamaya). -uddhāra synopsis or abstract of contents ("matter") of the Vinaya Dpvs V.37. -upaparikkhā investigation of meaning, (+ dhamma-savanna) M III.175; A III.381 sq.; IV.221; V.126. -uppatti (aṭṭh*) sense, meaning, explanation, interpretation J I.89; DA I.242; KhA 216; VvA 197, 203 (cp. Pālito) PvA 2, 6, 78; etc. -kāma (adj.) (a) well-wishing, a well-wisher, friend, one who is interested in the welfare of others (cp. Sanskrit arthakāma, e. g. Bhagavadgīta II.5: gurūn arthakāman) S I.140, 197, 201 sq.; A III.143; D III.164 (bahuno janassa a., + hitakāmo); J I.241; Pv IV.351; Pv A 25; SnA 287 (an*). (b) one who is interested in his own gain or good, either in good or bad sense ( = greedy) S I.44; PvA 112. -kathā (aṭṭha*) exposition of the sense, explanation, commentary J V.38, 170; PvA 1, 71, etc. frequent in N. of Com. -kara beneficial, useful Vin III.149; Miln 321. -karaṇa the business of trying a case, holding court, giving judgment (v. l. aṭṭa*) D II.20; S I.74 (judgment hall*). -kavi a didactic poet (see kavi) A II.230. -kāmin = *kāma, well-wishing Sn 986 (devatā atthakāminī). -kāraṇā (abl.) for the sake of gain D III.186. -kusala clever in finding out what is good or profitable Sn 143 ( = atthacheka KhA 236). -cara doing good, busy in the interest of others, obliging S I.23 (narānaṃ = "working out man's salvation"). -caraka (adj.) one who devotes himself to being useful to others, doing good, one who renders service to others, e. g. an attendant, messenger, agent etc. D I.107 ( = hitakāraka DA I.276); J II.87; III.326; IV.230; VI.369. -cariyā useful conduct or behaviour D III.152, 190, 232; A II.32, 248; IV.219, 364. -ñu one who knows what is useful or who knows the (plain or correct) meaning of something (+ dhammaññū) D III.252; A III.148; IV.113 sq. -dassin intent upon the (moral) good Sn 385 ( = hita-nupassin SnA 373). -dassimant one who examines a cause (cp. Sanskrit arthadarshika) J VI.286 (but explained. by C. as "saṇha-sukhuma-pañña" of deep insight, one who has a fine and minute knowledge). -desanā interpretation, exegesis Miln 21 (dhamm*). -dhamma "reason and morality", see above n0. 3. *anusāsaka one who advises regarding the meaning and application of the Law, a professor of moral philosophy J II.105; DhA II.71. -pada a profitable saying, a word of good sense, text, motto A II.189; III.356; Dh 100. -paṭisambhidā knowledge of the meaning (of words) combined. with dhamma* of the text or spirit (see above n0. 3) Ps I.132; II.150; Vbh 293 sq. -paṭisaŋvedin experiencing good D III.241 (+ dhamma*); A I.151; III.21. -baddha expecting some good from (c. loc.) Sn 382. -bhañjanaka breaking the welfare of, hurting DhA III.356 (paresaŋ of others, by means of telling lies, musāvādena). -majjha of beautiful waist J V.170 ( = sumajjhā C.; reading must be faulty, there is hardly any connection with attha; v. l. atta). -rasa sweetness (or substance, essence) of meaning (+ dhamma*, vimutti*) Nd2 466; Ps II.88, 89. -vasa "dependence on the sense", reasonableness, reason, consequence, cause D II.285; M I.464; II.120; III.150; S II.202; III.93; IV.303; V.224; A I.61, 77, 98; II.240; III.72, 169, 237; Dh 289 ( = kāraṇa DhA III.435); It 89; Sn 297; Ud 14. -vasika sensible It 89; Miln 406. -vasin bent on (one's) aim or purpose Th 1, 539. -vādin one who speaks good, i. e. whose words are doing good or who speaks only useful speech, always in combination. with kāla* bhūta* dhamma* D I.4; III.175; A I.204; II.22, 209; Pug 58; DA I.76 (explained. as "one who speaks for the sake of reaping blessings here and hereafter"). -saŋvaṇṇanā explanation, exegesis PvA 1. -saŋhita connected with good, bringing good, profitable, useful, salutary D I.189; S II.223; IV.330; V.417; A III.196 sq., 244; Sn 722 ( = hitena saŋhitaṃ SnA 500); Pug 58. -sandassana determination of meaning, definition Ps I.105. -siddhi profit, advantage, benefit J I.402; PvA 63.

Attha2 (nt.) [Vedic asta, of uncertain etymology] home, primarily as place of rest and shelter, but in Pāli phraseology abstracted from the "going home", i. e. setting of the sun, as disappearance, going out of existence, annihilation, extinction. Only in acc. and as *- in foll phrases: atthangacchati to disappear, to go out of existence, to vanish Dh 226 ( = vināsaŋ n'atthibhāvaṃ gacchati DhA III.324), 384 ( = parikkhayaŋ gacchati); pp. atthangata gone home, gone to rest, gone, disappeared; of the sun ( = set): J I.175 (atthangate suriye at sunset); PvA 55 (id.) 216 (anatthangate s. before sunset) fig. Sn 472 (atthagata). 475 (id.); 1075 ( = niruddha ucchinṇa vinaṭṭha anupādi-sesāya nibbāna-dhātuyā nibbuta); It 58; Dhs 1038; Vbh 195. -atthagatatta (nt. abstr.) disappearance SnA 409. -atthangama (atthagama passim) annihilation, disappearance; opposed to samudaya (coming into existence) and synonymous with nirodha (destruction) D I.34, 37, 183; S IV.327; A III.326; Ps II.4, 6, 39; Pug 52; Dhs 165, 265, 501, 579; Vbh 105. -atthagamana (nt.) setting (of the sun) J I.101 (suriyass' atthagamanā at sunset) DA I.95 ( = ogamana). - attha-gāmin, in phrase uday- atthagāmin leading to birth and death (of paññā): see udaya. -atthaṃ paleti = atthangacchati (fig.) Sn 1074 ( = atthangameti nirujjhati Nd2 28). - Also atthamita (pp. of i) set (of the sun) in phrase anatthamite suriye before sunset (with anatthangamite as v. l. at both pass.) DhA I.86; III.127. - Cp. also abbhattha.

Attha3 pres. 2nd pl. of atthi (q. v.).

Atthata [pp. of attharati] spread, covered, spread over with (-*) Vin I.265; IV.287; V.172 (also *an); A III.50; PvA 141.

Atthatta (nt.) [abstr. from attha1] reason, cause; only in abl. atthattā according to the sense, by reason of, on account of PvA 189 (-*).

Atthara [from attharati] a rug (for horses, elephants etc.) D I.7.

Attharaka [ = atthara] a covering J I.9; DA I.87. - f. *ikā a layer J I.9; V.280.

Attharaṇa (nt.) [from attharati] a covering, carpet, cover, rug Vin II.291; A II.56; III.53; Mhvs 3, 20; 15, 40; 25, 102; ThA 22.

Attharati [ā + str] to spread, to cover, to spread out; stretch, lay out Vin I.254; V.172; J I.199; V.113; VI.428; Dh I.272. -pp. atthata (q. v.). - Causative attharāpeti to caused to be spread J V.110; Mhvs 3, 20; 29, 7; 34, 69.

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Atthavant (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit arthavant] full of benefit S I.30; Th 1, 740; Miln 172.

Atthāra [cp. Sanskrit āstāra, from attharati] spreading out Vin V.172 (see kaṭhina). atthāraka same ibid.; Vin II.87 (covering).

Atthi [Sanskrit asti, 1st sg. asmi; Gr. ei)mi/-e)sti/; Latin sum-est; Goth. im-ist; Ags. eom-is E. am-is] to be, to exist. Pres. Ind. 1st sg. asmi Sn 1120, 1143; J I.151; III.55, and amhi M I.429; Sn 694; J II.153; Pv I.102; II.82. 2nd sg. asi Sn 420; J II.160 (-si); III.278; Vv 324; PvA 4. - 3rd sg. atthi Sn 377, 672, 884; J I.278. Often used for 3rd pl. ( = santi), e. g. J I.280; II.2; III.55. - 1st pl. asma [Sanskrit sma*] Sn 594, 595; asmase Sn 595, and amha Sn 570; J II.128. 2nd pl. attha J II.128; PvA 39, 74 (āgat- attha you have come). 3rd pl. santi Sn 1077; Nd2 637 ( = saŋvijjanti atthi upalabbhanti); J II.353; PvA 7, 22 - Imper. atthu Sn 340; J I.59; III.26. - Pot. 1st sg. siyā [Sanskrit syām] Pv II.88, and assaŋ [Cond. used as Pot.] Sn 1120; Pv I.125 ( = bhaveyyaṃ PvA 64). - 2nd sg. siyā [Sanskrit syā*] Pv II.87. - 3rd sg. siyā [Sanskrit syāt] D II.154; Sn 325, 1092; Nd2 105 ( = jāneyya, nibbatteyya); J I.262; PvA 13, and assa D I.135, 196; II.154; A V.194; Sn 49, 143; Dh 124, 260; Pv II.324; 924. - 1st pl. assu PvA 27. 3rd pl. assu [cp. Sanskrit syu*] Sn 532; Dh 74; Pv IV.136 ( = bhaveyyuṃ PvA 231). - Aor. 1st sg. āsiṃ [Sanskrit āsaŋ] Sn 284; Pv I.21 ( = ahosiṃ PvA 10); II.34 ( = ahosiṃ PvA 83). - 3rd sg. āsi [Sanskrit āsīt] Sn 994. - 3rd āsuṃ [cp. Sanskrit Perf. āsu*] Pv II.321, 133 (ti pi pāṭho for su). Ppr. *sat only in loc. sati (as loc. abs.) Dh 146; J I.150, 263, santa Sn 105; Nd2 635; J I.150 (loc. evaṃ sante in this case); III.26, and samāna (q. v.) J I.266; IV.138. -bhāva state of being, existence, being J I.222, 290; II.415; DhA II.5; IV.217 (atthibhāva vā n'atthibhāva vā whether there is or not).

Atthika (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit arthika] 1. (to attha1) profitable, good, proper. In this meaning the MSS show a variance of spelling either atthika or aṭṭhika or aṭṭhita; in all cases atthika should be preferred D I.55 (*vāda); M II.212 (aṭṭhita); A III.219 sq. (idaŋ atthikaṃ this is suitable, of good avail; T aṭṭhitaṃ, vv. ll. as above); Sn 1058 (aṭṭhita; Nd2 20 also aṭṭhita, which at this pass. shows a confusion between aṭṭha and a-ṭhita); J V.151 (in def. of aṭṭhikatvā q. v.); Pug 69, 70 (T aṭṭhika, aṭṭhita SS; explained. by Pug A V.4 by kalyāṇāya). - 2. (to attha1 2) desirous of (-*), wanting, seeking for, in need of (c. instr.) A II.199 (uday* desirous of increase); Sn 333, 460, 487 (puññ*), 987 (dhan* greedy for wealth); J I.263 (rajj* coveting a kingdom); V.19; Pv II.228 (bhojan* in need of food); IV.11 (kāraṇ*), 121 (khiḍḍ* for play), 163 (puññ*); PvA 95 (sasena a. wanting a rabbit), 120; DA I.70 (atthikā those who like to). -an'atthika one who does not care for, or is not satisfied with (c. instr.) J V.460; PvA 20; of no good Th 1, 956 ("of little zeal" Mrs. Rh. D.). -bhāva (a) usefulness, profitableness Pug A V.4. (b) state of need, distress PvA 120.

Atthikavant (adj.) [atthika + vant] one who wants something, one who is on a certain errand D I.90 (atthikaṃ assa atthī ti DA I.255).

Atthitā (f.) [f. abstr. from atthi cp. atthibhāva] state of being, existence, being, reality M I.486; S II.17 (*añ c* eva n'atthitañ ca to be and not to be); III.135; J V.110 (kassaci atthitaṃ vā n'atthitaṃ vā jānāhi see if there is anybody or not); DhsA 394. - Often in abl. atthitāya by reason of, on account of, this being so DhA III.344 (idamatthitāya under this condition) PvA 94, 97, 143.

Atthin (adj.) (-*) [Vedic arthin] desirous, wanting anything; see mant*, vād*.

Atthiya (adj.) (-*) [ = atthika] having a purpose or end S III.189 (kim* for what purpose*); A V.1 sq. (id.), 311 sq.; Th 1, 1097 (att* having one's purpose in oneself), 1274; Sn 354 (yad atthiyaṃ on account of what).

Atra (adv.) [Sanskrit atra] here; atra atra here and there J I.414 = IV.5 (in explination. of atriccha).

Atraja (adj.) [Sanskrit *ātma-ja, corrupted form for attaja (see attā) through analogy with Sanskrit atra "here". This form occurs only in J and similar sources, i. e. popular lore] born from oneself, one's own, applied to sons, of which there are 4 kinds enumerated, viz. atraja khettaja, dinnaka, antevāsika p. Nd2 448. - J I.135; III.103 = Nd1 504; J III.181; V.465; VI.20; Mhvs 4, 12; 13, 4; 36, 57.

Atriccha (adj.) [the popular etymology suggested at JA IV.4 is atra atra icchamāna desiring here and there; but see atricchā] very covetous, greedy, wanting too much J I.414 = IV.4; III.206.

Atricchā (f.) [Sanskrit *atrptyā, a + trpt + yā, influenced by Desid. titrpsati, so that atricchā phonetically rather corresponds to a form *a.-trpsyā (cch = psy, cp. Pāli chāta Sanskrit psāta). For the simple Sanskrit trpti see titti (from tappati2). According to Kern, but phonetically hardly justifiable it is Sanskrit atīccha = ati + icchā "too much desire", with r in dissolution of geminated tt, like atraja for attaja. See also atriccha adj. and cp. J.Pāli Text Society 1884, 69] great desire, greed, excessive longing, insatiability J IV.5, 327.

Atricchatā (f.) [see atricchā] excessive lust J. III.222.

Atha (indecl.) [Sanskrit atha, cp. atho] copulative and adversative part. 1. after positive clauses, in enumerations, in the beginning and continuation of a story: and, and also, or; and then, now D II.2; III.152, 199 (atha-paraṃ etad avoca); M I.435; Sn 1006, 1007, 1017; Sn p. 126 (atha-paraṃ etad avoca: and further, something else); Dh 69, 119, 377; J II.158; Pv II.64; PvA 3, 8 (atha na and not), 70. - 2. after negative clauses: but M I.430; Sn 990, 1047; Dh 85, 136, 387; PvA 68. Often combined. with other part., e. g. atha kho (pos. and negative) now, and then; but, rather, moreover Vin I.1; D I.141, 167, 174; A V.195; PvA 79, 221, 251. na-atha kho na neither-nor PvA 28. atha kho pana and yet D I.139. atha ca pana on the other hand J I.279. atha vā or (after prec. ca), nor (after prec. na) Sn 134; Dh 140, 271; Pv I.41; II.14. athā vā pi Sn 917, 921.

Athabbaṇa [Vedic atharvan; as regards etymology see Walde, Latin Wtb. under ater] (1) the Atharva Veda DA I.247 = SnA 447 (*veda). - (2) one who is familiar with the (magic formulas of the) Atharvaveda J VI.490 (sa-thabbaṇa = sahatthivejja, with the elephant-healer or doctor). See also āthabbaṇa.

Atho (indecl.) [Sanskrit atho, atha + u] copulative and adversative part.: and, also, and further, likewise, nay S I.106; Sn 43, 155, 647; Dh 151, 234, 423; J I.83; II.185; IV.495; It 106; Kh VIII.7; Pv IV.315; PvA 251 (atho ti nipātamattaṃ avadhāraṇ-atthe vā). Also combined. with other part., like atho pi Sn 222, 537, 985; Pv II.320; KhA 166.

Ada (adj.) (-*) [to ad, see adeti, cp. *ga, *ṭha, *da etc.] eating S IV.195 (kiṭṭha-da eating corn); J II.439 (vanta-da = vantakhādaka C.).

Adaka (adj.) = ada J V.91 (purisa-daka man-eater).

Adana (nt.) [from adeti] eating, food J V.374 (v.l. modana).

Adasaka (adj.) see dasā.

Adāsa [prob. = adaṃsa, from ḍasati to bite, cp. dāṭhā tooth; lit meaning "toothless" or "not biting"] a kind of bird J IV.466.

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Adiṭṭhā [a + diṭṭhā, ger. of *dassati] not seeing, without seeing J IV.192 (T. adaṭṭhā, v. l. BB na diṭṭhā, C. adisvā); V.219.

Adinna (pp.) [a + dinna] that which is not given, frequent in phrase adinn' ādāna (BSanskrit adattādāna Divy 302) seizing or grasping that which is not given to one, i. e. stealing, is the 2nd of the ten qualifications of bad character or sīla (dasa-sīla see sīla II.). Vin I.83 (*ā veramaṇī); D I.4 ( = parassa haraṇaṃ theyyaṃ corikā ti vuttaṃ hoti DA I.71); III.68 sq., 82, 92, 181 sq.; M I.361; It 63; Kh II., cp. KhA 26. - adinnādāyin he who takes what is not given, a thief; stealing, thieving (cp. BSK. adattādāyika Divy 301, 418) Vin I.85; D I.138; Sdhp 78.

Adu (or ādu) (indecl.) [perhaps identical with aduṃ, nt. of pronoun. asu] part. of affirmation: even, yea, nay; always in emphatic exclamations Vv 622 ( = udāhu VvA 258; v. l. SS. ādu) = Pv IV.317 (ādu) = DhA I.31 (T. ādu, v. l. adu); Vv 631 (v. l. ādu); J V.330 (T. ādu, C. adu; explained. on p. 331 fantastically as aduñ ca aduñ ca kammaṃ karohī ti). See also ādu.

Aduṃ nt. of pronoun. asu.

Adūsaka (adj.) [a + dūsaka] innocent J V.143 ( = nirapa rādha C.); VI.84, 552. f. adūsikā Sn 312.

Adūsiya = adūsaka J V.220 ( = anaparādha C.).

Adeti [Sanskrit ādayati, Causative of atti, ad to eat, 1st sg. admi = Gr. e)/dw, Latin edo; Goth. itan = Ohg. ezzan = E. eat] to eat. Pres. ind. ademi etc. J V.31, 92, 197, 496; VI.106. pot. adeyya J V.107, 392, 493.

Adda1 [cp. Sanskrit ārdraka] ginger J I.244 (*singivera).

Adda2 and Addā 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2. a.

Adda3 (adj.) [Sanskrit ārdra, from rdati or ardati to melt, cp. Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)\rda dirt; see also alla] wet, moist, slippery J IV.353; VI.309; Miln 346. -a-valepana "smeared with moisture", i. e. shiny, glittering S IV.187 (kūṭāgāra); M I.86 = Nd2 1996 (upakāriyo). See also addha2. The reading alla-valepana occurs at Nd2 40 ( = S iv. 187), and is perhaps to be preferred. The meaning is better to be given as "newly plastereotyped."

Addakkhi 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 1 b.

Addasā 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2 a.

Addā and Addāyanā at Vbh 371 in def. of anādariya is either faulty writing, or dial. form or pop. etymology for ādā and ādāyana; see ādariya.

Addāyate [v. denom. from adda] to be or get wet, fig. to be attached to J IV.351. See also allīyati.

Addi [Sanskrit ardri] a mountain Dāvs II.13.

Addita (pp.) [see aṭṭita which is the more correct spelling] afflicted, smarted, oppressed J I.21; II.407; III.261; IV.295; V.53, 268; Th 1, 406; Mhvs 1, 25; PvA 260; Sdhp 37, 281.

Addha1 (num.) [ = aḍḍha, q. v.] one half, half (*-) D I.166 (*māsika); A II.160 (*māsa); J I.59 (*yojana); III. 189 (*māsa).

Addha2 (adj.) [ = adda3, Sanskrit ārdra] soiled, wet; fig. attached to, intoxicated with (cp. sineha) M II.223 (na anaddhabhūtaṃ attānaṃ dukkhena addhabhāveti he dirties the impure self with ill); S III.1 (addhabhūto kāyo impure body); J VI.548 (*nakha with dirty nails, C. pūtinakha).

Addhan (in compounds addha*) [Vedic adhvan, orig. meaning "stretch, length", both of space and time. - Cases: nom. addhā, gen. dat. addhuno, instr. addhunā, acc. addhānaṃ, loc. addhani; pl. addhā. See also addhāna] 1. (of space) a path, road, also journey (see compounds and derivations); only in one stereotype phrase J IV.384 = V.137 (pathaddhuno paṇṇarase va cando, gen. for loc. *addhani, on his course, in his orbit; explained. at IV.384 by ākāsa-patha-sankhātassa addhuno majjhe ṭhito and at V.137 by pathaddhagato addha-pathe gaganamajjhe ṭhito); Pv III.31 (pathaddhani paṇṇarase va cando; loc. same meaning as prec., explained. at PvA 188 by attano pathabhūte addhani gaganatala-magge). This phrase (pathaddhan) however is explained. by Kern (Toev. s. v. pathaddu) as "gone half-way", i. e. on full-moon-day. He rejects the explination. of C. - 2. (of time) a stretch of time, an interval of time, a period, also a lifetime (see compounds); only in two standard applications viz. (a) as mode of time (past, present and future) in tayo addhā three divisions of time (atita, anāgata, paccuppanna) D III.216; It 53, 70. (b) in phrase dīghaṃ addhānaṃ (acc.) a very long time A II.1, 10 (dighaṃ addhānaṃ saŋsāraṃ); Sn 740 (dīghaṃ addhāna saŋsāra); Dh 207 (dīghaṃ addhāna socati); J I.137. gen. dīghassa addhuno PvA 148 (gatattā because a long time has elapsed), instr. dīghena addhunā S I.78; A II.118; PvA 28. -āyu duration of life A II.66 (dīghaṃ *ṃ a long lifetime. -gata one who has gone the road or traversed the space or span of life, an old man [cp. BSanskrit adhvagata M Vastu II.150], always combined. with vayo anuppatto, sometimes in stereotype formula with jiṇṇa and mahallaka Vin II.188; D I.48 (cp. DA I.143); M I.82; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149. -gū [Vedic adhvaga] a wayfarer, traveller, journeyman Th 255 = S I.212 (but the latter has panthagu, v. l. addhagū); J III.95 (v. l. patthagu = panthagu); Dh 302.

Addhā (adv.) [Vedic addhā, cp. Av. azdā certainty] part. of affirmation and emphasis: certainly, for sure, really, truly D I.143; J I.19 (a. ahaṃ Buddho bhavissāmi) 66 (a. tvaṃ Buddho bhavissasi), 203, 279; III.340; V.307, 410 (C. explination. differs) Sn 47, 1057; Nd2 30 = Ps II.21 (ekaṃsa-vacanaṃ nissaŋsaya-vacanaṃ etc.) addhā hi J IV. 399; Pv IV.15 2.

Addhaneyya (adj.) = adhaniya 2, lasting J V.507 (an*).

Addhaniya (adj.) [from addhan] 1. belonging to the road, fit for travelling (of the travelling season) Th 1, 529. 2. belonging to a (long) time, lasting a long period, lasting, enduring D III.211; J I.393 (an*) VI.71. See also addhaneyya.

Addhariya [Vedic adhvaryu from adhvara sacrifice] a sacrificing priest, N. of a class of Brahmins D I.237 (brāhmaṇa).

Addhāna (nt.) [orig. the acc. of addhan, taken as nt. from phrase dīghaṃ addhānaṃ. It occurs only in acc. which may always be taken as acc. of addhan; thus the assumption of a special form addhāna would be superfluous, were it not for later forms like addhāne (loc.) Miln 126; PvA 75 v. l. BB, and for compounds] same meaning as addhan, but as simplex only used with reference to time (i. e. a long time, cp. VvA 117 addhānaṃ = ciraṃ). Usually in phrase atītaṃ (anāgataṃ etc.) addhānaṃ in the past (future etc.), e. g. D I.200; S I.140; A V.32; Miln 126 (anāgatamaddhāne for *aṃ); PvA 75 (v. l. addhāne). dīghaṃ addhānaṃ Pv I.105. Also in phrase addhānaṃ āpādeti to make out the length of time or period, i. e. to live out one's lifetime S IV.110; J II.293 ( = jīvitaddhānaṃ āpādi āyuṃ vindi C). -daratha exhaustion from travelling DA I.287. -magga a (proper) road for journeying, a long road between two towns, high road D I.1, 73, 79; M I.276 (kantār*); DA I.35 (interpreted as "addhayojanaṃ gacchissāmī ti bhuñjitabban ti ādi vacanato addha-yojanam pi addhāna maggo hoti", thus taken to addha "half", from counting by 1/2 miles); VvA 40, 292. Cp. also antarāmagga. -parissama "fatigue of the road", i. e. fatigue from travelling VvA 305. -vemattatā difference of time or period Miln 285 (+ āyuvemattatā).

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Addhika [from addhan] a wanderer, wayfarer, traveller DA I.298 ( = pathāvin), 270; PvA 78, 127 (*jana people travelling). Often combined. with kapaṇa beggar, tramp, as kapaṇaddhikā (pl.) tramps and travellers (in which connection also as *iddhika, q. v.), e. g. J I.6 (v. l. *iddhika 262; DhA II.26.

Addhita at Pv II.62 is to be corrected to aṭṭita (sic v. l. BB).

Addhin (adj.) (-*) [from addhan] belonging to the road or travelling, one who is on the road, a traveller, in gataddhin one who has performed his journey ( = addhagata) Dh 90.

Addhuva see dhuva.

Adrūbhaka see dubbha.

Advejjhatā see dvejjhatā.

Adha* in compounds like adhagga see under adho.

Adhamma see dhamma.

Adhama (adj.) [Vedic adhama = Latin infimus, superl. of adho, q. v.] the lowest (lit. and fig.), the vilest, worst Sn 246 (nara-dhama), 135 (vasala-dhama); Dh 78 (purisa*); J III.151 (miga*); V.394 (uttama-dhama), 437 (id.), 397; Sdhp 387.

Adhara (adj.) [Vedic adhara, compar. of adho] the lower J III.26 (adharoṭṭha the l. lip).

Adhi [Vedic adhi; base of demonstr. pronoun. a* + suffix-dhi, corresponding in form to Gr. e)/n-qa "on this" = here, cp. o(/qi where, in meaning equal to adv. of direction Gr. de/ (toward) = Ohg. zuo, E. to]. A. Prep. and prefix of direction and place: (a) as direction denoting a movement towards a definite end or goal = up to, over, toward, to, on (see C 1 a). - (b) as place where (prep. c. loc. or abs.) = on top of, above, over, in; in addition to. Often simply deictic "here" (e. g.) ajjhatta = adhi + ātman "this self here" (see C 1 b). B. adhi is frequent as modification prefix, i. e. in loose compounds. with n. or v. and as first part of a double prefix cpd. , like ajjhā* (adhi + ā), adhippa* (adhi + pra), but never occurs as a fixed base, i. e. as 2nd part of a prefix cpd., like ā in paccā* (prati + ā), paryā*(pari + ā) or ava in paryava* (pari + ava) or ud in abhyud* (abhi + ud), samud* (sam + ud). As such (i. e. modification) it is usually intensifying, meaning "over above, in addition, quite, par excellence, super"-(adhideva a super-god, cp. ati-deva), but very often has lost this power and become meaningless (like E. up in "shut up, fill up, join up etc), esp. in double prefix-compounds (ajjhāvasati "to dwell here-in" = āvasati "to dwell in, to inhabit") (see C 2). - In the explinations of Pāli Commentators adhi is often (sometimes far-fetchedly) interpreted by abhibhū "overpowering" see e. g. C. on adhiṭṭhāti and adhiṭṭhita; and by virtue of this intens. meaning we find a close relationship between the prefixes ati, adhi and abhi, all interchanging dialectically so that Pāli adhi often represents Sanskrit ati or abhi; thus adhi > ati in adhikusala, *kodhita, *jeguccha, *Brahmā; adhi > abhi in adhippatthita, *pātcti, *ppāya, *ppeta, *bādheti, *bhū, *vāha. Cp. also ati IV. C. The main applications of adhi are the following: 1. primary meaning (in verbs and verb derivations): either direction in which or place where, depending on the meaning of the verb determinate, either lit. or fig. - (a) where to: adhiyita (adhi + ita) "gone on to or into" = studied; ajjhesita (adhi + esita) "wished for"; *kata "put to" i. e. commissioned; *kāra commission; *gacchati "to go on to and reach it" = obtain; *gama attainment; *gaṇhāti to overtake = surpass, *peta (adhi + pra + ita) "gone in to" = meant, understood; *pāya sense meaning, intention; *bhāsati to speak to = address; *mutta intent upon; *vacana "saying in addition" = attribute, metaphor, cp. Fr. sur-nom; *vāsāna assent, *vāseti to dwell in, give in = consent. - (b) where: *tiṭṭhati (*ṭṭhāti) to stand by = look after, perform; *ṭṭhāna place where; *vasati to inhabit; *sayana "lying in", inhabiting. - 2. secondary meaning (as emphatic modification): (a) with nouns or adjectives: adhi-jeguccha very detestable; *matta "in an extreme measure", *pa supreme lord; *pacca lordship; *paññā higher, additional wisdom; *vara the very best; *sīla thorough character or morality. - (b) with verbs (in double prefix-compounds); adhi + ava: ajjhogāheti plunge into; ajjhoṭhapeti to bring down to (its destination); *otthata covered completely; *oharati to swallow right down. adhi + ā: ajjhappatta having reached (the end); ajjhapī'ita quite overwhelmed; *āvuttha inhabited; *ārūhati grown up over; *āsaya desire, wish (cp. Ger. n. Anliegen and v. daranliegen). adhi + upa: ajjhupagacchati to reach, obtain; *upeti to receive; *upekkhati "to look all along over" = to superintend adhi + pra: adhippattheti to long for, to desire. Note. The contracted (assimilation-)form of adhi before vowels is ajjh- (q. v.).

Adhika (adj.) [from adhi; cp. Sanskrit adhika] exceeding, extraordinary, superior, Pug 35; VvA 80 ( = anadhivara, visiṭṭha); DA I.141, 222; Dpvs V.32 (an*); DhA III.238; KhA 193 ( = anuttara); Sdhp 337, 447. - compar. adhikatara DhA II.7; III.176; nt. *ṃ as adv. extraordinarily PvA 86 ( = adhimattaṃ). In combination. with numerals adhika has the meaning of "in addition, with an additional, plus" (cp. ādi + ādika, with which it is evidently confounded, adhika being constructed in the same way as ādika, i. e. preceding the noun-determination), e. g. catunahuta-dhikāni dve yojana-sahassāni 2000 + 94 ( = 294 000) J I.25; sattamāsa-dhikāni sattavassāni 7 years and 7 months J V.319; paññāsa-dhikāni pañca vassa-satani 500 + 50 ( = 550) PvA 152. See also sa-dhika.

Adhikata (adj.) [adhi + kata; cp. Sanskrit adhikrta] 1. commissioned with, an overseer, Pv II.927 (dāne adhikata = ṭhapita PvA 124). - 2. caused by Miln 67 (kamma*). 3. affected by something, i. e. confused, puzzled, in doubt Miln 144 (+ vimātijāta).

Adhikaraṇa (nt.) [adhi + karaṇa] 1. attendance, supervision, management of affairs, administration PvA 209. 2. relation, reference, reason, cause, consequence D II.59 (-*: in consequence of); S II.41; V.19. Esp. acc. *ṃ as adv. (-*) in consequence of, for the sake of, because of, from M I.410 (rūpa-dhikaraṇaṃ); S IV.339 (rāga*); Miln 281 (mudda* for the sake of the royal seal, orig. in attendance on the r. s.). Kima-dhikaraṇaṃ why, on account of what J IV.4 ( = kiṃkāraṇaṃ) yatva-dhikaraṇaṃ (yato + adhi*) by reason of what, since, because (used as conj.) D I.70 = A I.113 = II.16 = D III.225. - 3. case, question, cause, subject of discussion, dispute. There are 4 sorts of a. enumerated at var. passages, viz. vivāda* anuvāda* āpatta* kicca* "questions of dispute, of censure, of misconduct, of duties" Vin II.88; III.164; IV.126, 238; M II.247. Often reference: Vin II.74; S IV.63 = V.346 (dhamma* a question of the Dh.); A I.53 (case), 79; II.239 (vūpasanta); V.71, 72; Pug 20, 55; DhA IV.2 (*ssa uppamassa vūpasama), adhikaraṇaṃ karoti to raise a dispute M I.122 *ṃ vūpasameti to settle a question or difficulty Vin II.261. -kāraka one who causes dispute discussions or dissent Vin IV.230 (f. *ikā); A III.252. -samatha the settlings of questions that have arisen. There are seven rules for settling cases enumerated at D III.254; M II.247; A I.99; IV.144.

Adhikaraṇika [from adhikaraṇa] one who has to do with the settling of disputes or questions, a judge A V.164, 167.

Adhikaraṇī (f.) [to adhikaraṇa 1, orig. meaning "serving, that which serves, i. e. instrument"] a smith's anvil J III.285; Dāvs III.16 sq.; DhsA 263.

Adhikāra [cp. Sanskrit adhikāra] attendance, service, administration, supervision, management, help Vin I.55; J I.56;

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VI.251; Miln 60, 115, 165; PvA 124 (dāna*; cp. Pv II.927); DhA II.41.

Adhikārika (adj.) (-*) [to adhikāra] serving as, referring to Vin III.274 (Bdhgh).

Adhikuṭṭanā (f.) [adhi + koṭṭanā or koṭṭana] an executioner's block Th 2, 58; cp. ThA 65 (v. l. kuḍḍanā, should prob. be read koṭṭana); ThA 287.

Adhikusala (adj.) [adhi + kusala] in *ā dhammā "items of higher righteousness" D III.145.

Adhikodhita (adj.) [adhi + kodhita] very angry J V.117.

Adhigacchati [adhi + gacchati] to get to, to come into possession of, to acquire, attain, find; fig. to understand D I.229 (vivesaŋ) M I.140 (anvesaŋ n- a-dhigacchanti do not find); S I.22 (Nibbānaṃ); II.278 (id.); A I.162 (id.); Dh 187, 365; It 82 (santiṃ); Th 2, 51; Pug 30, 31; Pv I.74 (nibbutiṃ = labhati PvA 37); III.710 (amataṃ padaṃ). opt. adhigaccheyya D I.224 (kusalaṃ dhammaṃ); M I.114 (madhu-piṇḍikaṃ); Dh 61 and adhigacche Dh 368. ger. *gantvā D I.224; J I.45 (ānisaŋse); and *gamma Pv I.119 ( = vinditvā paṭilabhitvā PvA 60). grd. *gantabba It 104 (nibbāna). cond. *gacchissaŋ Sn 446. 1st aor. 3 sg. ajjhagā Sn 225 ( = vindi paṭilabhi KhA 180); Dh 154; Vv 327; 3 pl. ajjhagū J I.256 (vyasanaṃ) and ajjhāgamuṃ S I.12. 2nd aor. 3 sg. adhigacchi Nd1 457. pp. adhigata (q. v.).

Adhigaṇhāti [adhi + gaṇhāti] to surpass, excel S I.87 = DA I.32; D III.146; S IV.275; A III.33; It 19. Ger. adhigayha Pv II.962 = DhA III.219 (v. l. BB at both pass. atikkamma); and adhiggahetvā It 20. -pp. adhiggahīta (q. v.).

Adhigata [pp. of adhigacchati] got into possession of, conquered, attained, found J I.374; VvA 135.

Adhigatavant (adj.-n.) [from adhigata] one who has found or obtained VvA 296 (Nibbānaṃ).

Adhigama [from adhigacchati] attainment, acquisition; also fig. knowledge, information, study (the latter mainly in Miln) D III.255; S II.139; A II.148; IV.22, 332; V.194; J I.406; Nett 91; Miln 133, 215, 358, 362, 388; PvA 207.

Adhigameti [adhi + gameti, Causative of gacchati] to make obtain, to procure PvA 30.

Adhiggahīta [pp. of adhigaṇhāti] excelled, surpassed; overpowered, taken by (instr.), possessed J III.427 ( = anuggahīta C.); V.102; VI.525 = 574; It 103; Miln 188, 189; Sdhp 98.

Adhiciṇṇa only at S III.12, where v. l. is aviciṇṇa, which is to be preferred. See viciṇṇa.

Adhicitta (nt.) [adhi + citta] "higher thought", meditation, contemplation, nsually in combination. with adhisīla and adhipaññā Vin I.70; D III.219; M I.451; A I.254, 256; Nd1 39 = Nd2 689 (*sikkhā); Dh 185 ( = aṭṭha-samāpattisankhāta adhika-citta DhA III.238).

Adhiceto (adj.) [adhi + ceto] lofty-minded, entranced Th 1, 68 = Ud 43 = Vin IV.54 = DhA III.384.

Adhicca1 [ger. of adhi + eti, see adhīyati] learning, studying, learning by heart J III.218, 327 = IV.301; IV.184 (vede = adhīyitvā C.), 477 (sajjhāyitvā C.); VI.213; Miln 164.

Adhicca2 (*-) [Sanskrit *adhrtya, a + *dhicca, ger. of dhr, cp. dhāra, dhāraṇa 3, dhāreti 4] unsupported, uncaused, fortuitous, without cause or reason; in following phrases: *āpattika guilty without intention M I.443; *uppatti spontaneous origin DhsA 238; *laddha obtained without being asked for, unexpectedly Vv 8422 = J V.171 = VI.315 (explained. at J V.171 by ahetunā, at VI.316 by akā raṇena) *samuppanna arisen without a cause, spontaneous, unconditioned D I.28 = Ud 69; D III.33, 138; S II.22-23 (sukhadukkhaṃ); A III.440 (id.); Ps I.155; DA I.118 ( = akāraṇa*).

Adhicca3 (adj.) [ = adhicca 2 in adj. function, influenced by, homonym abhabba] without a cause (for assumption), unreasonable, unlikely S V.457.

Adhijeguccha (nt.) [adhi + jeguccha] intense scrupulous regard (for others) D I.174, 176.

Adhiṭṭhaka (adj.) (-*) [from adhiṭṭhāti] bent on, given to, addicted to J V.427 (surā*).

Adhiṭṭhāti (adhiṭṭhahati) [Sanskrit adhitis.ṭhati, adhi + sthā] 1. to stand on J III.278 (ger. *āya); DhA IV.183 (ger. *hitvā); fig. to insist on Th 1, 1131 (aor. *āhi). - 2. to concentrate or fix one's attention on (c. acc.), to direct one's thoughts to, to make up one's mind, to wish Vin I.115 (inf. *ṭhātuṃ), 297 (id.), 125 (grd. *ṭhātabba) J I.80 (aor. *ahi); III.278; IV.134 (v. l. ati* C. expls. abhibhavitvā tiṭṭhati); DhA I.34; IV.201 (ger. *hitvā); PvA 23 (aor. *ṭhāsi) 171 (id.), 75 (ger. *hitvā). On adhiṭṭheyya see Cpd.209, n. 2; 219, n. 1. - 3. to undertake, practice, perform, look after, to celebrate S II.17; A I.115 sq.; J I.50; PvA 209 (ger. *ṭhāya). -pp. adhiṭṭhita (q. v.).

Adhiṭṭhāna (nt.) [from adhi + sthā] 1. decision, resolution, self-determination, will (cp. on this meaning Cpd.62) D III.229 (where 4 are enumerated, viz. paññā*, sacca* cāga* upasama*); J I.23; V.174; Ps I.108; II.171 sq., 207; DhsA 166 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 44). - 2. mentioned in bad sense with abhinivesa and anusaya, obstinacy, prejudice and bias M I.136; III.31, 240; S II.17; III.10, 135, 194. - As adj. (-*) applying oneself to, bent on A III.363. - 3. looking after, management, direction, power Miln 309 (devānaṃ); PvA 141 (so read for adhitaṭṭhāna). [adiṭṭhāna as PvA 89, used as explanatory for āvāsa, should perhaps be read adhiṭṭhāna in the sense of fixed, permanent, abode].

Adhiṭṭhāyaka (adj.) (-*) superintending, watching, looking after, in kamma* Mhvs 5, 175; 30, 98; kammanta* DhA I.393.

Adhiṭṭhita (adj.) [pp. of adhiṭṭhāti] 1. standing on (c. loc.), esp. with the idea of standing above, towering over Vv 6330 (hemarathe a. = sakalaṃ ṭhānaṃ abhibhavitvā ṭhita VvA 269). - (a) looked after, managed, undertaken, governed Vin I.57; S V.278 (sv-a-dhiṭṭhita); PvA 141 (kammanta). - (b) undertaking, bent on (c. acc.) Sn 820 (ekacariyaṃ).

Adhideva [adhi + deva] a superior or supreme god, above the gods M II.132; A IV.304; Sn 1148; Nd2 307b, 422 a. Cp. atideva.

Adhipa [Sanskrit adhipa, abbrev. of adhipati] ruler, lord, mastereotypeJ II.369; III.324; V.393; Pv II.86 (jan* king); Dāvs III.52; VvA 314.

Adhipaka (adj.) (-*) [from prec.] mastereotypeng, ruling or governed, influenced by (cp. adhipati) A I.150 (atta* loka* dhamma*).

Adhipajjati [adhi + pajjati] to come to, reach, attain A IV.96 (anatthaṃ); pp. adhipanna.

Adhipaññā (f.) [adhi + paññā] higher wisdom or knowledge, insight (cp. jhāna and paññā); usually in combination. with adhicitta and adhisīla Vin I.70; D I.174; III.219 (*sikkhā); A I.240; II.92 sq., 239; III.106 sq., 327; IV.360; Nd1 39 (id.); Ps I.20, 25 sq., 45 sq., 169; II.11, 244; Pug 61.

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Adhipatati [adhi + patati] to fly past, vanish J IV.111 ( = ativiya patati sīghaṃ atikkamati C.). - Causative adhipāteti (q. v.) in different meaning. Cp. also adhipāta.

Adhipatana (nt.) [from adhipatati] attack, pressing ThA 271.

Adhipati (n.-adj.) [adhi + pati, cp. adhipa] 1. ruler, mastereotypeJ IV.223; Vv 811; Miln 388; DhA I.36 ( = seṭṭha). 2. ruling over, governing, predominant; ruled or governed by Vbh 216 sq. (chandaṃ adhipatiṃ katvā making energy predominant); DhsA 125, 126 (atta* autonomous, loka* heteronomous, influenced by society). See also Dhs. trsl. 20 and Cpd.60.

Adhipateyya (nt.) A I.147; III 33 = S IV.275 is probably misreading for ādhipateyya.

Adhipatthita [pp. adhi + pattheti, cp. Sanskrit abhi + arthayati] desired, wished, begged for D I.120.

Adhipanna [cp. Sanskrit abhipanna, adhi + pad] gone into, affected with, seized by (-*), a victim of (c. loc.) S I.72, Th 2, 345 (kāmesu); Sn 1123 (taṇhā* = taṇha-nugata Nd2 32); Dh 288; J III.38, 369; IV.396; V.91, 379 ( = dosena ajjhotthaṭa); VI.27.

Adhipāṭimokkha (nt.) [adhi + pāṭimokkha] the higher, moral, code Vin V.1 (pāṭim* +); M II.245 (+ ajjhājīva).

Adhipāta1 [adhipāteti] splitting, breaking, only in phrase muddhā* head-splitting Sn 988 sq., 1004, 1025 (v. l. Nd2 *vipāta).

Adhipāta2 [from adhipatati = Sanskrit atipatati, to fly past, flit] a moth Sn 964. Expld. at Nd1 484 as "adhipātikā ti tā uppatitvā khādanti taṃkāraṇā a. vuccanti"; Ud 72 (explained. by C. as salabhā).

Adhipatikā (f.) [from adhipāta2] a moth, a mosquito Nd1 484 (see adhipāta2).

Adhipāteti [Causative from adhipatati, cp. Sanskrit abhipātayati and Pāli atipāteti] to break, split J IV.337 ( = chindati). At Ud 8 prob. to be read adhibādheti (v. l. avibādeti. T. adhipāteti).

Adhippagharati [adhi + ppa + gharati] to flow, to trickle ThA 284.

Adhippāgā 3 sg. aor. of adhippagacchati to go to J V.59.

Adhippāya [adhi + ppa + i; Sanskrit abhiprāya] 1. intention, wish desire S I.124; V.108; A II.81; III.363 (bhoga*); V.65; J I.79, 83; Sdhp 62. As adj. (-*) desiring PvA 226 (hass* in play = khiḍḍatthika). - 2. sense, meaning, conclusion, inference (cp. adhigama) Miln 148; PvA 8, 16, 48, 131 (the moral of a story). -adhippāyena (instr.) in the way of, like PvA 215 (kī' for fun).

Adhippāyosa [adhi + pāyosa] distinction, difference, peculiarity, special meaning M I 46; S III.66; IV.208; A I.267; IV.158; V.48 sq.

Adhippeta [Sanskrit abhipreta, adhi + ppa + i, lit. gone into, gone for; cp. adhippāya] 1. desired, approved of, agreeable D I.120; II.236; VvA 312, 315. - 2. meant, understood, intended as J III.263; PvA 9, 80, 120, 164.

Adhippetatta (nt.) [abstr. from adhippeta] the fact of being meant or understood as, in abl. *ā with reference to, as is to be understood of VvA 13; PvA 52.

Adhibādheti [adhi + bādheti, cp. Sanskrit abhibādhayati] to vex, oppress, gore (to death) Ud 8 (T. adhipāteti, v. l. avibādeti).

AdhiBrahmā [adhi + Brahmā, cp. atiBrahmā] a superior Brahmā, higher than Brahmā M II.132.

Adhibhavati [adhi + bhavati, cp. Sanskrit and Pāli abhibhavati] to overcome, overpower, surpass S IV.185 sq. (cp. adhibhū); A V.248, 282 (*bhoti); J II.336; V.30. - aor. adhibhavi J II.80. 3. pl. adhibhaṃsu S IV.185. See also ajjhabhavi and ajjhabhū pp. adhibhūta (q. v.).

Adhibhāsati [adhi + bhāsati] to address, to speak to; aor. ajjhabhāsi Vin II.195; S I.103; IV.117; Sn p. 87; PvA 56, 90.

Adhibhū (adj.) (-*) [from adhi + bhū, cp. adhibhavati and Sanskrit adhibhū] overpowering, having power over; mastereotype conqueror, lord S IV.186 (anadhibhū not mastereotypeng. For adhibhūta the v. l. abhi* is to be preferred as more usual in this connection, see abhibhū); Sn 684 (miga*; v. l. abhi*).

Adhibhūta [cp. adhibhū and adhibhūta] overpowered S IV.186.

Adhimatta (adj.) [adhi + matta of mā] extreme, exceeding, extraordinary; nt. adv. *ṃ extremely M I.152, 243; S IV. 160; A II.150; IV.241; J I.92; Pug 15; Miln 146, 189, 274, 290; Pv II.36 ( = adhikataraṃ PvA 86); DhA II.85; cp. PvA 281.

Adhimattata (nt.) [abstr. from prec.] preponderance A II.150; DhsA 334 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 200).

Adhimana (n.-adj.) [adhi + mano] (n.) attention, direction of mind, concentration Sn 692 (adhimanasā bhavātha). (adj.) directing one's mind upon, intent (on) J IV.433 ( = pasannacitta); V.29 (an*; v. l. *māna).

Adhimāna [adhi + māna] undue estimate of oneself M II.252; A V.162 sq.

Adhimānika (adj.) [from adhimāna] having undue confidence in oneself, conceited A V.162, 169, 317; DhA III.111.

Adhimuccati [Pass. of adhi + muc] 1. to be drawn to, feel attached to or inclined towards, to indulge in (c. loc.) S III.225; IV.185; A IV.24, 145 sq., 460; V.17; Pug 63. 2. to become settled, to make up one's mind as to (with loc.), to become clear about Vin I.209 (aor. *mucci); D I.106; S I.116 (pot. *mucceyya); It 43; DA I.275. 3. to take courage, to have faith Sn 559; Miln 234; DA I.214, 316; J IV.272; V.103; DhA I.196; III.258; IV.170. 4. of a spirit, to possess, to enter into a body, with loc. of the body. A late idiom for the older anvāvisati. J IV.172; V.103, 429; DhA I.196; III.258; IV.170. pp. adhimuccita and adhimutta. - Causative adhimoceti to incline to (trs.); to direct upon (with loc.) S V.409 (cittaṃ devesu a.).

Adhimuccana (nt.) [from adhi + muc] making up one's mind, confidence DhsA 133, 190.

Adhimuccita and Adhimucchita (pp.) [either adhi + muc or mūrch; it would seem more probable to connect it with the former (cp. adhimuccati) and consider all vv. ll. *mucchita as spurious; but in view of the credit of several passages we have to assume a regular analogy-form *mucchita, cp. mucchati and see also J.Pāli Text Society 1886, 109] drawn towards, attached to, infatuated, indulging in (with loc.) M II.223 (an*); S I.113; Th 1, 732 (v. l. *muccita), 923 (cch), 1175; J II.437 (cch); III.242; V.255 (kāmesu *mucchita, v. l. *muccita). Cp. ajjhomucchita.

Adhimuccitar [n. ag. of adhimuccati] one who determines for something, easily trusting, giving credence A III.165 (v. l. *mucchitā).

Adhimutta (adj.) [pp. of adhimuccati, cp. BSanskrit adhimukta. Av. SH I.8, 112; Divy 49, 302 etc.] intent upon (-* or with loc. or acc.), applying oneself to, keen on, inclined to, given to Vin I.183; A V.34, 38; Dh 226; Sn 1071, 1149 (*citta); Nd2 33; J I.370 (dān*) Pug 26; PvA 134 (dān*).

Adhimutti (f.) [adhi + mutti] resolve, intention, disposition D I.174; A V.36; Ps I.124; Miln 161, 169; Vbh 340, 341; DA I.44, 103; Sdhp 378.

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Adhimuttika (adj.) [ = adhimutta] inclined to, attached to, bent on S II.154, 158; It 70; Vbh 339 sq. + tā (f.) inclination D I.2.

Adhimokkha [from adhi + muc] firm resolve, determination, decision M III.25 sq.; Vbh 165 sq., 425; DhsA 145, 264. See Dhs. trsl. 5; Cpd.17, 40, 95.

Adhiyita see adhīyati.

Adhiroha [from adhi + ruh] ascent, ascending; in dur* hard to ascend Miln 322.

Adhivacana (nt.) [adhi + vacana] designation, term, attribute, metaphor, metaphorical expression D II.62; M I.113, 144, 460; A II.70, 124; III.310; IV.89, 285, 340; It 15, 114; Sn p. 218; J I.117; Nd2 34 = Dhs 1306 ( = nāma sankhā paññatti etc.); Vbh 6; PvA 63. See on term Dhs. trsl. 340. -patha "process of synonymous nomenclature" (Mrs. Rh. D.) D II.68; S III.71; Dhs 1306; DhsA 51.

Adhivattati [adhi + vattati] to come on, proceed, issue, result S I.101; A II.32.

Adhivattha (adj.) [pp. of adhivasati] inhabiting, living in (c. loc.) Vin I.28; S I.197; J I.223; II.385; III.327; PvA 17. The form adhivuttha occurs at J VI.370.

Adhivara (adj.) [adhi + vara] superb, excellent, surpassing Vv 163 (an* unsurpassed, unrivalled; VvA 80 = adhika, visiṭṭha).

Adhivāsa [from adhi + vas] endurance, forbearance, holding out; only as adj. in dur* difficult to hold out Th 1, 111.

Adhivāsaka (and *ika) (adj.) [from adhivāsa] willing, agreeable, enduring, patient Vin IV.130; M I.10, 526; A II.118; III.163; V.132; J III.369 (an*); IV.11, 77.

Adhivāsana (nṭ.) [from adhi + vas] 1 assent A III.31; DhA I.33. - 2. forbearance, endurance M I.10; J II.237; III.263; IV.307; V.174.

Adhivāsanatā (f.) [abstr. from adhivāsana] patience, endurance, Dhs 1342; Vbh 360 (an*).

Adhivāseti [Causative of adhivasati, cp. BSanskrit adhivāsayati in meaning of 3] 1. to wait for (c. acc.) J I.254; II.352; III.277. - 2. to have patience, bear, endure (c. acc.) D II.128, 157; J I.46; III.281 (pahāre); IV.279, 407; V.51, 200; VvA 336, 337. - 3. to consent, agree, give in Vin I.17; D I.109 (cp. DA I.277); S IV.76; DhA I.33; PvA 17, 20, 75 and frequent passim. - Causative adhivāsāpeti to cause to wait J I.254.

Adhivāha [from adhi + vah; cp. Sanskrit abhivahati] a carrier, bearer, adj. bringing S IV.70 (dukkha*); A I.6; Th 1, 494.

Adhivāhana (nt.-adj.) [from adhi + vah] carrying, bringing, bearing Sn 79; f. *ī Th 1, 519.

Adhivimuttatta (nt.) = adhivimokkhatta and adhimutti, i. e. propensity, the fact of being inclined or given to J V.254 (T. kāmādhivimuttitā, v. l. *muttata).

Adhivimokkhatta (nt.) = adhimokkha; being inclined to DhsA 261.

Adhivutti (f.) [adhi + vutti, from adhi + vac, cp. Sanskrit abhivadati] expression, saying, opinion; only in tt. adhivuttipada (v. l. adhimutti-p. at all passages) D I.13 (explained. by adhivacana-pada DA I.103); M II.228; A V.36.

Adhivuttha see adhivattha.

Adhisayana (nt.-adj.) [from adhiseti] lying on or in, inhabiting PvA 80 (mañcaṃ).

Adhisayita [pp. of adhiseti] sat on, addled (of eggs) Vin III.3; S III.153.

Adhisīla (nt.) [adhi + sīla] higher morality, usually in threefold set of adhicitta-sikkha, adhipaññā* adhisïla* Vin I.70; D I.174; III.219; A III.133; IV.25; DhA I.334; PvA 207. See also adhicitta, sikkhā and sīla.

Adhiseti [adhi + seti] to lie on, sit on, live in, to follow, pursue Dh 41; Sn 671 ( = gacchati C.) -pp. adhisayita.

Adhīna (adj.) (-*) [cp. Sanskrit adhīna] subject, dependent D I.72 (atta* and para*); J IV.112; DA I.217; also written ādhīna J V.350. See also under para.

Adhīyati and adhiyati [Med. of adhi + i, 1st sg. adhīye taken as base in Pāli] to study, lit. to approach (cp. adhigacchati); to learn by heart (the Vedas and other Sacred Books) Vin I.270; S I.202 (dhammapadāni); J IV.184 (adhīyitvā), 496 (adhīyamāna); VI.458; DhA III.446 (adhīyassu). - ger. adhīyitvā J IV.75; adhiyānaṃ J V.450 ( = sajjhāyitvā C.) and adhicca: see adhicca 2; pp. adhiyita D I.96.

Adhunā (adv.) [Vedic adhunā] just now, quite recently D II.208; Vin II.185 (kālakata); Miln 155; Dāvs II.94. -āgata a new comer M I.457; J II.105. -a-bhisitta newly or just anointed D II.227. -uppanna just arisen D II.208, 221.

Adhura (nt.) [a + dhura, see dhura 2] irresponsibility, indifference to oblihations J IV.241.

Adho (adv.) [Vedic adha*; compar. adhara* = Latin inferus, Goth. undar, E. under, Ind. *n*dher-; superl. adhama* = Latin infimus] below, usually combined. or contrasted with uddhaṃ "above" and tiriyaṃ "across", describing the 3 dimensions. - uddhaṃ and adho above and below, marking zenith and nadir. Thus with uddhaṃ and the 4 bearings (disā) and intermediate points (anudisā) at S I.122; III.124; A IV.167; with uddhaṃ and tiriyaṃ at Sn 150, 537, 1055, 1068. Expld. at KhA 248 by heṭṭhā and in detail (dogmatically and speculatively) at Nd2 155. For further reference see uddhaṃ. The compounds. form of adho before vowels is adh*. -akkhaka beneath the collar-bone Vin IV.213. -agga with the points downward (of the upper row of teeth) J v.156 (+ uddh* explained. by uparima-danta C.). -kata turned down, or upside down J I.20; VI.298. -gata gone by, past. Adv. *ṃ since (cp. uddhaṃ adv. later or after) J VI.187 (ito māsaŋ adhogataṃ since one month ago). -gala (so read for T. udho) down the throat PvA 104. -mukha head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned Vin II.78; M I.132, 234: Vv 161 ( = heṭṭhā mukha VvA 78). -bhāga the lower part (of the body) M I.473; DhA I.148. -virecana action of a purgative (opp. uddha* of an emetic) D I.12; DA I.98 ( = adho dosānaṃ nīharaṇaṃ); DhsA 404. -sākhaṃ (+ uddhamūlaṃ) branches down (and roots up, i. e. uprooted) DhA I.75. -sira (adj.) head downward J IV.194. -siraṃ (adv.) with bowed head (cp. avaṃsiraṃ) J VI.298 ( = siraṃ adhokatvā heṭṭhāmukho C.). -sīsa (adj.) head first, headlong J I.233; v.472 (*ka).

An- form of the negative prefix a-before vowels. For negatives beginning with an* see the positive.

Ana- negative prefix, contained in anappameyya, (Th 1, 1089), anamatagga and anabhava. See Vinaya Texts II.113.

Anajjhiṭṭha (adj.) [an + ajjhiṭṭha] uncalled, unbidden, unasked Vin I.113; Pv I.123 (T. anabbhita, v. l. anijjhiṭṭha; J III.165 has anavhāta; Th 2, 129 ayācita; PvA 64 expls. by anavhāta).

Anaṭi [An, Vedic aniti and anati] to breathe KhA I.124 (in def. of bāla); DA I.244 (read ananti for aṇanti). Cp. pāṇa.

Anabhāva [ana + bhāva] the utter cessation of becoming. In the oldest Pāli only in adj. form anabhāvaṃ kata or gata. This again found only in a string of four adjectives together expressing the most utter destruction. They are used at Vin III.3 of bad qualities, at S II.63 of certain wrong opinions, at M I.487; S IV.62 = v.527 of the khandas, at M I.331 of the Mental Intoxications (āsavas), at A IV.73 of certain tastes, of a bad kamma A I.135, of evil passions A I.137, 184, 218; II.214 of pride A II.41,

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of craving A II.249, of the bonds A IV.8. In the supplement to the Dīgha (D III.326) and in the Iti-vuttaka (p. 115) a later idiom, anabhāvaṃ gameti, cause to perish, is used of evil thoughts. Bdhgh (quoted Vin III.267) reports as v. l. anubhāva. Cp. Nd I.90; and Nd2 under pahīna.

Anabbhita (adj.) [an + abbhita] not restored, not to be restored Vin IV.242; Pv I.123 (where reading prob. faulty and due to a gloss; the id. p. at Th 2, 129 has ayācita and at J III.165 anavhāta; PvA 64 expls. by anavhāta, v. l. anabbhita).

Anabhuṇṇatatā (f.) [an + abbhuṇṇata + tā] the state of not being erect, i. e. hanging down J v.156.

Anabhijjhā (f.) [an + abhijjhā] absence of covetousness or desire D III.229, 269; Dhs 32, 35, 277.

Anabhijjhālū (adj.) [an + abhijjhālū] not greedy or covetous D III.82; Pug 40.

Anabhijjhita (adj.) [an + abhijjhita] not desired Sn 40 (cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 ( = na abhikankhita VvA 201).

Anabhin and ati etc. see abhi* etc.

Anabhirata (adj.) [an + abhirata] not taking delight in J I.61 (nacca-disu).

Anabhirati (f.) [an + abhirati] not delighting in, dissatisfaction, discontent D I.17 (+ paritassanā); III.289; J III. 395; DA I.111.

Anabhiraddha (adj.) [an + abhiraddha] in anger Vin IV.236.

Anabhiraddhi (f.) [an + abhiraddhi] anger, wrath D I.3 ( = kopass-etaṃ adhivacanaṃ DA I.52).

Anabhisambhuṇamāna (adj.) [ppr. med. of an + abhisambhuṇāti] not obtaining, unable to get or keep up D I.101 ( = asampāpuṇanto avisahamāno vā DA I.268).

Anamatagga (adj.) [ana ( = a negative) + mata (from man) + aggā (pl.). So Dhammapāla (avidit-agga ThA 289); Nāṇakitti in tīkā on DhsA 11; Trenckner, Notes 64; Oldenberg, Vin. Texts II.114. Childers takes it as an + amata + agga, and Jacobi (Erzahl. 33 and 89) and Pischel (Gram. * 251) as a + namat (from nam) + agga. It is Sanskritized at Divy 197 by anavarāgra, doubtless by some mistake. Weber, Ind. Str. III.150 suggests an + āmrta, which does not suit the context at all]. Ep. of Sa*sāra "whose beginning and end are alike unthinkable", i. e., without beginning or end. Found in two passages of the Canon: S II.178, 187 sq. = III.149, 151 = v.226, 441 (quoted Kvu 29, called Anamatagga-pariyāya at DhA II.268) and Th 2, 495, 6. Later references are Nd2 664; PvA 166; DhA I.11; II.13, 32; Sdhp 505. [Cp. anāmata and amatagga, and cp. the English idiom "world without end". The meaning can best be seen, not from the derivation (which is uncertain), but from the examples quoted above from the Sa*yutta. According to the Yoga, on the contrary (see e. g., Woods, Yoga-system of Patañjali, 119), it is a possible, and indeed a necessary quality of the Yogī, to understand the beginning and end of Sa*sāra].

Anamha (adj.) [according to Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1884, 70 = ana-mha "unlaughing" with ana = an (cp. anabhāva and anamatagga) and mha from smi, cp. vimhayati = Sanskrit vismayati] being in constereotypeation or distress, crying J III. 223 (*kāle = ārodana-kāle C.).

Anaya [a + naya] misfortune, distress Miln 277, usually combined. with vyasana (as also in BSk, e. g. Jtm 215) Vin II.199; S IV.159; A v.156; Miln 292; VvA 327; Sdhp 362.

Anariya (adj.) [an + ariya, see also anāriya] not Aiyan, ignoble, low Vin I.10; D III.232 (*vohāra, 3 sets of 4; the same at Vin v.125); Sn 664, 782 (*dhamma); Pug 13. - See ariya.

Anala (adj.) [an + ala] 1. not sufficient, not enough; unable, impossible, unmanageable M I.455; J II.326 = IV. 471. - 2. dissatisfied, insatiate J v.63 ( = atitta C.). 3. *ṃ kata dissatisfied, satiated, S I.15 (kāmesu).

Anavaya (adj.) [derivation doubtful. See Trenckner Pāli Misc. 65] not lacking, complete in (loc.), fulfilling D I.88 ( = anūna paripūra-kārin DA I.248); A III.152 ( = samatta paripuṇṇa AA quoted by Tr. on Miln 10).

Anavosita (adj.) [an + avosita; or ana + avosita = avusita*] unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101.

Anasana (nt.) [an + asana, cp. Sanskrit an-ashana] not eating, fasting, hunger D III.75 and in same context at Sn 311 ( = khudā SnA 324).

Anasitvāna [ger. of an + ashati] without eating, fasting J IV.371.

Anasuyyaṃ [Sanskrit anasūyan, ppr. of an + asūyati] not grumbling J III.27 (v. l. for anusuyyaṃ T.).

Anasuropa [an + asuropa] absence of abruptness Dhs 1341.

Anasūyaka (adj.) [Sanskrit anasūyaka, cp. usūya] not grumbling, not envious J II.192.

Anassaka (adj.) either an-assaka or a-nassaka (q. v.).

Anassana (nt.) [a + nassana, nash; cp. Sanskrit nashana] imperishableness, freedom from waste J IV.168.

Anassāvin (adj.) [an + assāvin; cp. assāva + āsava] not intoxicated, not enjoying or finding pleasure in Sn 853 (sātiyesu a. = sātavatthusa kāmaguṇesu taṇhasanthavavirahita SnA 549).

Anassāsika (adj.) [an + assāsa + ika; cp. Sanskrit āshvāsana and BSanskrit anāshvāsika Divy 207] not consoling, discouraging, not comforting M I.514; S II.191.

Anassuṃ 1st sq, pret. of anusūyati ( = Sanskrit anvashruvaṃ) I have heard M I.393.

Anāgata (adj.) [an + āgata] not come yet, i. e. future. On usual combination. with atīta: see this. D III.100 sq., 134 sq., 220, 275; M III.188 sq.; S I.5; II.283; A III.100 sq., 400; Sn 318, 373, 851; It 53; J IV.159; VI.364; Dhs 1039, 1416.

Anāgamana (nt.) [an + āgamana] not coming, not returning J I 203, 264.

Anāgāmitā (f.) [anāgāmin + tā] the state or condition of an Anāgāmin S v.129, 181, 285; A III.82; v.108, 300 sq.; Sn p. 140 = A III.143; It 1 sq., 39, 40.

Anāgāmin (adj.-n.) [an + āgāmin] one who does not return, a Never-Returner, as tt. designating one who has attained the 3rd stage out of four in the breaking of the bonds (Saŋyojanas) which keep a man back from Arahantship. So near is the Anāgāmin to the goal, that after death he will be reborn in one of the highest heaven and there obtain Arahantship, never returning to rebirth as a man. But in the oldest passages referring to these 4 stages, the description of the third does not use the word anāgāmin (D I.156; II.92; III.107; M II.146) and anāgāmin does not mean the breaking of bonds, but the cultivation of certain specified good mental habits (S III.168, the anatta doctrine; S v.200-2, the five Indriyas; A I.64, 120, cultivation of good qualities, II 160; v.86, 171 = S 149). We have only two cases in the canon of any living persons being called anāgāmin. Those are at S v.177 and 178. The word there means one who has broken the lower five of the ten bonds, and the individuals named are laymen. At D II.92 nine others, of

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whom eight are laymen, are declared after their death to have reached the third stage (as above) during life, but they are not called anāgāmins. At It 96 there are only 3 stages, the worldling, the Anāgāmin, and the Arahant; and the Saŋyojanas are not referred to. It is probable that already in the Nikāya period the older, wider meaning was falling into disuse. The Abhidhamma books seem to refer only to the Saŋyojana explanation; the commentaries, so far as we know them, ignore any other. See Ps II.194; Kv. Tr. 74; Dhs. Tr. 302 n; Cp. 69. -phala fruition of the state of an Anāgāmin; always in combination. sotāpatti* sakadāgāmi* anāgāmi* arahatta* Vin I.293; II.240; IV.29; D I.229; II.227, 255; S III.168; v.411; A I.23, 44; III.272 sq.; IV.204, 276, 372 sq. -magga the path of one who does not return (in rebirths) Nd2 569b.

Anāgāra and Anāgāriyā see [an + āghāta] freedom from anger or ill-will Vin II.249.

Anācāra [an + ācāra] misconduct, immorality J II.133; III. 276; adj. anācārin Pug 57.

Anājāniya (adj.) [an + ājāniya] of inferior race, not of good blood M I.367.

Anādara [an + ādara] (a) (m) disrespect PvA 257. - (b.) (adj.) disrespectful Sn 247 ( = ādaravirahita SnA 290).

Anādaratā (f.) [abstr. from anādara] want of consideration, in explination. of dovacassatā at Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 = Pug 30 (where reading is anādariyatā).

Anādariya (nt.) [from anādara] disregard, disrespect Vin I.176; IV.113 (where explained. in extenso); Dhs 1325 = dug 20 = Vbh 359.

Anādā [ger. of an + ādiyati] without taking up or on to oneself Vin IV.120 ( = anādiyitvā C.).

Anādāna (adj.) [an + ādāna] free from attachment (opp. sādāna) A II.10 = It 9 = 109 = Nd2 172a; Sn 620, 741, 1094; Nd2 41 (where as nt. = taṇha); Dh 352 ( = khandhādisu niggahaṇa DhA IV.70), 396, 406, 421.

Anāditvā [ger. of an + ādiyati] not taking up, not heeding J IV.352 (v. l. for T. anādiyitvā).

Anādiyitvā [ger. of an + ādiyati, Sanskrit anādāya] without assuming or taking up, not heeding Vin IV.120; J IV.352; DhA I.41. See also ādiyati.

Anānu- represents the metrically lengthened from of ananu (an + anu), as found e. g. in the following compounds: *tappaṃ (ppr.) not regretting J v.492; *puṭṭha questioned Sn 782 ( = apucchita SnA 521); *yāyin not following or not defiled by evil Sn 1071 (explained. at Nd2 42 by both avedhamāna (*) avigacchamāna and by arajjamāna adussamāna); *loma not fit or suitable D II.273 (v. l. anu*).

Anāpāthagata (adj.) [an + āpātha + gata] not fallen into the way of (the hunter), escaped him M I.174.

Anāpāda (adj.) [an + āpāda] unmarried (of a woman) J IV.178 (āpāda = apādāna C.; aññehi akata-pariggahā).

Anāpucchā see āpucchati.

Anābādha (adj.) [an + ābādha] safe and sound VvA 351.

Anāmata (adj.) [an + amata the ā being due to metrical lengthening] not affected by death, immortal J II.56 ( = asusāna-ṭṭhāna C.); DhA II.99.

Anāmanta (*-) [an + āmanta] without asking or being asked; in *kata unasked, unpermitted, uninvited J VI.226; *cāra living uninvited Vin v.132; A III.259.

Anāmaya (adj.) [an + āmaya] free from illness, not decaying, healthy Vv 1510 ( = aroga VvA 74), 177.

Anāmasita (adj.) [an + āmasita, pp. of āmassati] not touched, virgin- VvA 113 (*khetta).

Anāmassa (adj.) [grd. of an + āmassati, Sanskrit āmashya] not to be touched J II 360 (C. anāmāsitabba).

Anāyatana (nt.) [an + āyatana] nonexertion, not exerting oneself, sluggishness, indolence J v.121 (*sīla = dussīla C.).

Anāyasa (adj.) [an + āya + sa, or should we read anāyāsa*] void of means, unlucky, unfortunate Vv 845 ( = n'atthi ettha āyo sukhan ti anāyasaŋ VvA 335).

Anāyāsa (adj.) [an + āyāsa] free from trouble or sorrow, peaceful Th 1, 1008.

Anārambha [an + ārambha] that which is without moil and toil Sn 745 ( = nibbāna SnA 507).

Anārādhaka (adj.) [an + ārādhaka] one who fails, unsuccessful Vin I.70.

Anāriya (adj.) [doublet of anariya] not Aryan, ignoble, Sn 815 (v. l. SS. anariya).

Anālamba (adj.) [an + ālamba] without support (from above), unsuspended, not held Sn 173 (+ appatiṭṭha; explained. at SnA 214 by heṭṭhā patiṭṭha-bhāvena upari ālambhāvena ca gambhīra).

Anālaya [an + ālaya] aversion, doing away with Vin I.10 (taṇhāya).

Anā'hiya and Anā'hika (adj.) [an + ālhiya, Sanskrit āḍhya, see also addhaQ] not rich, poor, miserable, destitute, usually combined. with da'idda M I.450; II.178 (v. l. BB. anā'iya); A III.352 sq. (vv. ll. BB. anā'hika), 384; J v.96.

Anāvaṭa (*-) [an + āvaṭa] not shut; in *dvāratā (f.) not closing the door again*t another, accessibility, open-handedness D III.191.

Anāvattin (adj.-n.) [an + āvattin] one who does not return, almost syn. with anāgāmin in phrase anāvatti-dhamma, one who is not destined to shift or return from one birth to another, D I.156 (cp. DA I.313); III.132; Pug 16 sq., 62.

Anāvasūraṃ (adv.) [an + ava + sūra = suriya, with ava lengthened to āva in verse] as long as the sun does not set, before sun-down J v.56 ( = anatthangata-suriyaṃ C.) cp. Sanskrit utsūra.

Anāvāsa (adj.-n.) [an + āvāsa] uninhabited, an uninhabited place Vin II.22, 33; J II.77.

Anāvikata etc. see āvikata.

Anāvila (adj.) [an + āvila] undisturbed, unstained, clean, pure D I.84 ( = nikkaddama DA I.226); III.269, 270; Sn 637 ( = nikkilesa SnA 469 = DhA IV.192); Th 2, 369 (āvilacitta +); Dh 82, 413; ThA 251; Sdhp 479.

Anāvuttha (adj.) [an + āvuttha, pp. of āvasati] not dwelt in D .II50.

Anāsaka (adj.) [an + āsaka] fasting, not taking food S IV.118. f. *ā [cp. Sanskrit anāshaka nt.] fasting, abstaining from food Dh 141 ( = bhatta-paṭikkhepa DhA III.77).

Anāsakatta (nt.) [abstr. of anāsaka] fasting Sn 249 ( = abhojana SnA 292).

Anāsava (adj.) [an + āsava] free from the 4 intoxications (see āsava) Vin II.148 = 164; D III.112; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Nd2 44; It 75; Pug 27, Dhs 1101, 1451; Vbh 426; Th 1, 100; Pv II.615; VvA 9. See āsava and cp. nirāsava.

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Anāsasāna (adj.) [an + āsasāna] not longing after anything Sn 369 (SnA 365 however reads anāsayāna and has anāsasāna as v. l. Cp. also vv. ll. to āsasāna. Expld by kañci rūpa-di-dhammaṃ na-siṃsati SnA 365.

Anāhāra (adj.) [an + āhāra] being without food M I.487; Sn 985.

Anikkaḍḍhanā (f.) [a + nikkaḍḍhanā] not throwing out or expelling J III.22.

Anikkasāva (adj.) [a + nikkasāva, cp. nikasāva] not free from impurity, impure, stained Dh 9 = Th 1, 969 = J II.198 = v.50; DhA I.82 ( = rāga-dīhi kasāvehi sakasāva).

Anikhāta (adj.) [a + nikhāta, pp. of nikhanati] not dug into, not dug down, not deep J VI.109 (*kūla; C. agambhīrā).

Anigha see nigha1 and īgha.

Anicchā (f.) [an + icchā] dispassion S v.6; adj. *a without desires, not desiring Sn 707.

Aniñjana (nt.) [an + iñjana] immobility, steadfastness Ps I.15.

Aniñjita (adj.) [an + iñjita] immoveable, undisturbed, unshaken Th 1, 386.

Aniṭṭhangata see niṭṭhā2.

Aniṭṭhita see niṭṭhita.

Anitthi (f.) [an + itthi] a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, a woman ceasing to be a woman, "nonwoman" J II.126 (compd with anadī a river without water; interpreted by ucchiṭṭh-itthi).

Anindi- [the compounds. form of nindā] in *'ocana (with) faultless eyes J VI.265.

Anindita (adj.) [a + nindita] blameless, faultless J IV.106 (*angin of blameless body or limbs).

Anibbisaŋ [ppr. of nibbisati, q. v.] not finding Th 1, 78 = Dh 153 ( = taṃ ñāṇaṃ avindanto DhA III.128).

Animisa (adj.) [Ved., cp. nimisati] not winking, waking, watchful Dāvs v.26 (nayana).

Aniyata (adj.) [a + niyata] not settled, uncertain, doubtful Vin I.112; II.287; D III.217.

Aniyamita (adj.) [pp. of a + niyameti] indefinite (as tt. g.) VvA 231.

Anila [from an, cp. Sanskrit aniti to breathe, cp. Gr. a)/nemos wind; Latin animus breath, soul, mind] wind J IV.119 (*patha air, sky); Miln 181; VvA 237; Sdhp 594.

Anirākata (adj.) [a + nirākata] see nirankaroti.

Anissara (adj.) [an + issara] without a personal ereator Th 1, 713.

Anissukin (adj.) [an + issukin, see also an-ussukin] not hard, not greedy, generous D III.47 (+ amaccharin; v. l. anussukin); SnA 569 (see under niṭṭhurin).

Anīka (nt.) [Ved. anīka face, front, army to Idg. *og* (see), cp. Gr. o)/mma eye, Latin oculus, see also Sanskrit pratīka and Pāli akkhi] army, array, troops (orig. "front", i. e. of the battle-array) Vin IV.107 (where explained. in detail); Sn 623 (bala* strong in arms, with strong array i. e. of khanti, which precedes; cp. SnA 467). -agga a splendid army Sn 421 ( = balakāya senāmukha SnA 384). -ṭṭha a sentinel, royal guard D III.64, 148; J v.100; VI.15 ("men on horseback", horseguard); Miln 234, 264. -dassana troop-inspection D I.6 (aṇīka* at DA I.85, q. v. interpretation); Vin IV.107 (senābyūha +).

Anīgha see nigha1 and cp. īgha.

Anīti (f.) [an + īti] safety, soundness, sound condition, health A IV.238; Miln 323 (abl. *ito).

Anītika (adj.) [from anīti] free from injury or harm, healthy, secure Vin II.79 = 124 (+ anupaddava); III.162; S IV.371; Sn 1137 (ītī vuccanti kilesā etc. Nd2 48); Miln 304.

Anītiha (adj.) [an + ītīha, the latter a cpd. der. from iti + ha = saying so and so, cp. itihāsa and itihītihaṃ] not such and such, not based on hearsay (itiha), not guesswork or (mere) talk A II.26; Th 1, 331 (cp. M I.520); Sn 1053 ( = Nd2 49, 151); J I.456; Nett 166 (cp. It 28).

Anu1 (indecl.) [Vedic anu, Av. anu; Gr. a)/nw to a)/na along, up; Av. ana, Goth. ana, Ohg. ana, Ags. on, Ger. an, Latin an (in anhelare etc.)] prep. and prefix - A. As prep. anu is only found occasionally, and here its old (vedic) function with acc. is superseded by the loc. Traces of use w. acc. may be seen in expressions of time like anu pañcāhaṃ by 5 days, i. e. after (every) 5 days (cp. ved. anu dyūn day by day); a. vassaŋ for one year or yearly; a. saŋvaccharaṃ id. - (b) More frequent w. loc. ( = alongside, with, by) a. tīre by the bank S IV.177; pathe by the way J v.302; pariveṇiyaṃ in every cell Vin I.80; magge along the road J v.201; vāte with the wind J II.382. B. As prefix: (a) General character. anu is frequent as modifying (directional) element with well-defined meaning ("along"), as such also as 1st component of prefix-compounds, e. g. anu + ā (anvā*), anu + pra (anuppa*), + pari, + vi, + saŋ. - As base, i. e. 2nd part of a prefix-cpd. it is rare and only found in combination sam-anu*. The prefix saŋ is its nearest relation as modifying prefix The opp. of anu is paṭi and both are often found in one cpd. (cp. *loma, *vāta). (b) Meanings. I. With verbs of motion: "along towards". - (a) the motion viewed from the front backward = after, behind; esp. with verbs denoting to go, follow etc. E. g. *aya going after, connexion; *āgacch* follow, *kkamati follow, *dhāvati run after, *patta received, *parivattati move about after, *bandhati run after, *bala rear-guard, *bhāsati speak after, repeat, *vāda speaking after, blame, *vicarati roam about *viloketi look round after (survey), *saŋcarati proceed around etc. - (b) the motion viewed from the back forward = for, towards an aim, on to, over to, forward. Esp. in double prefix-compounds (esp. with *ppa*), e. g. anu-ādisati design for, dedicate *kankhin longing for, *cintana care for, *tiṭṭhati look after, *padinna given over to, *pavecchati hand over, *paviṭṭha entered into, *pasaŋkamati go up to, *rodati cry for, *socati mourn for. - II. Witb verbs denoting a state or condition: (a) literal: along, at, to, combined with. Often resembling E. be- or Ger. be-, also Latin ad- and con-. Thus often transitiving or simply emphatic. E. g. *kampā com-passion, *kiṇṇa be-set, *gaṇhāti take pity on, *gāyati be-singen, *jagghati laugh at, belaugh, *ddaya pity with, *masati touch at, *yuñjati order along, *yoga devotion to, *rakkhati be-guard, *litta be-smeared or an-ointed, *vitakheti reflect over, *sara con-sequential; etc. - (b) applied: according to, in conformity with. E. g. *kūla being to will, *chavika befitting, *ñāta permitted, al-lowed, *mati con- sent, a-greement, *madati ap-preciate, *rūpa = con-form, *vattin acting according to, *ssavana by hearsay, *sāsati ad-vise, com-mand etc. - III. (a) (fig.) following after = second to, secondary, supplementary, inferior, minor, after, smaller; e. g. *dhamma lesser morality, *pabbajā discipleship, *pavattaka ruling after, *bhāga after-share, *majjha mediocre, *yāgin assisting in sacrifice, *vyañjana smaller marks, etc.; cp. paṭi in same sense. - (b) distributive (cp. A. a.) each, every, one by one, (one after one): *disā in each direction, *pañcāhaṃ every 5 days, *pubba one after the other. - IV. As one of the contrasting (-comparative) prefixes (see remarks on ati and cp. ā3) anu often occurs in reduplicative compounds after the style of khudda-nukhuddaka "small and still smaller", i. e. all sorts of

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small items or whatever is small or insignificant. More frequent combinations. are the following: (q. v. under each heading) pada-nupadaṃ, pubba-nupubbaka, ponkha-nuponkhaṃ, Buddha-nuBuddha, vāda-nuvāda, seṭṭha-nuseṭṭhi. - V. As regards dialectical differences in meanings of prefixes, anu is frequent found in Pāli where the Sanskrit variant presents apa (for ava), abhi or ava. For Pāli anu = Sanskrit (Ved.) apa see anuddhasta; = Sanskrit abhi see anu-gijjhati, *brūheti, *sandahati; = Sanskrit ava see anu-kantati, *kassati2, *kiṇṇa, *gāhati, *bujjhati *bodha, *lokin, *vajja. Note (a) anu in compounds. is always contracted to *a-nu*, never elided like adhi = *dhi or abhi = *bhi. The rigid character of this rule accounts for forms isolated out of this sort of epds. (like maha-nubhāva), like ānupubbikathā (from *pubbānupubba*), ānubhāva etc. We find ānu also in combination. with an- under the influence of metre. - (b) the assimilation (contracted) form of anu before vowels is anv*.

Anu2 (adj.) subtile; frequent spelling for aṇu, e. g. D I.223 Sdhp 271, 346 (anuṃ thūlaṃ). See aṇu.

Anukankhin (adj.) [from anu + kānks.] striving after, longing for J v.499 (piya*).

Anukantati [anu + kantati2] to cut Dh 311 (hatthaṃ = phāleti DhA III.484).

Anukampaka and *ika (adj.) [from anukampati] kind of heart, merciful, compassionate, full of pity (-* or c. loc.) D III.187; S I.105 (loka*), 197; v.157; A IV.265 sq.; It 66 (sabba-bhūta*); Pv I.33 ( = kārunika PvA 16), 53 ( = atthakāma, hitesin PvA 25), 88; II.14 ( = anuggaṇhataka PvA 69), 27; ThA 174; PvA 196 (satthā sattesu a.).

Anukampati [anu + kampati] to have pity on, to commiserate, to pity, to sympathise with (c. acc.) S I.82, 206; v.189. Imper. anukampa Pv II.16 ( = anuddayaŋ karohi PvA 70) and anukampassu Pv III.28 ( = anuggaṇha PvA 181). Med. ppr. anukampamāna Sn 37 ( = anupekkhamāna anugayhamāna Nd2 50); PvA 35 (taṃ), 62 (pitaraṃ), 104. -pp. anukampita (q. v.).

Anukampana (nt.) [from last] compassion, pity PvA 16, 88.

Anukampā (f.) [abstr. from anukampati] compassion, pity, mercy D I.204; M I.161; II.113; S I.206; II.274 (loka*); IV.323; v.259 sq.; A I.64, 92; II.159; III.49; IV.139; Pug 35. - Often in abl. anukampāya out of pity, for the sake of D III.211 (loka* out of compassion for all mankind, + atthaya hitāya); J III.280; PvA 47, 147.

Anukampita (adj.) [pp. of anukampati] compassioned, gratified, remembered, having done a good deed (of mercy) Pv III.230.

Anukampin (adj.) [cp. anukampaka] compassionate, anxious for, commiserating. Only in following phrases: hita* full of solicitude for the welfare of S v.86; Sn 693; Pv III.76. sabbapāṇa-bhūta-hita* id. S IV.314; A II.210; III.92; IV.249; Pug 57, 68. sabba-bhūta* S I.25, 110; A II.9; It 102.

Anukaroti [anu + kr] to imitate, "to do after" A I.212; J I.491; II.162; DhA IV.197. - ppr. anukabbaṃ Vin II.201 (mama-*). - Med. anukubbati S I.19 = J IV.65. See also anukubba. On anvakāsi see anukassati 2.

Anukassati [anu + kassati, krs.] 1. [Sanskrit anukar.sati] to draw after, to repeat, recite, quote D II.255 (silokaṃ). - 2. [Sanskrit ava-kar.sati] to draw or take of, to remove, throw down, Th 1, 869 (aor. anvakāsi = khipi, chaḍḍesi C.).

Anukāma (adj.) [anu + kāma] responding to love, loving in return J II.157.

Anukāra [cp. anukaroti] imitation Dpvs v.39.

Anukārin (adj.) imitating Dāvs v.32.

Anukiṇṇa [pp. of anu + kirati] strewn with, beset with, dotted all over Pv IV.121 (bhamara-gaṇa*).

Anukubba (adj.) (-*) [ = Sanskrit anukurvat, ppr. of anukaroti] "doing correspondingly" giving back, retaliating J II.205 (kicca*).

Anukubbati see anukaroti.

Anukula frequent spelling for anukūla.

Anukulaka (adj.) = anukula Sdhp 242 (iccha* according to wish).

Anukūla (adj.) [anu + kūla, opp. paṭikūla] favourable, agreeable, suitable, pleasant VvA 280; spelt anukula at Sdhp 297, 312. -bhava complaisance, willingness VvA 71. -yañña a propitiative sacrifice D I.144 (explained. at DA I.302 as anukula* = sacrifice for the propagation of the clan).

Anukkaṇṭhati [an + ukkaṇṭhati] not to be sorry or not to lack anything, in ppr. *anto J v.10; and pp. *ita without regret or in plenty PvA 13.

Anukkaṇṭhana (nt.) [an + ukkaṇṭhana] having no lack anything, being contented or happy J VI.4.

Anukkama [to anukkamati] 1. order, turn, succession, going along; only in instr. anukkamena gradually, in due course or succession J I.157, 262, 290; VvA 157; PvA 5, 14, 35 etc. - 2. that which keeps an animal in (regular) step, i. e. a bridle M I.446; Sn 622 (sandānaṃ saha*).

Anukkamati [anu + kram] 1. to follow, go along (a path = acc.) A v.195; It 80 (maggaṃ). - 2. to advance (not with Morris J P T S. 1886, 111 as "abandon") S I.24, Th 1, 194.

Anukkhipati [anu + khipati] to throw out Cp. XI.6 (vaṭṭaṃ).

Anukkhepa [anu + khepa, see anukkhipati] compensation Vin I.285.

Anukhaṇati [anu + khaṇati] to dig after or further J v.233.

Anukhuddaka (adj.) [anu + khuddaka] in cpd. khudda* whatever there is of minor things, all less important items Vin II.287 = D II.154 = Miln 142; Miln 144.

Anuga (-*) (adj.-suff.) [from anu + gam] following or followed by, going after, undergoing, being in or under, standing under the influence of Sn 332 (vasa* in the power of), 791 (ejā* = abhibhūta Sn 527), 1095 (Māra vasa* = abhibhuyya viharanti Nd2 507); It 91 (ejā*); J III.224 (vasa* = vasavattin C.); Mhvs 7, 3.

Anugacchati [anu + gacchati] to go after, to follow, to go or fall into (w. acc.) KhA 223; PvA 141 (*gacchanto); aor. *gamāsi Vin I.16, and anvagā Mhvs 7, 10; 3rd pl. anvagū Sn 586 (vasaŋ = vasaŋ gata SnA 461). Pass. anugammati, ppr. anugammamāna accompanied or followed by, surrounded, adorned with J I.53; v.370. pp. anugata (q. v.).

Anugata (adj.) [pp. of anugacchati] gone after, accompanied by, come to; following; fig. fallen or gone into, affected with (-*), being a victim of, suffering M I.16; D III.85, 173 (parisā); A II.185 (sota*, v. l. anudhata); J II.292 (samudda*); v.369; Nd2 32 (taṇhā*); PvA 102 (nāmaṃ mayhaṃ a. has been given to me), 133 (kammaphala*).

Anugati (f.) (-*) [from anu + gam] following, being in the train of, falling under, adherence to, dependence on S I.104 (vas* being in the power). Usually in cpd. diṭṭha-nugati a sign (lit. belonging to) of speculation Vin II.108; S II.203; Pug 33; DhA IV.39.

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Anugama [from anu + gam] following after, only as adj. in dur* difficult to be followed J IV.65.

Anugāmika (adj.) going along with, following, accompanying; resulting from, consequential on Kh VIII.8 (nidhi, a treasure acc. a man to the next world); J IV.280 (*nidhi); Miln 159 (parisā); PvA 132, 253 (dānaṃ nāma *aṃ nidānan ti).

Anugāmin (adj.) [from anugacchati] following, attending on; an attendant, follower SnA 453 ( = anuyutta).

Anugāyati [anu + gāyati] to sing after or to, recite (a magic formula or hymn) praise, celebrate D I.104, 238; Sn 1131 (anugāyissaŋ); Miln 120.

Anugāhati [anu + gāhati] to plunge into, to enter (acc.) Sdhp 611.

Anugijjhati [anu + gijjhati] to be greedy after, to covet Sn 769 (cp. Nd1 12); J III.207; IV.4 ( = giddhā gathitā hutvā allīyanti C.). pp. *giddhā (q. v.). Cp. abhigijjhati.

Anugiddha [pp. of anugijjhati] greedy after, hankering after, desiring, coveting Sn 86 (ana-nu*), 144, 952; Th 1, 580.

Anuggaṇha (adj.) [cp. anuggaha] compassionate, ready to help PvA 42 *sīla.

Anuggaṇhataka (adj.) [ = anugganha] compassionate, commiserating, helping PvA 69 ( = anukampaka).

Anuggaṇhana (nt.) anuggaha1 DhsA 403.

Anu(g)gaṇhāti [anu + gaṇhāti] to have pity on, to feel sorry for, to help, give protection D I.53 (vācaṃ; cp. DA I.160: sārato agaṇhaṇto); J II.74; Nd2 50 (ppr. med. *gayhamāna = anukampamāna); Pug 36; PvA 181 (imper. anuggaṇha = anukampassu). pp. anuggahīta (q. v.).

Anuggaha1 [anu + grah] "taking up", compassion, love for, kindness, assistance, help, favour, benefit S II.11; III.109; IV.104; v.162; A I.92, 114; II.145; IV.167; v.70; It 12, 98; J I.151; v.150; Pug 25; PvA 145; ThA 104.

Anuggaha2 (adj.) [an + uggaha] not taking up Sn 912 ( = na gaṇhāti Nd1 330).

Anuggahīta (and *ita) [pp. of anuggaṇhāti] commiserated, made happy, satisfied M I.457; S II.274; III.91; IV.263; A III.172; J III.428.

Anuggāhaka (adj.) [from anuggaha] helping, assisting S III.5; V.162; Miln 354 (nt. = help).

Anugghāṭeti [an + ugghāṭeti] not to unfasten or open (a door) Miln 371 (kavāṭaṃ).

Anugghāta [an + ugghāta] not shaking, a steady walk J VI.253.

Anugghātin (adj.) [from last] not shaking, not jerking, J VI.252; Vv 53 (read *ī for i); VvA 36.

Anughāyati [anu + ghāyati1] to smell, snuff, sniff up Miln 343 (gandhaṃ).

Anucankamati [anu + cankamati] to follow (along) after, to go after D I.235; M I.227; Th 1, 481, 1044; Causative *āpeti M I.253, cp. Lal. Vist. 147, 3; M Vastu I.350.

Anucankamana (nt.) [from anucankamati] sidewalk J I.7.

Anucarati [anu + cariti] to move along, to follow; to practice; pp. anuciṇṇa and anucarita (q. v.)

Anucarita (-*) [pp. of anucarati] connected with, accompanied by, pervaded with D I.16, 21 (vīmaṃsa* = anuvicarita DA I.106); M I.68 (id.); Miln 226.

Anuciṇṇa (pp.) [pp. of anucarati] 1. pursuing, following out, practising, doing; having attained or practised Vin II.203 = It 86 (pamādaṃ); J I 20 (v.126); Th 1, 236; 2, 206; Dpvs IV.9. - 2. adorned with, accompanied by, connected with J IV.286.

Anucintana (nt.) [from anucinteti] thinking, upon, intention, care for PvA 164.

Anucinteti [anu + cinteti] to think upon, to meditate, consider S I.203 (v. l. for anuvicinteti).

Anuccangin see anujjangin.

Anucchavika (and *ya) (adj.) [anu + chavi + ka] "according to one's skin", befitting, suitable, proper, pleasing, fit for, J I.58, 62, 126, 218; II.5; IV.137, 138; Miln 358; DhA I.203, 390; II.55, 56; VvA 68, 78; PvA 13, 26 ( = kappiya), 66, 81, 286. anucchaviya at Vin II.7 (an*); III.120 (id. + ananulomika); Miln 13.

Anucchiṭṭha (adj.) [see ucchiṭṭha] (food) that is not thrown away or left over; untouched, clean (food) J III.257; DhA II.3 (vv. ll. anucciṭṭha).

Anujagghati [anu + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock D I.91; DA I.258 (cp. sañjagghati ibid 256).

Anujavati [anu + javati] to run after, to hasten after, to follow J VI.452 ( = anubandhati).

Anujāta (adj.) [anu + jāta] "born after" i. e. after the image of, resembling, taking after; esp. said of a son (putta), resembling his father, a worthy son It 64 (atijāta +, opp. avajāta); Th 1, 827 (fig. following the example of), 1279; J VI.380; DhA I.129; Dāvs II.66.

Anujānāti [anu + jānāti] 1. to give permission, grant, allow Vin IV.225; A II.197; Pv IV.167; PvA 55, 79, 142. - 2. to advise, prescribe Vin I.83; II.301: Sn 982. grd. anuññeyya that which is allowed A II.197; pp. anuññāta (q. v.) Causative anujānāpeti J I.156.

Anujīvati [anu + jīvati] to live after, i. e. like (acc.), to live for or on, subsist by J IV.271 ( = upajīvati, tassa-nubhāvena jīvitaṃ laddhaṃ (C.). -pp. anujīvata (q. v.).

Anujīvita (nt.) [pp. of anujīvati] living (after), living, livelihood, subsistence, life Sn 836 ( = jīvitaṃ SnA 545).

Anujīvin (adj.-n.) [from anujīvati] living upon, another, dependent; a follower, a dependant A I.152; III.44; J III.485; Dāvs v.43.

Anujju (adj.) [an + ujju] not straight, crooked, bent, in compounds *angin (anujjangin) with (evenly) bent limbs, i. e. with perfect limbs, graceful f. *ī Ep. of a beautiful woman J v.40 ( = kañcana-sannibha-sarīrā C.); VI.500 (T. anuccangī, C. aninditā agarahitangī); *gāmin going crooked i. e. snake J IV.330; *bhūta not upright (fig. of citta) J v.293.

Anujjuka = anujju J III.318.

Anujjhāna (nt.) [anu + jhāna] meditation, reflection, introspection Miln 352 (*bahula).

Anuññāta (adj.) [pp. of anujānāti] permitted, allowed; sanctioned, given leave, ordained D I.88; J I.92; II.353, 416; Pv I.123 (na a. = ananuññāta at id. p. Th 2, 129; explained. at PvA 64 by ananumata); Pug 28; DA I.247, 248, 267; PvA 12, 81.

Anuññātatta (nt.) [abstr. to anuññāta] being permitted, permission J II.353.

Anuṭṭhaka (adj.) [from an + uṭṭhahati] not rising, not rousing oneself, inactive, lazy Th 1, 1033.

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Anuṭṭhahati [anu + ṭhahati = *thāti, see *tiṭṭhati] to carry out, look after, practise do J v.121. -pp. anuṭṭhita (q. v.).

Anuṭṭhahāna (adj.) [ppr. of an + uṭṭhahati] one who does not rouse himself, not getting up, inactive Dh 280 ( = anuṭṭhahanto avāyāmanto DhA III.409).

Anuṭṭhātar [n. ag. to an + uṭṭhahati] one without energy or zeal Sn 96 (niddāsīlin sabhāsīlin +) SnA 169 ( = viriya-tejavirahita).

Anuṭṭhāna (nt.) [an + uṭṭhāna] "the not getting up", inactivity, want of energy Dh 241 (sarīra-paṭijagganaṃ akaronto DhA III.347).

Anuṭṭhita [pp. of anuṭṭhati = anutiṭṭhati] practising, effecting or effected, come to, experienced, done D II.103; S IV. 200; A III.290 sq.; IV.300; J II.61; Miln 198; PvA 132 (cp. anugata).

Anuṭṭhubhati [formally Sanskrit anus.ṭobhati, but in meaning = *anus.ṭīvati; anu + ṭṭhubhati, the etymology of which see under niṭṭhubhati] to lick up with one's saliva DA I.138.

Anuṭṭhurin v. l. at SnA 569, see niṭṭhurin.

Anuḍasati [anu + ḍasati] to bite J VI.192.

Anuḍahati [anu + ḍahati] to burn over again, burn thoroughly, fig. to destroy, consume J II.330; VI.423. Pass. *ḍayhati J v.426. - Also spelt *dahati, e. g. at S IV. 190 = v.53; Th 2, 488.

Anuḍahana (nt.) [from anuḍahati] conflagration, burning up, consumption J v.271; ThA 287 (d).

Anuṇṇata (adj.) [uṇṇata] not raised, not elated, not haughty, humble Sn 702 (care = uddhaccaṃ na-pajjeyya SnA 492).

Anutappati [anu + tappati1; Sanskrit anutapyate, Pass. of anutapati] to be sorry for, to regret, repent, feel remorse J I.113; IV.358; v.492 (ppr. an-anutappaṃ); Dh 67, 314; Pv II.942; DhA II.40. grd. anutappa to be regretted A I.22, 77; III.294, and anutāpiya A III.46 (an*).

Anutāpa [from anu + tāpa] anguish, remorse, conscience Vv 405 ( = vippaṭisāra VvA 180); DhsA 384.

Anutāpin (adj.) [from anutāpa] repenting, regretting Th 2, 57, 190; Vv 21; VvA 115.

Anutāpiya grd. of anutappati, q. v.

Anutā'eti [anu + ta'eti] to beat J II.280.

Anutiṭṭhati [anu + tiṭṭhati see also anuṭṭhahati] to look after, to manage, carry on J v.113 ( = anugacchati); PvA 78.

Anutīre (adv.) [anu + tīre, loc. of tīra] along side or near the bank (of a river) Sn 18 ( = tīra-samīpe SnA 28). Cp. anu A b.

Anuttara (adj.) [an + uttara] "nothing higher", without a superior, incomparable, second to none, unsurpassed, excellent, preeminent Sn 234 ( = adhikassa kassaci abhāvato KhA 193), 1003; Dh 23, 55 ( = asadisa appaṭibhāga DhA I.423); Pv IV.35 2 (dhamma); Dhs 1294; DA I.129; PvA 1, 5, 6, 18, etc.

Anuttariya (nt.) [abstr. from anuttara] preeminence, superiority, excellency; highest ideal, greatest good. They are mentioned as sets of 3 (viz. dassana*, paṭipadā*, vimutti*) at D III.219, or of 6 (viz. dassana*, savana*, lābha*, sikkhā*, pāricariyā*, anussata*) at D III.250, 281; A I.22; III.284, 325 sq., 452; Ps I.5. Cp. M I.235; A v.37. See also ānuttariya.

Anuttāna (adj.) [an + uttāna] not (lying) open, not exposed; fig. unexplained, unclear J VI.247.

Anutthunā (f.) [from anutthunāti] wailing, crying, lamenting Nd1 167 ( = vācāpalāpa vippalāpa etc.).

Anutthunāti [anu + thunati (thunāti); anu + stan] to wail, moan, deplore, lament, bewail D III.86; Sn 827 (cp. Nd1 167); Dh 156; J III.115; v.346, 479; DhA III.133; PvA 60 (wrongly applied for ghāyati, of the fire of conscience).

Anutrāsin (adj.) [an + utrāsin] not terrified, at ease Th 1, 864.

Anuthera [anu + thera] an inferior Thera, one who comes next to the elder Vin II.212 (thera-nutherā Th. and next in age).

Anudadāti [anu + dadāti] to concede, grant, admit, fut. anudassati Miln 276, 375.

Anudayati (to sympathise with) see under anuddā.

Anudassita [pp. of anudasseti] manifested Miln 119.

Anudahati see anuḍahati.

Anudiṭṭha [pp. of anudisati] pointed out, appointed, dedicated, nt. consecration, dedication J v.393 (anudiṭṭha = asukassa nāma dassatī ti C.); Pv I.107 ( = uddiṭṭha PvA 50).

Anudiṭṭhi (f.) [anu + diṭṭhi] an "after-view", sceptical view, speculation, heresy D I.12; M II.228; S III.45 sq.; Th 1, 754; Miln 325; DA I.103. atta-nudiṭṭhi (q. v.) a soul-speculation.

Anudisati [anu + disati] to point out, direct, bid, address PvA 99 (aor. anudesi + anvesi). -pp. anudiṭṭha (q. v.).

Anudisā (f.) [anu + disā] an intermediate point of ihe compass, often collectively for the usual 4 intermediate points D I.222; S I.122; III.124.

Anudīpeti [anu + dīpeti] to explain Miln 227 (dhamma-dhammaṃ).

Anudūta [anu + dūta] a person sent with another, a travelling companion Vin II.19, 295; DhA II.76, 78.

Anudeva see anvadeva.

Anuddayatā (f.) [abstr. to anuddayā] sympathy with (-*) compassion, kindness, favour, usually as par* kindness to or sympathy with other people S II.218; v.169 (T. anudayatā); A III.184; It 72; Vbh 356.

Anuddayā (and anudayā) (f.) [anu + dayā] compassion, pity, mercy, care Vin II.196; S I.204; II.199; IV.323; A II.176; III.189; Pug 35 (anukampā); J I.147, 186, 214; PvA 70, 88, 181 ( = anukampā). In compounds anudaya* e. g. *sampanna full of mercy J I.151, 262; PvA 66.

Anuddā (f.) [contracted form of anuddayā] = anuddayā Dhs 1056, where also the other abstr. formations anuddāyanā and anuddāyitattaṃ "care, forbearance and consideration"; DhsA 362 (anudayatī ti anuḍdā).

Anuddhaṃseti [anu + dhaṃseti] to spoil, corrupt, degrade Vin IV.148 (explination. here in slightly different meaning = codeti vā codāpeti vā to reprove, scold, bring down); It 42. Usually in stereotype phrase rāgo cittaṃ a. lust degrades the heart Vin III.111; M I.26; S I.186; A I.266; II.126; III. 393 sq. -pp. anuddhasta (q. v.).

Anuddhata (adj.) [an + uddhata] not puffed up, not proud, unconceited calm, subdued Sn 850 ( = uddhacca-virahita SnA 549, cp. anuṇṇata); It 30; Dh 363 ( = nibbutacitta DhA IV.93); Vv 648; Pug 59.

Anuddharin (adj.) [an + uddharin] not proud Sn 952 ( = anussukin SnA 569) see niṭṭhurin.

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Anuddhasta (adj.) [anu + dhasta, pp. of anuddhaṃseti, cp. Sanskrit apadhvasta] spoilt, corrupt, degraded M I.462 (citta); A II.126 (id.).

Anudhamma [anu + dhamma] 1. in compounds. with dhamma as dhamma-nudhamma to be judged as a redupl. cpd. after the manner of compounds mentioned under anu IV. and meaning "the Law in all its parts, the dhamma and what belongs to it, the Law in its fullness". For instances see dhamma C. IV. Freq. in phrase dh*-a-nudh*-paṭipanna "one who mastereotype the completeness of the Dh.", e. g. S II.18; III.163; It 81; Ps II.189. - 2. conformity or accordance with the Law, lawfulness, relation, essence, consistency, truth; in phrase Dhammassa (c*) anudhammaṃ vyākaroti to explain the truth of the Dh. Vin I.234; D I.161; M I.368, 482; S II.33; III.6; IV.51; V.7. See further M III.30; Sn 963 (cp. Nd1 481 for exegesis). Also in cpd. *cārin living according to the Dhamma, living in truth S II.81, 108; A II.8; Dh 20 (cp. DhA I.158); Vv 317; Sn 69 (see Nd2 51).

Anudhammatā (f.) [abstr. to anudhamma) lawfulness, conformity to the Dhamma A II.46; Ps I.35, 36.

Anudhāreti [anu + dhāreti] to hold up DA I.61 (chattaṃ), cp. J 1.53, dhariyamāna.

Anudhāvati [anu + dhāvati] to run after, to chase, follow, persecute, pursue M I.474; S I.9; Dh 85; Th 1, 1174; Miln 253, 372.

Anudhāvin (adj.-n.) [from anudhāvati] one who runs after S I.9, 117.

Anunadī (-tire) along the bank of the river S IV.177 should be read anu nadītīre ( = anu prep. c. loc.; see under anu A).

Anunamati [anu + namati] to incline, bend (intrs.), give way Miln 372 (of a bow).

Anunaya [from anuneti] "leading along", friendliness, courtesy, falling in with, fawning D III.254 (*saŋyojana); A IV.7 sq. (id.) M I.191; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; Nett 79; combined. w. opp. paṭigha (repugnance) at Miln 44, 122, 322.

Anunayana (nt.) [from anuneti] fawning DhsA 362.

Anunāsika (adj.) [anu + nāsā + ika] nasal; as tt. g. the sound ṃ; in *lopa apocope of the nasal ṃ VvA 114, 253, 275, 333.

Anunīta (adj.) [pp. of anuneti] led, induced S IV.71; Sn 781.

Anunetar [n. ag. from anuneti] one who reconciles or conciliates Ps II.194 (netā vinetā anunetā).

Anuneti [anu + neti] to conciliate, appease, win over, flatter S I.232 (ppr. anunayamāna); pp. anunīta (q. v.).

Anupa see anūpa.

Anupakampati [anu + pakampati] to shake, move, to be unsteady Th 1, 191 = Ud 41.

Anupakkama [an + upakkama] not attacking, instr. *ena not by attack (from external enemies) Vin II.195.

Anupakkuṭṭha (adj.) [an + upak.r] blameless, irreproachahle D I.113; Vin IV.160; Sn p. 115; DA I.281.

Anupakkhandati [anu + pa + khandati] to push oneself forward, to encroach on D I.122 ( = anupavisati DA I.290); ger. anupakhajja pushing oneself in, intruding Vin II.88 ( = antopavisati), 213; IV.43 ( = anupavisati); M I.151, 469; S III.113; Vism 18.

Anupakhajjati [den. from anupakhajja, ger. of anupakkhandati] to encroach, intrude Vin V.163.

Anupagacchati [anu + pa + gacchati] to go or return into (c. acc.) D I.55 (anupeti +).

Anupaghāta [an + upaghāta] not hurting Dh 185 (anūpa* metri causa; explained. by anupahananañ c-eva anupaghātanañ ca DhA III.238).

Anupacita (adj.) [anu + pa + cita, pp. of anupacināti] heaped up, accumulated ThA 56.

Anupacināti [an + upacināti] not to observe or notice J V.339 ( = anoloketi C.; v. l. anapaviṇāti).

Anupajagghati [anu + pa + jagghati] to laugh at, to deride, mock over A I.198 (v. l. anusaŋ*).

Anupajjati [anu + pad] to follow, accompany J IV.304. pp. anupanna (q. v.).

Anupañcāhaṃ (adv.) [anu + pañcā + ahaṃ] every five days PvA 139 (+ anudasāhaṃ).

Anupaññatti (f.) [anu + paññatti] a supplementary regulation or order Vin II.286; V.2 sq.

Anupaṭipāti (f.) [anu + paṭipāti] succession; as adv. in order, successively DA I.277 (kathā = anupubbikathā); DhA III.340 (anupaṭipāṭiyā = anupubbena); Vism 244.

Anupaṭṭhita (adj.) [anu + pa + ṭhita] setting out after, following, attacking J V.452.

Anupatati [anu + patati] 1. to follow, go after, J VI.555 anupatiyāsi Subj.). - 2. to fall upon, to befall, attack Vin III.106 = M I.364; S I.23 (read *patanti for *patatanti) = Dh 221 (dukkhā); Th 1, 41 = 1167 (of lightning). pp. anupatita (q. v.). Cp. also anupāta and anupātin.

Anupatita [pp. of anupatati] "befallen", affected with, oppressed by (-*) S II.173 (dukkha*); III.69 (id.); Sn 334 (pamāda*).

Anupatitatta (nt.) [abstr. of anupatita] the fact of being attacked by, being a victim of (-*) SnA 339.

Anupatta (anuppatta) [pp. of anupāpuṇāti; cp. Sanskrit anuprāpta] (having) attained, received, got to (c. acc), reached D I.87-111; II 2; It 38; Sn 027, 635; Dh 386, 403; Pv IV.166; PvA 59 (dukkhaṃ), 242. In phrase addhagata vayo-anuppatta having reached old age, e. g. Vin II.188; D I.48; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149.

Anupatti (anuppatti) (f.) [anu + patti] attainment, accomplishment, wish, desire (fulfilled), ideal S I.46, 52.

Anupathe at J V.302 should be read as anu pathe by the way at the wayside; anu to be taken as prep. c. loc. (see anu A). C. explinations. as janghamagga-mahāmaggānaṃ antare.

Anupada [cp. Sanskrit anupadaṃ adv., anu + pada] 1. the "afterfoot", i. e. second foot a verse, also a mode of reciting, where the second foot is recited without the first one Vin IV.15 (cp. 355); Miln 340 (anupadena anupadaṃ katheti). - 2. (adj.) (following) on foot, at every, step, continuous, repeated, in *dhamma-vipassanā uninterrupted contemplation M III.25; *vaṇṇanā word-by-word explanation DhsA 168. As nt. adv. *ṃ close behind, immediately after (c. gen.) J II.230 (tassa-nupadaṃ agamāsi); VI.422. Esp. frequent in combination. pada-nupadaṃ (adv.) foot after foot, i. e. in the footsteps, immediately behind J III. 504; VI.555; DhA I.69; II.38.

Anupadātar (anuppadātar) [n. ag. of anupadeti] one who gives, or one who sets forth, effects, designs D I.4 (cp. DA I.74); A II.209.

Anupadāna (anuppadāna) (nt.) [anu + pa + dāna, cp. anupadeti] giving, administereotypeng, furnishing, the giving of (-*) D I.12 (cp. DA I.98; both read anuppādāna); J III.205; Miln 315.

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Anupadinna (anuppadinna) [pp. of anupadeti] given, handed over, furnished, dedicated Pv I.512.

Anupadeti (anuppadeti) [anu + pa + dadāti] to give out, give as a present, hand over; to design, set forth, undertake S III.131 (Pot. anuppadajjuṃ); M I.416 (Pot. anupadajjeyya. see dadāti I.3); Miln 210 (*deti). fut. *dassati (see dadāti I.1); D III.92; S IV.303 (v. l. SS for T. anusarissati); A III.43; Sn 983. ger. *datvā SnA 35. inf. *dātuṃ A I.117. pp. *dinna (q. v.).

Anupaddava (adj.) [an + upaddava] free from danger, uninjured, safe Vin II.79 = 124 (+ anītika); III.162; Dh 338; DhA IV.48; PvA 250 (explination. for siva).

Anupadhāreti [an + upadhār*] to disregard, to heed not, to neglect DhA IV.197; VvA 260.

Anupadhika (adj.) [an + upadhi + ka] free from attachment (see upadhi) Vin I 36 (anupadhīka); D. III 112 (anupadhika opp. to sa-upadhika); Sn 1057 (anūpadhīka T., but Nd2 anūpadhika. with ū for u metri causa).

Anupanna, [pp. of anupajjati] gone into, reached, attained Sn 764 (māradheyya*).

Anupabandhati (anuppa*) [anu + pa + bandhati] to follow immediately, to be incessant, to keep on (without stopping), to continue Miln 132. - Causative *āpeti ibid.

Anupabandhanatā (anuppa*) (f.) [abstr. to prec.] nonstopping, not ceasing Miln 132.

Anupabandhanā (anuppa*) (f.) [abstr. from anupabandhati] continuance, incessance, Pug 18 = Vbh 357 (in exegesis of upanāha).

Anupabbajjā (f.) [anu + pabbajjā, cp. BSanskrit anupravrajati Divy 61] giving up worldly life in imitation of another S V.67 = It 107.

Anupaya (adj.) [an + upaya] unattached, "aloof" S I.181 (akankha apiha +).

Anuparigacchati [anu + pari + gacchati] to walk round and round, to go round about (c. acc.) Vin III.119; S I.75 (ger. *gamma); Sn 447 (aor. *pariyagā = parito parito agamāsi Sn A 393); J IV.267.

Anuparidhāvati [anu + pari + dhāvati] to run up and down or to move round and round (cp. anuparivattati) S. III.150 (khīlan).

Anupariyāti [auu + pari + yāti] to go round about, to go about, to wander or travel all over (c. acc.) Vin II.111; S I.102, 124; Th 1, 1235 (*pariyeti), 1250 (id. to search); Pv III.34 ( = anuvicarati); Miln 38; PvA 92 (*yāyitvā, ger.) 217.

Anupariyāya (adj) [adjectivised ger. of anupariyāti] going round, encircling, in *patha the path leading or going round the city D II.83 = S IV 194 = A V.195; A IV.107.

Anuparivattati [anu + pari + vrt] to go or move round, viz. 1. to deal with, be engaged in, perform, worship Vin III.307 (ādiccaṃ); D I.240; PvA 97. - 2. to meet Miln 204 (Devadatto ca Bodhisatto ca ekato anuparivattanti). - 3. to move round and round, move on and on, keep on rolling (c. acc.), evolve S. III.150 (anuparidhāvati +) Miln 253 (anudhāvati + kāyan).

Anuparivatti (f.) (-*) [anu + parivatti] dealing with, occupation, connection with S III.16.

Anuparivāreti [anu + pari + vāreti] to surround, stand by, attend on (c. acc.) Vin I.338; M I.153; DhA 1.55.

Anupariveṇiyaṃ [anu + pariveṇiyaṃ = loc. of pariveṇi] should be written anu pariveṇiyaṃ ("in every cell, cell by cell"), anu here functioning as prep. c. loc. (see anu A) Vin I.80, 106.

Anuparisakkati [anu + pari + sakkati] to move round, to be occupied with, take an interest in (c. acc.) S IV.312 (v.l. *vattati).

Anuparisakkana (nt.) [from anuparisakkati] dealing with, interest in S IV.312 (v.l. *vattana).

Anupariharati [anu + pari + harati] to surround, enfold, embrace M I.306.

Anupalitta (adj.) [an + upalitta] unsmeared, unstained, free from taint M I.319, 386 (in verse); as *ūpalitta in verse of Sn and Dh: Sn 211 ( = lepānaṃ abhāvā SnA 261), 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353.

Anupavajja (adj.) [grd. of an + upavadati] blameless, without fault, Miln 391.

Anupavattaka (anuppa*) (adj.) to anupavatteti] one who succeeds (another) King or Ruler in the ruling of an empire (cakkaṃ) Miln 342, 362; SnA 454. See also anuvattaka.

Anupavatteti (anuppa*) [anu + pa + vatteti, from vrt] to keep moving on after, to continue rolling, with cakkaṃ to wield supreme power after, i.e. in succession or imitation of a predecessor S I.191; Miln 362. See also anuvatteti.

Anupavāda [an + upavāda] not blaming or finding fault, abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dh 185 (anūpa* in metre; explained at DhA III.238 as anupavādanañ c'eva anupavādāpanañ ca "not scolding as well as not inciting others to grumbling"); adj. *vādaka Pug 60, and *vādin M I.360.

Anupaviṭṭha (anuppa*) [pp. of anupavisati] entered, gone or got into, fallen into (c. acc.) Miln 270, 318 sq., 409 (coming for shelter); PvA 97, 152 (Gangānadiṃ a. nadī: flowing into the G.).

Anupaviṭṭhatā (f.) [abstr. to anupaviṭṭha] the fact of having entered Miln 257.

Anupavisati [anu + pa + visati] to go into, to enter Dh I.290; VvA 42 ( = ogāhati). -pp. *paviṭṭha (q.v.) Causative *paveseti (q.v.).

Anupavecchati (anuppa*) [see under pavecchati] to give, give over to, offer up, present, supply Vin I.221 (*pavacchati); D I.74 ( = pavesati DA I.218); II.78; M I.446; III.133; A II.64; III.26 (v.l. *vacch*); J V.394; Sn 208 (v.l. *vacch*); SnA 256 ( = anupavesati); PvA 28.

Anupaveseti [anu + pa + vis, cp. BSanskrit anupraveshayati Divy 238] to make enter, to give over, to supply SnA 256 ( = *pavecchati).

Anupasankamati1 [anu + pa + saŋkamati] to go along up to (c. acc.) PvA 179.

Anupasankamati2 [an + upasank.r] not to go to. not to approach DhA II.30 (+ apayirupāsati).

Anupasaṇṭhapanā (f.) [an + upasaṇṭhapanā] not stopping, incessance, continuance Pug 18 (but id. p. at Vbh 357 has anusansandanā instead); cp. anupabandhanā.

Anupassaka (adj.) [from anupassati] observing, viewing, contemplating Th 1, 420.

Anupassati [anu + passati] to look at, contemplate, observe Sn 477; Ps I.57, 187; Sn A 505.

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Anupassanā (f.) [abstr. of anupassati, cf. Sanskrit anudarshana] looking at, viewing, contemplating, consideration, realisation S V.178 sq., Sn p. 140; Ps I.10, 20, 96; II.37, 41 sq., 67 sq.; Vbh 194. See [pp. of anupāpeti] having been lead to or made to reach, attained, found Miln 252.

Anupāpuṇāti (anuppā*) [anu + pāpuṇāti] to reach, attain, get to, find S I.105; ger. anuppatvāna Pv II.924 ( = *pāpuṇitvā PvA 123). -pp. anupatta (q. v.). - Causative anupāpeti (q. v.).

Anupāpeti [Causative of anupāpuṇāti] to make reach or attain, to lead to, to give or make find J VI.88; Cp. XI. 4 (aor. anupāpayi); Miln 276. -pp. anupāpita (q. v.).

Anupāya [an + upāya] wrong means J I.256; Sdhp 405.

Anupāyāsa see upāyāsa.

Anupālaka (adj.) [anu + pālaka] guarding, preserving Sdhp 474.

Anupālana (nt.) [from anupāleti] maintenance, guarding, keeping Dpvs III.2.

Anupāleti [anu + pāleti] to safeguard, warrant, maintain Miln 160 (santatiṃ).

Anupāhana (adj.) [an + upāhana] without shoes J VI.552.

Anupiya (anuppiya) (adj) [anu + piya] flattering, plessant, nt. pleasantness, flattery, in *bhāṇin one who flatters I) III.185; J II.390; V.360; and *bhāṇitar id. Vbh 352.

Anupī'aṃ at PvA 161 is to be read anuppī'an (q. v.).

Anupucchati [anu + pucchati] to ask or inquire after (c. acc.) Sn 432, 1113. -pp. anupuṭṭha (q. v.).

Anupuṭṭha [pp. of anupucchati] asked Sn 782 ( = pucchita SnA 521).

Anupubba (adj.) [anu + pubba] following in one's turn, successive, gradual, by and by, regular Vin II.237 (mahāsamuddo a*-ninno etc.); D I.184; Sn 511; J V.155 (regularly formed, of ūrū). Cases adverbially: anupubbena (instr.) by and by, in course of time, later, gradually Vin I.83; Dh 239 ( = anupaṭipāṭiyā DhA III.340); Pug 41, 64; J II.2, 105; III.127; Miln 22; PvA 19. anupubbaso (abl. cp. Sanskrit anupūrvasha*) in regular order Sn 1000. In compounds. both anupubba* and anupubbi* (q. v.). -kāraṇa gradual performance, graded practice M I.446. -nirodha successive passing away, fading away in regular succession, i. e. in due course. The nine stages of this process are the same as those mentioned under *vihāra, and are enumerated as such at D III.266, 290; A IV.409, 456; Ps I.35. -vihāra a state of gradually ascending stages, by means of which the highest aim of meditation and trance is attained, viz. complete cessation of all consciousness. These are 9 stages, consisting of the 4 jhānas, the 4 āyatanāni and as the crowning phrase "saññā-vedayitanirodha" (see jhāna1). enumerated as such in var. places, esp. at the following: D II.156; III.265, 290; A IV.410; Nd2 under jhāna; Ps I.5; Miln 176. -sikkhā regular instruction or study (dhammavinaye) M I.479; III.1 (+ *kiriyā *paṭipadā).

Anupubbaka (adj.) = anupubba, in cpd. pubba-nupubbaka all in succession or in turn, one by one (on nature of this kind of cpd. see anu B IV.) Vin I.20 (*ānaṃ kulānaṃ puttā the sons of each clan, one by one).

Anupubbata (nt.) [from anupubba] acting in turn, gradation, succession Vv 6414 ( = anukūla kiriyā i. e. as it pleases VvA 280) cp. ānupubbatā.

Anupubbi-kathā (f.) [anupubba + kathā, formation like dhammi-kathā] a gradual instruction, graduated sermon, regulated exposition of the ever higher values of four subjects (dāna-kathā, sīla*, sagga*, magga*) i. e. charity, righteousness, the heavens, and the Path. Bdhgh. explains the term as anupubbikathā nāma dāna-nantaraṃ sīlaṃ sīla-nantaro saggo sagga-nantaro maggo ti etesaŋ dīpana-kathā" (DA I.277). Vin I.15, 18; II.156, 192; D I.110; II.41; M I.379; J I.8; VvA 66, 197, 208; DA I.308; DhA I.6; Miln 228. - The spelling is frequently ānupubbikathā (as to lengthening of anu see anu Note (a)), e. g. at D I.110; II.41; M I.379; J I.8; Miln 228.

Anupekkhati [anu + pekkhati] 1. to concentrate oneself on, to look carefully A III.23. - 2. to consider, to show consideration for, Nd2 50 (ppr. *amāna = anukampamāna). - Causative anupekkheti to cause some one to consider carefully Vin II.73.

Anupekkhanatā (f.) [abstr. from anupekkhana, see anupekkhatī] concentration (of thought) Dhs 8, 85, 284, 372.

Anupeti [anu + pa + i] to go into D I.55 (+ anupagacchati) S III.207; DA I.165.

Anupeseti [anu + pa + is.] to send forth after Miln 36.

Anuposathikaṃ see anvaḍḍhamāsaŋ.

Anuposiya (adj.) [grd. of anu + pus.] to be nourished or fostereotyped Sdhp 318.

Anuppa* in all combinations. of anu + ppa see under headings anupa*.

Anuppadajjuṃ (S III.131) see anupadeti.

Anuppanna (*uppāda, *uppādeti) see uppanna etc.

Anuppī'a (adj.) [an + uppī'a] not molested, not oppressed (by robbers etc.) not ruined, free from harm J III.443; V.378; VvA 351; PvA 161.

Anupharaṇa (nt.) [anu + pharaṇa] flashing through, pervading Miln 148.

Anuphusīyati [anu + phusīyati, cp. Sanskrit prus.āyati, Causative of prus.] to sprinkle, moisten, make wet J V.242 (himaṃ; C. pateyya).

Anubajjhati at PvA 56 is faulty reading for anubandhati (q. v.).

Anubaddha [pp. of anubandhati] following, standing behind (piṭṭhito) D I.1, 226.

Anubandha [anu + bandh] bondage M III.170; It 91.

Anubandhati [anu + bandhati] to follow, run after, pursue J I.195; II.230; VI.452 ( = anujavati); PvA 56 (substitute

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for anubajjhanti!), 103, 155. aor. *bandhi J II.154, 353; III.504; PvA 260 ( = anvāgacchi). ger. *bandhitvā J I.254. grd. *bandhitabba M I.106. -pp. anubaddha (q. v.).

Anubandhana (nt.) [from anubandhati] that which connects or follows, connection, consequence J VI.526 (*dukkha).

Anubala (nt.) [anu + bala] rear-guard, retinue, suite, in *ṃ bhavati to accompany or follow somebody Miln 125.

Anubujjhati [anu + bujjhati, Med. of budh, cp. Sanskrit avabudhyate] to remember, recollect J III.387 (with avabujjhati in prec. verse).

Anubujjhana (nt.) [from anubujjhati] awakening, recognition Ps I.18 (bujjhana +).

AnuBuddha [pp. of anu + bodhati] 1. awakened (act. and pass.), recognised, conceived, seen, known D II.123 (*ā ime dhammā); S I.137 (dhammo vimalen- a-nubuddho) II.203; IV.188; A II.1; III.14; IV.105; SnA 431. In phrase Buddha-nuBuddha (as to nature of cpd. see anu B IV.) either "fully awakened (enlightened)" or "wakened by the wake" (Mrs. Rh. D.) Th 1, 679 = 1246. - 2. a lesser Buddha, inferior than the Buddha DA I.40. Cp. Buddha-nuBuddha.

Anubodha [anu + budh] awakening; perception, recognition, understanding S I.126 (*) = A V.46 (anubodhiṃ as aor. of anubodhati*); Pug 21; Miln 233. Freq. in compounds. ananubodha (adj.) not understanding, not knowing the truth S II.92; III.261; V.431; A II.1; IV.105; Dhs 390, 1061; VvA 321 ( = anavabodha) and duranubodha (adj.) hard to understand, difficult to know D I.12, 22; S I.136.

Anubodhati [anu + budh] to wake up, to realise, perceive, understand; aor. anubodhiṃ A V.46 (*) = S I.126 (anubodhaṃ). - Causative *bodheti to awaken, fig. to make see to instruct J VI.139 (*ayamāna) -pp. anuBuddha (q. v.).

Anubodhana (nt.) [from anubodhati] awakening, understanding, recognition Ps I.18 (bodhana +).

Anubbajati [anu + vraj] to go along, wander, follow, tread (a path) J IV.399 (maggaṃ = pabbajati C.).

Anubbata (adj.) [Vedic anuvrata, anu + vata] subject to the will of another, obedient, faithful, devoted J III.521; VI.557.

Anubbillāvitatta see ubbill*.

Anubyañjana see anuvyañjana.

Anubrūhita [pp. of anubrūheti] strengthened with (-*), full of Ps I.167.

Anubrūheti [brūheti] to do very much or often, to practice, frequent, to be fond of (c. acc.), fostereotypeS I.178 (anubrūhaye); M III.187 (id., so read for manu*), Th 2, 163 (*ehi); Cp. III.12 (saŋvegaṃ anubrūhayiṃ aor.); J III.191 (suññāgāraṃ). Often in phrase vivekaṃ anubrūheti to devote oneself to detachment or solitude, e.g. J I.9 (inf. *brūhetuṃ); III.31 (*brūhessāmi), Dh 75 (*brūhaye = *brūheyya vaḍḍheyya DhA II.103). -pp. anubrūhita (q.v.) Cp. also brūhana.

Anubhaṇanā (f.) [anu + bhaṇana] talking to, admonition, scolding Vin II.88 (anuvadanā +).

Anubhavati and Anubhoti [anu + bhavati] to come to or by, to undergo, suffer (feel), get, undertake, partake in, experience D I.129; II.12 (*bhonti); M II.204; A I.61 (atthaṃ *bhoti to have a good result); J VI.97 (*bhoma); Pv I.1011 (*bhomi vipākaṃ); PvA 52 (*issati = vedissati); Sdhf 290. Esp. frequent with dukkhaṃ to suffer pain, e.g. PvA I.1110 (*bhonti); PvA 43, 68, 79 etc. (cp. anubhavana). - ppr. med. *bhavamāna J I.50; aor. *bhavi PvA 75 (sampattiṃ); ger. *bhavitvā J IV.1; PvA 4 (sam pattiṃ), 67 (dukkhaṃ), 73 (sampattiṃ); grd. *bhaviyāna (in order to receive) Pv II.85 ( = anubhavitvā PvA 109). Pass. anubhūyati and *bhavīyati to be undergone or being experienced; ppr. *bhūyamāna PvA 8, 159 (mayā a. = anubhūta), 214 (attanā by him) and *bhavīyamāna PvA 33 (dukkhaṃ). -pp. anubhūta (q.v.).

Anubhavana (nt.) [from anubhavati] experiencing, suffering; sensation or physical sensibility (cf. Cpd.229, 2321) Nett 28 (iṭṭha-niṭṭh-a-nubhavana-lakkhanā vedanā "feeling is characterised by the experiencing of what is pleasant and unpleasant"); Miln 60 (vedayita-lakkhaṇā vedanā anubhavana-lakkhaṇā ca); PvA 152 (kamma-vipāka*). Esp. in combination. with dukkha* suffering painful sensations, e.g. at J IV.3; Miln 181; DhA IV.75; PvA 52.

Anubhāga [anu + bhāga] a secondary or inferior part, (after-)share, what is left over Vin II.167.

Anubhāyati [anu + bhāyati] to be afraid of J VI.302 (kissa nv- a-nubhāyissaŋ, so read for kissa-nu*).

Anubhāva [from anubhavati] orig. meaning "experience, concomitance" and found only in compounds as -*, in meaning "experiencing the sensation of or belonging to, experience of, accordance with", e.g. maha* sensation of greatness, rāja-* s. belonging to a king, what is in accordance with kingship, i. e. majesty. Through preponderance of expressions of distinction there arises the meaning of anubhāva as "power, majesty, greatness, splendour etc." and as such it was separated from the 1st component and taken as ānubhāva with ā instead of a, since the compositional character had obliterated the character of the a. As such (ānubhāva abs.) found only in later language. - (1) anubhāva (-*): mahānubhāva (of) great majesty, eminence, power S I.146 sq.; II.274; IV.323; Sn p. 93; Pv II.112; PvA 76. deva* of divine power or majesty D II.12; devatā* id. J I.168; dibba* id. PvA 71, 110. rājā* kingly splendour, pomp D I.49; J IV 247; PvA 279 etc. -anubhāvena (instr. -*) in accordance with, by means of J II.200 (angavijjā*); PvA 53 (iddh*), 77 (kamma*), 148 (id.), 162 (rāja*), 184 (dāna*), 186 (puñña*). yatha-nubhāvaṃ (adv.) in accordance with (me), as much as (1 can); after ability, according to power S I.31; Vv 15 ( = yathābalaṃ VvA 25). - (2) ānubhāva majesty power, magnificence, glory, splendour J V.10, 456; Pv II.811; VvA 14; PvA 43, 122, 272. See also ānu*.

Anubhāvatā (f.) [ = anubhāva + tā] majesty, power S I.156 (maha-*).

Anubhāsati [anu + bhāsati] to speak after, to repeat D I.104; Miln 345; DA I.273.

Anubhūta [pp. of anubhavati] (having or being) experienced, suffered, enjoyed PvA II.1218. nt. suffering, experience J I.254; Miln 78, 80.

Anubhūyamānatta (nt.) [abstr. from ppr. Pass. of anubhavati] the fact of having to undergo, experiencing PvA 103.

Anuma (-dassika) see anoma*.

Anumagge at J V.201 should be read anu magge along the road, by the way; anu here used as prep. c. loc. (see anu A b).

Anumajjati [anu + majjati] 1. to strike along, to stroke, to touch DA I.276 ( = anumasati). - 2. to beat, thresh, fig. to thresh out J VI.548; Miln 90. - Pass. anumajjīyati Miln 275 (cp. p. 428).

Anumajjana (nt.) [abstr. from anumajjati] threshing out, pounding up (Dhs. trsl. 11), always used with reference to the term vicāra (q.v.) Miln 62; DhsA 114; DA I.63, 122.

Anumajjha (adj.) [anu + majjha] mediocre, without going to extremes J IV.192; V.387.

Anumaññati [anu + maññati] to assent, approve, give leave Th 1, 72. -pp. anumata (q.v.).

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Anumata [pp. of anumaññati] approved of, given consent to, finding approval, given leave D I.99 ( = anuññāta DA I.267); J V.399 ( = muta); Miln 185, 212, 231, 275; PvA 64 ( = annuññāta).

Anumati (f.) [from anumaññati] consent, permission, agreement, assent, approval Vin II.294, 301, 306; D. I.137, 143; Dpvs IV.47, Cf. V.18; DA I.297; VvA 17, PvA 114.

Anumatta see aṇu*.

Anumasati [anu + masati] to touch D I.106 ( = anumajjati DA I.276).

Anumāna [from anu + man] inference Miln 330 (naya +), 372, 413; Sdhp 74.

Anumitta [anu + mitta] a secondary friend, a follower. acquaintance J V.77.

Anumināti [cf. Sanskrit anumāti, anu + mināti from mi, Sanskrit minoti, with confusion of roots mā andmi] to observe, draw an inference M I.97; PvA 227 (*anto + nayaŋ nento). See also anumīyati.

Anumīyati [Sanskrit anumīyate, Pass. of anu + mā, measure, in sense of Med.] to observe, conclude or infer from S III.36. Cp. anumināti.

Anumodaka (adj.) [from anumodati] one who enjoys, one who is glad of or thankful for (c. acc.) Vin V.172; PvA 122; Sdhf 512.

Anumodati [anu + modati] to find satisfaction in (acc.), to rejoice in, be thankful for (c. acc.), appreciate, benefit from, to be pleased, to enjoy Vin II.212 (bhattagge a. to say grace after a meal); S II.54; A III.50 (*modanīya); IV.411; Dh 177 (ppr. *modamāna); It 78; Pv II.919 (dānaṃ *modamāna = enjoying, gladly receiving); 1,54 (anumodare = are pleased; pitisomanassajātā honti PvA 27); J II.112; PvA 19, 46, 81, 201) imper. modāhi); Sdhp. 501 sq. -pp. anumodita (q.v.).

Anumodana (nt.) [from anumodati] "according to taste", i.e. satisfaction, thanks, esp. after a meal or after receiving gifts = to say grace or benediction, blessing, thanksgiving. In latter sense with dadāti (give thanks for = loc.), karoti ( = Latin gratias agere) or vacati (say or tell thanks): *ṃ datvā PvA 89; *ṃ katvā J I.91; DhA III.170, 172; VvA 118; PvA 17, 47; *ṃ vatvā VvA 40 (pānīyadāne for the gift of water), 295, 306 etc. *ṃ karoti also "to do a favour" PvA 275. Cp. further DhA I.198 (*gāthā verses expressing thanks, benediction); II.97 (Satthāraṃ *ṃ yāciṃsu asked his blessing); PvA 23 (*atthaṃ in order to thank), 26 (id.), 121, 141 (katabhatta*), 142; Sdhp 213, 218, 516.

Anumodita [pp. of anumodati] enjoyed, rejoiced in PvA 77.

Anummatta (adj.) [an + ummatta] not out of mind, sane, of sound mind Miln 122; Sdhp 205.

Anuyanta at A V.22 is doubtful reading (v.l. anuyutta). The meaning is either "inferior to, dependent on, a subject of, a vassal" or "attending on". The explanation may compare Sanskrit anuyātaṃ attendance [anu + yā, cp. anuyāyin] or Sanskrit yantr ruler [yam], in which latter case anu-yantr would be "an inferior ruler" and Pāli yanta would represent the n. a.g. yantā as a-stem. The v. l. is perhaps preferable as long as other passages with anuyanta are not found (see anuyutta 2). [MO: see SN 5.45.145]; 'are subject to']

Anuyāgin (adj) [from anu + yaj] offering after the example of another D I.142.

Anuyāta [pp. of anuyāti] gone through or after, followed, pursued S II.105 (magga); A V.236; It 29; Miln 217.

Anuyāti (and anuyāyati) [anu + yā] 1. to go after, to follow J VI.49 (fut. *yissati), 499 (yāyan taṃ anuyāyati = anugacchati C). - 2. to go along by, to go over, to visit Miln 391 (*yāyati). -pp. anuyāta (q. v.). See also anusaŋyāyati.

Anuyāyin (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit anuyāyin, anu + yā] going after, following, subject to (gen.) Sn 1017 (ana-nuyāyin); J VI.309; Miln 284.

Anuyuñjanā (f.) (and *yuñjana nt.) [abstr. from anuyuñjati] application or devotion to (-*) Miln 178; VvA 346 (anuyujjanaṃ wrong spelling*)

Anuyuñjati [anu + yuñjati] 1. to practice, give oneself up to (acc.), attend, pursue S I.25, 122 (*yuñjan "in loving self-devotion" Mrs. Rh. D.); III.154; IV.104, 175; Dh 26 (pamādaṃ = pavatteti DhA I.257), 247 (surāmeraya-pānaṃ = sevati bahulīkaroti DhA III.356); PvA 61 (kammaṭṭhāQaṃ). - 2. to ask a question, to call to account, take to task Vin II.79; Vv 335; ppr. Pass. *yuñjiyamāna PvA 192. -pp. anuyutta (q. v.). - Causative anuyojeti "to put to", to address, admonish, exhort DhA IV.20.

Anuyutta [pp. of anuyuñjati] 1. applying oneself to, dealing with, practising, given to, intent upon D I.166, 167; III. 232 = A II.205 (attaparitāpan- a-nuyogaṃ a.); S III.153; IV.104; Sn 663 (lobhaguṇe), 814 (methunaṃ = samāyutta SnA 536), 972 (jhān*); Pug 55; PvA 163 (jāgariya*), 206. - 2. following, attending on; an attendant, inferior, vassal, in expression khattiya or rājā anuyutta a prince royal or a smaller king (see khattiya 3 b) A V.22 (v l. for T. anuyanta, q. v.); Sn 553 ( = anugāmin, sevaka SnA 453).

Anuyoga [Sanskrit anuyoga, from anu + yuj] 1. application, devotion to (-*), execution, practice of (-*); often combined. with anuyutta in phrase *anuyogaṃ anuyutta = practising, e. g. Vin I.190 (maṇḍan- a-nuyogaṃ anuyutta); D III.113 (attakilamath- a-nuyogaṃ a.); A II.205 (attaparitāpan- a-nuyogaṃ a.). - As adj. (-*) doing, given to, practising (cp. anuyutta). D I.5; III.107; M I.385; S I.182; III.239; IV.330; V.320; A I.14; III.249; IV.460 sq.; V. 17 sq., 205; J I.90 (padhān- a-nuyogakiccaṃ); Vv 8438 (dhamma*); Miln 348; DA I. 78, 104. - 2. invitation, appeal, question (cp. anuyuñjati 2) Miln 10 (ācariyassa *ṃ datvā).

Anuyogavant (adj.) [anuyoga + vant] applying oneself to, full of application or zeal, devoted PvA 207.

Anuyogin (adj.) [from anuyoga] applying oneself to, devoted to (-*) Dh 209 (atta* given to oneself, self-concentrated).

Anurakkhaka (adj.) [from anurakkhati, cp. *rakkhin] preserving, keeping up J IV.192 (vaṃsa*); VI.1 (id.).

Anurakkhaṇa (nt.) and *ā (f.) [abstr. from anurakkhati] guarding, protection, preservation D III.225 sq.; A II.16 sq.; J I.133; Pug 12; Dpvs IV.24 (adj.); VvA 32 (citta*); Sdhp 449.

Anurakkhati [anu + rakkhati] to guard, watch over (acc.), preserve, protect, shield Sn 149; Dh 327; J I.46; Pug 12. - ppr. med.* rakkhamāna(ka) as adj. Sdhp 621.

Anurakkhā (f.) [ = anurakkhaṇā] guarding, protection, preservation S IV.323 (anuddayā a. anukampā).

Anurakkhin (adj.) [from anurakkhati] guarding, preserving, keeping J V.24.

Anurakkhiya (adj.) [f. anurakkhati] in dur* difficult to guard Vin III.149.

Anurañjita [pp. of anu + rañjeti, Causative of rañj] illumined, brighterted, beautified Bu I.45 (byāmapabhā* by the shine of the halo); VvA 4 (sañjhātapa* for sañjhāpabhā*).

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Anuratta (adj.) pp. of anu + rañj] attached or devoted to, fond of, faithful Th 2, 446 (bhattāraṃ); J I.297; Miln 146.

Anuravati [anu + ravati] to resound, to sound after, linger (of sound) Miln 63.

Anuravanā (f.) [abstr. from anuravati] lingering of the sound, resounding Miln 63.

Anuraho (adv.) [anu + raho] in secret, face-to-face, private M I.27.

Anurujjhati [Sanskrit anurudhyate, Pass. of anu + rudh] to conform oneself to, have a regard for, approve, to be pleased A IV.158; Dhs A 362. -pp. Anuruddha (q. v.).

Anuruddha [pp. of anurujjhati] enggaged in, devoted to; compliant or complied with, pleased S IV.71, (anānuruddha).

Anurūpa (adj.) [anu + rūpa] suitable, adequate, seeming, fit, worthy; adapted to, corresponding, conform with (-*) J I.91; VI.366 (tad*); PvA 61 (ajjhāsaya* according to his wish), 128 (id.) 78, 122, 130, 155; etc. Cp. also paṭirūpa in same meaning.

Anurodati [anu + rodati] to cry after, cry for J III.166 = Pv I.127 (dārako candaṃ a.).

Anurodha [from anu + rudh] compliance, consideration satisfaction (opp. virodha) S I.111; IV.210; Sn 362; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; DhsA 362.

Anulapanā (f.) [anu + lapanā, lap] scolding, blame, accusation Vin II.88 (spelt anullapanā; combined. with anuvadana and anubhaṇanā).

Anulitta (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit anulipta, pp. of anulimpati] anointed, besmeared J I.266; PvA 211.

Anulimpati [anu + limpati] to anoint, besmear, Miln 394 (*limpitabba). Causative *limpeti in same meaning Miln 169, and *lepeti Milm 169 (grd. *lepanīya to be treated with ointment). -pp. anulitta (q. v.).

Anulimpana (nt.) [from anulimpati] anointing Miln 353, 394.

Anulepa [from anu + lip] anointing Miln 152.

Anulokin (adj.) [from anu + loketi, cp. Sanskrit and Pāli avalokin and anuviloketi] looking (up) at, seeing (-*) M I.147 (sīsa*).

Anuloma (adj.) [Sanskrit anu + loma] "with the hair or grain", i. e. in natural order, suitable, fit, adapted to, adaptable, straight forward D II.273 (anānuloma, q. v.) S IV.401; Ps II.67, 70; DhA II.208. - nt. direct order, state of fitting in, adaptation Miln 148. -ñāṇa insight of adaptation (cp. Cpd.66, 68) DhA II.208. -paṭiloma in regular order and reversed, forward and backward (Ep. of paṭiccasamuppāda, also in BSanskrit) Vin I.1; A IV.448.

Anulomika (and *ya) (adj.) [from anuloma] suitable, fit, agreeable; in proper order, adapted to (-*) Vin II.7 (an*); III.120 (an* = ananucchaviya); IV.239; A I.106; III.116 sq.; It 103 (sāmaññassa*); Sn 385 (pabbajita*); KhA 243 (ananulomiya); DhsA 25; Sdhp 65.

Anulometi [v. denom. from anuloma] to conform to, to be in accordance with Miln 372.

Anu'āratta (nt.) [abstr. from an + u'āra] smallness, littleness, insignificance VvA 24.

Anuvajja (adj.) [grd. of anu + vadati, cp. anuvāda and Sanskrit avavadya] to be blamed, censurable, worthy of reproach Sn p. 78 (an* = anuvādavimutta SnA 396).

Anuvattaka (adj.) [from anuvatteti] 1. = anupavattaka (q. v.) Th 1, 1014 (cakka*). - 2. following, siding with (-*) Vin IV.218 (ukkhitta-nuvattikā f.).

Anuvattati [Sanskrit anuvartati, anu + vattati] 1. to follow, imitate, follow one's example (c. acc.), to be obedient D II.244; Vin II.309 (Bdhgh.); IV.218; J I.125, 300; DA I.288; PvA 19. - 2. to practice, execute Pv IV. 712. - Causative *vatteti (q. v.).

Anuvattana (nt.) [abstr. from anuvattati] complying with, conformity with (-*), compliance, observance, obedience J I.367 (dhamma*); V.78.

Anuvattin (adj.) [from anuvattati] following, acting according to or in conformity with (-*), obedient J II.348 (f. *inī); III.319 (id.); Dh 86 (dhamma*); Vv 155 (vasa* = anukūlabhāvena vattana sīla VvA 71); DhA II.161.

Anuvatteti [anu + vatteti] = anupavatteti (q. v.) Th 1, 826 (dhammacakkaṃ: "after his example turn the wheel" Mrs. Rh. D.).

Anuvadati [Sanskrit ava*; anu + vadati] to blame, censure, reproach Vin II.80, 88. - grd. anuvajja (q. v.).

Anuvadanā (f.) [from anuvadati] blaming, blame, censure Vin II.88 (anuvāda +).

Anuvasati [anu + vasati] to live with somebody, to dwell, inhabit J II.421. Causative *vāseti to pass, spend (time) J VI.296. -pp. *vuttha (q. v.).

Anuvassaŋ (adv.) [anu + vassa] for one rainy season; every rainy season or year, i. e. annually C. on Th 1, 24.

Anuvassika (adj.) [from anuvassaŋ] one who has (just) passed one rainy season Th 1, 24 ("scarce have the rains gone by" Mrs. Rh. D.; see trsl. p. 29 n. 2).

Anuvāceti [anu + Causative of vac] to say after, to repeat (words), to recite or make recite after or again D I.104 ( = tehi aññesaŋ vācitaṃ anuvācenti DA I.273); Miln 345. Cp. anubhāseti.

Anuvāta1 [anu + vā to blow] a forward wind, the wind that blows from behind, a favourable wind; *ṃ adv. with the wind, in the direction of the wind (opp. paṭivātaṃ). A I.226 (*paṭivātaṃ); Sdhp 425 (paṭivāta*). In anuvāte (anu + vāte) at J II.382 "with the wind, facing the w., in front of the wind" anu is to be taken as prep. c. loc. and to be separated from vāte (see anu A b.).

Anuvāta2 [anu + vā to weave (*) in analogy to vāta from vā to blow] only in connection with the making of the bhikkhus' garments (cīvara) "weaving on, supplementary weaving, or along the seam", i. e. hem, seam, binding Vin I.254, 297; II.177; IV.121 (aggala +); PvA 73 (anuvāte appabhonte since the binding was insufficient).

Anuvāda [from anuvadatī, cp. Sanskrit anuvāda in meaning of "repetition"] 1. blaming, censure, admonition Vin II.5, 32; A II.121 (atta*, para*); Vbh 376. - 2. in combination. vāda-nuvāda: talk and lesser or additional talk, i. e. "small talk" (see anu B IV.) D I.161; M I.368. -adhikaraṇa a question or case of censure Vin II.88 sq.; III.164 (one of the 4 adhikaraṇāni, q. v.).

Anuvāsana (nt.) [from anuvāseti] an oily enema, an injection Miln 353.

Anuvāseti [anu + vāseti, Causative of vāsa3 odour, perfume] to treat with fragrant oil, i. e. to make an injection or give an enema of salubrious oil Miln 169; grd. *vāsanīya ibid.; pp. *vāsita Miln 214.

Anuvikkhitta (adj.) [anu + vi + khitta, pp. of anu + vikkhipati] dispersed over S V.277 sq. (+ anuvisaṭa).

Anuvigaṇeti [anu + vi + gaṇeti] to take care of, regard, heed, consider Th 1, 109.

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Anuvicarati [anu + vi + carati] to wander about, stroll roam through, explore D I.235; J II.128; III.188; PvA 189 ( = anupariyāti). - Causative *vicāreti to think over (lit. to make one's mind wander over), to meditate, ponder (cp. anuvicinteti); always combined. with anuvitakketi (q. v.) A I.264 (cetasā), III.178 (dhammaṃ cetasā a.). -pp. anuvicarita (q. v.).

Anuvicarita [pp. of anuvicāreti] reflected, pondered over, thought out S III.203 (manasā); DA I.106 ( = anucarita).

Anuvicāra [anu + vicāra, cf. anuvicāreti] meditation, reflexion, thought Dhs 85 ( = vicāra).

Anuvicinaka [from anu + vicināti] one who examines, an examiner Miln 365.

Anuvicinteti [anu + vi + cinteti] to think or ponder over, to meditate D II.203; S I 203 (yoniso *cintaya, imper. "marshall thy thoughts in ordered governance" Mrs. Rh. D.; v. l. anucintaya); Th 1, 747; Dh 364; It 82 (dhammaṃ *ayaŋ); J III.396; IV.227; V.223 (dhammaṃ *cintayanto).

Anuvicca [ger. of anuvijjati, for the regular from anuvijja prob. through influence of anu + i (anu-v-icca for anvicca), cf. anveti and adhicca; and see anuvijjati] having known or found out, knowing well or thoroughly, testing, finding out M I.301, 361 (v. l. *vijja); A II.3, 84; V.88; Dh 229 ( = jānitvā DhA III.329); Sn 530 ( = anuviditvā SnA 431); J I.459 ( = jānitvā C.); III.426; Pug. 49. -kāra a thorough investigation, examination, test Vin I.236 (here spelt anuvijja) = M I.379 ( = *viditvā C.) = A IV.185.

Anuvijjaka [from anuvijja, ger. of anuvijjati] one who finds out, an examiner Vin V.161.

Anuvijjati [anu + vid, with fusion of Vedic vetti to know, and Pass. of vindati to find ( = vidyate)] to know thoroughly, to find out, to trace, to come to know; inf. *vijjitiṃ J III.506; ger. *viditvā Sn A 431, also *vijja and vicca (see both under anuvicca); grd. ananuvejja not to be known, unfathomable, unknowable M I.140 (Tathāgato ananuvejjo). - Causative anuvijjāpeti to make some one find out J V.162. -pp. anuvidita (q. v.).

Anuvijjhati [anu + vyadh] 1. to pierce or be pierced, to be struck or hurt with (instr.) J VI.439 - 2. to be affected with, to fall into, to incur DhA III.380 (aparādhaṃ). -pp. anuviddha (q. v.).

Anuvitakketi [anu + vi + takketi] to reflect, think, ponder over, usually combined with anuvicāreti D I.119; III.242; S V.67 = It 107 (anussarati +); A III.383.

Anuvidita [pp. of anuvijjati] found out, recognised; one who has found out or knows well Sn 528, 530 ( = anuBuddha Sn A 431). Same in B.Sanskrit, e.g. M Vastu III.398.

Anuviddha (adj.) [pp. of anuvijjhati] pierced, intertwined or set with (-*) VvA 278.

Anuvidhīyati [cf. Sanskrit anuvidhīyate and adj. anuvidhāyin; Pass. of anu + vi + dhā, cf. vidahati] to act in conformity with, to follow (instruction) M II.105 = Th 1, 875; S IV.199; J II.98; III.357.

Anuvidhīyanā (f.) [abstr. from anuvidhīyati] acting according to, conformity with M I.43.

Anuviloketi [anu + vi + loketi; B.Sanskrit anuvilokayati] to look round at, look over, survey, mustereotypeM I.339; Sn p. 140; J I.53; Miln 7 (lakaṃ), 21 (parisaŋ), 230.

Anuvivaṭṭa [anu + vivaṭṭa] an "after-evolution", devolution; as part of a bhikkhu-s dress: a sub-vivaṭṭa (q. v.) Vin I.287 (vivaṭṭa +).

Anuvisaṭa (anu + visaṭa, pp. of anu + vi + sr] spread over S V.277 sq.; J IV.102.

Anuvuttha [pp. of anuvasati, cf. Sanskrit anūs.ita] living with, staying, dwelling J II.42 (cira*); V.445 (id.).

Anuvejja (adj.) in an* see anuvijjati.

Anuvyañjana and anubyañjana (e. g. Vin IV.15; J I.12) (nt.) [anu + vyañjana] accompanying (i. e. secondary) attribute, minor or inferior characteristic, supplementary or additional sign or mark (cf. mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇa) Vin I.65 (abl. anuvyañjanaso "in detail"); M III.126; S IV.168; A IV.279 (abl.); V.73 sq.; Pug 24, 58; Miln 339; VvA 315; DhsA 400. -gāhin taking up or occupying oneself with details, taken up with lesser or inferior marks D I.70 (cf. MVastu III.52); III.225; S IV.104; A I.113; II.16, 152 sq.; Dhs 1345 (cf. Dhs trsl. 351).

Anusaŋyāyati [anu + saŋ + yāyati] to traverse; to go up to, surround, visit (acc.) M I.209 (Bhagavantaṃ *itvā), J IV.214 (v.l. anuyāyitvā). See also anuyāti and anusaññāti.

Anusaŋvacchara (adj.) [anu + saŋv*] yearly DhA I.388 (nakkhattaṃ). Usually nt. *ṃ as adv. yearly, every year J I.68; V.99. On use of anu in this combination. see anu A a.

Anusañcarati [anu + saŋ + carati] to walk along, to go round about, to visit M I.279; S V.53, 301; J I.202; III.502; PvA 279 (nagaraṃ). -pp. anusañcarita (q. v.).

Anusañcarita [pp. of anusañcarati] frequented, visited, resorted to Miln 387.

Anusañceteti [anu + saŋ + ceteti] to set ones mind on, concentrate, think over, meditate Pug 12.

Anusaññāti [either anu + saŋ + jñā (jānāti) or (preferably) = anusaŋyāti as short form of anusaŋyāyati, like anuyāti > anuyāyati of anu + saŋ + yā, cf. Sanskrit anusaŋyāti in same meaning] to go to, to visit, inspect, control; ppr. med. *saññāyamāna Vin III.43 (kammante); inf. *saññātuṃ A I.68. (janapade).

Anusaṭa [Sanskrit anusrta, pp. of anu + sr] sprinkled with (-*), bestrewn, scattered Vv 53 (paduma* magga = vippakiṇṇa VvA 36).

Anusatthar [n. ag. to anu + sās, cf. Sanskrit anushāsitr and Pāli satthar] instructor, adviser J IV.178 (ācariya +). Cp. anusāsaka.

Anusatthi (f.) [Sanskrit anushāsti, anu + shās, cp. anusāsana] admonition, rule, instruction J I.241; Miln 98, 172, 186 (dhamma*), 225, 227, 347.

Anusandati [Vedic anusyandati, anu + syad] to stream along after, to follow, to be connected with. Thus to be read at Miln 63 for anusandahati (anuravati +; of sound), while at A IV.47 the reading is to be corrected to anusandahati.

Anusandahati [anu + saŋ + dhā, cf. Vedic abhi + saŋ + dhā] to direct upon, to apply to A IV.47 sq. (cittaṃ samāpattiyā; so to be read with v. l. for anusandati); Miln 63 (but here prob. to be read as anusandati, q.v.).

Anusandhanatā (f.) [ = anusandhi] application, adjusting Dhs 8 (cittassa).

Anusandhi (f.) [from anu + saŋ + dhā] connection, (logical) conclusion, application DA I.122 (where 3 kinds are enumerated, viz. pucchā*, ajjhāsayā*, yathā*); Nett 14 (pucchato; Hard., in Index "complete cessation"*!). Esp. frequent in (Jātaka) phrase anusandhiṃ ghaṭeti "to form the connection", to draw the conclusion, to show the application of the story or point out its maxim J I.106; 308; DhA II.40, 47; etc.

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Anusampavankatā (f.) [anu + saŋ + pavankatā; is reading correct*] disputing, quarrelling(*) Vin II.88 (under anuvāda-dhikaraṇa).

Anusaya [anu + shī, seti Sanskrit anushaya has a different meaning] (see Kvu trsl. 234 n. 2 and Cpd.172 n. 2). Bent, bias, proclivity, the persistance of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. So Sn. 14 = 369, 545; M. III.31; S. III.130, IV.33, V.28 236; A. I.44; II.157; III.74, 246, 443. Or in the triplet obstinacy, prejudice and bias (adhiṭṭhāna-bhinivesa-nusayā) S. II.17; III.10, 135, 161; A. V.III. Occasionally a source of the bias is mentioned. Thus pride at S. I.188; II.252 ff., 275; III.80, 103, 169, 253; IV.41, 197; A I.132, IV.70 doubt at M. I.486 - ignorance lust and hatred at S IV.205, M III.285. At D III.254, 282; S V.60; and A IV.9. we have a list of seven anusaya's, the above five and delusion and craving for rebirth. Hence-forward these lists govern the connotation of the word; but it would be wrong to put that connotation back into the earlier passages. Later references are Ps I.26, 70 ff., 123, 130, 195; II.36, 84, 94, 158; Pug 21; Vbh 340, 383, 356; Kvu 405 ff. Dpvs I.42.

Anusayita [pp. of anuseti, anu + shī] dormant, only in combination. dīgharatta* latent so long Th 1, 768; Sn 355, 649. Cp. anusaya and anusayin.

Anusayin (adj.) [from anusaya] D II.283 (me dīgharatta*), "for me, so long obsessed (with doubts)". The reading is uncertain.

Anusarati [anu + sr] to follow, conform oneself to S IV. 303 (phalaṃ anusarissati BB, but balaṃ anupadassati SS perhaps to be preferred). - Causative anusāreti to bring together with, to send up to or against Miln 36 (aññamaññaṃ a. anupeseti).

Anusavati at S II.54 (āsavā na a.; v. l. anusayanti) and IV. 188 (akusalā dhammā na a.; v. l. anusenti) should preferably be read anusayati: see anuseti 2.

Anusahagata (adj.) having a residuum, accompanied by a minimum of . . S III.130; Kvu 81, see aṇu*.

Anusāyika (adj.) [from anusaya] attached to one, i. e. inherent, chronic (of disease) M II.70 (ābādha, v. l. BB anussāyika); DhA I.431 (roga).

Anusāra [from anu + sr] "going along with", following, conformity. Only in obl. eases (-*) anusārena (instr.) in consequence of, in accordance with, according to J I.8; PvA 187 (tad), 227; and anusārato (abl.) id. Sdhp 91.

Anusārin (-*) (adj.) [from anu + sarati] following, striving after, acting in accordance with, living up to or after. Freq. in formula dhamma-nusārin saddha-nusārin living in conformity with the Norm and the Faith D III.254; M I.142, 479; S III.225; V.200 sq.; A I.74; IV.10; Pug 15. - Cp. also S I.15 (bhavasota*); IV.128 (id.); J VI.444 (paṇḍitassa* = veyyāvaccakara C.); Sdhp 528 (attha*).

Anusāreti see anusarati.

Anusāsaka [from anusāsati] adviser, instructor, counsellor J II.105; Miln 186, 217, 264. Cp. anusatthar.

Anusāsati [Vedic anushāsati, anu + sās] 1. to advise, admonish, instruct in or give advice upon (c. acc.) to exhort to Vin I.83; D I.135; II.154; Dh 77, 159 (aññaṃ); J VI.368; cp. I.103; Pv II.68; PvA 148. - grd. anusāsiya Vin I.59; and *sāsitabba DhA III.99. - Pass *sāsiyati Vin II.200; Miln 186. - 2. to rule, govern (acc.) ādministereotypeto (dat.) S I.236 = Sn 1002 (paṭhaviṃ dhammenam-anusāsati, of a Cakkavattin); J II.2; VI.517 (rajjassa = rajjaṃ C., i. e. take care of) DA I.246 (read *sāsantena); PvA 161 (rajjaṃ). -pp. anusiṭṭha (q. v.); cp. anusatthar, anusatthi and ovadati.

Anusāsana (nt.) [Vedic anushāsana, from anu + shās] advice, instruction, admonition D III.107; A I.292 (*pāṭihāriya, cp. anusāsanī); Miln 359.

Anusāsanī (f.) [from anusāsati, cp. anusāsana] instruction, teaching, commandment, order S V.108; A II.147; III.87; V.24 sq., 49, 338; J V.113; Th 2, 172, 180; Pv III.76; ThA 162; VvA 19, 80, 81. -pāṭihāriya (anusāsani*) the miracle of teaching, the wonder worked by the commandments (of the Buddha) Vin II.200; D I.212, 214; III.220; A I.170; V.327; J III.323; Ps II.227 sq.

Anusikkhati [Vedic anushik.sati; anu + Desid. of shak] to learn of somebody (gen.); to follow one's example, to imitate Vin II.201 (ppr. med. *amāna); S I.235; A IV. 282, 286, 323; Sn 294 (vattaṃ, cp. RV III.59, 2: vratena shik.sati), 934; J I.89; II.98; III.315; V.334; VI.62; Th 1, 963; Miln 61. - Caus anusikkhāpeti to teach [ = Sanskrit anushik.sayati] Miln 352.

Anusikkhin (adj.) [from anusikhati] studying, learning M I. 100; Dh 226 (ahoratta* = divā ca rattiñ ca tisso sikkhā sikkhamāna DhA III.324).

Anusiṭṭha (Vedic anushis.ṭa, pp. of anusāsati] instructed, admonished, advised; ordered, commanded M II.96; J I.226; Pv II.811; Miln 284, 349.

Anusibbati [anu + sibbati, siv to sew] to interweave Vin III.336 (introd. to Sam. Pās.).

Anusuṇāti [anu + shru] to hear; pret. anassuṃ [Sanskrit anvashruvaṃ] I heard M I.333.

Anusumbhati [anu + sumbhati (sobhati); shubh or (Vedic) shumbh] to adorn, embellish, prepare J VI.76.

Anusuyyaṃ [cp. Sanskrit anasūyaṃ] reading at J III.27, see anasuyyaṃ.

Anusuyyaka (adj.) [an + usuyyaka] not envious, not jealous Sn 325 ( = usuyyāvigamena a. SnA 332); J II.192 (v. l. anussuyyaka); V.112.

Anuseṭṭhi [anu + seṭṭhi] 1. an under-seṭṭhi (banker, merchant) J V.384 (see anu B III. a.). - 2. in redupl. cpd. seṭṭha-nuseṭṭhi (see anu B IV) "bankers and lesser bankers", i. e. all kinds of well-to-do families J VI.331.

Anuseti [anu + seti. cp. Sanskrit anushayate or* shete, from shī] to "lie down with", i. e. (1) trs. to dwell on, harp on (an idea) S II.65; III.36; IV.208. - 2. (of the idea) to obsess, to fill the mind persistently, to lie dormant and be continually cropping up. M I.40, 108, 433; S II.54 (so read with SS for anusavanti) IV.188; A I.283; III.246; Pug 32, 48. -pp. anusayita (q. v.).

Anusocati [anu + socati] to mourn for, to bewail Sn 851 (atītaṃ na a.; cp. Nd1 222); Pv I.127; II.68; PvA 95.

Anusocana (nt.) [abstr. from anusocati] bewailing, mourning PvA 65.

Anusota* [anu + sota, in *ṃ as adv. or acc. to explination. under anu A a.] in anusotaṃ (adv.) along the stream or current, down-stream A II.12; J I.70 (opp. paṭisotaṃ against the stream); PvA 169 (Gangāya a. āgacchanto). -gāmin "one who follows the stream", i. e. giving way to ones inclinations, following ones will A II.5, 6 (opp. paṭi*); Sn. 319 ( = sotaṃ anugacchanto Sn A 330); Pug 62.

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Anussati (f.) [Sanskrit anusmrti, from anu + smr, cp. sati] remembrance, recollection, thinking of, mindfulness. A late list of subjects to be kept in mind comprises six anussati-ṭṭhānāni, viz. Buddha-, Dhamma-, Sangha-, sīla-, cāga-, devatā-, i. e. proper attention to the Buddha, the Doctrines, the Church, to morality, charity, the gods. Thus at D III.250, 280 (cp. A I.211); A III.284, 312 sq., 452; V.329 sq.; Ps I.28. Expanded to 10 subjects (the above plus ānāpāna-sati, maraṇa-sati, kāyagatā-sati, upasama-nussati) at A I.30, 42 (cp. Lal. Vist 34). For other references see D I.81; S V.67 = It 107 (anussaraṇa at latter pass.); A III.284, 325, 452. Ps I.48, 95, 186; Pug 25, 60; Dhs 14, 23, 1350 (anussati here to be corr. to asati, see Dhs. trsl. 351); Sdhp. 225, 231, 482. See also anuttariya (anussat-a-nuttariya).

Anussada (adj.) [an + ussada without haughtiness Sn 624 (vv. ll. anusaddha and anussuda; Sn A 467 explination. by taṇhā ussada-bhāva) = Dh 400 (which pass. has anussuta; v.l. K.B. anussada; DhA IV.165 expls. with taṇhā-ussāva-bhāva, vv. ll. *ussada*); It 97 (vv. ll. anussata and anussara).

Anussaraṇa (nt.) [abstr. to anussarati] remembrance, memory, recollection It 107 ( = anussati at id. p. S V.67); PvA 25, 29.

Anussarati [Vedic anusmarati, anu + smr] to remember, recollect, have memory of (acc.), bear in mind; be aware of D II.8, 53, 54 (jātito etc.); S III.86 sq. (pubbe nivāsaŋ); V.67 (dhammaṃ a. anuvitakketi), 303 (kappasahassaŋ); A I.25, 164 (pubbe nivāsaŋ), 207 (Tathāgataṃ, Dhammaṃ etc.); III.285 (id.), 323 (nivāsaŋ), 418; V.34, 38, 132, 199, 336 (kalyāṇamitte); It 82 (dhammaṃ), 98 (pubbe nivāsaŋ); J I.167; II.111; Dh 364; Pv I.59; Pug 60; Sdhp 580, 587; DA I.257; KhA 213; DhA II.84; IV.95; PvA 29, 53, 69, 79, 107. -pp. anussarita (see anussaritar). - Caus anussarāpeti to remind someone, to call to mind J II.147.

Anussaritar [n. ag. to anussarita, pp. of anussarati] one who recollects or remembers S V.197, 225 (saritar +); A V.25, 28.

Anussava [anu + sava from shru, cp. Vedic shravas nt.] hearsay, report, tradition M I.520; II.211; S II.115; IV.138; A I.26; J I.158 (with reference to part. kira = annussav'atthe nipāto; so also at VvA 322, cf. anussavana); II.396, 430 (id.); IV.441; instr. *ena from hearsay, by report A II.191 (cf. itihītihaṃ).

Anussavana (nt.) [anu + savana from shru] = anussava PvA 103 (kira-saddo anussavane, from hearsay).

Anussavika (adj.) [from anussava] "belonging to hearsay", traditional; one who is familiar with tradition or who learns from hearsay M I.520; II.211. Cp. anussutika.

Anussāvaka [from anussāveti] one who proclaims or announces, a speaker (of a kammavācā) Vin I.74.

Anussāvana (nt.) and *ā (f.) [from anussāveti] a proclamation Vin I.317, 340; V.170, 186, 202 sq.

Anussāvita [pp. of anussāveti] proclaimed, announced Vin I.103.

Anussāveti [anu + sāveti, Causative of shru, cp. B.Sanskrit anushrāvayati "to proclaim aloud the guilt of a criminal" AvSH. I.102; II.182] to cause to be heard or sound; to proclaim, utter, speak out Vin I.103 (*ssāviyamāna ppr. Pass.); II.48 (saddaṃ a.). -pp. anussāvita.

Anussuka (adj.) [an + ussuka] free from greed Dh 199; cf. anussukin v. l. D III.47, also anissukin and apalāsin.

Anussukita [an + ussuk.r] VvA 74 and anussukin Pug 23 = anussuka.

Anussuta1 (adj.) [an + ussuta, ud + sr] free from lust Dh 400 ( = ussāva-vena anussuta C.). See also anussada.

Anussuta2 [anu + suta, pp. of shru] heard of; only in cpd. ananussuta unheard of S II.9; Pug 14.

Anussutika (adj.) [from anu + shru, cp. anussavika] according to tradition or report, one who goes by or learns from hearsay DA I.106, 107.

Anussuyyaka see anusuyyaka.

Anuhasati [anu + hasati] to laugh at, to ridicule DA I.256.

Anuhīrati [for *hariyati, anu + hr] to be held up over, ppr. anuhīramāna D II.15 (vv. ll. v. l. anubhiram*; glosses B. K. anudhāriyam*, cp. Trenckner, Notes 79).

Anūna (adj.) [Vedic anūna, an + ūna] not lacking, entire, complete, without deficiency J VI 273; Dpvs V.52; Miln 226; DA I.248 (+ paripūra, explained by anavaya).

Anūnaka = anūna Dpvs IV.34.

Anūnatā (f.) [abstr. from anūna] completeness Cp. III.611.

Anūpa (adj.) [Vedic anūpa, anu + ap: see āpa, orig. alongside of water] watery, moist; watery land , lowland J. IV.358 (anopa T; anupa C. p. 359), 381 (*khetta); Miln 129 (*khetta).

Anūpaghāta [metrically for anupa*] not killing, not murdering. Dh 185 ( = anupahananañ c-eva anupaghātanañ ca DhA III.238).

Anūpadhika for anu* in metre Sn 1057, see upadhi.

Anūpanāhin (adj.) [an + upanāhin, with ū metri causa] not bearing ill-will, not angry with J IV.463.

Anūpama at It 122 is metric reading for anupama (see upama).

Anūpalitta (adj.) [an + upalitta, with ū in metre] free from taint, unstained, unsmeared Sn 211, 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353; cf. Nd1 90 and DhA IV.72.

Anūpavāda [an + upavāda, with metrically lengthened u] not grumbling, not finding fault Dh 185 ( = anupavādanañ c- eva anupavadāpanañ ca DhA III.238).

Anūhata (adj.) [pp. of an + ūhaññati, ud + han] not rooted out, not removed or destroyed Th 1, 223 = Nd2 974; Dh 338 ( = asamucchinna DhA IV.48).

Aneka (adj.) (usually *-) [an + eka] not one, i. e. many, various; countlcss, numberless It 99 (saŋvaṭṭakappā countless aeons); Sn 688 (*sākhā); Dh 153 (*jātisāra); J IV.2; VI.366. -pariyāyena (instr.) in many ways Vin I.16; Sn p. 15. -rūpa various, manifold Sn 1049, 1079, 1082; Nd2 54 ( = anekavidha). -vidha manifold Nd2 54; DA I.103. -vihita various, manifold D I.12, 13, 178; It 98; Pug 55; DA I.103 ( = anekavidha).

Anekaṃsā (f.) [an + ekaṃsā] doubt Nd2 1.

Anekaṃsikatā (f.) [abstr. from anekaṃsa + kata] uncertainty, doubtfulness Miln 93.

Aneka (adj.) [an + ejā] free from desires or lust D II.157; Sn 920, 1043, 1101, 1112; It 91 (opp. eja-nuga Nd1 353 = Nd2 55; Dh 414 ( = taṇhāya abhāvena DhA IV. 194), 422; Pv IV.135 (nittaṇha PvA 230).

Anedha (adj.) [an + edha] without fuel J IV.26 ( = anindhana).

Ane'a (adj.) [an + e'a = ena, see ne'a and cp. BSanskrit eḍa (mūka); Vedic anena] faultless, pure; only in following compounds: *gala free from the dripping or oozing of impurity (thus

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explained. at DA I.282, viz. elagalana-virahita), but more likely in lit. meaning "having a pure or clear throat" or, of vācā speech: "clearly enunciated" (thus Mrs. Rh. D. at Kindred Sayings I.241) Vin I.197 = D I.114 = S I.189; A II.51, 97; III.114, 195. Cp. also M Vastu III. 322. - *mūga same as prec. "having a clear throat", i. e. not dumb, fig. clever, skilled D III.265; Sn 70 ( = alālāmukha SnA 124), cp. Nd2 259.

Ane'aka (adj.) [cp. BSanskrit aneḍaka, e. g. Av. SH. I.187, 243; M Vastu I.339; III.322] = ane'a, pure, clear M II.5; J VI.529.

Anesanā (f.) [an + esanā] impropriety S II.194; J II.86; IV.381; Miln 343, 401; DA I.169; DhA IV.34; Sdhp 392, 427.

Ano- is a frequent form of compounds. an-ava, see ava.

Anoka (nt.) [an + oka] houselessness, a houseless state, fig freedom from worldliness or attachment to life, singleness S V.24 = A V.232 = Dh 87 (okā anokaṃ āgamma). adj. homeless, free from attachment S I.176; Dh 87 ( = anālaya DhA II.162); Sn 966 (adj.; explained at Nd1 487 by abhisankhāra-sahagatassa viññāṇassa okāsaŋ na karoti, and at SnA 573 by abhisankhāra-viññān- ādīnaṃ anokāsabhūta). sārin living in a houseless state, fig. being free from worldly attachment S III.10 = Nd1 197; Sn 628 ( = anālaya-cārin SnA 468); Ud 32; Dh 404 (v. l. anokka*); DhA IV.174 ( = anālaya-cārin); Miln 386.

Anogha in anogha-tiṇṇa see ogha.

Anojaka = anojā Vv 354 ( = VvA 161, where classed with yodhikā bandhujīvakā).

Anojagghati at D I.91 is v. l. for anujagghati.

Anojā (f.) [*Sanskrit anujā] a kind of shrub or tree with red flowers J VI.536 (korandaka +); usually in cpd. anojapuppha the a. flower, used for wreaths etc. J I.9 (*dāma, a garland of a flowers); VI.227 (id.); DhA II.116 (*cangoṭaka).

Anottappa (nt.) [an + ottappa] recklessness, hardness D III.212; It 34 (ahirika +); Pug 20; Dhs 365. Cp. anottāpin.

Anottāpin and Anottappin (adj.) [from anottappa] not afraid of sin, bold, reckless, shameless D III.252, 282 (pp; ahirika); Sn 133 (p; ahirika +); It 27, 115 (anatāpin anottappin, vv. ll. anottāpin); Pug 20, 24.

Anodaka (adj.) [an + udaka] without water, dry J I.307; DhA I.52; Sdhp 443.

Anodissaka (adj.) [an + odissa + ka] unrestricted, without exception, general, universal; only in cpd. *vasena universally, thoroughly (with reference to mettā) J I.81; II 146; VvA 97 (in general; opp. odissaka-vasena). See also Mrs. Rh. D. Psalms of the Brethren p. 5 n. 1.

Anonamati [an + onamati] not to bend, to be inflexible, in following expressions: anonamaka (nt.) not stooping DhA II.136; auonamanto (ppr.) not bending D II.17 = III. 143; anonami-daṇḍa (for anonamiya*) an inflexible stick Miln 238 (anoṇami* T, but anonami* vv. ll., see Miln 427).

Anopa see anūpa.

Anoma (adj.) (only *-) [an + oma] not inferior, superior, perfect, supreme, in following compounds -guṇa supreme virtue DA I.288. -dassika of superior beauty Vv 207, VvA 103 (both as v. l.; T. anuma*); Vv 437. -dassin one who has supreme knowledge; of unexcelled wisdom (Name of a Buddha) J I.228. -nāma of perfect name S I.33 ("by name the Peerless" Mrs. Rh. D.), 235; Sn 153, 177 (cp. SnA 200). -nikkama of perfect energy Vv 6427 ( = paripuṇṇa-viriyatāya a. VvA 284). -pañña of lofty or supreme wisdom (Ep. of the Buddha) Sn 343, 352 ( = mahāpañña SnA 347); Th 2, 522 ( = paripuṇṇa-pañña ThA 296), DhA I.31. -vaṇṇa of excellent colour Sn 686 J VI.202. -viriya of supreme exertion or energy Sn 353.

Anomajjati [anu + ava + majjati, mrj] to rub along over, to stroke, only in phrase gattāni pāṇinā a. to rub over one's limbs with the hand M I.80, 509; S V.216.

Anorapāra (adj.) [an + ora + pāra] having (a shore) neither on this side nor beyond Miln 319.

Anoramati [an + ava + ram] not to stop, to continue J III.487; DhA III.9 (ger. *itvā continually).

Anovassa (nt.) [an + ovassa; cp. Sanskrit anavavar.sana] absence of rain, drought J V.317 (v. l. BB for anvāvassa T.; q. v.).

Anovassaka (adj.) [an + ovassaka] sheltered from the rain, dry Vin II.211; IV.272; J I.172; II.50; III.73; DhA II. 263; ThA 188.

Anosita (adj.) [an + ava + sita, pp. of sā] not inhabited (by), not accessible (to) Sn 937 ( = anajjhositaṃ Nd1 441; jarādīhi anajjhāvutthaṃ ṭhānaṃ SnA 566).

Anta1 [Vedic anta; Goth. andeis = Ohg. anti = E. end; cp. also Latin antiae forehead (: E. antler), and the prep. anti opposite, antika near = Latin ante; Gr. a)nti/ and a)/nta opposite; Goth., Ags. and; Ger. ant-; orig. the opposite (i. e. what stands against or faces the starting-point)]. 1. end, finish, goal S IV.368 (of Nibbāna); Sn 467; J II.159. antaṃ karoti to make an end (of) Sn 283, 512; Dh 275, cp. antakara, *kiriyā. - loc. ante at the end of, immediately after J I.203 (vijay*). - 2. limit, border, edge Vin I.47; Dh 305 (van*); J III.188. - 3. side: see ekamantaṃ (on one side, aside). - 4. opposite side, opposite, counterpart; pl. parts, contrasts, extremes; thus also used as "constituent, principle" (in tayo and cattāro antā; or does it belong to anta2 2. in this meaning* Cp. ekantaṃ extremely, under anta2): dve antā (two extremes) Vin I.10; S II.17; III.135. ubho antā (both sides) Vin I.10; S II.17; J I.8; Nd1 109. eko, dutiyo anto (contrasts) Nd1 52. As tayo antā or principles(*), viz. sakkāya, s.-samudaya, s.-nirodha D III.216, cp. A III. 401; as cattāro, viz. the 3 mentioned plus s.-nirodhagāmini-paṭipadā at S III.157. Interpreted by Morris as "goal" (J P T S. 1894, 70). - Often pleonastically, to be explained as a "pars pro toto" figure, like kammanta (q. v.) the end of the work, i. e. the whole work (cp. E. sea-side, country-side); vananta the border of the wood = the woods Dh 305; Pv II.310 (explained by vana PvA 86; same use in BSanskrit, vana-nta e. g. at Jtm VI.21; cp. also grāma-nta Av. SH. I.210); suttanta (q. v.), etc. Cp. ākāsanta J VI.89 and the pleonastic use of patha. -ananta (n.) no end, infinitude; (adj.) endless, corresponds either to Sanskrit anta or antya, see anta2. -a-nanta end and no end, or finite and endless, D I.22; DA I.115. -a-nantika (holding views of, or talking about) finiteness and infinitude D I.22 (see explination. at DA I.115); S III.214, 258 sq.; Ps I.155. -kara putting an end to, (n.) a deliverer, saviour; usually in phrase dukkhass-a. (of the Buddha) M I.48, 531; A II.2; III.400 sq.; Th 1, 195; It 18; Sn 32, 337, 539; Pug 71. In other combination. A II.163 (vijjāy-); Sn 1148 (pañhān-). -kiriyā putting an end to, ending, relief, extirpation; always used with reference to dukkha S IV.93; lt 89; Sn 454, 725; DhA IV.45. -gata = antagū Nd2 436 (+ koṭigata). -gāhikā (f.), viz. diṭṭhi, is an attribute of micchādiṭṭhi, i. e. heretical doctrine. The meaning of anta in this combination. is not quite clear: either "holding (wrong) principles (goals, Morris)", viz. the 3 as specified above 4 under tayo antā (thus Morris J P T S. 1884, 70), or "taking extreme sides, i. e. extremist", or "wrong, opposite ( = antya, see anta2)" (thus Kern, Toev. s. v.) Vin I.172; D III.45, 48 (an*); S I.154; A I.154; II.240; III.130; Ps I.151 sq. -gū one

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who has gone to the end, one who has gone through or overcome (dukkha) A IV.254, 258, 262; Sn 401 ( = vaṭṭadukkhassa antagata); 539. -ruddhi at J VI.8 is doubtful reading (antaruci*). -vaṭṭi rimmed circumference J III.159. -saññin being conscious of an end (of the world) D I.22, cp. DA I 115.

Anta2 (adj.) [Vedic antya] 1. having an end, belonging to the end; only in negative ananta endless, infinite, boundless (opp. antavant); which may be taken as equal to anta1 (corresponds with Sanskrit anta (adj.) or antya; also in doublet anañca, see ākās-a-nañca and viññāṇ-a-nañca); D I.23, 34 = D III.224, 262 sq.; Sn 468 (*pañña); Dh 179, 180 (*gocara having an unlimited range of mental vision, cp. DhA III.197); J I.178. - 2. extreme, last, worst J II.440 (C. hīna, lāmaka); see also anta1 4. - acc. as adv. in ekantaṃ extremely, very much, "utterly" Dh 228 etc. See eka.

Anta3 (nt.) [Vedic āntra, contr. from antara inner = Latin interus, Gr. e)/ntera intestines] the lower intestine, bowels, mesentery It 89; J I.66, 260 (*vaddhi-maṃsa etc.); Vism 258; DhA I.80. -gaṇṭhi twisting of the bowels, lit. "a knot in the intestines" Vin I.275 (*ābādha). -guṇa [see guṇa2 = gula1] the intestinal tract, the bowels S II.270; A IV.132; Kh III. = Miln 26; Vism 42; KhA 57. -mukha the anus J IV.402. -vaṭṭi = *guṇa Vism 258.

Antaka [Vedic antaka] being at the end, or making an end, Ep. of Death or Māra Vin I.21; S I.72; Th 2, 59 (explained by ThA 65 as lāmaka va Māra, thus taken = anta2); Dh 48 ( = maraṇa-sankhāto antako DhA II.366), 288 ( = maraṇa DhA III.434).

Antamaso (adv.) [orig. abl. of antama, *Sanskrit antamashah; cp. BSanskrit antashah as same formation from anta, in same meaning ("even") Av. SH. I.314; Divy 161] even Vin III. 260; IV.123; D I.168; M III.127; A V.195; J II.129; DA I.170; SnA 35; VvA 155.

Antara (adj.) [Vedic antara, cp. Gr. e)/ntera = Sanskrit antra (see anta3), Latin interus from prep. inter. See also ante and anto]. Primary meanings are "inside" and "in between"; as adj. "inner"; in prep. use and in compounds "inside, in between". Further development of meaning is with a view of contrasting the (two) sides of the inside relation, i. e. having a space between, different from; thus nt. antaraṃ difference. I. (Adj.-n) 1. (a) inner, having or being inside It 83 (tayo antarā malā three inward stains); esp. as -* in compounds āmis* with greed inside, greedy, selfish Vin I.303; dos* with anger inside, i. e. angry Vin II.249; D III.237; M I.123; PvA 78 (so read for des*). Abl. antarato from within It 83. (b) in between, distant; dvādasa yojan* antaraṃ ṭhānaṃ PvA 139 139. - 2. In noun-function (nt.): (a). spatial: the inside (of) Vv 361 (pītantara a yellow cloak or inside garment = pītavaṇṇa uttariya VvA 116); Dāvs I.10 (dīp- antara-vāsin living on the island); DhA I.358 (kaṇṇa-chidd* the inside of the ear; VvA 50 (kacch* inner room or apartment). Therefore also "space in between", break J V.352 ( = chidda C.), and obstacle, hindrance, i. g. what stands in between: see compounds and antara-dhāyati (for antaraṃ dhāyati). - (b). temporal: an interval of time, hence time in general, and also a specified time, i. e. occasion. As interval in Buddhantaraṃ the time between the death of one Buddha and the appearance of another, PvA 10, 14, 21, 47, 191 etc. As time: It 121 (etasmiṃ antare in that time or at this occasion); Pv I.1011 (dīghaṃ antaraṃ = dīghaṃ kālaṃ PvA 52); PvA 5 (etasmiṃ antare at this time, just then). As occasion: J V.287; Pug 55 (e'aka-m-antaraṃ occasion of getting rain). S I.20, quoted DA I.34, (mañ ca tañ ca kiṃ antaraṃ what is there between me and you*) C. expls. kiṃ kāraṇā. Mrs. Rh. D. in translation. p. 256 "of me it is and thee (this talk) - now why is this"; J VI.8 (assa antaraṃ na passiṃsu they did not see a different in him). - 3. Phrases: antaraṃ karoti (a) to keep away from or at a distance (trs. and intrs.), to hold aloof, lit. "to make a space in between" M III.14; J. IV.2 (*katvā leaving behind); Pug A 231 (umMāraṃ a. katvā staying away from a threshold); also adverbially: dasa yojanāni a. katvā at a distance of 10 y. PvA 139. - (b.) to remove, destroy J VI.56 (v. l. BB. antarāyaṃ karoti). II. In prep. use (*-) with acc. (direction) or loc. (rest): inside (of), in the midst of, between, during (cp. III. use of cases). (a.) w. acc.: antaragharaṃ paviṭṭha gone into the house Miln 11. - (b.) w. loc.: antaraghare nisīdanti (inside the house) Vin II.213; *dīpake in the centre of the island J I.240; *dvāre in the door J V.231; *magge on the road (cp. antarāmagge) PvA 109; *bhatte in phrase ekasmiṃ yeva a. during one meal J I 19 = DhA I.249; *bhattasmiṃ id. DhA IV.12; *vīthiyan in the middle of the road PvA 96. *satthīsu between the thighs Vin II.161 (has antarā satthīnaṃ) = J I.218. III. Adverbial use of cases, instr. antarena in between D I.56; S IV.59, 73; J I.393; PvA 13 (kāl* in a little while, na kālantarena ib. 19). Often in combination. antarantarena (c. gen.) right in between (lit. in between the space of) DhA I.63, 358. - loc. antare in, inside of, in between (-* or c. gen. KhA 81 (sutt* in the Sutta); DhA III.416 (mama a.); PvA 56, 63 (rukkh*). Also as antarantare right inside, right in the middle of (c. gen.) KhA 57; DhA I.59 (vanasaṇḍassa a.). - abl. antarā (see also sep. article of antarā) in combination. antarantarā from time to time, occasionally; successively time after time Sn p. 107; DhA II.86; IV.191; PvA 272. IV. anantara (adj.) having or leaving nothing in between i. e. immediately following, incessant, next, adjoining J IV.139; Miln 382 (solQ; DhA I.397; PvA 63 (tadantaraṃ immediately hereafter), 92 (immed. preceding), 97 (next in caste). See also abbhantara. -atīta gone past in the meantime J II.243. -kappa an intermediary kappa (q. v.) D I 54. -kāraṇa a cause of impediment, hindrance, obstacle Pug A 231 -cakka "the intermediate round", i. e. in astrology all that belongs to the intermediate points of the compass Miln 178. -cara one who goes in between or inside, i. e. a robber S IV.173. -bāhira (adj.) inside and outside J I.125. -bhogika one who has power (wealth, influence) inside the kings dominion or under the king, a subordinate chieftain (cp. antara-raṭṭha) Vin III.47. -raṭṭha an intermediate kingdom, rulership of a subordinate prince J V.135. -vāsa an interregnum Dpvs V.80. -vāsaka "inner or intermediate garment", one of the 3 robes of a Buddhist bhikkhu (viz. the sanghāṭī, uttarāsanga and a.) Vin I.94, 289; II.272. Cf. next. -sāṭaka an inner or lower garment [cp. Sanskrit antarīya id.], under garment, i. e. the one between the outer one and the body VvA 166 (q. v.).

Antaraṃsa [B.Sanskrit antara-ṃsa; antara + aṃsa] "in between the shoulders", i. e. the chest J V.173 = VI.171 (phrase lohitakkho vihat- antaraṃso).

Antaraṭṭhaka (adj.) [antara + aṭṭhaka] only in phrases rattisu antaraṭṭhakāsu and antaraṭṭhake hima-pātasamaye (in which antara functions as prep. c. loc., according to antara II. b.) i. e. in the nights (and in the time of the falling of snow) between the eighths (i. e. the eighth day before and after the full moon: see aṭṭhaka2). First phrase at Vin I.31, 288; III 31; second at M I.79 (cp. p. 536 where Trenckner divides anta-raṭṭhaka); A I.136 (in nom.); J I.390; Miln 396.

Antaradhāna (nt.) [from antaradhāyati] disappearance A I.58 (sadDhammassa); II.147; III.176 sq.; Miln 133; Dhs 645, 738, 871. Cp. *dhāyana.

Antaradhāyati [antara + dhāyati] to disappear Sn 449 (*dhāyatha 3rd sg. med.); Vv 8128 (id.); J I.119 = DhA I.248; DhA IV.191 (ppr. *dhāyamāna and aor. dhāyi) PvA 152, 217, (*dhāyi), 245; VvA 48. - ppr. antarahita (q. v.). - Causative antaradhāpeti to cause to disappear, to destroy J I.147; II.415; PvA 123.

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Antaradhāyana (nt.) [from antaradhāyati] disappearance DhA IV.191. (v. l. *adhāna).

Antarayati [cp. denom. from antara] to go or step in between, ger. antaritvā ( = antarayitvā) J I.218.

Antarahita (adj.) [pp. of antaradhāyati] 1. disappeared, gone, left D I.222. M I.487. Miln 18. PvA 245. - 2 in phrase anantarahitāya bhūmiyā (loc) on the bare soil (lit. on the ground with nothing put in between it and the person lying down, i. e. on an uncovered or unobstructed ground) Vin I.47; II.209; M II.57.

Antarā (adv.) [abl. or adv. formation from antara; Vedic antarā.] prep. (c. gen. acc. or loc.), prefix (*-) and adv. "in between" (of space and time), midway, inside; during, meanwhile, between. On interpretation of term see DA I.34 sq. - (1). (prep.) c. acc. (of the two points compared as termini; cp. B.Sanskrit antarā ca Divy 94 etc.) D I.1 (antarā ca Rājagahaṃ antarā ca Nā'andaṃ between R. and N.). - c. gen. and loc. Vin II.161 (satthīnaṃ between the thighs, where id. p. at J I.218 has antara-satthīsu); A II.245 (satthīnaṃ. but v. l. satthimhi). - (2) (adv.) meanwhile Sn 291, 694; It 85; Dh 237. - occasionally Miln 251. - (3). (prefix) see compounds -kathā "in between talk, talk for pastime, chance conversation, D II.1, 8, 9; S I.79; IV.281; A III.167; Sn p. 115; DA I.49 and frequent passim. -gacchati to come in between, to prevent J VI.295. -parinibbāyin an Anāgāmin who passes away in the middle of his term of life in some particular heaven D III.237; A I.233; Pug 16. -magge (loc.) on the road, on the way J I.253; Miln 16; DhA II.21; III.337; PvA 151, 258, 269, 273 (cp. antara*). -maraṇa premature death DhA I.409; PvA 136. -muttaka one who is released in the meantime Vin II.167.

Antarāpaṇa (nt.) [antarā + paṇa "in between the shopping or trading"] place where the trading goes on, bazaar J I.55; VI.52; Miln 1, 330; DhA I.181.

Antarāya1 [antara + aya from i, lit. "coming in between"] obstacle, hindrance, impediment to (-*); prevention, bar; danger, accident to (-). There are 10 dangers (to or from) enumerated at Vin I.112, 169 etc., viz. rāja*, cora*, aggi*, udaka*, manussa*, amanussa*, vā'a*, siriṃsapa*, jīvita*, brahmacariya*. In B.Sanskrit 7 at Divy 544, viz. rājā-caura-manus.y-amanus.ya-vyāḍ-agny-udakaṃ. - D I.3, 25, 26; A III.243, 306; IV.320; Sn 691, 692; Dh 286 ( = jīvit* DhA III.431); J I.62, 128; KhA 181; DhA II 52; VvA 1 = PvA 1 (hat* removing the obstacles) -antarāyaṃ karoti to keep away from, hinder, hold back, prevent, destroy Vin I.15; J VI.171; Vism 120; PvA 20. -kara one who causes impediments or bars the way, an obstructor D I.227; S I.34; A I.161; Pv IV.322.

Antarāya2 (adv.) [dat. of antara or formation from antara + ger. of i*) in the meantime Sn 1120 (cp Nd2 58) = antarā Sn A 603.

Antarāyika (adj.) [from antarāya] causing an obstacle, forming an impediment Vin I.94 = II.272; M I.130; S II.226; ThA 288.

Antarāyikin (adj.-n.) [cp. antarāyika] one who meets with an obstacle, finding difficulties Vin IV.280 (an* = asati antarāye).

Antarā'a (nt.) [Sk antarāla] interior, interval Dāvs I.52; III.53 (nabh*).

Antarika (adj.) [from antara] "being in between", i. e. 1. intermediate, next, following: see an*. - 2. distant, lying in between PvA 173 (aneka-yojan* ṭhāna). See also f. antarikā. - 3. inside: see antarikā. -anantarika with no interval, succeeding, immediately following, next Vin II.165, 212 (ān*); IV.234.

Antarikā (f.) [abstr. from antarika] "what lies in between or near", i. e. - 1. the inside of Vin IV.272 (bhājan*). 2. the neighbourhood, region of (-*), sphere, compass Vin III.39 (ur*, angul*); J I.265 (yakkhassa sīm* inside the y* sphere of influence). - 3. interval, interstice Vin II.116 (sutt* in lace); A I.124 (vijj* the interval of lightning).

Antalikkha (nt.) [Vedic = (ks.i), lit. situated in between sky and earth] the atmosphere or air D II.15; A III.239; IV.199; Sn 222, 688; Dh 127 = Miln 150 = PvA 104; Pv I.31 ( = vehāyasa-saññita a. PvA 14); KhA 166. -ga going through the air A I.215. -cara walking through the air Vin I.21; D I.17; S I.111; J V.267; DA I.110.

Antavant (ādj.) [anta1 + *vant] having an end, finite D I.22, 31, 187; Ps I.151 sq.; 157; Dhs 1099, 1117, 1175; Miln 145. -anantavant endless, infinite A V.193 (loka). See also loka.

Anti (indecl.) [Vedic anti = Lat ante, Gr. a)nti/, Goth. and; Ags. and-, Ger. ant-, ent-] adv. and prep. c. gen.: opposite, near J V.399 (tav- antiṃ āgatā, read as tav- anti-m-āgatā; C. santikaṃ), 400, 404; VI.565 (sāmikass- anti = antike C.). - Cp. antika.

Antika (adj.-n.) -1. [der from anti] near KhA 217; nt. neighbourhood Kh VIII.1. (odak.r); J VI.565 (antike loc. = anti near). - 2. [der from anta = Sanskrit antya] being at the end, final, finished, over S I.130 (purisā etad-antikā, v. l. SS antiyā: men are (to me) at the end for that, i. e. men do not exist any more for me, for the purpose of begetting sons.

Antima (adj.) [Cp. superl. of anta] last, final (used almost exclusively with reference to the last and final reincarnation; thus in combination. with deha and sarīra, the last body) D II.15; Dh 351; It 50 (antimaṃ dehaṃ dhāreti), 53 (id.); Vv 512; Sn 478 (sarīraṃ antimaṃ dhāreti) 502; Miln 122, 148; VvA 106 (sarīr- antima-dhārin); Sdhp 278. -dehadhara one who wears his last body It 101 (dhāra T, *dhara v. l.); VvA 163. -dhārin = prec. S I.14, 53 (+ khīṇāsava); II.278; It 32, 40; Sn 471. -vatthu "the last thing", i. e. the extreme, final or worst (sin) Vin I. 121, 135, 167, 320. -sarīra the last body; (adj.) having ones last rebirth S I.210 (Buddho a*-sarīro); A II.37; Sn 624; Dh 352, 400; DhA IV.166 ( = koṭiyaṃ ṭhito attabhāvo).

Ante* (prefix) [Sanskrit anta*, with change of -a* to -e, instead of the usual -o, prob. through interpreting it as loc. of anta] near, inside, within; only in following compounds: *pura (nt.) "inner town", the king's palace, esp. its inner apartments, i. e. harem [Sanskrit anta*pura, cp. also Pāli antopura] Vin I.75, 269; A V.81; J II.125; IV.472; Miln 1; PvA 23, 81, 280; *purikā harem woman DhsA 403; *vāsika one who lives in, i. e. lodges or lives with his mastereotypeor teacher, a pupil Vin I.60; III.25; S I.180; IV.136; J I. 166; II.278; III.83, 463; PvA 12; VvA 138; *vāsin = *vāsika Vin III.66; D I.1, 45, 74, 78, 88, 108, 157; M III.116; DA I.36.

Anto (indecl.) [Sanskrit anta*; Av antar* Latin inter, Oir. etar between, Ohg. untar; Idg. *entar, compar. of *en (in) = inner, inside] prep. inside, either c. acc. denoting direction = into, or c. loc. denoting place where = in. As prefix (*-) in, within, inside, inner (see compounds) (1.) prep. c. acc. anto nivesanaṃ gata gone into the house J I.158; anto jālaṃ pavisati go into the net DhA III.175; anto gāmaṃ pavisati to go into the village DhA II.273; anto nagaraṃ pavisati DhA II.89; PvA 47. - (2) c. loc. anto gabbhe J II.182; gāme DhA II.52; gehe DhA II.84; nadiyaṃ J VI.278; nivesane J II.323; vasse in the rainy season J IV.242; vimānasmiṃ Pv I.101; sattāhe inside of a week PvA 55.

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-koṭisanthāra "house of the Golden Pavement" J IV.113. -gadha (*gata* Kern Toev.) in phrase *hetu, by inner reason or by reason of its intensity PvA 10; VvA 12. -jana "the inside people", i. e. people belonging to the house, the family ( = Latin familia) D III.61 (opp. to servants); A I.152; J VI.301; DA I.300. -jāla the inside of the net, the net DhA IV.41. -jālikata "in-netted", gone into the net D I.45; DA I.127. -nijjhāna inner conflagration PvA 18. -nimugga altogether immersed D I.75; A III.26. -parisoka inner grief Ps I.38. -pura = antepura J I.262. -mano "turning ones mind inside", thoughtful, melancholy Vin III.19. -bhavika being inside Miln 95. -rukkhatā being among trees J I.7. -vasati to inhabit, live within S IV.136. -va'añjanaka (parijana) indoorpeople J V.118. -vassa the rainy season (lit. the interval of the r. s.) VvA 66. -vihāra the inside of the V. DhA I.50 (*a-bhimukhī turning towards etc.), -samorodha barricading within Dhs 1157 (so read for anta*, cp. Dhs. trsl. 311). -soka inner grief Ps I.38.

Andu [cp. Sanskrit andu, andū and anduka] a chain, fetter Vin I.108 = III.249 (tiṇ*); D I.245; J I.21 (*ghara prisonhouse); DhA IV.54 (*bandhana).

Andha (adj.) [Vedic andha, Latin andabata (see Walde, Latin Wtb. s. v.), other etymology doubtful] 1. (lit.) blind, blinded, blindfolded J I.216 (dhūm*); Pv IV.148; PvA 3. - dark, dull, blinding M III.151 (-andhaṃ adv. dulled); Sn 669 (Ep. of timisa, like Vedic andhaṃ tama*); DhA II.49 (*vana dark forest). - 2. (fig.) mentally blinded, dull of mind, foolish, not seeing D I.191 (+ acakkhuka), 239 (*veṇi, reading and meaning uncertain); A I.128; Th 2, 394 ( = bāla ThA 258). See compounds *karaṇa, *kāra, *bāla, *bhūta. -ākula blinded, foolish Vv 849 ( = paññācakkhuno abhāvena VvA 337). -karaṇa blinding, making blind, causing bewilderment (fig.), confusing It 82 (+ acakkhukaraṇa); Miln 113 (pañha, + gambhīra). -kāra blindness (lit. and fig), darkness, dullness, bewilderment Vin I.16; D II.12; A I.56; II.54; III.233; J III.188; Th 1, 1034; Dh 146; Sn 763; Vv 214 ( = avijj* VvA 106); Pug 30; Dhs 617; DA I.228; VvA 51, 53, 116, 161; PvA 6; Sdhp 14, 280. -tamo deep darkness (lit. and fig.) S V.443; It 84 (v. l.; T. andhaṃ tamaṃ); J VI.247. -bāla blinded by folly, foolish, dull of mind, silly J I.246, 262; VI.337; DhA II.43, 89; III.179; VvA 67; PvA 4, 264. -bhūta blinded (fig.), mentally blind, not knowing, ignorant S IV.21; A II.72; J VI.139 (spelled *būta); Dh 59, 174 ( = paññā-cakkhuno abhāvena DhA III.175). -vesa "blind form", disguise J III.418. -vane dark-woods

Andhaka [from andha] "blind fly", i. e. dark or yellow fly or gad-fly Sn 20 ( = kāṇa-makkhikānaṃ adhivacanaṃ SnA 33).

Anna (nt.) [Vedic anna, orig. pp. of adati to eat] "eating", food, esp. boiled rice, but includes all that is eaten as food, viz. odana, kummāsa, sattu, maccha, maṃsa (rice, gruel, flour, fish, meat) Nd1 372 = 495. Anna is spelt aṇṇa in combinations apar- aṇṇa and pubb- aṇṇa. Under dhañña (Nd2 314) are distinguished 2 kinds, viz. raw, natural cereals (pubb- aṇṇaṃ: sāli, vīhi, yava, godhūma, kangu, varaka, kudrūsaka) and boiled, prepared food (apar- aṇṇaṃ: sūpeyya curry). SnA 378 (on Sn 403) expls. anna by yāgubhatta-di. - D I.7; A I.107, 132; II.70, 85, 203; Sn 82, 240, 403, 924; J III.190; Pug 51; Sdhp 106, 214. -āpa food and water Sdhp 100. -da giving food Sn 297. -pāna food and water, eating and drinking, to eat and to drink Sn 485, 487; Pv I.52, 82; KhA 207, 209; PvA 7, 8, 30, 31, 43.

Annaya in dur* see anvaya.

Anvakāsi 3rd sg. aor. of anukassati 2: drew out, removed, threw down Th 1, 869 ( = khipi, chaḍḍesi C.).

Anvakkhara (adj.) [anu + akkhara] "according to the syllable", syll. after syll., also a mode of reciting by syllables Vin IV.15, cp. 355. Cp. anupadaṃ.

Anvagā 3rd sg. aor. of anugacchati Mhvs 7, 10. Also in assim. form annagā J V.258.

Anvagū 3rd pl. aor. of anugacchati S I.39; Sn 586.

Anvaḍḍhamāsaŋ (adv.) [anu + aḍḍha + māsa] every fortnight, twice a month M II.8; Vin IV.315 ( = anuposathikaṃ); DhA I.162; II.25.

Anvattha (adj.) [anu + attha] according to the sense, answering to the matter, having scnse ThA 6 (*saññābhāva).

Anvadeva (adv.) [anva-d-eva with euphonic d.; like sammad-eva corresponding to Sanskrit anvag-eva] behind, after, later D I.172; M III.172; S V.1 (spelt anudeva); A I.11; V. 214; It 34.

Anvaya (n.-adj.) [Vedic anvaya in different meaning; from anu + i, see anveti and anvāya] 1. (n.) conformity, accordance D II. 83 = III.100; M I.69 (dhamm* logical conclusion of); S II.58; D III.226 (anvaye ñāṇaṃ); Pv II.113 (tassa kammassa anvāya, v. l. BB anvaya and anvāya; accordingly, according to = paccayā PvA 147); PvA 228 (anvayato, adv. in accordance). - 2. (adj.) following, having the same course, behaving according to, consequential, in conformity with (-*) D I.46 (tad*); M I.238 (kāyo citt* acting in conformity to the mind, obeying the mind); Sn 254 (an* inconsistent); It 79 (tass*). - dur* spelt durannaya conforming with difficulty, hard to manage or to find out Dh 92 (gati = na sakkā paññāpetuṃ DhA II.173); Sn 243, 251 ( = duviññāpaya SnA 287 dunneyya ibid. 293).

Anvayatā (f.) [abstr. to anvaya] conformity, accordance M I.500 (kāy* giving in to the body).

Anvahaṃ (adv.) [anu + aha] every day, daily Dāvs IV.8.

Anvāgacchati [anu + ā + gacchati] 1. to go along after, to follow, run after, pursue; aor. anvāgacchi Pv. IV.56 ( = anubandhi PvA 260). - 2. to come back again J I.454 (ger. *gantvāna). -pp. anvāgata (q. v.).

Anvāgata [pp. of anvāgacchati] having pursued, attained; endowed with Th 1, 63; J IV.385; V.4.

Anvādisati [anu + ā + disati] to advise, dedicate, assign; imper. *disāhi Pv II.26 ( = uddissa dehi PvA 80); III.28 ( = ādisa PvA 181).

Anvādhika (adj.) [derivation uncertain] a tailoring term. Only at Vin I.297. Rendered (Vinaya Texts II.232) by "half and half" ; that is a patchwork, half of new material, half of old. Bdhgh's note (see the text, p. 392) adds that the new material must be cut up.

Anvāmaddati [anu + ā + maddati] to squeeze, wring J III. 481 (galakaṃ anvāmaddi wrung his neck; vv. ll. anvānumaṭṭi and anvāvamaddi; C. gīvaṃ maddi).

Anvāya [ger. of anveti; cp. anvaya] undergoing, experiencing, attaining; as prep. (c. acc.) in consequence of, through, after D I.13 (ātappaṃ by means of self-sacrifice), 97 (saŋvāsaŋ as a result of their cohabitation); J I.56 (buddhiṃ), 127 (piyasaŋvāsaŋ), 148 (gabbhaparipākaṃ). Often in phrase vuddhiṃ anvāya growing up, e. g. J I.278; III. 126; DhA II.87.

Anvāyika (adj.-n.) [from anvāya] following; one who follows, a companion D III.169; Nd2 59; J III.348.

Anvārohati [anu + ā + rohati] to go up to, visit, ascend J IV.465 (aor. anvāruhi).

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Anvāvassa at J V.317 should be read with v. l. BB as anovassa absence of rain.

Anvāviṭṭha [pp. of anvāvisati] possessed (by evil spirits) S I.114.

Anvāvisati [anu + ā + visati] to go into, to take possession of, to visit M I.326; S I.67; Miln 156. -pp. anvāviṭṭha (q. v.). Cp. adhimuccati.

Anvāsatta [pp. of anu + ā + sañj, cp. anusatta = Sanskrit anusakta] clung on to, befallen by (instr.), attached to A IV.356 (v. l. anvāhata), cp. Ud 35 (anvāsanna q. v.). See also following

Anvāsattatā (f.) [abstr. from anvāsatta] being attacked by, falling a prey to (instr.), attachment to DhA I.287 (in same context as anvāsatta A IV.356 and anvāsanna Ud 35).

Anvāsanna [pp. of anu + ā + sad] endowed with, possessed of, attacked by, Ud 35 (doubtfull; v. l. ajjhāpanna), = A IV.356 which has anvāsatta.

Anvāssavati [anu + ā + savati, sru] to stream into, to attack, befall D I.70; A III.99; Pug 20, 58.

Anvāhata [pp. of anu + ā + han] struck, beaten; perplexed Dh 39 (*cetasa).

Anvāhiṇḍati [anu + ā + hiṇḍati] to wander to (acc.) A IV.374, 376 [BSanskrit same, e. g. Divy 68 etc.].

Anveti [cp. anu + eti, from i] to follow, approach, go with Sn 1103 ( = anugacchati anvāyiko hoti Nd2 59); Dh 1 ( = kāyikaṃ . . . dukkhaṃ anugacchati DhA I.24), 2, 71, 124; perhaps at Pv II.620 (with v. l. BB at PvA 99) for anvesi (see anvesati; explained. by anudesi = was anxious for, helped, instructed).

Anvesa [from next] seeking, searching, investigation, M I.140 (*ṃ n- a-dhigacchanti do not find).

Anvesati [anu + esati] to look, for search, seek S I.112 (ppr. anvesaŋ = pariyesamāna C.); Cp III.117 (ppr. anvesanto). - aor. anvesi [Sanskrit from icchati] Pv II.620 (* perhaps better with v. l. PvA 99 as anventi of anveti).

Anvesin [anu-esin] (adj.) striving after, seeking, wishing for Sn 965 (kusala*).

Anha [Vedic ahan] see pubbanha, majjhanha, sāyanha. Cp. aha.

Apa* [Vedic apa; Idg. *apo = Gr. a)po/, Av. apa, Latin ab from *ap (cp. aperio); Goth. af, Ger. Qb, Ags. E. of. A compar. form from apa is apara "futher away"] Well defined directional prefix, meaning "away from, off". Usually as base-prefix (except with ā), and very seldom in compounds. with other modifying prefixes (like sam, abhi etc.). 1. apa = Vedic apa (Idg. *apo): apeti to go away = Gr. a)/peimi, Latin abeo, Goth. afiddja; apeta gone away, rid; *kaḍḍhati to draw away, remove; *kamati walk away; *gacchati go away; *nidhāti put away ( = a)potiqhmi, abdo); *nudati push away; *neti lead away; *vattati turn away ( = āverto); *sakkati step aside; *harati take away. 2. apa = Vedic ava (Idg. *aue; see ava for details). There exists a widespread confusion between the two preps. apa and ava, favoured both by semantic (apa = away, ava = down, cp. E. off) and phonetic affinity (p softened to b, esp. in BB Mss., and then to v, as b > v is frequent, e. g. bya* > vya* etc.). Thus we find in Pāli apa where Vedic and later literary Sanskrit have ava in the following instances: apakanti, *kassati, *kirati, *gata, *cāra, *jhāyati, *thaṭa, *dāna, *dhāreti, *nata, *nāmeti, *nīta, *lekhana, *loketi, *vadati.

Apakaḍḍhati [apa + kaḍḍhati, cp. Sanskrit apa-kar.sati] to draw away, take off, remove D I.180; III.127; DhA II.86. Causative apakaḍḍhāpeti J I.342; IV.415; Miln 34. - Cp. apakassati; and see pakattheti.

Apakata [pp. of apakaroti] put off, done away, in ājīvik a-pakata being without a living M I.463 (the usual phrase being *apagata); Miln 279 (id.). At It 89 the reading of same phrase is ājīvikā pakatā (v. l. ā* vakatā).

Apakataññu (adj.) [a + pa + kataññu] ungrateful Vin II.199.

Apakantati [apa + kantati, Sanskrit ava + krntati] to cut off Th 2, 217 (gale = gīvaṃ chindati ThA 178; Kern, Toev. corrects to kabale a.).

Apakaroti [apa + karoti, cp. Sanskrit apakaroti and apakrta in same meaning] to throw away, put off; hurt, offend, slight; possibly in reading T. apakiritūna at Th 2, 447 (q. v.). -pp. apakata (q. v.). Cp. apakāra.

Apakassati [Sanskrit apa- and ava-kar.sati, cp. apakaḍḍhati] to throw away, remove Sn 281 (v.l. BB and SnA ava*; explained. by niddhamati and nikkaḍḍhati SnA 311). -ger. apakassa Sn II.198 = Miln 389. See also apakāsati.

Apakāra and *ka [cf. Sanskrit apakāra and apakaroti] injury, mischief; one who injures or offends DhA III.63; Sdhp 283.

Apakāsati at Vin II.204 is to be read as apakassati and interpreted as "draw away, distract, bring about a split or dissension (of the Sangha)". The v. l. on p. 325 justifies the correction (apakassati) as well as Bdhgh's explination. "parisaŋ ākaḍḍhanti". - Cp. A III.145 and see avapakāsati. The reading at the id. p. at A V.74 is avakassati (combined. w. vavakassati, where Vin II.204 has avapakāsati), which is much to be preferred (see vavakassati).

Apakiritūna at Th 2, 447 T (reading of C. is abhi*) is explained ThA 271 to mean apakiritvā chaḍḍetvā throwing away, slighting, offending. The correct etym = Sanskrit avakirati (ava + kr2 to strew, cast out) in sense "to cast off, reject", to which also belongs kirāta in meaning "cast off" i. e. man of a so-called low tribe. See also avakirati 2.

Apakkamati [cp. Sanskrit apakramati, apa + kram] to go away, depart, go to one side J III.27; Sdhp 294. - aor. apakkami Pv IV.75; ger. apakkamitvā PvA 43, 124, and apakkamma Pv II.928.

Apagacchati [apa + gam] to go away, turn aside DhA I.401 (*gantvā). -pp. apagata (q. v.).

Apagata [pp. of apagacchati] 1. gone, gone away from (c. abl.), removed; deceased, departed It 112; PvA 39, 63 ( = peta), 64 ( = gata). - 2. (*-) frequent as prefix, meaning without, lit. having lost, removed from; free from Vin II.129 (*gabbhā having lost her foetus, having a miscarriage); J I.61 (*vattha without clothes); PvA 38 (*soka free from grief), 47 (*lajja not shy), 219 (*viññāṇa without feeling). - Cp. apakata.

Apagabbha (adj.) [a + pa + gabbha] not entering another womb, i. e. not destined to another rebirth Vin III.3.

Apagama [Sanskrit apagama] going away, disappearance Sdhp 508.

Apanga (apānga) [Sanskrit apānga] the outer corner of the eye J III.419 (asita-pangin black-eyed); IV.219 (bahi*). Spelt avanga at Vin II.267, where the phrase avangaṃ karoti, i. e. explained. by Bdhgh. ibid p. 327 as "avangadese adhomukhaṃ lekhaṃ karonti". According to Kern, Toev. 20, Bdhgh's explination is not quite correct, since avanga stands here in the meaning of "a coloured mark upon the body" (cp. PW. apānga).

Apacaya [from apa + ci] falling off, diminution (opp. ācaya gathering, heaping up), unmaking, esp. loss (of wordliness), decrease (of possibility of rebirth Vin II.2 = III.21 = IV.213; cp. J III.342; S II.95 (kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi); A IV.280 = Vin II.259 (opp. ācaya); J III.342 (sekho *ena na tappati); Vbh 106, 319, 326, 330.

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-gāmin going towards decrease, "making for the undoing of rebirth" (Dhs trsl. 82) A V.243, 277; Dhs 277, 339, 505, 1014; Vbh 12, 16 sq.; Nett 87 (cp. Kvu 156).

Apacāyati [from apa-ci, cp. cināti and cayati, with different meaning in Sanskrit; better explained. perhaps as denom. from *apacāya in meaning of apacāyana, cp. apacita] to honour, respect, pay reverence D I.91 (pūjeti +); J III.82. Pot. apace (for apaceyya, may be taken to apacināti 2) A IV.245; ThA 72 (here to apacināti 1). -pp. apacita (q. v.).

Apacāyana (nt.) [abstr. from apa + cāy, which is itself a der. from ci, cināti] honouring, honour, worship, reverence J I.220; V.326; DA I.256 (*kamma); VvA 24 (*ṃ karoti = añjalikaṃ karoti); PvA 104 (*kara, adj.), 128 (+ paricariya).

Apacāyika (adj.) [from *apacāya, cp. B.Sanskrit apacāyaka MVastu I.198; Divy 293] honouring, respecting J IV.94 (vaddha*, cp. vaddha-pacāyin); Pv II.7 8 (jeṭṭha*); IV.324 (id.). In B.Sanskrit the corresponds phrase is jyes.ṭha-pacayaka.

Apacāyin (adj.) [from *apacāya; cp. apacāyika] honouring, paying homage, revering Sn 325 (vaddha* = vaddhānaṃ apaciti karaṇena SnA 332) = Dh 109; J I.47, 132, 201; II.299; V.325; Miln 206; Sdhp 549.

Apacāra [from apa + car, cp. Sanskrit apa and abhi-carati] falling off, fault, wrong doing J VI.375.

Apacita [pp. of apacayati or apacināti] honoured, worshipped, esteemed Th 1, 186; J II.169; IV.75; Vv 510 ( = pūjita VvA 39); 3511 (cp. VvA 164); Miln 21.

Apaciti (f.) [Vedic apaciti in different meaning, viz. expiation] honour, respect, esteem, reverence Th 1, 589; J I.220; II.435; III.82; IV.308; VI.88; Miln 180, 234 (*ṃ karoti), 377 (pūjana +); SnA 332 (*karaṇa). Cp. apacāyana.

Apacināti [apa + cināti] 1. [in meaning of Sanskrit apacīyate cp. Pāli upaciyyati Pass. of upacināti] to get rid of, do away with, (cp. apacaya), diminish, make less S III.89 (opp. ācināti); Th 1, 807; J IV.172 (apacineth- eva kāmāni = viddhaṃseyyatha C.). Here belong prob. aor. 3rd pl. apaciyiṃsu (to be read for upacciṃsu) at J VI. 187 (akkhīni a. "the eyes gave out") and Pot. pres. apace ThA 72 (on v.40). - 2. [ = apacayati] to honour, esteem; observe, guard Vin I.264 (apacinayamāna cīvaraṃ (*) v. l apacitiyamāna; trsl. guarding his claim is, Vin Texts); M I.324 (see detail under apaviṇāti) Th 1, 186 (grd. apacineyya to be honoured); J V.339 (anapacinanto for T. anupacinanto, v. l. anapavinati). -pp. apacita (q.v.).

Apacca [Vedic apatya nt.; der. from apa] offspring, child D I.90 (bandhupāda* cp. muṇḍaka), 103 (id.); S I.69 (an*) Sn 991; DA I.254.

Apaccakkha (adj.) [a + paṭi + akkha] unseen; in instr. f. apaccakkhāya as adv. without being seen, not by direct evidence Miln 46 sq.

Apacchapurima (adj.) [a + paccha + purima] "neither after nor before", i. e. at the same time, simultaneous J III.295.

Apajaha (adj.) [a + pajaha] not giving up, greedy, miserly A III.76 (v. l. apānuta; C. expls. (a)vaḍḍhinissita mānatthaddha).

Apajita (nt.) [pp. of apa + ji] defeat Dh. 105.

Apajjhāyati [apa + jhāyati1; cp. Sanskrit abhi-dhyāyati] to muse, meditate, ponder, consider M I.334 (nijjhāyati +); III.14 (id.).

Apaññaka (adj.) = apañña, ignorant Dpvs VI.29.

Apaṭṭhapeti [Causative from apa-tiṭṭhati, cp. Sanskrit apa + sthā to stand aloof] to put aside, leave out, neglect J IV.308; V.236.

Apaṇṇaka (adj.) [a + paṇṇaka; see paṇṇaka; Weber Ind. Str. III.150 and Kuhn, Beitr. p. 53 take it as *a-prashna-ka] certain, true, absolute M I.401, 411; A V.85, 294, 296; J I.104 (where explained as ekaṃsika aviruddha niyyānika).

Apanṇṇakatā (f.) [abstr. of apaṇṇaka] certainty, absoluteness S IV.351 sq.

Apatacchika only in khārāpatācch* (q. v.) a kind of torture.

Apattha1 (adj.) [Sanskrit apāsta, pp. of apa + as2] thrown away Dh 149 ( = chaḍḍita DhA III.112).

Apattha2 2nd pl. pret. of pāpunāti (q. v.).

Apatthaṭa = avatthaṭa covered Th 1, 759.

Apatthita and Apatthiya see pattheti.

Apadāna (nt.) 1. [ = Sanskrit apadāna] removing, breaking off, D III.88. - 2. [ = Sanskrit avadāna cp. ovāda] advice, admonition, instruction, morals Vin II.4 (an* not taking advice), 7 (id.) M I.96; A V.337 sq. (saddhā*) Th 1, 47. - 3. legend, life history. In the title Mahāpadāna suttanta it refers to the 7 Buddhas. In the title Apadānaṃ, that is "the stories" , it refers almost exclusively to Arahants. The other, (older), connotation seems to have afterwards died out. See Dialogues II.3. - Cp. also pariyāpadāna.

Apadisa [fr apa + dish] reference, testimony, witness DhA II.39.

Apadisati [apa + disati] to call to witness, to refer to, to quote Vin III.159; J I.215; III.234; IV.203; Miln 270; DhA II.39; Nett 93.

Apadesa [cp. Sanskrit apadesha] 1. reason, cause, argument M I.287 (an*). - 2. statement, designation PvA 8. - 3. pretext J III.60; IV.13; PvA 154. Thus also apadesaka J VI.179.

Apadhāreti [Causative of apa + dhr, cp. Sanskrit ava-dhārayati, but also BSanskrit apadhārayati Divy 231] to observe, request, ask ThA 16.

Apanata [pp. of apanamati] "bent away", drawn aside, in stereotype combination. abhinata + apanata ("strained forth and strained aside" Mrs Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 39) M I.386; S I.28.

Apanamati [semantically doubtful] to go away Sn 1102 (apanamissati, v. l. apalām* and apagam*; explained at Nd2 60 by vajissati pakkhamissati etc. -pp. apanata (q. v.) Causative apanāmeti.

Apanāmeti [Causative from apanamati] 1. to take away, remove M I.96 = A I.198 (kathaṃ bahiddhā a. carry outside); Kh VIII.4 ( = aññaṃ ṭhānaṃ gameti KhA 220). - 2. [ = Sanskrit ava-namati] to bend down, lower, put down Vin II.208 (chattaṃ); S I.226 (id.); J II.287 (id., v. l. apanetvā); D I.126 (hatthaṃ, for salute).

Apanidahati (and apanidheti) [apa + ni + dhā, cp. Vedic apadhā hiding-place; Sanskrit apadadhāti = Gr. a)poti(qhmi = Latin abdo "do away"] to hide, conceal Vin IV.123 (*dheti, *dheyya, *dhessati); PvA 215 (*dhāya ger.). -pp. apanihita. - Causative apanidhāpeti to induce somebody to conceal Vin IV.123.

Apanihita [pp. of apanidahati] concealed, in abstr. *ttaṃ (nt.) hiding, concealing, theft PvA 216.

Apanīta [Sanskrit apanīta, pp. of apa + nī, see apaneti and cp. also onīta = apanīta] taken away or off. removed, dispelled PvA 39.

Apanudati and Apanudeti [apa + nud, cp. Vedic apanudati and Causative Sanskrit apanodayati] to push or drive away, remove, dispel; pres. apanudeti Miln 38. aor. apānudi Pv I.86 ( = apanesi PvA 41); II.314 ( = avahari aggahesi PvA 86); Dāvs I.8. ger. apanujja D II.223. See also der. apanudana.

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Apanudana and Apanūdana (nt.) [Sanskrit apanodana, from apanudati] taking or driving away, removal Vin II.148 = J I.94 (dukkha*); Sn 252 (id.); PvA 114 (id.).

Apanuditar [n. ag. from apanudati, Sanskrit apanoditr] remover, dispeller D III.148.

Apaneti [apa + nī] to lead away, take or put away, remove J I.62, 138; II.4, 155 (aor. apānayi) III.26; Miln 188, 259, 413; PvA 41, 74, 198 ( = harati) Sdhp 63. Pass. apanīyati S I.176. -pp. apanīta (q. v.).

Apapibati [apa + pibati] to drink from something J II.126 (aor. apāpāsi).

Apabbūhati and Apabyūhati [apa + vi + ūh] to push off, remove, scrape away A III.187 (apaviyūhitvā, vv. ll. *bbūhitvā); J I.265 (paṃsuṃ). - Causative *byūhāpeti to make remove or brush J IV.349 (paṃsuṃ).

Apabyāma see apavyāma.

Apamāra [Sanskrit apasmāra] epilepsy Vin I.93. Cp. apasmāra.

Apamārika (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit apasmārin] epileptic Vin IV.8, 10, 11.

Apayāti [Sanskrit apayāti, apa + yā] to go away J VI.183 (apāyāti metri causa; explained. by C. as apagacchati palāyati). - Causative apayāpeti [Sanskrit apayāpayati] to make go, drive away, dismiss M III.176; S II.119.

Apayāna (nt.) [Sanskrit apayāna, from apayāti] going away, retreat D I.9 (opp. upa*); DA I.95.

Apara (adj.) [Vedic apara, der. from apa with compar. suffix -ra = Idg. *aporos "further away, second"; cp. Gr. a)pwte/rw farther, Latin aprilis the second month (after March, i. e. April). Goth. afar = after] another, i. e. additional, following, next, second (with pronoun. inflexion, i. e. nom. pl. apare) D III.190 (*pajā another, i. e. future generation); Sn 791, 1089 (n-); J I.59 (aparaṃ divasaŋ on some day following); III.51 (apare tayo sahāyā "other friends three", i. e. three friends, cp. similarly Fr. nous autres Franc*ais); IV.3 (dīpa); PvA 81 (*divase on another day), 226; with other part. like aparo pi D III 128. - nt. aparaṃ what follows i. e. future state, consequence; future Vin I.35 (na-paraṃ nothing more); Sn 1092 (much the same as punabbhava, cp. Nd2 61). Cases adverbially; aparaṃ (acc.) further, besides, also J I.256; III.278; often with other part. like atha-paraṃ and further, moreover Sn 974; and puna c- aparaṃ It 100; Miln 418 (so read for puna ca paraṃ) and passim; aparam pi Vism 9. - aparena in future D III.201. - Repeated (reduplicative formation) apara-paraṃ (local) to and fro J I.265, 278; PvA 198; (temporal) again and again, off and on J II.377; Miln 132 VvA 271; PvA 176 ( = punappunaṃ). -anta (aparanta) = aparaṃ, with anta in same function as in compounds vananta (see anta1 5): (a.) further away, westward J v.471; Miln 292 (janapada). (b.) future D I.30 (*kappika, cp. DA I.118); M II.228 (*a-nudiṭṭhi - thought of the future); S III.46 (id.). -a-pariya (from apara-para) ever-following, successive, continuous, everlasting; used with reference to kamma J V.106; Miln 108. -bhāga the future, lit. a later part of time, only in loc. aparabhāge at a future date, later on J I.34, 262; IV.1; VvA 66.

Aparajju (adv.) [Sanskrit apare-dyus] on the following day Vin II.167; S I.186; Miln 48.

Aparajjhati [Sanskrit aparādhyate, apa + rādh] to sin or offend against (c. loc.) Vin II.78 = III.161; J V.68; VI.367; Miln 189; PvA 263. -pp. aparaddha and aparādhita (q. v.).

Aparaṇṇa (nt.) [apara + aṇṇa = anna] "the other kind of cereal", prepared or cooked cereals, pulse etc. Opp. to pubbaṇṇa the unprepared or raw corn ( = āmakadhañña Vin IV.265; Vin III.151 (pubb* +); IV.265, 267; A IV. 108, 112 (tila-mugga-māsā*; opp. sāli-yavaka etc.); Nd2 314 (aparaṇṇaṃ nāma sūpeyyaṃ); J V.406 (*jā = hareṇukā, pea); Miln 106 (pubbaṇṇa*). See also dhañña and harita.

Aparaddha [pp. of aparajjhati] missed (c. acc.), gone wrong, failed, sinned (against = loc.) D I.91, 103, 180; S I.103 (suddhimaggaṃ); Th 1, 78; Sn 891 (suddhiṃ = viraddha khalita Nd1 300); PvA 195.

Aparapaccaya (adj.) [a + para + paccaya] not dependent or relying on others Vin I.12 (vesārajja-ppatta +); D I.110 (id.); M II 41; M I.491; S III.83; DA I.278 ( = na-ssa paro paccayo).

Aparājita (adj.) [Vedic aparājita; a + parājita] unconquered Sn 269; J I.71, 165.

Aparādha [from apa + rādh] sin, fault, offence, guilt J I.264 (nir*); III.394; IV.495; VvA 69; PvA 87, 116.

Aparādhika (adj.) [from aparādha, cp. Sanskrit aparādhin] guilty, offending, criminal J II.117 (vāja*); Miln 149 (issara*), 189 (aparādhikatā).

Aparādhita [pp. of aparādheti, Causative of apa + rādh; cp. aparaddha] transgressed, sinned, failing J V.26 (so read for aparadh- ito).

Aparāyin (adj.) [a + parāyin, cp. parāyana] having no support J III.386 (f. *ī; C. appatiṭṭhā appaṭisaraṇā).

Apalāpin see apalāsin [Sanskrit apalāpin "denying, concealing" different].

Apalā'eti [apa + lā'eti] to draw over to Vin I.85.

Apalāyin (adj.) [a + palāyin] not running away, steadfast, brave, fearless Nd2 13 (abhīru anutrāsin apalāyin as explination. of acchambhin and vīra); J IV.296; V.4 (where C. gives variant "apalāpinī ti pi pāṭho", which latter has v. l. apalāsinī and is explained. by C. as palāpa-rahite anavajjasarīre p. 5). See also apalāsin.

Apalāsin (adj.) [apa'āsin; but spelling altogether uncertain. There seems to exist a confusion between the forms apalāyin, apalāpin and apalāsin, owing to frequent miswriting of s, y, p in MSS. (cp. Nd2 introd. p. XIX.). We should be inclined to give apalāsin, as the lectio difficilior, the prefix. The explination. at Pug 22 as "yassa puggalassa ayaŋ pa'āso pahīno ayaŋ vuccati puggalo apa'āsī" does not help us to clear up the etymology nor the vv. ll.] either "not neglectful, pure, clean" ( = apalāpin from palāsa chaff, cp. apalāyin at J V.4), or "not selfish, not hard, generous" (as inferred from combination. with amakkhin and amaccharin), or "brave, fearless, energetic" ( = apalāyin) D III.47, cp. Pug 22. See palāsin.

ApaliBuddha and Apalibodha [a + paliBuddha, pp. of pari + brh, see palibujjhati] unobstructed, unhindered, free J III. 381 (*bodha); Miln 388; DhA III.198.

Apalekhana (nt.) [apa + lekhana from likh in meaning of lih, corresponding to Sanskrit ava-lehana] licking off, in cpd. hattha-palekhana "hand-licking" (i. e. licking one's hand after a meal, the practice of certain ascetics) M 177 (with v. l. hattha-valekhana M I.535; Trenckner compares BSanskrit hastapralehaka Lal. Vist. 312 and hasta-valehaka ibid. 323), 412; Pug 55 (explained. at Pug A 231 as hatthe piṇḍamhe niṭṭhite jivhāya hatthaṃ apalekhati).

Apalekhati [apa + lekhati in meaning of Sanskrit avalihati] to lick off Pug A 231 (hatthaṃ).

Apalepa Jin "so -palepa patito jarāgharo" at Th 2, 270 is to be read as "so palepa*". Morris's interpret. J.Pāli Text Society 1886, 126 therefore superfluous.

Apalokana (nt.) [from apaloketi] permission, leave, in *kamma proposal of a resolution, obtaining leave (see kamma I.3) Vin II.89; IV.152.

Apalokita [pp. of apaloketi; Sanskrit avalokita] 1. asked permission, consulted S III.5. - 2. (nt.) permission, consent, M I.337 (Nāga-palokitaṃ apalokesi). - 3. (nt.) an Ep. of Nibbāna S IV.370.

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Apalokin (adj.) [Sanskrit avalokin] "looking before oneself", looking at, cautious Miln 398.

Apaloketi [BSanskrit ava-lokayati] 1. to look ahead, to look before, to be cautious, to look after M I.557 (v. l. for apaciṇāti, where J V.339 C. has avaloketi); Miln 398. 2. to look up to, to obtain permission from (acc.), to get leave, to give notice of Vin III.10, 11; IV.226 (anapaloketvā = anāpucchā), 267 (+ āpucchitvā); M I.337; S III.95 (bhikkhusanghaṃ anapaloketvā without informing the Sangha); J VI.298 (vājānaṃ); DhA I.67. -pp. apalokita (q. v.). See also apalokana and *lokin.

Apavagga [Sanskrit apavarga] completion, end, final delivery, Nibbāna; in phrase sagga-pavagga Dāvs II.62; III.75.

Apavattati [apa + vrt, cp. Latin āverto] to turn away or aside, to go away J IV.347 (v. l. apasakkati).

Apavadati [apa + vadati] to reproach, reprove, reject, despise D I.122 ( = paṭikkhipati DA I.290); S V.118 (+ paṭikkosati).

Apavahati [apa + vahati] to carry or drive away; Causative apavāheti to remove, give up Miln 324 (kaddamaṃ).

Apaviṭṭha at Pv III 82 is to be read apaviddha (q. v.).

Apaviṇāti is probably misreading for apaciṇāti (see apac* 2). As v. l. at J V.339 (anapavinanto) for T. anupacinanto (explained. by avaloketi C.). Other vv. ll. are anuvi* and apavī*; meaning "not paying attention". The positive form we find as apavīṇati "to take care of, to pay attention to" (c. acc.) at M I.324, where Trenckner unwarrantedly assumes a special root veṇ (see Notes p. 781), but the vv. ll. to this passage (see M. I.557) with apavīṇāti and apacinati confirm the reading apaciṇāti, as does the gloss apaloketi.

Apaviddha [pp. of apavijjhati, Vedic apa + vyadh] thrown away, rejected, discarded, removed S I.202; III.143; Sn 200 (susānasmiṃ = chaḍḍita SnA 250); Th 1, 635 = Dh 292 ( = chaḍḍita DhA III.452); Pv III.82 (susānasmiṃ; so read for T. apaviṭṭha); J I.255; III.426; YI.90 ( = chaḍḍita C.). Sdhp 366.

Apaviyūhati see appabbūhati.

Apavīṇati see apaviṇāti ( = apaciṇāti).

Apavyāma [apa + vyāma] disrespect, neglect, in phrase apayvāmato (apaby*) karoti to treat disrespectfully, to insult, defile S I.226 (v. l. abyāmato; C. expls. apabyāmato karitvā abyāmato katvā); Kvu 472 (vv. ll. asabyākato, abyāto, apabyāto; Kvu trsl. 270 n. 1 remarks: "B. trsl.: abyāsakato. The Burmese scholar U. Pandi, suggests we should read apabyākato, by which he understands blasphemously"; it is here combined. with niṭṭhubhati, as at DhA II.36); DhA II.36 ("want of forbearance" Ed.; doubtful reading; vv. ll. appabyāyakamma and apasāma). For further detail see apasavya.

Apasakkati [apa + sakkati] to go away, to go aside J IV.347 (v. l. for apavattati); VvA 101; PvA 265 (aor. *sakki = apakkami).

Apasavya (adj.) [apa + savya] right (i. e. not left), contrary Ud 50 (T. has niṭṭhubhitvā abyāmato karitvā; vv. ll. are apabhyāmāto, abhyāmato and C. apasabyāmato), where C. expls. apasabyāmato karitvā by apasabyaṃ katvā, "which latter corresponds in form but not in meaning to Sanskrit apasavyaṃ karoti to go on the right side" (Morris J P T S. 1886, 127). - See apavyāma.

Apasāda [from apa + sad] putting down, blame, disparagement M III.230.

Apasādita [pp. of apasādeti] blamed, reproached, disparaged S II.219; SnA 541.

Apasādeti [Causative of apa + sad] 1. to refuse, decline Vin IV.213, 263; J V.417 ( = uyyojeti). - 2. to depreciate, blame, disparage Vin III.101; M III.230 (opp. ussādeti); DA I.160. -pp. apasādita (q. v.).

Apasmāra [Sanskrit apasmāra, lit. want of memory, apa + smr] epilepsy, convulsion, fit J IV.84. Cp. apamāra.

Apassanto etc. see passati.

Apassaya [cp. Sanskrit apāshraya, from apasseti] 1. support, rest ThA 258. - 2. bed, bolstereotype mattress, in kaṇṭak.r a mattress of thorns, a bolstereotypefilled with thorns (as cushion for asceties) M I.78; J I 493; III.235. -sa-ppassaya with a head rest J IV.299. -pīṭhaka a chair with a head-rest J III.235.

Apassayika (adj.) [from apassaya; cp. Sanskrit apāshrayin -*] reclining on, in kaṇṭaka* one who lies on a bed of thorns (see kaṇṭaka) M I.78; J IV.299 (v. l, kaṇḍikesayika); Pug 55.

Apassita [pp. of apasseti] 1. leaning against J II.69 (tālamūlaṃ = nissāya ṭhita C.). - 2. depending on, trusting in (c. acc. or loc.) Vv 101 (para-gāraṃ = nissita VvA 101); J IV.25 (balamhi = balanissita). See also avassita.

Apasseti [Sanskrit apāshrayati, apa + ā + sri] to lean against, have a support in (acc.), to depend on. - 1. (lit.) lean against Vin II.175 (bhitti apassetabbo the wall to be used as a head-rest). - 2. (fig.) mostly in ger. apassāya dependent upon, depending on, trusting in (loc. or acc. or -*) Vin III.38; J I.214; PvA 189. -pp. apassita (q. v.). - See also avasseti.

Apassena (nt.) [from apasseti] a rest, support, dependence M III.127 (*ka); D III.224 (cattāri apassenāni); as adj. catura-passena one who has the fourfold support viz. sankhāy- ekaṃ paṭisevati, adhivāseti, parivajjeti, vinodeti A V.30. -phalaka (cp. Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1884, 71) a bolstereotypelab, head-rest Vin I.48; II.175, 209.

Apahattar [n. ag. to apaharati] one who takes away or removes, destroyer M I 447 = Kvu 528.

Apahara [Sanskrit apahāra, from apaharati] taking away, stealing, robbing J II.34.

Apaharaṇa (nt.) = apahara Miln 195.

Apaharati [apa + hr] to take away, remove, captivate, rob J III.315 (aor. apahārayiṃ); Miln 413; DA I.38.

Apākaṭatā (f.) [a + pākaṭa + tā] unfitness Miln 232 (v. l. apākatatta perhaps better).

Apākatika (adj.) [a + pākata + ika] not in proper or natural shape, out of order, disturbed DhA II.7. Cp. appakāra.

Apācīna (adj.) [Vedic apācīna; cp. apāca* and apāka, westereotype; to Latin opācus, orig. turned away (from the east or the sun) i. e. opposite, dark] westereotypey, backward, below S III.84; It 120 (apācīnaṃ used as adv. and taking here the place of adho in combination. with uddhaṃ tiriyaṃ; the reading is a conjecture of Windisch's, the vv. ll. are apācinaṃ; apācini, apāci and apāminaṃ, C. expls. by heṭṭhā).

Apāṭuka (adj.) [a + pātu + ka (*), acc. to Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1893, 7 der. from apaṭu not sharp, blunt, uncouth. This is hardly correct. See pātur] not open, sly, insidious Th 1, 940 (as v. l. for T. avāṭuka, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "unscrupulous", by Neumann as "ohne Redlichkeit"). Context suggests a meaning similar to the preceding nekatika, i. e. fraudulent. See also next.

Apāṭubha (adj.) [a + pātu + bha (*), at the only passage changed by Morris J. Pāli T. S. 1893, 7 to apāṭuka but

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without reason] = apāṭuka, i. e. sly, fraudulent J IV.184 (in context with nekatika; C. expls. apāṭubhāva dhanuppāda-virahita, in which latter virahita does not fit in; the pass. seems corrupt).

Apāda (*) [apa + ā + dā] giving away in marriage J IV. 179 (in explination. of anāpāda unmarried; reading should prob. be āpāda = pariggaha).

Apādaka (adj.) [a + pāda + ka] not having feet, footless, creeping, Ep. of snakes and fishes Vin II.110 = J II.146 (where see explination.). Spelt apada(ka) at It 87 (v. l. apāda).

Apāna (nt.) breathing out, respiration (so Ch.; no reference in Pāli Canon*) On Prāṇa and Apāna see G. W. Brown in J. Am. Or. Soc. 39, 1919 pp. 104-112. See ānāpāna.

Apānakatta (nt.) [a + pānaka + ttaṃ] "waterless state", living without drinking water J V.243.

Apāpaka (adj.) [a + pāpaka] guiltless, innocent f. *ikā Vv 314; 326.

Apāpata (adj.) [apa + ā + pata] falling down into (c. acc.) J IV.234 (aggiṃ).

Apāpurana (nt.) [from apāpurati] a key (to a door) Vin I.80; III.119; M III.127. See also avāpuraṇa.

Apāpurati and Apāpuṇati [Sanskrit apāvrṇoti, apa + ā + vr, but Vedic only apa-vrṇoti corresponding to Latin aperio = *apa-*erio. On form see Trenckner, Notes 63] to open (a door) Vin I.5 (apāpur- etaṃ Amatassa dvāraṃ: imper.; where id. p. S I.137 has avāpur*, T., but v. l. apāpur*); Vv 6427 (apāpuranto Amatassa dvāraṃ, explained. at VvA 284 by vivaranto); It 80 (apāvuṇanti A. dv. as T. conj., with v. l. apānu*anti, apāpurenti and apāpuranti). -pp. apāruta (q. v.). - Pass. apāpurīyati [cp. BSanskrit apāvurīyati M Vastu II.158] to be opened M III.184 (v. l. avā*); J I.63 (avā*); Th 2, 494 (apāpuṇitvā). See also avāpurati.

Apābhata [pp. of apa + ā + bhr cp. Vedic apa-bharati, but Latin aufero to ava*] taken away, stolen J III.54.

Apāya [Sanskrit apāya, from apa + i, cp. apeti] "going away" viz. - 1. separation, loss Dh 211 (piya* = viyoga DhA III.276). - 2. loss (of property) D III.181, 182; A II. 166; IV.283; J III.387 (atth*). - 3. leakage, out flow (of water) D I.74; A II.166; IV.287. - 4. lapse, falling away (in conduct) D I.100. - 5. a transient state of loss and woe after death. Four such states are specified purgatory (niraya), rebirth as an animal, or as a ghost, or as a Titan (Asura). Analogous expressions are vinipāta and duggati. All combined at D I.82; III.111; A I.55; It 12, 73; Nd2 under kāya; and frequent elsewhere. - apāyaduggativinipāta as attr. of saŋsāra S II.92, 232; IV.158, 313; V.342; opp. to khīṇa-pāya-duggati-vinipāta of an Arahant A IV.405; V.182 sq. - See also following pass.: M III.25 (anapāya); Sn 231; Th 2, 63; J IV.299; Pug 51; VvA 118 (opp. sugati); PvA 103; Sdhp 43, 75 and cp. niraya, duggati, vinipāta. -gāmin going to ruin or leading to a state of suffering DhA III.175; cp. *gamanīya id. Ps. I.94, *gamanīyatā J IV.499. -mukha "facing ruin", leading to destruction ( = vināsa-mukha DA I.268), usually as nt. "cause of ruin" D I.101 (cattāri apāya mukhāni); III.181, 182 (cha bhogānaṃ a* -mukhāni, i. e. causes of the loss of one's possessions); A II.166; IV.283, 287. -samudda the ocean of distress DhA III 432. -sahāya a spendthrift companion D III.185.

Apāyika (adj.) [also as āpāyika (q. v.); from apāya] belonging to the apāyas or states of misery D I.103; III.6, 9, 12; It 42; PvA 60 (dukkha).

Apāyin (adj.) [from apāya] going away J I.163 (aḍḍharattāv-apāyin = aḍḍharatte apāyin C.). -an* not going away, i. e. constantly following (chāyā anapāyinī, the shadow) Dh 2; Th 1, 1041; Miln 72.

Apāra (nt.) [a + pāra] 1. the near bank of a river J III.230 (+ atiṇṇaṃ, C. paratīraṃ atiṇṇaṃ). - 2. (fig.) not the further shore (of life), the world here, i.e. (opp. pāraṃ = Nibbāna) Sn 1129, 1130; Nd2 62; Dh 385 (explained. as bāhirāni cha āyatanāni DhA IV.141). See pāra and cp. avara.

Apāraṇeyya (adj.) [grd. of paraneti + a*] that which cannot be achieved, unattainable J VI.36 ( = apāpetabba).

Apāruta [Sanskrit apāvrta, pp. of apāpurati] open (of a door) Vin I.7 = M I.169 (apārutā tesaŋ Amatassa dvārā); D I.136 ( = vivaṭa-dvāra DA I.297); J I.264 (*dvāra).

Apālamba ["a Vedic term for the hinder part of a carriage" Morris J P T S. 1886, 128; the "Vedic" unidentified] a mechanism to stop a chariot, a safe guard "to prevent warriors from falling out" (C.) S I.33 (Mrs Rh. D. trsl. "leaning board"); J VI.252 (v. l. upā*; Kern trsl. "remhout", i. e. brake).

Apāhata [pp. of apa + hr] driven off or back, refuted, refused Sn 826 (*smiṃ = apasādite vade SnA 541).

Api (indecl.) [Sanskrit api and pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind, o)pi/ssa back = close at one's heels); Latin ob. in certain functions; Goth. iftuma. The assimilated form before vowels is app- ( = Sanskrit apy-). See further details under pi.] both prep. and conj., orig. meaning "close by", then as prep. "towards, to, on to, on" and as adv. "later, and, moreover". - 1 (prep. and prefix) (a) prep. c. loc.: api ratte later on in the night (q. v.) - (b) prefix: apidhāna putting on to; api'ahati bind on to, apihita ( = Gr. e)piqeto/s, epithet) put on to, (q. v.). - 2. (conj. and part.). (a) in affirmative sentences meaning primarily "moreover, further, and then, even": - (a) (single) prothetic: api dibbesu kāmesu even in heavenly joys Dh 187; ko disvā na pasīdeyya api kaṇha-bhijātiko even an unfortunate-born Sn 563 api yojanāni gacchāma, even for leagues we go Pv IV.107 ( = anekāni yojanāni pi g. PvA 270. Epithetic (more frequent in the form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dh 106, 107; aham api daṭṭhukāmo I also wish to see Sn 685. Out of prothetic use ( = even = even if) develops the conditional meaning of "if", as in api sakkuṇemu (and then we may = if we may) J V.24 (c. = api nāma sakkuṇeyyāma; see further under b app-eva nāma). - api-api in correlation corresponds to Latin et-et Sk ca-ca, meaning both . . . and, and . . . as well as, and is esp. frequent in combination. app' ekacce . . . app' ekacce (and) some . . . and others, i. e. some . . . others [not with Kern Toev. s. v. to appa!], e. g. at D I.118; Th 2, 216; VvA 208, etc. -app' ekadā "morever once" = sometimes Vin IV.178; S I.162; IV.111; J I.67; DhA III.303, etc. - (b) (in combination with other emphatic or executive particles) api ca further, and also, moreover D I.96; Miln 25, 47. -api ca kho moreover, and yet, still, all the same It 89 (+ pana v. l.); Miln 20, 239. -api ca kho pana all the same, never mind, nevertheless J I.253. -api ssu so much so Vin II.76. -app' eva nāma (with pot.) (either) surely, indeed, yes, I reckon, (or) I presume, it is likely that, perhaps Vin I.16 (surely); II.85 (id.); cp. pi D I.205 (sve pi upasaŋkameyyāma tomorrow I shall surely come along), 226 (siyā thus shall it be); M I.460 = It 89 (moreover, indeed); J I.168 (surely) Vin II.262 (perhaps) J V.421 (id., piyavācaṃ labheyyāma). - (b) in interrog.-dubit. sentences as part. of interrog. (w. indic. or pot.) corresponding to Latin nonne, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer ("not, not then"): api Yasaŋ kulaputtaṃ passeyya do you not see . . . Vin I.16; api samaṇa balivadde addasā have you not then seen . . . S I.115; api kiñci labhāmase shall we then not get anything* J III.26; api me pitaraṃ passatha do you then not see my father* PvA 38. - Also combined. with other interr. part. e. g. api nu J. II.415.

Apitika (adj.) [a + pitika] fatherless J V.251.

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Apithīyati [for apidhīyati; api + dhā] Pass. of apidahati to be obstructed, covered, barred, obscured J II.158. See also pithīyati.

Apidahati [api + dhā, cp. Gr. e)piti(qhmi] to put on (see api 1 b), to cover up, obstruct, J V.60 (inf. apidhetuṃ). pp. apihita, Pass. apithīyati, Der. apidhāna (q. v.).

Apidhāna (nt.) [Vedic apidhāna in same meaning] cover, lid Vin I.203, 204; II.122. See apidahati.

Apiratte [read api ratte, see api 1 a] later in the night J VI.560.

Apilāpana (nt.) [from api + lap] counting up, repetition [Kern, Toev, s.v. gives der. from a + plāvana] Nett 15, 28, 54; Miln 37.

Apilāpanatā (f.) in the pass. at Dhs 14 = Nd2 628 is evidently meant to be taken as a + pilāpana + tā (from pilavati, plu), but whether the der. and interpret. of Dhs A is correct, we are unable to say. On general principles it looks like popular etymology Mrs. Rh. D. translates (p. 16) "opposite of superficiality" (lit "not floating"); see her detailed note Dhs trsl. 16.

Apilāpeti [api + lap] "to talk close by", i. e. to count up, recite, or: talk idly, boast of Miln 37 (sāpatheyyaṃ).

Api'andha (adj.) at Vv 361 should be read as api'addha ( = Sanskrit apinaddha) pp. of api'andhati (api'andhati) "adorned with", or (with v. l. SS) as api'andhana; VvA 167 expls. by analankata, mistaking the a of api for a negation.

Api'andhana (nt.) [from api'andhati, also in shorter (and more usual) form pi'andhana, q. v.] that which is tied on, i.e. band, ornament, apparel, parure Vv 6410, 6418 (explained. inacurately at VvA 279 by; a-kāro nipātamattaṃ, pilandhanaṃ = ābhāraṇaṃ); J VI.472 (c. pilandhituṃ pi ayuttaṃ*).

Api'ahati and Api'andhati [Sanskrit apinahyati, on n: ' see note on gala, and cp. guṇa: gu'a, veṇu: veḷu etc. On ndh for yh see avanandhati] to tie on, fasten, bind together; to adorn oneself with (acc.) J V.400 (ger. api'ayha = pi'andhitvā C.) - Cp. api'andhana and pp apiladdha.

Apiha (adj.) [apihālu* a + piha, uncertain origin, see next. Morris J.PāliI.S. 1886 takes it as a + sprha] "unhankering" (Mrs Rh. D.) S I 181 (+ akankha; v. l. BB asita).

Apihālu (adj.) [a + pihālu, analysed by Fausboll Sn. Gloss. p. 229 as a-sprhayālu, but Bdhgh evidently different (see below)] not hankering, free from craving, not greedy S I.187 = Th 1, 1218 (akuhako nipako apihālu); Sn 852 (+ amaccharin, explained. at SnA 549 as apihana-sīlo, patthanātanhāya rahito ti vuttaṃ hoti, thus perhaps taking it as a + pi ( = api) + hana (from dhā, cp. pidahati and pihita); cp. also Nd2 227).

Apihita [pp. of apidahati] covered J IV.4.

Apuccaṇḍatā (f.) [a + pūti + aṇḍa + tā] "not being a rotten egg," i. e. normal state, healthy birth, soundness M I.357.

Apuccha (adj.) [a + pucchā] "not a question", i. e. not to be asked Miln 316.

Apekkha (adj.) [ = apekkhā] waiting for, looking for S I.122 (otāra*).

Apekkhati 1. [Sanskrit apīk.sate, apa + īks.] to desire, long for, look for, expect Sn 435 (kāme n-a-pekkhate cittaṃ), 773 (ppr. apekkhamāna); J IV.226 (id.); Dhs A 365. anapekkhamāna paying no attention to (acc.) Sn 59; J V.359. 2. [Sanskrit avīk.sate, ava + īks.; see avekk.rati] to consider, refer to, look at, ger. apekkhitvā (cp. Sanskrit avīks.ya) with reference to VvA 13. -pp. apekkhita (q. v.).

Apekkhavant (adj.) [from apekkhā] full of longing or desire, longing, craving Vin IV.214; S III.16; Th 1, 558; J V.453 ( = sataṇha); Sn A 76.

Apekkhā and Apekhā (f.) [Sanskrit apeks.ā, from apa + īks.. The spelling is either kkh or kh, they are both used promiscuously, a tendency towards kh prevailing, as in upekhā, sekha] attention, regard, affection for (loc.); desire, longing for (c. loc.) S I.77; III.132; V.409 (mātā-pitusu); Vin IV.214; Sn 38 ( = vuccati taṇhā etc. Nd2 65; = taṇhā sineha SnA 76); J I.9, 141; Th 1, 558; Dh 345 (puttesu dāresu ca = taṇhā DhA IV.56); Dhs 1059, 1136 ( = ālayakaraṇa-vasena apekkhatī ti apekkhā Dhs A 365, cp. Dhs trsl. 279). Freq. as adj. (-*or in combination. with sa* and an*), viz. Vin III.90 (visuddha*); S I.122 (otara*); sa* A III.258, 433; IV.60 sq.; an* without consideration, regardless, indifferent S V.164; A III.252, 347, 434; Sn 200 (anapekkhā honti ñātayo); J I.9. Cp. anapekkhin and apekkhavant; also B.Sanskrit avek.satā.

Apekkhita [pp. of apekkhati] taken care of, looked after, considered J VI.142, 149 ( = olokita C.).

Apekkhin (adj.) [Sanskrit, but B.Sanskrit, e.g. Jtm 215; from apa + īks.] considering, regarding, expecting, looking for; usually negative an* indifferent (against) = loc.) S I.16, 77; II.281; III.19, 87; Sn 166 (kāmesu), 823 (id.), 857; Dh 346. Cp. apekkhavant.

Apeta (adj.) [pp. of apeti] gone away; (med.) freed of, rid of, deprived of (instr., abl. or *-) Dh 9 (damasaccena); PvA 35 (dukkhato); usually *- in sense of "without, -less", e. g. apeta-kaddama free from mud, stainless Dh 95; *vattha without dress J V.16; *viññāṇa without feeling, senseless Dh 41; Th 2, 468; *viññāṇattaṃ senselessness, lack of feeling PvA 63.

Apetatta (nt.) [abstr. to apeta] absence (of) PvA 92.

Apeti [apa + i, cp. Gr. a)/peimi, Latin abeo, Goth. af-iddja] to go away, to disappear D I.180 (upeti pi apeti pi); J I.292; Sn 1143 ( = n- apagacchanti na vijahanti Nd2 66). -pp. apeta (q. v.).

Apetteyyatā (f.) [a + petteyyatā, abstr. from *paitrya fatherly] in combination. with amatteyyatā irreverence against father and mother D III.70 (cp. Dh 332 and DhA IV.34).

Apeyya (adj.) [a + peyya, grd. of pā] not to be drunk, not drinkable J VI.205 (sāgara).

Apesiya (nt.) [* of uncertain origin] a means of barring a door Vin II.154 (Bdhgh. explinations on p. 321: apesī ti dīghadārumhi khāṇuke pavesetvā kaṇḍaka-sākhāhi vinandhitvā kataṃ dvāra-tthakanakaṃ).

Apesiyamāna (adj.) [ppr. from a + peseti (q. v.)] not being in service Vin II.177.

App' in app- ekacce etc. see api.

Appa (adj.) [Vedic alpa, cp. Gr. a)lapa/zw (lapa/zw) to empty (to make little), a)lapadno/s weak; Lith. alpnas weak, alpst.s to faint] small, little, insignificant, often in the sense of "very little = (next to) nothing" (so in most compounds); thus explained. at VvA 334 as equivalent to a negative part. (see appodaka) D I.61 (opp. mahant, DA I.170 = parittaka); Sn 713, 775, 805, 896 ( = appaka, omaka, thoka, lamaka, jatukka, parittaka Nd1 306); Dh 174; J I.262; Pug 39. - nt. appaṃ a little, a small portion, a trifle; pl. appāni small things, trifles A II.26 = It 102; A II.138; Dh 20 ( = thokaṃ eka-vagga-dvi-vagga-mattam pi DhA I.158), 224 (*smiṃ yācito asked for little), 259. -aggha of little value (opp. mahaggha priceless) J I.9; Pug 33; DhA IV.184. -assāda [BSanskrit alpa-svāda, cp. Divy 224 = Dh 186; alpa + ā + svād] of little taste or enjoyment, affording little pleasure (always used of kāmā) Vin II.25 = M I.130 = A III.97 = Nd2 71; Sn 61; Dh

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186 ( = supina-sadisatāya paritta-sukha DhA III 240); Th 2, 358 ( = ThA 244); J II.313; Vism 124. -ātanka little (or no) illness, freedom from illness, good health ( = appābādha with which often combined.) [BSanskrit alpātanka and alpātankatā] D I.204 (+ appābādha); III.166; A III.65, 103; Miln 14. -ābādha same as appātanka (q. v.) D I.204; III.166, 237; M II.125; A I.25; II.88; III.30, 65 sq., 103, 153; Pv IV.144; *ābādhatā id. [cp. BSanskrit alpābādhatā good health] A I.38. -āyuka short lived D I.18; PvA 103, also as *āyukin Vv 416. -āhāra taking little or no food, fasting M II.5; Sn 165 ( = ekāsana-bhojitāya ca parimita-bhojitāya ca SnA 207), also as *āhāratā M I.245; II.5. -odaka having little or no water, dry Sn 777 (macche va appodake khīṇasote = parittodake Nd1 50); Vv 843 (+ appabhakkha; explained. at VvA 334 as "appa-saddo h- ettha abhāvattho appiccho appanigghoso ti ādisu viya"); J I.70; DhA IV.12. -kasira in instr. *kasirena with little or no difficulty D I.251; S V.51; Th 1, 16. -kicca having few duties, free from obligations, free from care Sn 144 ( = appaṃ kiccaṃ assā ti KhA 241). -gandha not smelling or having a bad smell Miln 252 (opp. sugandha). -ṭṭha "standing in little"; i. e. connected with little trouble D I.143; A I.169. -thāmaka having little or no strength, weak S IV.206. -dassa having little knowledge or wisdom Sn 1134 (see Nd2 69; explained. by paritta-pañña SnA 605). -nigghosa with little sound, quiet, still, soundless (cp. VvA 334, as quoted above under *odaka) A V.15 (+ appasadda); Sn 338; Nd1 377; Miln 371. -pañña, of little wisdom J II.166; III.223, 263. -puñña of little merit M II.5. -puññatā having little merit, unworthiness Pv IV.107. -phalatā bringing little fruit PvA 139. -bhakkha having little or nothing to eat Vv 843. -bhoga having little wealth, i. e. poor, indigent Sn 114 ( = sannicitānaṃ ca bhogānaṃ āyamukhassa ca abhāvato SnA 173). -maññati to consider as small, to underrate: see separately. -matta little, slight, mean, (usually as *ka; not to be confounded with appamatta2) A III.275; J I.242; also meaning "contented with little" (of the bhikkhu) It 103 = A II.27; f. *ā trifle, smallness, insignificance D I.91; DA I.55. -mattaka small, insignificant, trifling, nt. a trifle (cp. *matta) Vin 1, 213; II.177 (*vissajjaka the distributor of little things, cp. A III.275 and Vin IV.38, 155); D I.3 ( = appamattā etassā ti appamattakaṃ DA I.55); J I.167; III.12 ( = aṇu); PvA 262. -middha "little slothful", i. e. diligent, alert Miln 412. -rajakkha having little or no obtuseness D II.37; M I.169; Sdhp 519. -ssaka having little of one's own, possessing little A I.261; II.203. -sattha having few or no companious, lonely, alone Dh 123. -sadda free from noise, quiet M II.2, 23, 30; A V.15; Sn 925 ( = appanigghosa Nd1 377); Pug 35; Miln 371. -siddhika bringing little success or welfare, dangerous J IV.4 ( = mandasiddhi vināsabahula C.); VI.34 (samuddo a. bahu-antarāyiko). -ssuta possessing small knowledge, ignorant, uneducated D I.93 (opp. bahussuta); III.252, 282; S IV.242; It 59; Dh 152; Pug 20, 62; Dhs 1327. -harita having little or no grass S I.169; Sn p. 15 ( = paritta-harita-tiṇa SnA 154).

Appaka (adj.) [appa + ka] little, small, trifling; pl. few. nt. *ṃ adv. a little D II.4; A V.232 sq., 253 sq.; Sn 909 (opp. bahu); Dh 85 (appakā = thokā na bahū DhA II. 160); Pv I.102 ( = paritta PvA 48); II.939; Pug 62; PvA 6, 60 ( = paritta). f. appikā J I.228. - instr. appakena by little, i. e. easily DA I.256. -anappaka not little, i. e. much, considerable, great; pl. many S IV.46; Dh 144; Pv I.117 ( = bahū PvA 58); PvA 24, 25 (read anappake pi for T. *appakeci; so also KhA 208).

Appakāra (adj.) [a + pakāra] not of natural form, of bad appearance, ugly, deformed J V.69 ( = sarīrappakāra-rahita dussaṇṭhāna C.). Cp. apākatika.

Appakiṇṇa [appa + kiṇṇa, although in formation also = a + pakiṇṇa] little or not crowded, not overheaped A V.15 (C. anākiṇṇa).

Appagabbha (adj.) [a + pagabbha] unobtrusive, free from boldness, modest S II.198 = Miln 389, Sn 144, 852 (cp. Nd1 228 and KhA 232); Dh 245.

Appaccaya [a + paccaya] 1. (n.) discontent, dissatisfaction, dejection, sulkiness D I.3 ( = appatītā honti tena atuṭṭhā asomanassitā ti appacayo; domanass- etaṃ adhivacanaṃ DA I.52); III.159; M I.442; A I.79, 124, 187; II.203; III.181 sq.; IV.168, 193; J II.277; Sn p. 92 (kapa + dosa + appacaya); Vv 8331 ( = domanassaŋ VvA 343); SnA 423 ( = appatītaṃ domanassaŋ). - 2. (adj.) unconditioned Dhs 1084, 1437.

Appaṭi* [a + paṭi*] see in general under paṭi*.

Appaṭikārika (adj.) [a + paṭikārika] "not providing against", i. e. not making good, not making amends for, destructive J V.418 (spelling here and in C. appati*).

Appaṭikopeti [a + paṭikopeti] not to disturb, shake or break (fig.) J V.173 (uposathaṃ).

Appaṭikkhippa (adj.) [a + paṭikkhippa, grd. of paṭikkhipati] not to be refused J II.370.

Appaṭigandhika and *iya (adj.) [a + paṭi + gandha + ika] not smelling disagreeable, i. e. with beautiful smell, scented, odorous J V.405 (*ika, but C. *iya; explained. by sugandhena udakena samannāgata); VI.518; Pv II.120; III.226.

Appaṭigha (adj.) [a + paṭigha] (a) not forming an obstacle, not injuring, unobstructive Sn 42 (see explained. at Nd2 239; SnA 88 expls. "katthaci satte vā sankhāre vā bhayena na paṭihaññatī ti a."). - (b) psychol. t. t. applied. to rūpa: not reacting or impinging (opp. sappaṭigha) D III.217; Dhs 660, 756, 1090, 1443.

Appaṭicchavi (adj.) at Pv II.113 is faulty reading for sampatitacchavi (v. l.).

Appaṭibhāga (adj) [a + paṭibhāga] not having a counterpart, unequalled, incomparable DhA I.423 ( = anuttara).

Appaṭibhāṇa (adj.) [a + paṭibhāṇa] not answering back, bewildered, cowed down Vin III.162; A III.57; *ṃ karoti to intimidate, bewilder J V.238, 369.

Appaṭima (adj.) [a + paṭima from prep. paṭi but cp. Vedic apratimāna from prati + mā] matchless, incomparable, invaluable Th 1, 614; Miln 239.

Appaṭivattiya (adj.) [a + paṭi + vattiya = vrtya, grd. or vrt] (a) not to be rolled back Sn 554 (of dhammacakka, may however be taken in meaning of b.). - (b) irresistable J II.245 (sīhanada). Note. The spelling with ṭ is only found as v. l. at J II.245; otherwise as t.

Appaṭivāṇa (nt.) [a + paṭivāṇa, for *vrāṇa, the guṇa-form of vr, cp. Sanskrit prativāraṇa] non-obstruction, not hindering, not opposing or contradicting A I.50; III.41; V.93 sq.; adj. J I.326.

Appaṭivāṇitā (f.) [abstr. from (ap)paṭivāṇa] not being hindered, non-obstruction, free effort; only in phrase "asantuṭṭhitā ca kusalesu dhammesu appaṭivāṇitā ca padhānasmiṃ" (discontent with good states and the not shrinking back in the struggle Dhs trsl. 358) A I.50, 95 = D III.214 = Dhs 1367.

Appaṭivāṇī (f.) [almost identical w. appaṭivāṇitā, only used in different phrase] non-hindrance, non-restriction, free action, impulsive effort; only in stock phrase chando vāyāmo ussāho usso'hī appaṭivāṇī S II.132; V.440; A II.93, 195; III.307 sq.; IV.320; Nd2 under chanda C. [cp. similarly Divy 654].

Appaṭivāṇīya (adj.) [grd. of a + paṭi + vr; cp. BSanskrit aprativāṇi* Divy 655; M Vastu III.343] not to be obstructed, irresistible S I.212 (applied. to Nibbāna; Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 274 translations. "that source from whence there is no turning back"), Th 2, 55.

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Appaṭividdha (adj.) [a + paṭi + viddha] "not shot through" i. e. unhurt J VI.446.

Appaṭivibhatta (*bhogin) (adj.) [a + paṭi + vibhatta] (not eating) without sharing with others (with omission of another negative: see Trenckner, Miln p. 429, where also Bdhgh's explination.) A III289; Miln 373; cp. Miln trsl. II.292.

Appaṭivekkhiya [ger. of a + paṭi + avekkhati] not observing or noticing J IV.4 ( = apaccavekkhitvā anavekkhitvā C.).

Appaṭisankhā (f.) [a + paṭisankhā] want of judgment Pug 21 = Dhs 1346.

Appaṭisandhika (and *iya) (adj.) [a + paṭisandhi + ka (ya)] 1. what cannot be put together again, unmendable, irreparable (*iya) Pv I.129 ( = puna pākatiko na hoti PvA 66) = J III.167 ( = paṭipākatiko kātuṃ na sakkā C.). 2. incapable of reunion, not subject to reunion, i. e. to rebirth J V.100 (*bhāva).

Appaṭisama (adj.) [a + paṭi = sama; cp. BSanskrit apratisama M Vastu I.104] not having it's equal, incomparable J I.94 (Baddha-sirī).

Appaṭissavatā (f.) [a + paṭissavatā] want of deference Pug 20 = Dhs 1325.

Appaṇihita (adj.) [a + paṇihita] aimless, not bent on anything, free from desire, usually as nt. aimlessness, combined. w. animittaṃ Vin III.92, 93 = IV.25; Dhs 351, 508, 556. See on term Cpd.67; Dhs trsl. 93, 143 and cp. paṇihita.

Appatiṭṭha (adj.) [a + patiṭṭha] 1. not standing still S I.1. - 2. without a footing or ground to stand on, bottomless Sn 173.

Appatissa (and appaṭissa) (adj.) [a + paṭi + shru] not docile, rebellious, always in combination. with agārava A II.20; III.7 sq., 14 sq., 247, 439. Appatissa-vāsa an unruly state, anarchy J II.352. See also paṭissā.

Appatīta (adj.) [a + patīta, of prati + i, Sanskrit pratīta] dissatisfied, displeased, disappointed (cp. appaccaya) J V.103 (at this passage preferably to be read with v. l. as appatika = without husband, C. expls. assāmika), 155 (cp. C. on p. 156); DA I.52; SnA 423.

Appaduṭṭha (adj.) [a + paduṭṭha] not corrupt, faultless, of good behaviour Sn 662 ( = padosa-bhāvena a. SnA 478); Dh 137 ( = niraparādha DhA III.70).

Appadhaṃsa (adj.) [ = appadhaṃsiya, Sanskrit apradhvaṃsya] not to be destroyed J IV.344 (v. l. duppadhaṃsa).

Appadhaṃsika (and *iya) (adj.) [grd. of a + padhaṃseti] not to be violated or destroyed, inconquerable, indestructible D III.175 (*ika, v. l. *iya); J III.159 (*iya); VvA 208 (*iya); PvA 117 (*iya). Cp. appadhaṃsa.

Appadhaṃsita (adj.) [pp. of a + padhaṃseti] not violated, unhurt, not offended Vin IV.229.

Appanā (f.) [cp. Sanskrit arpaṇa, abstr. from appeti = arpayati from of r, to fix, turn, direct one's mind; see appeti] application (of mind), ecstasy,fixing of thought on an object, conception (as psychol. t. t.) J II.61 (*patta); Miln 62 (of vitakka); Dhs 7, 21, 298; Vism 144 (*samādhi); DhsA 55, 142 (def. by Bdhg. as "ekaggaṃ cittaṃ ārammaṇe appeti"), 214 (*jhāna). See on term Cpd.pp. 56 sq., 68, 129, 215; Dhs trsl. XXVIII, 10, 53, 82, 347.

Appabhoti (Appahoti) see pahoti.

Appamaññati [appa + maññati] to think little of, to underrate, despise Dh 121 ( = avajānāti DhA III.16; v. l. avapamaññati).

Appamaññā (f.) [a + pamaññā, abstr. from pamāṇa = Sanskrit *pramānya] boundlessness, infinitude, as psych. t. t. applied. in later books to the four varieties of philanthropy, viz. mettā karuṃā muditā upekkhā i. e. love, pity, sympathy, desinterestedness, and as such enumerated at D III.223 (q. v. for detailed reference as to var. passages); Ps I.84; Vbh 272 sq.; DhsA 195. By itself at Sn 507 ( = mettajjhānasankhātā a. SnA 417). See for further explination. Dhs trsl. p. 66 and mettā.

Appamatta1 (adj.) [appa + matta] see appa.

Appamatta2 (adj.) [a + pamatta, pp. of pamadati] not negligent, i. e. diligent, careful, heedful, vigilant, alert, zealous M I.391-92; S I.4; Sn 223 (cp. KhA 169), 507, 779 (cp. Nd1 59); Dh 22 (cp. DhA I.229); Th 2, 338 = upaṭṭhitasati Th A 239).

Appamāda [a + pamāda] thoughtfulness, carefulness, conscientiousness, watchfulness, vigilance, earnestness, zeal D I.13 (: a. vuccati satiyā avippavāso DA I.104); III.30, 104 sq., 112, 244, 248, 272; M I.477 (*phala); S I.25, 86, 158, 214; II.29, 132; IV.78 (*vihārin), 97, 125, 252 sq.; V.30 sq. (*sampadā), 41 sq., 91, 135, 240, 250, 308, 350; A I.16, 50. (*adhigata); III.330, 364, 449; IV.28 (*gāravatā) 120 (*ṃ garu-karoti); V.21, 126 (kusalesu dhammesu); Sn 184, 264, 334 ( = sati-avippavāsa-sankhāta a. SnA 339); It 16 (*ṃ pasaŋsanti puññakiriyāsu paṇḍitā), 74 (*vihārin); Dh 57 (*vihārin, cp. DhA I.434); 327 (*rata = satiyā avippavāse abhirata DhA IV.26); Dāvs II. 35; KhA 142.

Appamāṇa (frequent spelled appamāna) (adj.) [a + pamāṇa] 1. "without measure", immeasurable, endless, boundless, unlimited, unrestricted all-permeating S IV.186 (*cetaso); A II.73; V.63; Sn 507 (mettaṃ cittaṃ bhāvayaŋ appāmāṇaṃ = anavasesa-pharaṇena SnA 417; cp. appamaññā); It 21 (mettā), 78; J II.61; Ps II.126 sq.; Vbh 16, 24, 49, 62, 326 sq.; Dhs 182, 1021, 1024, 1405; DhsA 45, 196 (*gocara, cp. anantagocara). See also on term Dhs trsl. 60. - 2. "without difference", irrelevant, in general (in commentary style) J I.165; II.323.

Appameyya (adj.) [a + pameyya = Sanskrit aprameya, grd. of a + pra + mā] immeasurable, infinite, boundless M I.386; S V.400; A I.266; Th 1, 1089 (an*); Pug 35; Miln 331; Sdhp 338.

Appavattā (f.) [a + pavattā] the state of not going on, the stop (to all that), the non-continuance (of all that) Th 1, 767; Miln 326.

Appasāda see pasāda.

Appassāda see appa.

Appahīna (adj.) [a + pahīna, pp. of pahāyati] not given up, not renounced M I.386; It 56, 57; Nd2 70 D1; Pug 12, 18.

Appāṇaka (adj.) [a + pāṇa + ka] breathless, i. e. (1) holding one's breath in a form of ecstatic meditation (jhāna) M I.243; J I.67 [cp. BSanskrit āsphānaka Lal. V.314, 324; M Vastu II.124; should the Pāli form be taken as *a + prāṇaka*]. (2) not holding anything breathing, i. e. inanimate, lifeless, not containing life Sn p. 15 (of water).

Appikā (f.) of appaka.

Appiccha (adj.) [appa + iccha from is., cp. icchā] desiring little or nothing, easily satisfied, unassuming, contented, unpretentious S I.63, 65; A III.432; IV.2, 218 sq., 229; V.124 sq., 130, 154, 167; Sn 628, 707; Dh 404; Pv IV.73; Pug 70.

Appicchatā (f.) [abstr. from prec.] contentment, being satisfied with little, unostentatiousness Vin III.21; D III.115; M I.13; S II 202, 208 sq.; A I.12, 16 sq.; III.219 sq., 448; IV.218, 280 (opp. mahicchatā); Miln 242; SnA 494 (catubbidhā, viz. paccaya-dhutanga-pariyatti-adhigama-vasena); PvA 73. As one of the 5 dhutanga-dhammā at Vism 81.

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Appita (adj.) [pp. of appeti, cp. BSanskrit arpita, e. g. prītyarpitaṃ caks.u* Jtm 3169] 1. fixed, applied, concentrated (mind) Miln 415 (mānasa) Sdhp 233 (citta). - 2. brought to, put to, fixed on J VI.78 (maraṇamukhe); visappita (an arrow to which) poison (is) applied, so read for visap(p)īta at J V.36 and Vism 303.

Appiya and Appiyatā see piya etc.

Appekadā (adv.) see api 2 ax.

Appeti [Vedic arpayati, Causative of r, rṇoti and rcchati (cp. icchati2), Idg. *ar (to insert or put together, cp. also *er under aṇṇava) to which belong Sanskrit ara spoke of a wheel; Gr. a)rari/skw to put together, a(/rma chariot, a)/rqron limb, a)reth/ virtue; Latin arma = E. arms (i. e. weapon), artus fixed, tight, also limb, ars = art. For further connections see aṇṇava] 1. (*er) to move forward, rush on, run into (of river) Vin II.238; Miln 70. - 2. (*ar) to fit in, fix, apply, insert, put on to (lit. and fig.) Vin II.136, 137; J III.34 (nimba-sūlasmiṃ to impale, C. āvuṇāti); VI.17 (T. sūlasmiṃ acceti, vv. ll. abbeti = appeti and upeti, C. āvuṇati); Miln 62 (dāruṃ sandhismiṃ); VvA 110 (saññāṇaṃ). Cp. Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19, who defends reading abbeti at T. passages.

Appesakkha (adj.) [acc. to Childers = Sanskrit *alpa + īsha + ākhya, the latter from ā + khyā "being called lord of little"; Trenckner on Miln 65 (see p. 422) says: "appesakkha and mahesakkha are traditionally explained. appaparivāra and mahāparivāra, the former, I suppose, from appe and sakkha (Sanskrit sākhya), the latter an imitation of it". Thus the etymology would be "having little association or friendship" and resemble the term appasattha. The BSanskrit forms are alpeshākhya and maheshākhya, e. g. at Av. SH II. 153; Divy 243] of little power, weak, impotent S II.229; Miln 65; Sdhp 89.

Appoti [the contracted form of āpnoti, usually pāpuṇāti, from āp] to attain, reach, get Vism 350 (in etymology of āpo).

Appodaka see appa.

Appossukka (adj.) [appa + ussuka, Sanskrit alpotsuka, e. g. Lal. V. 509; Divy 41, 57, 86, 159. It is not necessary to assume a hypothetic form of *autsukya as der. from ussuka] unconcerned, living at ease, careless, "not bothering", keeping still, inactive Vin II.188; M III.175, 176; S I 202 (in stock phrase appossukka tuṇhībhūta sankasāya "living at ease, given to silence, resigned" Mrs. Rh. D. Dhs trsl. 258, see also J.Pāli Text Society 1909, 22); II. 177 (id.); IV.178 (id.); Th 2, 457 ( = nirussukka ThA 282); Sn 43 ( = abyāvaṭa anapekkha Nd2 72); Dh 330 ( = nirālaya DhA IV.31); J I.197; IV.71; Miln 371 (a. tiṭṭhati to keep still); DA I.264.

Appossukkatā (f.) [abstr. from prec.] inaction, reluctance, carelessness, indifference Vin I.5; D II.36; Miln 232; DhA II.15.

Apphuta (and apphuṭa) [Sanskrit *ā-sphrta for a-sphārita pp. of sphar, cp. phurati; phuṭa and also phusati] untouched, unpervaded, not penetrated. D I.74 = M I.276 (pītisukhena).

Apphoṭā (f.) [from appoṭeti to blossom] N. of a kind of Jasmine J VI.336.

Apphoṭita [pp. of apphoṭeti] having snapped one's fingers or clapped one's hands J II.311 (*kāle).

Apphoṭeti [ā + phoṭeti, sphuṭ] to snap the fingers or clap the hands (as sign of pleasure) Miln 13, 20. pp. apphoṭita.

Aphusa [Sanskrit *asprshya, a + grd. of phusati to touch] not to be touched Miln 157 (trsl. unchangeable by other circumstances; Tr. on p. 425 remarks "aphusāni kiriyāni seems wrong, at any rate it is unintelligible to me").

Aphegguka (adj.) [a + pheggu + ka] not weak, i. e strong J III.318.

Abaddha [a + baddha] not tied, unbound, unfettered Sn 39 (v. l. and Nd2 abandha; explained- by rajju-bandhan- ādisu yena kenaci abaddha SnA 83).

Abandha (n.-adj.) [a + bandha] not tied to, not a follower or victim of It 56 (mārassa; v. l. abaddha).

Abandhana (adj.) [a + bandhana] without fetters or bonds, unfettered, untrammelled Sn 948, cp. Nd1 433.

Ababa [of uncertain origin, prob. onomatopoetic]. N. of a cert. Purgatory, enumerated with many other similar names at A V.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. aṭaṭa, abbuda and also Av. SH I.4, 10 and see for further explination. of term SnA 476 sq.

Abala (adj.) [a + bala] not strong, weak, feeble Sn 1120 ( = dubbala, appabala, appathāma Nd2 73); Dh 29 (*assa a weak horse = dubbalassa DhA I.262; opp. sīghassa a quick horse).

Abbaje T. reading at A II.39, evidently interpreted by ed. as ā + vraje, pot. of ā + vraj to go to, come to (cp. pabbajati), but is preferably with v. l. SS to be read aṇḍaje (corresponding with vihangama in prec. line).

Abbaṇa (adj.) [a + vaṇa, Sanskrit avraṇa] without wounds Dh 124.

Abbata (n.-adj.) [a + vata, Sanskrit avrata] (a) (nt.) that which is not "vata" i. e. moral obligation, breaking of the moral obligation Sn 839 (asīlata +); Nd1 188 (v. l. SS abhabbata; explained. again as a-vatta). SnA 545 ( = dhutangavataṃ vinā. - (b) (adj.) one who offends against the moral obligation, lawless Dh 264 ( = sīlavatena ca dhutavatena ca virahita DhA III.391; vv. ll. k. adhūta and abhūta; B. abbhuta, C. abbuta).

Abbaya in uday* at Miln 393 stands for avyaya.

Abbahati (and abbuhati) [the first more frequent for pres., the second often in aor. forms; Sanskrit ābrhati, ā + brh1, pp. brḍha (see abbū'ha)] to draw off, pull out (a sting or dart); imper. pres. abbaha Th 1, 404; J II.95 (v. l. BB appuha = abbuha; C. expls. by uddharatha). - aor. abbahi J V.198 (v. l. BB abbuhi), abbahī (metri causa) J III.390 (v. l. BB dhabbu'i = abbu'hi) = Pv I.86 (which reads T. abbū'ha, but PvA 41 expls. nīhari) = DhA I.30 (vv. ll. sabbahi, sabbamhi; gloss K. B abbū'haṃ) = Vv 839 (T. abbu'hi; v. l. BB abbu'haṃ, SS avyahi; VvA 327 expls. as uddhari), and abbuhi A III.55 (v. l. abbahi, C. abbahī ti nīhari), see also vv. ll. under abbahi. - ger. abbuyha Sn 939 ( = abbuhitvā uddharitvā Nd1 419; v.l. SS abbuyhitvā; SnA 567 reads avyuyha and expls. by uddharitvā); S I.121 (taṇhaṃ); III.26 (id.; but spelt abbhuyha). -pp. abbu'ha (q. v.). - Causative abbāheti [Sanskrit ābarhayati] to pull out, drag out J IV.364 (satthaṃ abbāhayanti; v. l. abbhā*); DhA II.249 (asiṃ). ger. abbāhitvā ( = *hetvā) Vin II 201 (bhisa-mu'ālaṃ) with v. l. BB aggahetvā, SS abbūhitvā, cp. Vin I.214 (vv. ll. aggahitvā and abbāhitvā). pp. abbū'hita (q. v.).

Abbāhana (nt.) [abstr. from abbahati] pulling out (of a sting) DhA III.404 (sic. T.; v. l. abbūhana; Fausboll aḍahana; glosses C. aṭṭhangata and aṭṭhangika, K. nibbāpana). See also abbu'hana and abbhāhana.

Abbuda (nt.) [etymology unknown, orig. meaning "swelling", the Sanskrit form arbuda seems to be a trsl. of Pāli abbuda] 1. the foetus in the 1st and 2nd months after conception, the 2nd of the five prenatal stages of development, viz. kalala, abbuda, pesi, ghana, pasākha Nd1 120; Miln 40; Vism 236. - 2. a tumour, canker, sore Vin III.294, 307 (only in Samantapāsādikā; both times as sāsanassa a). - 3. a very high numeral, applied. exclusively to the denotation of a vast period of suffering in Purgatory; in this sense used as adj. of Niraya (abbudo nirayo the "vast-period"

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hell, cp. nirabbuda). S I.149 = A II.3 (chattiṃsati pañca ca abbudāni); S I.152 = A V.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. SnA 476: abbudo nāma koci pacceka-nirayo n- atthi, Avīcimhi yeva abbuda-gaṇanāya paccanokāso pana abbudo nirayo ti vutto; see also Kindred Sayings p. 190); J III.360 (sataṃ ninnahuta-sahassānaṃ ekaṃ abbudaṃ). - 4. a term used for "hell" in the riddle S I.43 (kiṃsu lokasmiṃ abhudaṃ "who are they who make a hell on earth" Mrs. Rh. D. The answer is "thieves"; so we can scarcely take it in meaning of 2 or 3. The C. has vināsa-karaṇaṃ.

Abbu'hati (*) and Abbuhati see abbahati.

Abbu'hana (nt.) [from abbahati = abbuhati (abbu'hati)] the pulling out (of a sting), in phrase taṇhā-sallassa abbu'hanaṃ as one of the 12 achievements of a Mahesi Nd1 343 = Nd2 503 (eds. of Nd1 have abbūhana, v. l. SS abbussāna; ed. of Nd2 abbu'hana, v. l. SS abbahana, BB abbuhana). Cp. abbāhana.

Abbū'ha (adj.) [Sanskrit ābrḍha, pp. of a + brh1, see abbahati] drawn out, pulled (of a sting or dart), fig. removed, destroyed. Most frequent in combination. *salla with the sting removed, having the sting (of craving thirst, taṇhā) pulled out D II.283 (v. l. SS asammū'ha); Sn 593, 779 ( = abbū'hita-salla Nd1 59; rāga-di-sallānaṃ abbū'hattā a. SnA 518); J III.390 = Vv 8310 = Pv I.87 = DhA I.30. - In other connection: M I.139 = A III.84 (*esika = taṇhā pahīnā; see esikā); Th 1, 321; KhA 153 (*soka).

Abbū'hatta (nt.) [abstr. of abbū'ha] pulling out, removal, destroying SnA 518.

Abbū'hita (and abbūhitta at J III.541) [pp. of abbāheti Causative of abbāhati] pulled out, removed, destroyed Nd1 59 (abbū'hita-sallo + uddhaṭa* etc. for abbū'ha); J III.541 (uncertain reading; v. l. BB appahita, SS abyūhita; C. expls. pupphakaṃ ṭhapitaṃ appaggharakaṃ kataṃ; should we explain as ā + vi + ūh and read abyūhita*).

Abbeti [Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19] at J III.34 and VI.17 is probably a mistake in MSS for appeti.

Abbokiṇṇa [ = abbhokiṇṇa, abhi + ava + kiṇṇa, cp. abhikiṇṇa] 1.filled M I.387 (paripuṇṇa +); DhA IV.182 (pañca jāti-satāni a.). - 2. [seems to be misunderstood for abbocchinna, a + vi + ava + chinna] uninterrupted, constant, as *ṃ adv. in combination. with satataṃ samitaṃ A IV.13 = 145; Kvu 401 (v. l. abbhokiṇṇa), cp. also Kvu trsl. 231 n. 1 (abbokiṇṇa undiluted*); Vbh 320. - 3. doubtful spelling at Vin III.271 (Bdhgh on Pārāj. III.1, 3).

Abbocchinna see abbokiṇṇa 2 and abbhochinna.

Abbohārika (adj.) [a + vi + ava + hārika of voharati] not of legal or conventional status, i. e. - (a) negligible, not to be decided Vin III.91, 112 (see also Kvu trsl. 361 n. 4). - (b) uncommon, extraordinary J III.309 (v. l. BB abbho); V.271, 286 (Kern: ineffective).

Abbha (nt.) [Vedic abhra nt. and later Sanskrit abhra m. "dark cloud"; Idg. *m*bhro, cp. Gr. a)fro\s scum, froth, Latin imber rain; also Sanskrit ambha water, Gr. o)/mbros rain, Oir ambu water]. A (dense and dark) cloud, a cloudy mass A II.53 = Vin II.295 = Miln 273 in list of to things that obscure moon- and sunshine, viz. abbhaṃ mahikā (mahiyā A) dhūmarajo (megho Miln), Rāhu. This list is referred to at SnA 487 and VvA 134. S I.101 (*sama pabbata a mountain like a thunder-cloud); J VI.581 (abbhaṃ rajo acchādesi); Pv IV.39 (nīl* = nīla-megha PvA 251). As f. abbhā at Dhs 617 and DhsA 317 (used in sense of adj. "dull"; DhsA expls. by valāhaka); perhaps also in abbhāmatta. -kūṭa the point or summit of a storm-cloud Th 1, 1064; J VI.249, 250; Vv 11 ( = valāhaka-sikhara VvA 12). -ghana a mass of clouds, a thick cloud It 64; Sn 348 (cp. SnA 348). -paṭala a mass of clouds DhsA 239. -mutta free from clouds Sn 687 (also as abbhāmutta Dh 382). -saŋvilāpa thundering S IV.289.

Abbhakkhāti [abhi + ā + khyā, cp. Sanskrit ākhyāti] to speak against to accuse, slander D I.161 = A I.161 (an-abbhakkhātu-kāma); IV.182 (id.); J IV.377. Cp. Intens. abbhācikkhati.

Abbhakkhāna (nt.) [from abbhakkhāti] accusation, slander, calumny D III.248, 250; M I.130; III.207; A III.290 sq.; Dh 139 (cp. DhA III.70).

Abbhacchādita [pp. of abhi + ā + chādeti] covered (with) Th 1, 1068.

Abbhañjati [abhi + añj] to anoint; to oil, to lubricate M I.343 (sappi-telena); S IV.177; Pug 56; DhA III.311 = VvA 68 (sata-pāka-telena). Causative abbhañjeti same J I.438 (telena *etvā); V.376 (sata-pāka-telena *ayiṃsu); Causative II. abbhanjāpeti to cause to anoint J III.372.

Abbhañjana (nt.) [from abbhañjati] anointing, lubricating, oiling; unction, unguent Vin I.205; III.79; Miln 367 (akkhassa a.); Vism 264; VvA 295.

Abbhatika (adj.) [ā + bhata + ika, bhr] brought (to), procured, got, J VI.291.

Abbhatikkanta [pp. of abhi + ati + kram, cp. atikkanta] one who has thoroughly, left behind J V.376.

Abbhatīta [pp. of abhi + ati + i, cp. atīta and atikkanta] emphatic of atīta in all meanings, viz. 1 passed, gone by S II.183 (+ atikkanta); nt. *ṃ what is gone or over, the past J III.169. - 2. passed away, dead M I.465; S IV.398; Th 1, 242, 1035. - 3. transgressed, overstepped, neglected J III.541 (saŋyama).

Abbhattha (nt.) [abhi + attha2 in acc. abhi + atthaṃ, abhi in function of "towards" = homeward, as under abhi I.1 a; cp. Vedic abhi sadhasthaṃ to the seat R. V. IX. 21. 3] = attha2, only in phrase abbhatthaṃ gacchati "to go towards home", i. e. setting; fig. to disappear, vanish, M I.115, 119; III.25; A IV.32; Miln 305; pp. abhhattangata "set", gone, disappeared Dhs 1038 (atthangata +); Kvu 576.

Abbhatthatā (f.) [abstr. from abbhatta] "going towards setting", disappearance, death J V.469.

Abbhanumodati [abhi + anu + modati] to be much pleased at to show great appreciation of Vin I.196; D I.143, 190; S IV.224; Miln 29, 210; DhA IV.102 (v. l. *ānu*).

Abbhanumodana (nt.) (and *ā f.) [from abbhanumodati] being pleased, satisfaction, thanksgiving DA I.227; VvA 52 (*ānu*); Sdhp 218.

Abbhantara (adj.) [abhi + antara; abhi here in directive function = towards the inside, in there, with-in, cp. abhi I.1 a] = antara, i. e. internal, inner, being within or between; nt. *ṃ the inner part, interior, interval (also as *-) Vin I.111 (satt* with interval of seven); A IV.16 (opp. bāhira); Dh 394 (id.); Th 1, 757 (*a-passaya lying inside); J III.395 (*amba the inside of the Mango); Miln 30 (*e vāyo jivo), 262, 281 (bāhir-abbhantara dhana); DhA II.74 (adj. c. gen. being among; v. l. abbhantare). Cases used adverbially: instr. abbhantarena in the meantime, in between DhA II.59. loc. abbhantare in the midst of, inside of, within (c. gen. or -*) J I.262 (rañño), 280 (tuyhaṃ); DhA II.64 (v. l. antare), 92 (sattavass*); PvA 48 ( = anto).

Abbhantarika (adj.-n.) [from abbhantara, cp. Sanskrit abhyantara in same meaning] intimate friend, confidant, "chum" J I.86 (+ ativissāsika), 337 ("insider", opp. bāhiraka).

Abbhantarima (adj.) [superl. formation from abbhantara in contrasting function] internal, inner (opp. bāhirima) Vin III.149; J V.38.

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Abbhākuṭika (adj.) [a + bhākuṭi + ka; Sanskrit bhrakuṭi frown] not frowning, genial Vin III.181 (but here spelt bhākuṭikabhākuṭika); D I.116, cp. DA I.287; DhA IV.8 (as v. l.; T. has abbhokuṭika).

Abbhāgata [abhi + ā + gata] having arrived or come; (m.) a guest, stranger Vv 15 ( = abhi-āgata, āgantuka VvA 24).

Abbhāgamana (nt.) [abhi + ā + gamana; cp. Sanskrit abhyāgama] coming arrival, approach Vin IV.221.

Abbhāghāta [abhi + āghāta] slaughtering-place Vin III.151 (+ āghāta).

Abbhācikkhati [Intens. of abbhākkhāti] to accuse, slander, calumniate D I.161; III.248, 250; M I.130, 368, 482; III.207; A I.161.

Abbhāna (nt.) [abhi + āyana of ā + yā (i)] coming back, rehabilitation of a bhikkhu who has undergone a penance for an expiable offence Vin I.49 (*a-raha), 53 (id.), 143, 327; II.33, 40, 162; A I.99. - Cp. abbheti.

Abbhāmatta (adj.) [abbhā + matta (*) according to the Pāli Com.; but more likely = Vedic abhva huge, enormous, monstrous, with ā metri causa. On abhva (a + bhū what is contradictory to anything that is) cp. abbhuta and abbhuṃ, and see Walde, Latin Wtb. under dubius] monstrous, dreadful, enormous, "of the size of a large cloud" (thus C. on S I.205 and J III.309) S I.205 = Th 1, 652 (v. l. abbha* and abbhāmutta) = J III.309 (v. l. *mutta).

Abbhāhata [abhi + ā + hata, pp. of han] struck, attacked, afflicted S I.40 (maccunā); Th 1, 448; Sn 581; J VI.26, 440; Vism 31, 232; DA I.140, 147; DhA IV.25.

Abbhāhana (nt.) [either = abbāhana or āvāhana] in udaka* the pulling up or drawing up of water Vin II.318 (Bdhgh. on Cullavagga V.16, 2, corresponding to udaka-vāhana on p. 122).

Abbhita [pp. of abbheti] 1. come back, rehabilitated, reinstated Vin III.186 = IV.242 (an*). - 2. uncertain reading at Pv I.123 in sense of "called" (an* uncalled), where id. p. at J III.165 reads anavhāta and at Th 2, 129 ayācita.

Abbhu [a + bhū most likely = Vedic abhva and Pāli abbhuṃ, see also abbhāmatta] unprofitableness, idleness, nonsense J V.295 ( = abhūti avaḍḍhi C.).

Abbhuṃ (interj.) [Vedic abhvaṃ, nt. of abhva, see explained. under abbhamatta. Not quite correct Morris J P T S. 1889, 201: abbhuṃ = ā + bhuk; cp also abbhuta] alas! terrible, dreadful, awful (excl. of fright and shock) Vin II. 115 (Bdhgh. expls. as "utrāsa-vacanam-etaṃ"); M I.448. See also abbhu and abbhuta.

Abbhukkiraṇa (nt.) [abhi + ud + kr] drawing out, pulling, in daṇḍa-sattha* drawing a stick or sword Nd2 5764 (cp. abbhokkiraṇa). Or is it abbhuttīraṇa (cp. uttiṇṇa outlet).

Abbhukkirati [abhi + ud + kirati] to sprinkle over, to rinse (with water) D II.172 (cakkaratanaṃ; neither with Morris J P T S. 1886, 131 "give up", nor with trsl. of J II.311 "roll along"); J V.390; PvA 75. Cp. abbhokkirati.

Abbhuggacchati [abhi + ud + gacchati] to go forth, go out, rise into D I.112, 127; A III.252 (kitti-saddo a.); Pug 36. ger. *gantvā J I 88 (ākāsaŋ), 202; DhA IV.198. aor. *gañchi M I.126 (kittisaddo); J I.93. -pp. abbhuggata.

Abbhuggata [pp. of abbhuggacchati] gone forth, gone out, risen D I.88 (kitti-saddo a., cp. DhA I.146: sadevakaṃ lokaṃ ajjhottharitvā uggato), 107 (saddo); Sn p. 103 (kittisaddo).

Abbhuggamana (nt.-adj.) [from abbhuggacchati] going out over, rising over (c. acc.) PvA 65 (candaṃ nabhaṃ abbhuggamanaṃ; so read for T. abbhuggamānaṃ).

Abbhujjalana (nt.) [abhi + ud + jalana, from jval] breathing out fire, i. e. carrying fire in one's month (by means of a charm) D I.11 ( = mantena mukhato aggi-jala-nīharaṇaṃ DA I.97).

Abbhuṭṭhāti (*ṭṭhahati) [abhi + ud + sthā] to get up to, proceed to, D I.105 (cankamaṃ).

Abbhuṇṇata [pp. of abbhunnamati] standing up, held up, erect J V.156 (in abbhuṇṇatatā state of being erect. stiffness), 197 (*unnata; v. l. abbhantara, is reading correct*).

Abbhuṇha (adj.) [ahhi + uṇha] (a) very hot DhA II.87 (v. l. accuṇha). (b) quite hot, still warm (of milk) DhA II.67.

Abbhuta1 (adj. nt.) [*Sanskrit adbhuta which appears to be constructed from the Pāli and offers like its companion *āshcarya (acchariya abbhuta see below) serious difficulties as to etymology The most probable solution is that Pāli abbhuta is a secondary adj.-formation from abbhuṃ which in itself is nt. of abbha = Vedic abhva (see etymology under abbhāmatta and cp. abbhu, abbhuṃ and J.Pāli Text Society 1889, 201). In meaning abbhuta is identical with Vedic abhva contrary to what usually happens, i. e. striking, abnormal, gruesome, horrible etc.; and that its significance as a + bhū ("unreal*") is felt in the background is also evident from the traditional etymology of the Pāli Commentators (see below). See also acchariya] terrifying, astonishing; strange, exceptional, puzzling, extraordinary, marvellous, supernormal. Described as a term of surprise and constereotypeation (vimhay- āvahass- adhivacanaṃ DA I.43 and VvA 329) and explained. as "something that is not" or "has not been before", viz. abhūtaṃ ThA 233; abhūta-pubbatāya abbhutaṃ VvA 191, 329; abhūta-pubbaṃ DA I.43. - 1. (adj.) wonderful, marvellous etc. Sn 681 (kiṃ *ṃ, combined. with lomahaṃsana); J IV.355 (id.); Th 2, 316 (abbhutaṃ vata vācaṃ bhāsasi = acchariyaṃ ThA 233); Vv 449 (*dassaneyya); Sdhp 345, 496. - 2. (nt.) the wonderful, a wonder, marvel S IV.371, also in *dhamma (see Cpd.). Very frequent in combination. with acchariyaṃ and a part. of exclamation, viz, acchariyaṃ bho abbhutaṃ bho wonderful indeed and beyond comprehension, strange and stupefying D I.206; acch. vata bho abbh. vata bho D I.60; acch. bhante abbh. A II.50; aho acch. aho abbh. J I.88; acch. vata abbh. vata Vv 8316. - Thus also in phrase acchariyā abbhutā dhammā wonderful and extraordinary signs or things M III.118, 125; A II.130; IV.198; Miln 8; and in acchariya-abbhutacitta-jāta dumbfounded and surprised J I.88; DhA IV.52; PvA 6, 50. -dhamma mystereotypeous phenomenon, something wonderful, supernormal; designation of one of the nine angas or divisions of the Buddhist Scriptures (see nava B 2) Vin III.8; M I.133; A II.103; III.86, 177; Pug 43; Miln 344; PvA 2, etc.

Abbhuta2 (nt.) [ = abbhuta1 in the sense of invoking strange powers in gambling, thus being under direct spell of the "unknown"] a bet, a wager, only in phrase abbhutaṃ karoti (sahassena) to make a bet or to bet (a thousand, i. e. kahāpaṇa's or pieces of money) Vin III.138; IV.5; J I.191; V.427; VI.192; PvA 151; and in phrase pañcahi sahassehi abbhutaṃ hotu J VI.193.

Abbhudāharati [abhi + ud + ā + harati] to bring towards, to fetch, to begin or introduce (a conversation) M II.132.

Abbhudīreti [abhi + ud + īreti] to raise the voice, to utter Th 2, 402; DA I.61; Sdhp 514.

Abbhudeti [abhi + ud + eti] to go out over, to rise A II.50, 51 (opp. atthaṃ eti, of the sun). - ppr. abbhuddayaŋ Vv 6417 ( = abhi-uggacchanto VvA 280; abbhusayaŋ ti pi pāṭho).

Abbhuddhunāti [abhi + ud + dhunāti] to shake very much Vv 649 ( = adhikaṃ uddhunāti VvA 278).

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Abbhunnadita [pp. of abhi + ud + nadati] resounding, resonant Th 1, 1065).

Abbhunnamati [abhi, + ud + namati] to, spring up, burst forth D II.164. -pp. abbhuṇṇata (and *unnata), q. v. Causative abbhunnāmeti to stiffen, straighten out, hold up, erect D I.120 (kāyaṃ one's body); A II.245 (id.); D I.126 (patodalaṭṭhiṃ; opp. apanāmeti to bend down).

Abbhuyyāta [pp. of abbhuyyāti] marched against, attacked Vin I.342; M II.124.

Abbhuyyāti [abhi + up + yāti of yā] to go against, to go against, to march (an army) against, to attack S I.82 (aor *uyyāsi). -pp. abbhuyyāta (q. v.).

Abbhusūyaka (adj.) [abhi + usūyā + ka] zealous, showing zeal, endeavouring in (-*) Pgdp 101.

Abbhussakati and *usukkati [abhi + ud + s.vas.k, see sakkati] to go out over, rise above (acc.), ascend, frequent in phrase ādicco nabhaṃ abbhussakkamāno M I.317 = S III.156 = It 20. - See also S I.65; V.44; A I.242 (same simile); V.22 (id.).

Abbhussahanatā (f.) [abstr. from abhi + *utsahana, cp. ussāha] instigation, incitement Vin II.88.

Abbhusseti [abhi + ud + seti of shī] to rise; v. l. at Vv 6417 according to VvA 280: abbhuddayaŋ (see abbhudeti) abbhussayan ti pi pāṭho.

Abbheti [abhi + ā + i] to rehabilitate a bhikkhu who has been suspended for breach of rules Vin II.7 (abbhento), 33 (abbheyya); III.112 (abbheti), 186 = IV.242 (abbhetabba) -pp. abbhita (q. v.). See also abbhāna.

Abbhokāsa [abhi + avakāsa] the open air, an open and unsheltered space D I.63 ( = alagganatthena a. viya DA I.180), 71 ( = acchanna DA I.210), 89; M III.132; A II.210; III.92; IV.437, V.65; Sn p. 139 (*e nissinna sitting in the open) J I.29, 215; Pug 57.

Abbhokāsika (adj.) [from abbhokāsa] belonging to the open air, one who lives in the open, the practice of certain ascetics. D I.167; M I.282; A III.220; Vin V.131, 193; J IV.8 (+ nesajjika); Pug 69; Miln 20, 342. (One of the 13 Dhutaṃgas). See also Nd1 188; Nd2 587. -anga the practice or system of the "campers-out" Nd1 558 (so read for abbhokāsi-kankhā, cp. Nd1 188).

Abbhokiṇṇa [pp. of abbhokirati] see abbokiṇṇa.

Abbhokirati [abhi + ava + kirati] to sprinkle over, to cover, bedeck Vv 59 ( = abhi-okirati abhippakirati), 3511 (v. l. abbhuk.r). Cp. abbhukkirati and abbhokkiraṇa pp. abbhokiṇṇa see under abbokiṇṇa.

Abbhokuṭika spelling at DhA IV.8 for abbhākuṭika.

Abbhokkiraṇa (nt.) [from abbhokirati] in naṭānaṃ a. "turnings of dancers" DA I.84 in explanation. of sobha-nagarakaṃ of D I.6.

Abbhocchinna (besides abbocch*, q.v. under abbokiṇṇa2) [a + vi + ava + chinna] not cut off, uninterrupted, continuous J I.470 (v. l. abbo); VI.254, 373; Cp. I.63; Miln 72; Vism 362 (bb), 391 (bb).

Abbhohārika see abbo.

Aby* see avy*.

Abhabba (adj.) [a + bhavya. The Sanskrit abhavya has a different meaning] impossible, not likely, unable D III.13 sq., 19, 26 sq., 133; It 106, 117; Sn 231 (see KhA 189); Dh 32; J I 116; Pug 13. -ṭṭhāna a (moral) impossibility of which there are 9 enumerated among things that are not likely to be found in an Arahant's character: see D III.133 and 235 (where the five first only are given as a set).

Abhabbatā (f.) [abstr. from abhabba] an impossibility, unlikelihood Sn 232, cp. KhA 191.

Abhaya (adj.) [a + bhaya] free from fear or danger, fearless, safe Dh 258. - nt. abhayaŋ confidence, safety Dh 317, cp. DhA III.491. For further refs. see bhaya.

Abhi- [prefix, Vedic abhi, which represents both Idg -m -bhi, as in Gr. a)mfi/ around, Latin ambi, amb round about, Oir. imb, Gall. ambi, Ohg. umbi, Ags. ymb, cp. also Vedic (Pāli) abhita- on both sides; and Idg. -obhi, as in Latin ob towards, against (cp. obsess, obstruct), Goth. bi, Ohg. Ags. bī = E. be-. I. Meaning. - 1. The primary meaning of abhi is that of taking possession and mastereotypeng, as contained in E. coming by and over-coming, thus literally having the function of (a) facing and aggressing = towards, against, on to, at (see II. 1, a); and (b) mastereotypeng = over, along over, out over, on top of (see II. 1, b). 2. Out of this is developed the fig. meaning of increasing, i. e., an intensifying of the action implied in the verb (see III. 1). Next to saŋ- it is the most frequent modification preflx in the meaning of "very much, greatly" as the first part of a double-prefix cpd. (see III. 2), and therefore often seemingly superfluous, i. e., weakened in meaning, where the second part already denotes intensity as in abhi-vi-ji (side by side with vi-ji), abhi-ā-kkhā (side by side with ā-kkhā), abhi-anu-mud (side by side with anu-mud). In these latter cases abhi shows a purely deictic character corresponding to Ger. her-bei-kommen (for bei-kommen), E. fill up (for fill); e. g., abbhatikkanta ( = ati - C.), abbhatīta ("vorbei gegangen"), abbhantara ("with-in", b-innen or "in here"), abbhudāharati, abhipūreti ("fill up"), etc. (see also II. 1, c). II. Lit. Meaning. - 1. As single prefix: (a) against, to, on to, at-, viz., abbhatthangata gone towards home, abhighāta striking at, -jjhā think at, -mana thinking on, -mukha facing, turned towards, -yāti at-tack, -rūhati ascend, -lāsa long for, -vadati ad-dress, -sapati ac-curse, -hata hit at. (b) out, over, all around: abbhudeti go out over, -kamati exceed, -jāti off-spring, -jānāti know all over, -bhavati overcome, -vaḍḍhati increase, -vuṭṭha poured out or over, -sandeti make over-flow, -siñcati sprinkle over. (c) abhi has the function of transitivising intrs. verbs after the manner of E. be- (con-) and Ger. er-, thus resembling in meaning a simple Causative formation, like the following: abhigajjati thunder on, -jānāti "er-kennen" -jāyati be-get, -tthaneti = -gajjati, -nadati "er tonen", -nandati approve of (cp. anerkennen), -passati con-template, -ramati indulge in, -ropeti honour, -vuḍḍha increased, -saddahati believe in. - 2. As base in compounds. (2nd part of cpd.) abhi occurs only in combination. sam-abhi (which is, however, of late occurrence and a peeuliarity of later texts, and is still more frequent in BSanskrit: see under sam-). III. Fig. Meaning (intensifying). - 1. A single prefix: abhikiṇṇa strewn all over, -jalati shine forth, -jighacchati be very hungry, -tatta much exhausted, -tāpa very hot, -toseti pleuse greatly, -nava quite fresh, -nipuṇa very clever, -nīla of a deep black, -manāpa very pleasant, -mangaly very lucky, -yobbana full youth, -rati great liking, -ratta deep red, -ruci intense satisfaction, -rūpa very handsome ( = adhika-rūpa C.), -samBuddha wide and fully-awake, cp. abbhuddhunāti to shake greatly ( = adhikaṃuddh- C.). - As 1st part of a prep.-cpd. (as modification-prefix) in following combinations: abhi-ud (abbhud-) -ati, -anu, -ava, -ā, -ni, -ppa, -vi, -saŋ. See all these s. v. and note that the contraction (assimilation before vowel) form of abhi is abbh-. - On its relation to pari, see pari-, to ava see ava-. IV. Dialectical Variation. - There are dial. variations in the use and meanings of abhi. Vedic abhi besides corresponding to abhi in Pāli is represented also by ati-, adhi- and anu-, since all are similar in meaning, and psychologically easily fused and confused (cp. meanings: abhi = on to, towards; ati = up to and beyond; adhi = up to, towards, over; anu = along towards). For all the

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following verbs we find in Pāli one or other of these three prefixes. So ati in -jāti, -pī'ita, -brūheti, -vassati, -vāyati, -veṭheti; also as vv. ll. with abhi-kīrati, -pavassati, -roceti, cp. atikkanta-abhi- (Sanskrit abhikrānta); adhi in -patthita, -pāteti, -ppāya, -ppeta, -bādheti, -bhū, -vāha (vice versa Pāli abhi-ropeti compared with Sanskrit adhiropayati); anu in -gijjhati, -brūheti, -sandahati.

Abhikankhati [abhi + kankhati] to desire after, long for, wish for S I.140, 198 (Nibbānaṃ); J II.428; IV.10, 241; VvA 38, 283; ThA 244. -pp. abhikankhita. Cp. BSanskrit abhikānk.sati, e. g. Jtm. p. 221.

Abhikankhanatā (f.) [abhi + kankhana + tā] wishing, longing, desire DA I.242.

Abhikankhita [pp. of abhikankhati] desired, wished, longed for VvA 201 ( = abhijjhita).

Abhikankhin (adj.) cp. wishing for, desirous (of -*) Th 2, 360 (sītibhāva*).

Abhikiṇṇa [pp. of abhikirati] 1. strewn over with (-*), adorned, covered filled Pv II.112 (puppha*). - 2. overwhelmed, overcome, crushed by (-*) It 89 (dukkh*; vv. ll. dukkha-tiṇṇa and otiṇṇa) = A I.147 (which reads dukkhotiṇṇa). See also avatiṇṇa.

Abhikirati - 1. [Sanskrit abhikirati] to sprinkle or cover over: see abhikiṇṇa 1. - 2. [Sanskrit avakirati, cp. apakiritūna] to overwhelm, destroy, put out, throw away, crush S I.54; Th 1, 598; 2, 447 (ger. *kiritūna, reading of C. for T. apa*, explained. by chaḍḍetvā); Dh 25 (*kīrati metri causa; dīpaṃ abhikīrati = viddhaṃseti vikirati DhA I.255; v. l. atikirati); J IV.121 (*kīrati; dīpaṃ = viddhaṃseti C.); VI.541 (nandiyo m* abhikīrare = abhikiranti abhikkamanti C.); DhA I.255 (inf. *kirituṃ). -pp. abhikiṇṇa see abhikiṇṇa 2.

Abhikī'ati [abhi + kī'ati] to play (a game), to sport Miln 359 (kī'aṃ).

Abhikūjita [abhi + kūjita, pp. of kūj] resounding (with the song of birds) Pv II.123 (cakkavāka*; so read for kujita). Cp. abhinikūjita.

Abhikkanta (adj.-n.) [pp. of abhikkamati, in sense of Sanskrit and also Pāli atikkanta] (a) (adj.) lit. gone forward, gone out, gone beyond. According to the traditional explination. preserved by Bdhgh. and Dhp (see e. g. DA I.227 = KhA 114 = VvA 52) it is used in 4 applications: abhikkantasaddo khaya (+ pabbaniya KhA) sundar--a-bhirūpa-abbhanumodanesu dissati. These are: 1. (lit.) gone away, passed, gone out, departed (+ nikkhanta, meaning khaya "wane"), in phrase abhikkantāya rattiyā at the waning of the night Vin I.26; D II.220; M I.142. 2. excellent, supreme ( = sundara) Sn 1118 (*dassāvin having the most exellent knowledge = aggadassāvin etc. Nd2 76); usually in compar *tara (+ paṇītatara) D I.62, 74, 216; A II.101; III.350 sq.; V.140, 207 sq.; DA I.171 ( = atimanāpatara). 3. pleasing, superb, extremely wonderful, as exclamation *ṃ repeated with bho (bhante), showing appreciation ( = abbha-numodana) D I.85, 110, 234; Sn p. 15, 24, etc. frequent 4. surpassing, beautiful (always with *vaṇṇa = abhirūpa) Vin I.26; D II.220; M I.142; Pv II.110 = Vv 91 ( = atimanāpa abhirūpa PvA 71); KhA 115 ( = abhirūpachavin). - (b) (nt.) abhikkantaṃ (combined. with and opp. to paṭikkantaṃ) going forward (and backward), approach (and receding) D I.70 ( = gamaṇa + nivattana DA I.183); Vin III.181; A II.104, 106 sq.; VvA 6.

Abhikkama going forward, approach, going out Pv IV.12 (opp. paṭikkama going back); DhA III.124 (*paṭikkama).

Abhikkamati [Vedic abhikramati, abhi + kamati] to go forward, to proceed, approach D I.50 ( = abhimukho kamati, gacchati, pavisati DA I.151); II.147, 256 (abhikkā muṃ aor.); DhA III.124 (evaṃ *itabbaṃ evaṃ paṭikkamitabbaṃ thus to approach and thus to withdraw). -pp. abhikkanta (q. v.).

Abhikkhaṇa1 (nt.) [from abhikkhanati] digging up of the ground M I.143.

Abhikkhaṇa2 (nt.) [abhi + *ikkhaṇa from īks., cp. Sanskrit abhīks.ṇa of which the eontracted form is Pāli abhiṇha] only as acc. adv. *ṃ constantly, repeated, often Vv 2412 ( = abhiṇhaṃ VvA 116); Pv II.84 ( = abhiṇhaṃ bahuso PvA 107); Pug 31; DhA II.91.

Abhikkhaṇati [abhi + khaṇati] to dig up M I.142.

Abhikkhipati [abhi + khipati] to throw Dāvs III.60; cp. abhinikkhipati ibid. 12.

Abhigajjati [abhi + gajjati from garj, sound-root, cp. Pāli gaggara] (a) to roar, shout, thunder, to shout or roar at (c. acc.) Sn 831 (shouting or railing = gajjanto uggajjanto Nd1 172); ger. abhigajjiya thundering Cp. III.108. (b) hum, chatter, twitter (of birds); see abhigajjin.

Abhigajjin (adj.) [from abhigajjati] warbling, singing, chattering Th 1, 1108, 1136.

Abhigamanīya (adj.) [grd. of abhigacchati] to be approached, accessible PvA 9.

Abhigijjhati [abhi + gijjhati] 1. to be greedy for, to crave for, show delight in (c. loc.) Sn 1039 (kāmesu, cp. Nd2 77). - 2. to envy (acc.) S I.15 (aññam-aññaṃ).

Abhigīta [pp. of abhigāyati, cp. gīta] 1. sung for. Only in one phrase, gāthābhigītaṃ, that which is gained by singing or chanting verses (Ger. "ersungen") S I.173 = Sn 81 = Miln 228. See SnA 151. - 2. resounding with, filled with song (of birds) J VI.272 ( = abhiruda).

Abhighāta [Sanskrit abhighāta, abhi + ghāta] (a) striking, slaying, killing PvA 58 (daṇḍa*), 283 (sakkhara*). (b) impact, contact DhsA 312 (rūpa* etc.).

Abhicetasika (adj.) [abhi + ceto + ika] dependent on the clearest consciousness. On the spelling see ābhic* (of jhāna) M I.33, 356; III.11; S II.278; A II.23; V.132. (Spelt. ābhi* at M I.33; A III.114; Vin V.136). See Dial. III.108.

Abhiceteti [abhi + ceteti] to intend, devise, have in mind J IV.310 (manasā pāpaṃ).

Abhicchanna (adj.) [abhi + channa] covered with, bedecked or adorned with (-*) J II.48 (hema-jāla*, v. l. abhisañchanna), 370 (id.); Sn 772 ( = ucchanna āvuṭa etc. Nd1 24, cp. Nd2 365).

Abhicchita (adj.) [abhi + icchita, cp. Sanskrit abhīpsita] desired J VI.445 (so read for abhijjhita).

Abhijacca (adj.) [Sanskrit ābhijātya; abhi + jacca] of noble birth J V.120.

Abhijaneti occasional spelling for abhijāneti.

Abhijappati [abhi + jappati] to wish for, strive after, pray for S I.143 (read asma-bhijappanti and cp. Kindred Sayings p. 180) = J III.359 ( = namati pattheti piheti C.); *n 923, 1046 (+ āsiṃsati thometi; Nd2 79 = jappati and same under icchati). Cp. in meaning abhigijjhati.

Abhijappana (nt.) [doubtful whether to jappati or to japati to mumble, to which belongs jappana in kaṇṃa* DA I.97] in hattha* casting a spell to make the victim throw up or wring his hands D I.11; DA I.97.

Abhijappā (f.) [abstr. from abhijappati, cp. jappā] praying for, wishing, desire, longing Dhs 1059 = Nd2 taṇhā II.; Dhs 1136.

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Abhijappin (adj.) [from abhijappati] praying for, desiring A III.353 (kāma-lābha*).

Abhijalati [abhi + jalati] to shine forth, ppr. *anto resplendent PvA 189.

Abhijavati [abhi + javati] to be eager, active Sn 668.

Abhijāta (adj.) [abi + jāta] of noble birth, well-born, S I.69; Vv 293; Miln 359 (*kulakulīna belonging to a family of high or noble birth).

Abhijāti (f.) [abhi + jāti] 1. Species. Only as t. t. in use by certain non-Buddhist teachers. They divided mankind into six species, each named after a colour D I.53, 54; A III.383 ff. (quoted DA I.162) gives details of each species. Two of them, the black and the white, are interpreted in a Buddhist sense at D III.250, M II.222, and Netti 158. This interpretation (but not the theory of the six species) has been widely adopted by subsequent Hindu writers. - 2. Rebirth, descent, Miln 226.

Abhijātika (adj.) [from abhijāti] belonging to ones birth or race, born of, being by birth; only in cpd. kaṇha-bhijātika of dark birth, that is, low in the social scale D III.251 = A III.348; Sn 563 = Th 1, 833; cp. J P T S. 1893, 11; in sense of "evil disposed or of bad character" at J V.87 ( = kā'aka-sabhāva C.).

Abhijātitā (f.) [abstr. from abhijāti] the fact of being born, descendency VvA 216.

Abhijāna (nt. or m*) [Sanskrit abhijñāna] recognition, remembrance, recollection Miln 78. See also abhiññā.

Abhijānāti [abhi + jñā, cp. jānāti and abhiññā] to know by experience, to know fully or thoroughly, to recognise, know of (c. acc.), to be conscious or aware of D I.143; S II.58, 105, 219, 278; III.59, 91; IV.50, 324, 399; V.52, 176, 282, 299; Sn 1117 (diṭṭhiṃ Gotamassa na a.); J IV.142; Pv II.710 = II.103 (n-ābhijānāmi bhuttaṃ vā pītaṃ); Sdhp 550; etc. - Pot. abhijāneyya Nd2 78a, and abhijaññā Sn 917, 1059 ( = jāneyyāsi SnA 592); aor. abhaññāsi Sn p. 16. - ppr. abhijānaṃ S IV.19, 89; Sn 788 ( = *jānanto C.), 1114 ( = *jānanto Nd2 78b) abhijānitva DhA IV.233; abhiññāya S IV.16; V.392; Sn 534 (sabbadhammaṃ), 743 (jātikkhayaŋ), 1115, 1148; It 91 (dhammaṃ); Dh 166 (atta-d-atthaṃ); frequent in phrase sayaŋ abhiññāya from personal knowledge or self-experience It 97 (v.l. abhiññā); Dh 353; and abhiññā [short form, like ādā for ādāya, cp. upādā] in phrase sayaŋ abhiññā D I.31 (+ sacchi-katvā); S II.217; It 97 (v.l. for *abhiññāya), in abhiññā-vosita perfected by highest knowledge S I.167 = 175 = Dh 423 ("mastereotypeof supernormal lore" Mrs Rh. D. in kindred S. p. 208; cp. also DhA IV.233); It 47 = 61 = 81, and perhaps also in phrase sabbaṃ abhiññapariññeyya S IV.29. - grd. abhiññeyya S IV.29; Sn 558 (*ṃ abhiññātaṃ known is the knowable); Nd2 s.v.; DhA IV.233. -pp. abhiññāta (q. v.).

Abhijāyati [abhi + jāyati, Pass. of jan, but in sense of a Causative = janeti] to beget, produce, effect, attain, in phrase akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ Nibbānaṃ a. D III.251; A III.384 sq. At Sn 214 abhijāyati means "to behave, to be", cp. SnA 265 (abhijāyati = bhavati).

Abhijigiṃsati [abhi + jigiṃsati] to wish to overcome, to covet J VI.193 ( = jinituṃ icchati C). Burmese scribes spell *jigīsati; Th 1, 743 ("cheat"* Mrs Rh. D.; "vernichten" Neumann). See also abhijeti, and nijigiṃsanatā.

Abhijighacchati [abhi + jighacchati] to be very hungry PvA 271.

Abhijīvanika (adj.) [abhi + jīvana + ika] belonging to one's livehood, forming one's living Vin I.187 (sippa).

Abhijīhanā (f.) [abhi + jīhanā of jeh to open ones mouth] strenuousness, exertion, strong endeavour J VI.373 (viriyakaraṇa C.).

Abhijeti [abhi + jayati] to win, acquire, conquer J VI.273 (ābhi* metri causā).

Abhijoteti [abhi + joteti] to make clear, explain, illuminate J V.339.

Abhijjanaka (adj.) [a + bhijjana + ka, from bhijja, grd. of bhid] not to be broken, not to be moved or changed, uninfluenced J II.170; DhA III.189.

Abhijjamāna (adj.) [ppr. passive of a + bhid, see bhindati] that which is not being broken up or divided. In the stock descrīption of the varieties of the lower Iddhi the phrase udake pi abhijjamāne gacchati is doubtful. The principal passages are D I.78, 212; III.112, 281; M I.34, 494; II.18; A I.170, 255; III.17; V.199; S II 121; V.264. In about half of these passages the reading is abhijjamāno. The various rcadings show that the MSS also are equally divided on this point. Bdgh. (Vism 396) reads *māne, and explains it, relying on Ps II.208, as that sort of water in which a man does not sink. Pv III.11 has the same idiom. Dhammapāla's note on that (PvA 169) is corrupt. At D I.78 the Colombo ed. 1904, reads abhejjamāne and tr. "not dividing (the water)" ; at D I.212 it reads abhijjamāno and tr. "not sinking (in the water)" .

Abhijjhā (f.) [from abhi + dhyā (jhāyati1), cp. Sanskrit abhidhyāna], covetousness, in meaning almost identical with lobha (cp. Dhs. trsl. 22) D I.70, 71 (*āya cittaṃ parisodheti he cleanses his heart from coveting; abhijjhāya = abl.; cp. DA I.211 = abhijjhāto); M I.347 (id.); D III.49, 71 sq., 172, 230, 269; S IV.73, 104, 188, 322 (adj. vigat-a-bhijjha), 343 (*āyavipāka); A I.280; III.92; V.251 sq.; It 118; Nd1 98 (as one of the 4 kāya-ganthā, q. v.); Nd2 taṇhā II.1; Pug 20, 59; Dhs 1136 (*kāyagantha); Vbh 195, 244 (vigat-a-bhijjha), 362, 364, 391; Nett 13; DhA I.23; PvA 103, 282; Sdhp 56, 69. - Often combined with *domanassa covetousness and discontent, e. g. at D III.58, 77, 141, 221, 276; M I.340; III.2; A I.39, 296; II.16, 152; IV.300 sq., 457 sq.; V.348, 351; Vbh 105, 193 sq. -anabhijjhā absence of covetousness Dhs 35, 62. - See also anupassin, gantha, domanassa, sīla.

Abhijjhātar see abhijjhitar.

Abhijjhāti [cp. abhidyāti, abhi + jhāyati1; see also abhijjhāyati] to wish for (acc.), long for, covet S V.74 (so read for abhijjhati); ger. abhijjhāya J VI.174 ( = patthetvā C.). -pp. abhijjhita.

Abhijjhāyati [Sanskrit abhidhyāyati, abhi + jhāyati1; see also abhijjhāti] to wish for, covet (c. acc.). Sn 301 (aor. abhijjhāyiṃsu = abhipatthayamāna jhāyiṃsu Sn A 320).

Abhijjhālū (and *u) (adj.) [cp. jhāyin from jhāyati1; abhijjhālu with *ālu for *āgu which in its turn is for āyin. The B.Sanskrit form is abhidyālu, e. g. Divy 301, a curious reconstruction] covetous D I.139; III.82; * II.168; III.93; A I.298; II.30, 59, 220 (an* + avyapannacitto sammādiṭṭhiko at conclusion of sīla); V.92 sq., 163, 286 sq.; It 90, 91; Pug 39, 40.

Abhijjhiṭṭa v. l. at DhA IV.101 for ajjhiṭṭha.

Abhijjhita [pp. of abhijjhāti] coveted, J. VI.445; usually negative an* not coveted, Vin I.287; Sn 40 ( = anabhipatthita Sn A 85; cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 ( = na abhikankhita VvA 201).

Abhijjhitar [n. ag. from abhijjhita in med. function] one who covets M I.287 (T. abhijjhātar, v. l. *itar) = A V.265 (T. *itar, v. l. *ātar).

Abhiñña (adj.) (usually -*) [Sanskrit abhijña] knowing, possessed of knowledge, esp. higher or supernormal knowledge (abhiññā), intelligent; thus in chalabhiñña one

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who possesses the 6 abhiññās Vin III.88; dandh* of sluggish intellect D III.106; A II.149; V.63 (opp. khipp*); mah* of great insight S II.139. - Compar. abhiññatara S V.159 (read bhiyyo *bhiññataro).

Abhiññatā (f.) [from abhiññā] in cpd. mahā* state or condition of great intelligence or supernormal knowledge S IV.263; V.175, 298 sq.

Abhiññā1 (f.) [from abhi + jñā, see jānāti]. Rare in the older texts. It appears in two contexts. Firstly, certain conditions are said to conduce (inter alia) to serenity, to special knowledge (abhiññā), to special wisdom, and to Nibbāna. These conditions precedent are the Path (S V.421 = Vin I.10 = S IV.331), the Path + best knowledge and full emancipation (A V.238), the Four Applications of Mindfulness (S V.179) and the Four Steps to Iddhi (S. V.255). The contrary is three times stated; wrong-doing, priestly superstitions, and vain speculation do not conduce to abhiññā and the rest (D III.131; A III.325 sq. and V.216). Secondly, we find a list of what might now be called psychic powers. It gives us 1, Iddhi (cp. levitation); 2, the Heavenly Ear (cp. clairaudience); 3, knowing others' thoughts (cp. thought-reading); 4, recollecting one's previous births; 5, knowing other people's rebirths; 6, certainty of emancipation already attained (cp. final assurance). This list occurs only at D III.281 as a list of abhiññās. It stands there in a sort of index of principal subjects appended at the end of the Dīgha, and belongs therefore to the very close of the Nikāya period. But it is based on older material. Descriptions of each of the six, not called abhiññā's, and interspersed by expository sentences or paragraphs, are found at D I.89 sq. (trsl. Dial. I.89 sq.); M I.34 (see Buddhist Suttas, 210 sq.); A I.255, 258 = III.17, 280 = IV.421. At S I.191; Vin II.16; Pug 14, we have the adj. cha'abhiññā ("endowed with the 6 Apperceptions"). At S II.216 we have five, and at S V.282, 290 six abhiññā's mentioned in glosses to the text. And at S II.217, 222 a bhikkhu claims the 6 powers. See also M II.11; III.96. It is from these passages that the list at D III. has been made up, and called abhiññā's.

Afterwards the use of the word becomes stereotypeotyped. In the Old Commentaries (in the Canon), in the later ones (of the 5th cent. A.D.), and in medieval and modern Pāli, abhiññā, nine times out ten, means just the powers given in this list. Here and there we find glimpses of the older, wider meaning of special, supernormal power of apperception and knowledge to be acquired by long training in life aud thought. See Nd1 108, 328 (explination. of ñāṇa); Nd2 s. v. and N0. 466; Ps I.35; II.156, 189; Vbh 228, 334; Pug 14; Nett 19, 20; Miln 342; Vism 373; Mhvs XIX.20; DA I.175; DhA II.49; IV.30; Sdhp 228, 470, 482. See also the discussion in the Cpd.60 sp., 224 sq. For the phrase saya* abhiññā sacchi-katvā and abhiññā-vosita see abhijānāti. The late phrase yath- abhiñña- means "as you please, according to liking, as you like" , J V.365 ( = yathādhippāya* yathāruci* C.). For abhiññā in the use of an adj. (*abhiñña) see abhiñña.

Abhiññā2 ger. of abhijānāti.

Abhiññāta [pp. of abhijānāti] 1. known, recognised Sn 588 (abhiññeyyaṃ *ṃ). - 2. (well)-known, distinguished D I.89 (*kolañña = pākaṭa-kulaja DA I.252), 235; Sn p. 115.

Abhiññeyya grd. of abhijānāti.

Abhiṭhāna (nt.) [abhi + ṭhāna, cp. abhitiṭṭhati; lit. that which stands out above others] a great or deadly crime. Only at Sn 231 = Kh VI.10 (quoted Kvu 109). Six are there mentioned, and are explained (KhA 189) as "matricide, parricide, killing an Arahant, causing schisms, wounding a Buddha, following other teachers". For other relations and suggestions see Dhs trsl. 267. - See also ānantarika.

Abhiṇhaṃ (adv.) [contracted form of abhikkhaṇaṃ] repeatedly, continuous, often M I.442 (*āpattika a habitual offender), 446 (*kāraṇa continuous practice); Sn 335 (*saŋvāsa continuous living together); J I.190; Pug 32; DhA II.239; VvA 116 ( = abhikkhaṇa), 207, 332; PvA 107 ( = abhikkhaṇaṃ). Cp. abhiṇhaso.

Abhiṇhaso (adv.) [adv. case from abhiṇha; cp. bahuso = Sanskrit bahusha*] always, ever S I.194; Th 1, 25; Sn 559, 560, 998.

Abhitakketi [abhi + takketi] to search for Dāvs V.4.

Abhitatta [pp. of abhi +tapati] scorched (by heat), dried up, exhausted, in phrases uṇha* Vin II.220; Miln 97, and ghamma* S II.110, 118; Sn 1014; J II.223; VvA 40; PvA 114.

Abhitāpa [abhi + tāpa] extreme heat, glow; adj. very hot Vin III.83 (sīsa* sunstroke); M I.507 (mahā* very hot); Miln 67 (mahābhitāpatara much hotter); Pv IV.18 (mahā*, of niraya).

Abhitā'ita [abhi + tā'ita from tā'eti] hammered to pieces, beaten, struck Vism 231 (muggara*).

Abhitiṭṭhati [abhi + tiṭṭhati] to stand out supreme, to excel, surpass D II.261; J VI.474 (abhiṭṭhāya = abhibhavitvā C.).

Abhitunna (tuṇṇa) [not as Morris, J.Pāli Text Society 1886, 135, suggested from abhi + tud, but acc. to Kern, Toev. p. 4 from abhi + tūrv. (Cp. turati and tarati2 and Ved. turvati). Thus the correct spelling is *tuṇṇa = Sanskrit abhitūrṇa. The latter occurs as v. l. under the disguise of (sok-)a-hituṇḍa for *abhituṇṇa at M. Vastu III.2]. Overwhelmed, overcome, overpowered S II.20; Ps I.129 (dukkha*), 164; J I.407; 509 (*tuṇṇa); II.399, 401; III.23 (soka*); IV.330; V.268; Sdhp 281.

Abhito (indecl.) adv. case from prep. abhi etymology]. - 1. round about, on both sides J VI.535 ( = ubhayapassesu C.), 539. - 2. near, in the presence of Vv 641 ( = samīpe VvA 275).

Abhitoseti [abhi + toseti] to please thoroughly, to satisfy, gratify Sn 709 ( = atīva toseti Sn A 496).

Abhitthaneti [abhi + thaneti] to roar, to thunder J I.330, 332 = Cp. III.107.

Abhittharati [abhi + tarati2, evidently wrong for abhittarati] to make haste Dh 116 ( = turitaturitaṃ sīghasīghaṃ karoti DhA III.4).

Abhitthavati [abhi + thavati] to praise J I.89; III.531; Dāvs III.23; DhA I.77; PvA 22; cp. abhitthunati.

Abhitthavana (nt.) [from prec.] praise Th A 74.

Abhitthunati [abhi + thunati; cp. abhitthavati] to praise J I.17 (aor abhitthuniṃsu); cp. thunati 2. -pp. *tthuta DhA I.88.

Abhida1 (adj.) as attr. of sun and moon at M II.34, 35 is doubtful in reading and meaning; vv. ll. abhidosa and abhidesa, Neumann trsl. "unbeschrankt". The context seems to require a meaning like "full, powerful" or unbroken, unrestricted (abhijja or abhīta "fearless"*") or does abhida represent Vedic abhidyu heavenly*

Abhida2 Only in the difficult old verse D II.107 ( = S V.263 = A IV.312 = Nd 64 = Nett 60 = Divy 203). Aorist 3rd sg. from bhindati he broke.

Abhidassana (nt.) [abhi + dassana] sight, appearance, show J VI.193.

Abhideyya in sabba* at PvA 78 is with v. l. BB to be read sabbapātheyyaṃ.

Abhidosa (*-) the evening before, last night; *kālakata M I.170 = J I.81; *gata gone last night J VI.386 ( = hiyyo paṭhama-yāme C.).

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Abhidosika belonging to last night (of gruel) Vin III.15; Miln 291. See ābhi*.

Abhiddavati [abhi + dru, cp. dava2] to rush on, to assail Mhvs 6, 5; Dāvs III.47.

Abhidhamati [abhi + dhamati, cp. Sanskrit abhi* and api-dhamati] blow on or at A I.257.

Abhidhamma [abhi + dhamma] the "special Dhamma," i. e., 1. theory of the doctrine, the doctrine classified, the doctrine pure and simple (without any admixture of literary grace or of personalities, or of anecdotes, or of arguments ad personam), Vin I.64, 68; IV.144; IV.344. Coupled with abhivinaya, D III.267; M I.272. - 2. (only in the Chronicles and Commentaries) name of the Third Piṭaka, the third group of the canonical books. Dpvs V.37; PvA 140. See the detailed discussion at DA I.15, 18 sq. [As the word abhidhamma standing alone is not found in Sn or S or A, and only once or twice in the Dialogues, it probably came into use only towards the end of the period in which the 4 great Nikāyas grew up.] -kathā discourse on philosophical or psychological matters, M I.214, 218; A III.106, 392. See dhammakathā.

Abhidhammika see ābhidhammika.

Abhidhara (adj.) [abhi + dhara] firm, bold, in *māna firmminded Dh p. 81 (acc. to Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1886, 135; not verified).

Abhidhāyin (adj.) [abhi + dhāyin from dhā]" putting on", designing, calling, meaning Pgdp 98.

Abhidhāreti [abhi + dhāreti] to hold aloft J I.34 = Bu IV.1.

Abhidhāvati [abhi + dhāvati] to run towards, to rush about, rush on, hasten Vin II.195; S I.209; J II.217; III.83; DhA IV.23.

Abhidhāvin (adj.) from abhidhāvati] "pouring in", rushing on, running J VI.559.

Abhinata [pp. of abhi + namati] bent, (strained, fig. bent on pleasure M I.386 (+ apanata); S I.28 (id.; Mrs. Rh. D. "strained forth", cp. Kindred S I.39). See also apanata.

Abhinadati [abhi + nadati] to resound, to be full of noise J VI.531. Cp. abhinādita.

Abhinandati [abhi + nandati] to rejoice at, find pleasure in (acc.), approve of, be pleased or delighted with (acc.) D I.46 (bhāsitaṃ), 55 (id.), 158, 223; M I.109, 458; S I.32 (annaṃ), 57, 14, (cakkhuṃ, rūpe etc.); A IV.411; Th 1, 606; Dh 75, 219; Sn 1054, 1057, 1111; Nd2 82; Miln 25; DA I.160; DhA III.194 (aor. abhinandi, opp. paṭikkosi) VvA 65 (vacanaṃ). -pp. abhinandita (q. v.). Often in combination. with abhivadati (q. v.).

Abhinandana (nt.) and *ā (f.) [from abhinandati, cp. nandanā], pleasure, delight, enjoyment D I.244; M I.498; J IV.397.

Abhinandita [pp. of abhinandati] only in an* not enjoyed, not (being) an object of pleasure S IV.213 = It 38; S V. 319.

Abhinandin (adj.) [from abhinandati, cp. nandin] rejoicing at, finding pleasure in (loc. or -*), enjoying A II.54 (piyarūpa); esp. frequent in phrase (taṇhā) tatratatr-a-bhinandinī finding its pleasure in this or that [cp. B.Sanskrit trs.ṇā tatra-tatr-a-bhinandinī M Vastu III.332] Vin I.10; S V.421; Ps II.147; Nett 72, etc.

Abhinamati [abhi + namati] to bend. -pp. abhinata (q.v.).

Abhinaya [abhi + naya] a dramatic representation VvA 209 (sākhā*).

Abhinava (adj.) [abhi + nava] quite young, new or fresh Vin III.337; J II.143 (devaputta), 435 (so read for accuṇha in explination of paccaggha; v.v. ll. abbhuṇha and abhiṇha); ThA 201 (*yobbana = abhiyobbana); PvA 40 (*saṇṭhāna), 87 ( = paccaggha) 155.

Abhinādita [pp. of abhinādeti, Causative of abhi + nad; see nadati] resounding with (-*), filled with the noise (or song) of (birds) J VI.530 ( = abhinadanto C.); PvA 157 ( = abhiruda).

Abhinikūjita (adj.) [abhi + nikūjita] resounding with, full of the noise of (birds) J V.232 (of the barking of a dog), 304 (of the cuckoo); so read for *kuñjita T.). Cp. abhikūjita.

Abhinikkhamati [abhi + nikkhamati] to go forth from (abl.), go out, issue Dhs A 91; esp. fig. to leave the household life, to retire from the world Sn 64 ( = gehā abhinikkhamitvā kāsāya-vattho hutvā Sn A 117).

Abhinikkhamana (nt.) [abhi + nikkhamana] departure, going away, esp. the going out into monastic life, retirement, renunciation. Usually as mahā* the great renunciation J I.61; PvA 19.

Abhinikkhipati [abhi + nikkhipati] to lay down, put down Davs III.12, 60.

Abhiniggaṇhanā (f.) [abstr. from abhiniggaṇhāti] holding back Vin III.121 (+ abhinippī'anā).

Abhiniggaṇhāti [abhi + niggaṇhāti] to hold back, restrain, prevent, prohibit; always in combination. with abhinippī'eti M I.120; A V.230. - Cp. abhiniggaṇhanā.

Abhinindriya [vv. ll. at all passages for ahīnindriya] doubtful meaning. The other is explained by Bdhgh at DA I.120 as paripuṇṇ*; and at 222 as avikal-indriya not defective, perfect sense-organ. He must have read ahīn*. Abhi-n-indriya could only be explained as "with supersenseorgans", i. e. with organs of supernormal thought or perception, thus coming near in meaning to *abhiññindriya; We should read ahīn* throughout D I.34, 77, 186, 195. II.13; M II.18; III.121; Nd2 under pucchā6 (only ahīn*).

Abhininnāmeti [abhi + ninnāmeti cp. BSanskrit abhinirṇāmayati Lal. V. 439] to bend towards, to turn or direct to D I.76 (cittaṃ ñāṇa-dassanāya); M I.234; S I.123; IV.178; Pug 60.

Abhinipajjati [abhi + nipajjati] to lie down on Vin IV.273 (+ abhinisīdati); A IV.188 (in = acc. + abhinisīdati); Pug 67 (id.).

Abhinipatati [abhi + nipatati] to rush on (to) J II.8.

Abhinipāta (-matta) destroying, hurting (*) at Vbh 321 is explained. by āpātha-matta [cp. Divy 125 shastra-bhinipāta splitting open or cutting with a knife].

Abhinipātana (nt.) [from abhi-ni-pāteti in daṇḍa-sattha* attacking with stick or knife Nd2 5. Q4.

Abhinipātin (adj.) [abhi + nipātin] falling on io (-*) J II.7.

Abhinipuṇa (adj.) [abhi + nipuṇa] very thorough, very clever D III.167.

Abhinippajjati [abhi + nippajjati] to be produced, accrue, get, come (to) M I.86 (bhogā abhinipphajjanti: sic) = Nd2 99 (has n'a-bhinippajjanti). - Cp. abhinipphādeti.

Abhinippata at J VI.36 is to be read abhinippanna (so v. l. BB.).

Abhinippatta at Dhs 1035, 1036 is to be read abhinibbatta.

Abhinippanna (and *nipphanna) [abhi + nippanna, pp. of *nippajjati] produced, effected, accomplished D II.223 (siloka); J VI.36 (so read for abhinippata); Miln 8 (pph.).

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Abhinippī'anā (f.) [abstr. to abhinippī'eti, cp. nippī'ana] pressing, squeezing, taking hold of Vin III.121 (+ abhiniggaṇhanā).

Abhinippī'eti [abhi + nippī'eti] to squeeze, crush, subdue Vism 399; often in combination. with abhiniggaṇhāti M I. 120; A V.230.

Abhinipphatti (f.) [abhi + nipphatti] production, effecting D II.283 (v. l. *nibbatti).

Abhinipphādeti [abhi + nipphādeti] to bring into existence, produce, effect, work, perform D I.78 (bhājana-vikatiṃ); Vin II.183 (iddhiṃ); S V.156, 255; Miln 39.

Abhinibbatta [abhi + nibbatta, pp. of abhinibbattati] reproduced, reborn A IV.40, 401; Nd2 256 (nibbatta abhi* pātubhūta); Dhs 1035, 1036 (so read for* nippatta); VvA 9 (puññ-a-nubhāva* by the power of merit).

Abhinibbattati [abhi + nibbattati] to become, to be reproduced, to result Pug 51. -pp. abhinibbatta. - Cp. B.Sanskrit wrongly abhinivartate].

Abhinibbatti (f.) [abhi + nibbatti] becoming, birth, rebirth, D I.229; II.283 (v. l. for abhinipphatti) S II.65 (punabbhava*), 101 (id.); IV.14, 215; A V.121; PvA 35.

Abhinibbatteti [abhi + nibbatteti, caus. of *nibbattati] to produce, cause, cause to become S III.152; A V.47; Nd2 under jāneti.

Abhinibbijjati [either Med. from nibbindati of vid for *nirvidyate (see nibbindati B), or secondary formation from ger. nibbijja. Reading however not beyond all doubt] to be disgusted with, to avoid, shun, turn away from Sn 281 (T. abhinibbijjayātha, v. l. BB* nibbijjiyātha and *nibbajjiyātha, SnA expls. by vivajjeyyātha mā bhajeyyātha; v. l. BB. abhinippajjiyā) = A IV.172 (T. abhinibbajjayātha, vv. ll. *nibbajjeyyātha and *nibbijjayātha); ger. abhinibbijja Th 2, 84.

Abhinibbijjhati [abhi + nibbijjhati] to break quite through (of the chick coming through the shell of the egg) Vin III.3; M I.104 = S III.153 (read* nibbijjheyyun for nibbijjeyyun - Cp. Buddh. Suttas 233, 234.

Abhinibbidā (f.) [abhi + nibbidā; confused with abhinibbhidā] disgust with the world, taedium Nett 61 (taken as abhinibbhidā, according to explination. as "padālanā-paññatti avijj*aṇḍa-kosānaṃ"), 98 (so MSS, but C. abhinibbidhā).

Abhinibbuta (adj.) [abhi + nibbuta] perfectly cooled, calmed, serene, esp. in two phrases, viz. diṭṭha dhamm' a-bhinibbuta A I.142 = M III.187; Sn 1087; Nd2 83, and abhinibbutatta of cooled mind Sn 343 ( = apariḍayhamāna-citta SnA 347), 456, 469, 783. Also at Sdhp. 35.

Abhinibbhidā (f.) [this the better, although not correct spelling; there exists a confusion with abhinibbidā, therefore spelling also abhinibbidhā (Vin III.4, C. on Nett 98). To abhinibbijjhati, cp. B.Sanskrit abhinirbheda M Vastu I.272, which is wrongly referred to bhid instead of vyadh.] the successful breaking through (like the chick through the shell of the egg), coming into (proper) life Vin III.4; M I.104; 357; Nett 98 (C. reading). See also abhinibbidā.

Abhinimantanatā (f.) [abstr. to abhinimanteti] speaking to, adressing, invitation M I.331.

Abhinimanteti [abhi + nimanteti] to invite to (c. instr.), to offer to D I.61 (āsanena).

Abhinimmadana (nt.) [abhi + nimmadana] crushing, subduing, levelling out M III.132; A IV.189 sq.

Abhinimmita [abhi + nimmita, pp. of abhinimmināti] created (by magic) Vv 161 (pañca rathā satā; cp. VvA 79).

Abhinimmināti [abhi + nimmināti, cp. BSanskrit abhinirmāti Jtm 32; abhinirminoti Divy 251; abhinirmimīte Divy 166] to create (by magic), produce, shape, make S III.152 (rūpaṃ); A I.279 (o'ārikaṃ attabhāvaṃ); Nd2 under pucchā6 (rūpaṃ manomayaŋ); VvA 16 (mahantaṃ hatthi-rāja-vaṇṇaṃ). -pp. abhinimmita (q. v.).

Abhiniropana (nt.) and ā (f.) [from abhiniropeti] fixing one's mind upon, application of the mind Ps I.16, 21, 30, 69, 75, 90; Vbh 87; Dhs 7, 21, 298 (cp. Dhs trsl. II.19). See also abhiropana.

Abhiniropeti [abhi + niropeti] to implant, fix into (one's mind), inculcate Nett 33.

Abhinivajjeti [abhi + nivajjeti] to avoid, get rid of D III. 113; M I.119, 364, 402; S V.119, 295, 318; A III.169 sq.; It 81.

Abhinivassati [abhi + ni + vassati from vrs.] lit. to pour out in abundance, fig. to produce in plenty. Cp I.103 (kalyāṇe good deeds).

Abhiniviṭṭha (adj.) [abhi + niviṭṭha, pp. of abhi-nivisati] "settled in", attached to, clinging on Nd2 152 (gahita parāmaṭṭha a.); PvA 267 ( = ajjhāsita Pv IV.84).

Abhinivisati [abhi + nivisati] to cling to, adhere to, be attached to Nd1 308, 309 (parāmasati +). -pp. abhiniviṭṭha; cp. also abhinivesa.

Abhinivesa [abhi + nivesa, see nivesa2 and cp. nivesana] "settling in", i. e. wishing for, tendency towards (-*), inclination, adherence; as adj. liking, loving, being given or inclined to D III.230; M I.136, 251; S II.17; III.10, 13, 135, 161, 186 (saŋyojana* IV.50; A III.363 (paṭhavī*, adj.); Nd2 227 (gāha parāmasa +); Pug 22; Vbh 145; Dhs 381, 1003, 1099; Nett 28; PvA 252 (micchā*), 267 (taṇhā*); Sdhp 71. - Often combined. with adhiṭṭhāna e. g. S II.17; Nd2 176, and in phrase idaŋ-sacc- a-bhinivesa adherence to one's dogmas, as one of the 4 Ties: see kāyagantha and cp. Cpd.171 n. 5.

Abhinisīdati [abhi + nisīdati] to sit down by or on (acc.), always combined. with abhinipajjati Vin III.29; IV.273; A V.188; Pug 67.

Abhinissaṭa (pp.) [abhi + nissaṭa] escaped Th 1, 1089.

Abhinihata (pp.) [abhi + nihata] oppressed. crushed, slain J IV.4.

Abhinīta (pp.) [pp. of abhi-neti] led to, brought to, obliged by (-*) M I.463 = Miln 32 (rājā and cora*); M I.282; S III.93; Th 1, 350 = 435 (vātaroga* "foredone with cramping pains" Mrs. Rk. D.); Pug 29; Miln 362.

Abhinīla (adj.) [abhi + nīla] very black, deep black, only with reference to the eyes, in phrase *netta with deep-black eyes D II.18; III.144, 167 sq. [cp. Sp. Av. SH I.367 and 370 abhinīla-padma-netra]; Th 2, 257 (nettā ahesuṃ abbinīla-m-āyatā).

Abhinīhanati [abhi + nis + han, cp. Sanskrit nirhanti] to drive away, put away, destroy, remove, avoid M I.119 (in phrase āṇiṃ a. abhinīharati abhinivajjeti).

Abhinīharati [abhi + nīharati] 1. to take out, throw out M I.119 (see abhinīhanati). - 2. to direct to, to apply to (orig. to isolate* Is reading correct*) in phrase ñāṇadassanāya cittaṃ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti D I.76 ( = tanninnaṃ tappoṇaṃ karoti DA I.220, 224; v. l. abhini*) Cp. the latter phrase also in BSanskrit as abhijña-bhinirhāra Av. SH II.3 (see reference and note Index p. 221); and the pp. abhinirhrta (rddhi*) in Divy 48, 49 to obtain* Ind.), 264 (take to burial), 542.

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Abhinīhāra [abhi + nīhāra, to abhinīharati; cp. BSanskrit sarīr- a-bhinirhāra taking (the body) out to burial, lit. meaning, see note on abhinīharati] being bent on ("downward force" Dhs trsl. 242), i. e. taking oneself out to, way of acting, (proper) behaviour, endeavour, resolve, aspiration S III.267 sq. (*kusala); A II.189; III.311; IV.34 (*kusala); J I.14 (Buddhabhāvāya a. resolve to become a Buddha), 15 (Buddhattāya); Ps I.61 sq.; II.121; Nett 26; Miln 216; DhA I.392; II.82 (kata*).

Abhipattika (adj.) [from abhipatti] one who has attained, attaining (-*), getting possession of S I.200 (devakañña*).

Abhipatthita (pp.) [from abhipattheti] hoped, wished, longed for Miln 383; SnA 85.

Abhipattheti [abhi + pattheti] to hope for, long for, wish for Kh VIII.10; SnA 320; DhA I.30. -pp. abhipatthita (q. v.).

Abhipassati [abhi + passati] to have regard for, look for, strive after A I.147 (Nibbānaṃ); III.75; Sn 896 (khema*), 1070 (rattamahā*) Nd1 308; Nd2 428; J VI.370.

Abhipāteti [abhi + pāteti] to make fall, to bring to fall, to throw J II.91 (kaṇḍaṃ).

Abhipāruta (adj.) [abhi + pāruta, pp. of abhipārupati] dressed Miln 222.

Abhipāleti [abhi + pāleti] to protect Vv 8421, cp. VvA 341.

Abhipī'ita (pp.) [from abhipi'eti] crushed, squeezed Sdhp 278, 279.

Abhipī'eti [abhi + pī'eti] to crush, squeeze Miln 166. pp. abhipī'ita (q. v.).

Abhipucchati [abhi + pucchati] Sanskrit abhiprcchati] to ask J IV.18.

Abhipūreti [abhi + pūreti] to fill (up) Miln 238; Dāvs III. 60 (paṃsūhi).

Abhippakiṇṇa [pp. of abhippakirati] completely strewn (with) J I.62.

Abhippakirati [abhi + pakirati] to strew over, to cover (completely) D II.137 (pupphāni Tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti a.); VvA 38 (for abbhokirati Vv 59). pp. abhippakiṇṇa (q. v.).

Abhippamodati [abhi + pamodati] to rejoice (intrs.); to please, satisfy (trs, c. acc.) M I.425; S V.312, 330; A V.112; J III 530; Ps I.95, 176, 190.

Abhippalambati [abhi + palambati] to hang down M III. 164 (olambati ajjholambati a.).

Abhippavassati [abhi + pavassati] to shed rain upon, to pour down; intrs. to rain, to pour, fall. Usually in phrase mahāmegho abhippavassati a great cloud bursts Miln 8, 13, 36, 304; PvA 132 (v. l. ati*); intrs. Miln 18 (pupphāni *iṃsu poured down). -pp. abhippavuṭṭha.

Abhippavuṭṭha (pp.) [from abhippavassati] having rained, poured, fallen; trs. S V.51 (bandhanāni meghena *āni) = A V.127; intrs. M II.117 (mahāmegho *o there has been a cloudburst).

Abhippasanna (adj.) [pp. of abhippasīdati, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasanna] finding one's peace in (c. loc.), trusting in, having faith in, believing in, devoted to (loc.) Vin III.43; D I.211 (Bhagavati) S I.134; IV.319; V.225, 378; A III. 237, 270, 326 sq.; Sn p. 104 (brāhmaṇesu); PvA 54 (sāsand), 142 (id.). Cp. vippasanna in same meaning.

Abhippasāda [abhi + pasāda, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasāda Av. SH 12 (cittasyu*) and vippasāda] faith, belief, reliance, trust Dhs 12 ("sense of assurance" trsl., + saddhā), 25, 96, 288; PvA 223.

Abhippasādeti [Causative of abhippasīdati, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasādayati Divy 68, 85, pp. abhiprasādita-manā* Jtm 213, 220] to establish one's faith in (loc.), to be reconciled with, to propitiate Th 1, 1173 = Vv 212 (manaṃ arahantamhi = cittaṃ pasādeti VvA 105).

Abhippāsāreti [abhi + pasāreti, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasārayati Divy 389] to stretch out Vin I.179 (pāde).

Abhippasīdati [abhi + pasīdati] to have faith in D I.211 (fut. *issati). -pp. abhippasanna; Causative abhippasādeti.

Abhippaharaṇa (nt.) [abhi + paharaṇa] attacking, fighting, as adj. f. *aṇī fighting, Ep. of Mārassa senā, the army of M. Sn 439 (kaṇhassa* the fighting army of k. = samaṇa-brāhmaṇānaṃ nippothanī antarāyakārī SnA 390).

Abhibyāpeti [abhi + vyāpeti, cp. Sanskrit vyāpnoti, vi + āp] to pervade Miln 251.

Abhibhakkhayati [abhi + bhakkhayati] to eat (of animals) Vin II.201 (bhinko pankaṃ a.).

Abhibhava [from abhibhavati] defeat, humiliation SnA 436.

Abhibhavati [abhi + bhavati] to overcome, mastereotype be lord over, vanquish, conquer S I.18, 32, 121 (maraṇaṃ); IV. 71 (rāgadose), 117 (kodhaṃ), 246, 249 (sāmikaṃ); J I.56, 280; PvA 94 ( = balīyati, vaḍḍhati). - fut. abhihessati see abhihāreti 4. - ger. abhibhuyya Vin I.294; Dh 328; It 41 (Māraṃ sasenaṃ); Sn 45, 72 (*cārin), 1097, Nd2 85 ( = abhibhavitvā ajjhottharitvā, pariyādiyitvā); and abhibhavitvā PvA 113 ( = pasayha), 136. - grd. abhibhavanīya to be overcome PvA 57. - Pass. ppr. abhibhūyamāna being overcome (by) PvA 80, 103. -pp. abhibhūta (q. v.).

Abhibhavana (nt.) [from abhibhavati] overcoming, vanquishing, mastereotypeng S II.210 (v. l. BB abhipatthana).

Abhibhavanīyatā (f.) [abstr. from abhibhavanīya, grd. of abhibhavati] as an* invincibility PvA 117.

Abhibhāyatana (nt.) [abhibhū + āyatana] position of a mastereotypeor lord, station of mastereotype. The traditional account of these gives 8 stations or stages of mastereotype over the senses (see Dial. II.118; Exp. I.252), detailed identically at all the following passages, viz. D II.110; III.260 (and 287); M II.13; A I.40; IV.305, 348; V.61. Mentioned only at S IV.77 (6 stations); Ps I.5; Nd2 466 (as an accomplishment of the Bhagavant); Dhs 247.

Abhibhāsana (nt.) [abhi + bhāsana from bhās] enlightenment or delight ("light and delight" trsl.) Th 1, 613 ( = tosana C.).

Abhibhū (n.-adj.) [Vedic abhibhū, from abhi + bhū, cp. abhibhavati] overcoming, conquering, vanquishing, having power over, a Lord or Mastereotypeof (-*) D III.29; S II. 284; Sn 211 (sabba*), 545 (Māra*, cp. Mārasena-pamaddana 561), 642. - Often in phrase abhibhū anabhibhūta aññadatthudasa vasavattin, i. e. unvanquished Lord of all D I 18; III.135 = Nd2 276; A II.24; IV.94; It 122; cp. DA I.111 ( = abhibhavitvā ṭhito jeṭṭhako- ham asmīti).

Abhibhūta [pp. of abhibhavati] overpowered, overwhelmed, vanquished D I.121; S I.137 (jāti-jarā*); II.228 (lābhasakkāra-silokena); A I.202 (pāpakehi dhammehi); J I.189; PvA 14, 41 ( = pareta), 60 ( = upagata), 68, 77, 80 ( = pareta). Often negative an* unconquered, e. g. Sn 934; Nd1 400; and see phrase under abhibhū.

Abhimangala (adj.) [abhi + mangala] (very) fortunate, lucky, anspicious, in *sammatā (of Visākhā) "benedicted", blessed Vin III.187 = DhA I.409. Opp. avamangala.

Abhimaṇḍita (pp. -*) [abhi + maṇḍita] adorned, embellished, beautified Miln 361; Sdhp 17.

Abhimata (adj.) [BSanskrit abhimata, e. g. Jtm 211; pp. of abhimanyate] desired, wished for; agreeable, pleasant C. on Th 1, 91.

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Abhimatthati (*eti) and *mantheti [abhi + math or manth, cp. nimmatheti] 1. to cleave, cut; to crush, destroy M I.243 (sikharena muddhānaṃ *mantheti); S I.127; Dh 161 (v. l. *nth*); J IV.457 (matthako sikharena *matthiyamāno); DhA III.152 ( = kantati viddhaṃseti). - 2. to rub, to produce by friction (esp. fire, aggiṃ; cp. Vedic agniṃ nirmanthati) M I.240.

Abhimaddati [Sanskrit abhimardati and *mrdnāti; abhi + mrd] to crush S I.102; A I.198; Sdhp 288.

Abhimana (adj.) [abhi + mano, BSanskrit abhimana, e. g. M Vastu III.259] having one's mind turned on, thinking of or on (c. acc.) Th 1, 1122; J VI.451.

Abhimanāpa (adj.) [abhi + manāpa] very pleasing VvA 53 (where id. p. at PvA 71 has atimanāpa).

Abhimantheti see abhimatthati.

Abhimāra [cp. Sanskrit abhimara slaughter] a bandit, bravo, robber J II.199; DA I.152.

Abhimukha (adj.) [abhi + mukha] facing, turned towards, approaching J II.3 (*ā ahesuṃ met each other). Usually -* turned to, going to, inclined towards D I.50 (purattha*); J I.203 (devaloka*), 223 (varaṇa-rukkha*); II.3 (nagara*), 416 (Jetavana*); DhA I.170 (tad*); II.89 (nagara*); PvA 3 (kāma*, opp. vimukha), 74 (uyyāna*). - nt. *ṃ adv. to, towards J I.263 (matta-vāraṇe); PvA 4 (āghātana*, may here be taken as pred. adj.); DhA III.310 (uttara*).

Abhiyācati [abhi + yācati] to ask, beg, entreat Sn 1101, cp. Nd2 86.

Abhiyāti [Vedic abhiyāti in same meaning; abhi _ yā] to go against (in a hostile manner, to attack (c. acc.) S I.216 (aor. abhiyaṃsu, v. l. SS abhijiyiṃsu); DhA III.310 (aor. abhiyāsi as v. l. for T. reading pāyāsi; the id. p. VvA 68 reads pāyāsi with v. l. upāyāsi).

Abhiyujjhati [abhi + yujjhati from yudh] to contend, quarrel with J I.342.

Abhiyuñjati [abhi + yuj] to accuse, charge; intrs. fall to one's share Vin III.50; IV.304.

Abhiyoga [cp. abhiyuñjati] practice, observance Dāvs IV.7.

Abhiyogin (adj.) [from abhiyoga] applying oneself to, practised, skilled (an augur, sooth sayer) D III.168.

Abhiyobbana (nt.) [abhi + yobbana] much youthfulness, early or tender youth Th 2, 258 ( = abhinavayobbanakāla ThA 211).

Abhirakkhati [abhi + rakkhati] to guard, protect J VI.589 ( = pāleti C.). Cp. parirakkhati.

Abhirakkhā (f.) [from abhirakkhati] protection, guard J I.204 ( = ārakkhā 203).

Abhirata (adj.) (-*) [pp. of abhiramati] found of, indulging in, finding delight in A IV.224 (nekkhamma*); V.175 (id.), Sn 86 (nibbāna*), 275 (vihesa*), 276 (kalaha*); J V.382 (dāna*); PvA 54 (puññakamma*), 61 (satibhavana*), 105 (dāna-dipuñña*).

Abhiratatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhirata] the fact of being fond of, delighting in (-*) J V.254 (kāma*).

Abhirati (f.) [from abhi + ram] delight or pleasure in (loc. or -*) S I.185; IV.260; A V.122; Dh 88. -an* displeasure, discontent, distaste Vin II.110; D I.17 (+ paritassanā); S I.185; V.132; A III.259; IV.50; V.72 sq., 122; J III.395; DA I.111; PvA 187.

Abhiratta (adj.) [abhi + ratta] very red J V.156; fig. very much excited or affected with (-*) Sn 891 (sandiṭṭhirāgena a.).

Abhiraddha (adj.) [pp. of abhi + rādh] propitiated, satisfied A IV.185 (+ attamana).

Abhiraddhi (f.) [from abhiraddha] only in negative an* displeasure, dislike, discontent A I.79; DA I.52 ( = kopass- etaṃ adhivacanaṃ).

Abhiramati [abhi + ram] to sport, enjoy oneself, find pleasure in or with (c. loc.), to indulge in love Sn 718, 1085; J I.192; III.189, 393; DhA I.119; PvA 3, 61, 145. - ppr. act. abhiranto only as nt. *ṃ in adv. phrase yatha-bhirantaṃ after one's liking, as much as he pleases, after one's heart's content Vin I.34; M I.170; Sn 53. ppr. med. abhiramamāna J III.188, PvA 162. -pp. abhirata (q. v.). - 2nd Causative abhiramāpeti (q. v.).

Abhiramana (nt.) [from abhiramati] sporting, dallying, amusing oneself PvA 16.

Abhiramāpana (nt.) [from abhiramāpeti, Caus2 of abhiramati] causing pleasure to (acc.), being a source of pleasure, making happy M III.132 (gāmante).

Abhiramāpeti [Causative II. from abhiramati] 1. to induce to sport, to cause one to take pleasure J III.393. - 2. to delight, amuse, divert J I.61. - Cp. abhiramāpana.

Abhiravati [abhi + ravati] to shout ont Bu II.90 = J I.18 (V.99)

Abhirādhita [pp. of abhirādheti] having succeeded in, fallen to one's share, attained Th 1, 259.

Abhirādhin (adj.) (-*) [from abhirādheti] pleasing, giving pleasure, satisfaction J IV.274 (mitta* = ārādhento tosento C.).

Abhirādheti [abhi + rādheti] to please, satisfy, make happy J I.421; DA I.52. - aor. (pret.) abhirādhayi Vv 315 ( = abhirādhesi VvA 130); Vv 6423 (gloss for abhirocayi VvA 282); J I.421; III.386 ( = paritosesi C.). -pp. abhirādhita.

Abhiruci (f.) [Sanskrit abhiruci, from abhi + ruc] delight, longing, pleasure, satisfaction PvA 168 ( = ajjhāsaya).

Abhirucita (adj.) [pp. from abhi + ruc] pleasing, agreeable, liked J I.402; DhA I.45.

Abhiruda (adj. -*) [Sanskrit abhiruta] resounding with (the cries of animals, esp. the song of birds), full of the sound of (birds) Th 1, 1062 (kuñjara*), 1113 (mayūra-koñca*); J IV.466 (adāsakunta*); V.304 (mayūra-koñca*); VI.172 (id., = upagīta C.), 272 (sakunta*; = abhigīta C.), 483 (mayūra-koñca*), 539; Pv II.123 (haṃsa-koñca*; = abhinādita PvA 157). - The form abhiruta occurs at Th 1, 49.

Abhirūpa (adj.) [abhi + rūpa] of perfect form, (very), handsome, beautiful, lovely Sn 410 ( = dassaniya- angapaccanga SnA 383); J I.207; Pug 52; DA I.281 ( = aññehi manussehi adhikarūpa); VvA 53; PvA 61 ( = abhikkanta). Occurs in the idiomatic phrase denoting the characteristics of true beauty abhirūpa dassanīya pāsādika (+ paramāya vaṇṇa-pokkharatāya samannāgata), e. g. Vin I.268; D I.47, 114, 120; S II.279; A II.86, 203; Nd2 659; Pug 66; DhA I.281 (compar.); PvA 46.

Abhirū'ha [pp. of abhirūhati] mounted, gone up to, ascended J V.217; DhA I.103.

Abhirūhati (abhiruhati) [abhi + ruh] to ascend, mount, climb; to go on or in to (c. acc.) Dh 321; Th 1, 271; J I.259; II.388; III.220; IV.138 (navaṃ); VI.272 (peculiar aor. *rucchi with ābhi metri causa; = abhirūhi C.); DA I.253. - ger. abhiruyha J III.189; PvA 75, 152 (as v. l.; T. has *ruyhitva), 271 (nāvaṃ), and abhirūhitvā J I.50 (pabbataṃ) II.128.

Abhirūhana (nt.) [BSanskrit *rūhana, e. g. M Vastu II.289] climbing, ascending, climb Miln 356.

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Abhiroceti [abhi + roceti, Causative of ruc] 1. to like, to find delight in (acc.), to desire, long for J III.192; V.222 ( = roceti); Vv 6423 (vataṃ abhirocayi = abhirocesi ruccitvā pūresi ti attho; abhirādhayi ti pi pāṭho; sādhesi nipphādesī ti attho VvA 282). - 2. to please, satisfy, entertain, gladden Vv 6424 (but VvA 292: abhibhavitvā vijjotati, thus to no. 3). - 3. v. l. for atiroceti (to surpass in splendour) at Vv 8112, cp. also no. 2.

Abhiropana (nt.) [from abhiropeti] concentration of mind, attention (seems restricted to Ps II. only) Ps II.82 (v. l. abhiniropana), 84, 93, 115 (buddhi*), 142 (*virāga), 145 (*vimutti), 216 (*abhisamaya). See also abhiniropana.

Abhiropeti [abhi + ropeti, cp. Sanskrit adhiropayati, Causative of ruh] to fix one's mind on, to pay attention, to show reverence, to honour Vv 377 (aor. *ropayi = ropesi VvA 169), 3710 (id.; = pūjaṃ kāresi VvA 172), 604 ( = pūjesi VvA 253); Dāvs V.19.

Abhilakkhita (adj.) [Sanskrit abhilaks.ita in different meaning; pp. of abhi + laks.] fixed, designed, inaugurated, marked by auspices J IV.1; DA I.18.

Abhilakkhitatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhilakkhita] having signs or marks, being characterised, characteristics DhsA 62.

Abhilanghati [abhi + langhati] to ascend, rise, travel or pass over (of the moon traversing the sky) J III.364; VI.221.

Abhilambati [abhi + lambati] to hang down over (c. acc.) M III.164 = Nett 179 (+ ajjholambati); J V.70 (papātaṃ), 269 (Vetaraṇiṃ). -pp. abhilambita (q. v.).

Abhilambita (adj.) [pp. of abhilambati] hanging down J V.407 (nīladuma*).

Abhilāpa [from abhi + lap] talk, phrasing, expression Sn 49 (vāca-bhilāpa making phrases, talking, idle or objectionable speech = tiracchanakathā Nd2 561); It 89 (* reading abhilāpāyaṃ uncertain, vv. ll. abhipāyaṃ abhipāpāyaṃ, abhisāpāyaṃ, abhisapāyaṃ, atisappāyaṃ. The corresponds passage S III.93 reads abhisapayaŋ: curse, and C. on It 89 expls. abhilāpo ti akkoso, see Brethren 376 n. 1); Dhs 1306 = Nd2 34 (as exegesis or paraphrase of adhivacana, combined. with vyañjana and trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "a distinctive mark of discourse"); DA I.20, 23, 281; DhsA 51.

Abhilāsa [Sanskrit abhilā.sa, abhi + las.] desire, wish, longing PvA 154.

Abhilekheti [Causative of abhi + likh] to cause to be inscribed Dāvs V.67 (cāritta-lekhaṃ *lekhayi).

Abhilepana (nt.) [abhi + lepana] "smearing over", stain, pollution Sn 1032, 1033 = Nett 10, 11 (see Nd2 88 = laggana "sticking to", bandhana, upakkilesa).

Abhivagga [abhi + vagga] great mass (*), superior force (*), only in phrase *ena omaddati to crush with sup. force or overpower M I.87 = Nd2 1996.

Abhivañcana (nt.) [abhi + vañc] deceit, fraud Dāvs III.64.

Abhivaṭṭa [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivuṭṭha] rained upon Dh 335 (gloss *vuṭṭha; cp. DhA IV.45); Miln 176, 197, 286. - Note. Andersen Pāli R. prefers reading abhivaḍḍha at Dh 335 "the abounding Bīraṇa grass").

Abhivaḍḍhati [Vedic abhivardhati, abhi + vrdh] 1. to increase (intrs.) D I.113, 195 (opp. hāyati); M II.225; A III.46 (bhogā a.); Dh 24; Miln 374; PvA 8, 133; Sdhp 288, 523. - 2. to grow over or beyond, to outg ow J III.399 (vanaspatiṃ). -pp. abhivuḍḍha and *vuddha (q.v.).

Abhivaḍḍhana (adj.-nt.) [from abhivaḍḍhati] increasing (trs.), augmenting; f. *ī Sdhp 68.

Abhivaḍḍhi (f.) [cp. Sanskrit abhivrddhi, from abhi + vrdh] increase, growth Miln 94. - See also abhivuddhi.

Abhivaṇṇita [pp. of abhivanneti] praised Dpvs I.4.

Abhivaṇṇeti [abhi + vanneti] to praise Sdhp 588 (*ayi). pp. abhivaṇṇita.

Abhivadati [abhi + vadati] 1. to speak out, declare, promise J I.83 = Vin I.36; J VI.220. - 2. to speak (kindly) to, to welcome, salute, greet. In this sense always combined. with abhinandati, e. g. at M I.109, 266, 458; S III.14; IV.36 sq.; Miln 69. - Causative abhivādeti.

Abhivandati [abhi + vandati] to salute respectfully, to honour, greet; grd. *vandanīya Miln 227.

Abhivassaka (adj.) [from abhivassati] raining, fig. shedding, pouring ont, yielding VvA 38 (puppha*).

Abhivassati [abhi + vassati from vrs.] to rain, shed rain, pour; fig. rain down, pour out, shed D III.160 (ābhivassaŋ metri causa); A III.34; Th 1, 985; J I.18 (V.100; pupphā a. stream down); cp. III.106; Miln 132, 411. pp. abhivaṭṭa and abhivuṭṭha (q. v.). - Causative II. abhivassāpeti to cause (the sky to) rain Miln 132.

Abhivassin (adj.) = abhivassaka It 64, 65 (sabbattha*).

Abhivādana (nt.) [from abhivādeti] respectful greeting, salutation, giving welcome, showing respect or devotion A II.180; IV.130, 276; J I.81, 82, 218; Dh 109 (*sīlin of devout character, cp. DhA II.239); VvA 24; Sdhp 549 (*sīla).

Abhivādeti [Causative of abhivadati] to salute, greet, welcome, honour Vin II.208 sq.; D I.61; A III.223; IV.173; Vv 15 (abhivādayiṃ aor. = abhivādanaṃ kāresiṃ vandiṃ VvA 24); Miln 162. Often in combination with padakkhiṇaṃ karoti in sense of to bid goodbye, to say adieu, farewell, e. g. D I.89, 125, 225; Sn 1010. - Causative II. abhivādāpeti to cause some one to salute, to make welcome Vin II.208 (*etabba).

Abhivāyati [abhi + vāyati; cp. Sanskrit abhivāti] to blow through, to pervade Miln 385.

Abhivāreti [abhi + vāreti, Causative of vr] to hold back, refuse, deny J V.325 ( = nivāreti C.).

Abhivāheti [abhi + vāheti, Causative of vah] to remove, to put away Bu X.5.

Abhivijayati (and vijināti) [abhi + vijayati] to overpower, to conquer. Of *jayati the ger. *jiya at D I.89, 134; II.16. Of *jināti the pres. 3rd pl. *jinanti at Miln 39; the ger. *jinitvā at M I.253; Pug 66.

Abhiviññāpeti [abhi + viññāpeti] to turn somebody's mind on (c. acc.), to induce somebody (dat.) to (acc.) Vin III.18 (purāṇadutiyikāya methunaṃ dhammaṃ abhiviññāpesi).

Abhivitarati [abhi + vitarati] "to go down to", i. e. give in, to pay heed, observe Vin I.134 and in stereotype explination. of sañcicca at Vin II.91; III.73, 112; IV.290.

Abhivinaya [abhi + vinaya] higher discipline, the refinements of discipline or Vinaya; combined. with abhidhamma, e. g. D III.267; M I.472; also with vinaya Vin V.1 sg.

Abhivindati [abhi + vindati] to find, get, obtain Sn 460 ( = labhati adhigacchati SnA 405).

Abhivisiṭṭha (adj.) [abhi + visiṭṭha] most excellent, very distinguished DA I.99, 313.

Abhivissajjati [abhi + vissajjati] to send out, send forth, deal out, give D III.160.

Abhivissattha [abhi + vissattha, pp. of abhivissasati, Sanskrit abhivishvasta] confided in, taken into confidence M II.52 (v. l. *visaṭṭha).

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Abhivuṭṭha [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivaṭṭa] poured out or over, shed out (of water or rain) Th 1, 1065; Dh 335 (gloss); PvA 29.

Abhivuḍḍha [pp. of abhivaḍḍhati, see also *vuddha] increased, enriched PvA 150.

Abhivuddha [pp. of abhivaḍḍhati, see also *vuḍḍha] grown up Miln 361.

Abhivuddhi (f.) [Sanskrit abhivrddhi, see also abhivaḍḍhi] increase, growth, prosperity Miln 34.

Abhiveṭheti: Kern's (Toev. s. v.) proposed reading at J V.452 for ati*, which however does not agree with C. explination. on p. 454.

Abhivedeti [abhi + Causative of vid] 1. to make known, to communicate Dāvs V.2, 11. - 2. to know J VI.175 ( = jānāti C.).

Abhivihacca [ger. of abhi + vihanati] having destroyed, removed or expelled; only in one simile of the sun driving darkness away at M I.317 = S III.156; V.44 = It 20.

Abhivyāpeti see abhibyāpeti.

Abhisaŋvisati [abhi + saŋvisati]. Only in abhisaŋvisseyyagattaṃ (or-bhastaṃ or-santuṃ) Th 2, 466 a compound of doubtful derivation and meaning. Mrs. Rh. D., following Dhammapāla (p. 283) "a bag of skin with carrion filled" .

Abhisaŋsati [Vedic abhishaṃsati, abhi + shaṃs] to execrate, revile, lay a curse on J V.174 (*saŋsittha 3rd sg. pret. med. = paribhāsi C.) - aor. abhisasi J VI.187, 505, 522 ( = akkosi C.), 563 (id.). -pp. abhisattha. Cp. also abhisiṃsati.

Abhisaŋsanā (f.) [* abhisaŋsati] is doubtful reading at Vv 6410; meaning "neighing" (of horses) VvA 272, 279.

Abhisankhata (adj.) [abhi + sankhata, pp. of abhisankharoti] prepared, fixed, made up, arranged, done M I.350; A II.43; V.343; J I.50; Nd1 186 (kappita +); PvA 7, 8.

Abhisankharoti (and *khāreti in Pot.) [abhi + sankharoti] to prepare, do, perform, work, get up Vin I.16 (iddh- a-bhisankhāraṃ *khāreyya); D I.184 (id.); S II.40; III.87, 92; IV.132, 290; V.449; A I.201; Sn 984 (ger. *itvā: having got up this curse, cp. SnA 582); PvA 56 (iddh- a-bhisaŋkhāraṃ), 172 (id.), 212 (id.). -pp. abhisankhata (q. v.).

Abhisankhāra [abhi + sankhāra] 1. putting forth, performance, doing, working, practice: only in two combinations., viz. (a) gamiya* (or gamika*) a heathenish practice Vin I.233; A IV.180, and (b) iddha* ( = idd*i*) working of supernormal powers Vin I.16; D I.106; S III.92; IV.289; V.270; Sn p. 107; PvA 56, 172, 212. - 2. preparation, store, accumulation (of kamma, merit or demerit), substratum, state (see for detail sankhāra) S III.58 (an*); Nd1 334, 442; Nd2 s. v.; Vbh 135 (puñña* etc.), 340; DhsA 357 (*viññāna "storing intellect" Dhs trsl. 262).

Abhisankhārika (adj.) [from abhisankhāra] what belongs to or is done by the sankhāras; accumulated by or accumulating merit, having special (meritorious) effect (or specially prepared*) Vin II.77 = III.160; Sdhp 309 (sa *paccaya).

Abhisankhipati [abhi + sankhipati] to throw together, heap together, concentrate Vbh 1 sq., 82 sq., 216 sq., 400; Miln 46.

Abhisanga [from abhi + sañj, cp. abhisajjati and Sanskrit abhisanga] Q sticking to, cleaving to, adherence to J V.6; Nett 110, 112; DhsA 129 (*hetukaṃ dukkhaṃ) 249 (*rasa).

Abhisangin (adj.) [from abhisanga] cleaving to (-*) Sdhp 566.

Abhisajjati [abhi + sañj; cp. abhisanga] to be in ill temper, to be angry, to curse, imprecate (in meaning of abhisanga 2) D I.91 ( = kodha-vasena laggati DA I.257); III.159; J III.120 (+ kuppati); IV.22 (abhisajji kuppi vyāpajji, cp. BSanskrit abhi.sajyate kupyati vyāpadyate. Av. SH I.286); V.175 ( = kopeti C.); Dh 408 (abhisaje Pot. = kujjhāpana-vasena laggapeyya DhA IV.182); Pug 30, 36. See also abhisajjana and abhisajjanā.

Abhisajjana (nt.-adj.) [abstr. from abhisajjati in meaning of abhisanga 2] only as adv. f. *nī Ep. of vācā scolding, abusing, cursing A V.265 (para*). Cp. next.

Abhisajjanā (f.) [abstr. from abhisajjati, cp. abhisajjana] at Sn 49 evidently means "scolding, cursing, being in bad temper" (cp. abhisajjati), as its combination. with vāc- a-bhilāpa indicates, but is explained. both by Nd2 and Bdhgh. as "sticking to, cleaving, craving, desire" ( = taṇhā), after the meaning of abhisanga. See Nd2 89 and 107; SnA 98 (sineha-vasena), cp. also the compromise-explination by Bdhgh. of abhisajjati as kodha-vasena laggati (DA I.257).

Abhisañcināti (and *cayati) [abhi + sañcināti] to accumulate, collect (merit) Vv 476 (Pot. *sañceyyaṃ = *sañcineyyaṃ VvA 202).

Abhisañcetayita [pp. of abhisañceteti] raised into consciousness, thought out, intended, planned M I.350; S II. 65; IV.132; A V.343.

Abhisañceteti [abhi + sañceteti or *cinteti] to bring to consciousness, think out, devise, plan S II.82. -pp. abhisañcetayita (q. v.).

Abhisaññā (f.). Only in the compound abhi-saññā-nirodha D I.179, 184. The prefix abhi qualifies, not saññā, but the whole compound, which means "trance" . It is an expression used, not by Buddhists, but by certain wanderers. See saññā-vedayita-nirodha.

Abhisaññūhati [abhi + saññūhati, i. e. saŋ-ni-ūhati] to heap up, concentrate Vbh 1, 2, 82 sq.; 216 sq., 400; Miln 46. Cp. abhisankhipati.

Abhisaṭa [pp. of abhisarati, abhi + sr to flow] 1. (med.) streamed forth, come together J VI.56 ( = sannipatita C.). 2. (pass.) approached, visited Vin I.268.

Abhisatta [pp. of abhisapati, cp. Sanskrit abhishapta, from abhi + shap] cursed, accursed, railed at, reviled J III.460; V.71; SnA 364 ( = akkuṭṭha); VvA 335.

Abhisattha [pp. of abhisaŋsati] cursed, accursed Th 1, 118 "old age falls on her as if it had been cursed upon her" (that is, laid upon her by a curse). Morris J P T S. 1886, 145 gives the commentator's equivalents, "commanded, worked by a charm". This is a curious idiom. Any European would say that the woman herself, not the old age, was accursed. But the whole verse is a riddle and Kern's translation (Toev. s. v.) "hurried up" seems to us impossible.

Abhisaddahati [abhi + saddahati, cp. Sanskrit abhishraddadhāti, e. g. Divy 17, 337] to have faith in, believe in (c. acc.), believe S V.226; Th 1, 785; Pv IV.113, 125 (*saddaheyya = paṭiñeyya PvA 226); Nett 11; Miln 258; PvA 26; Dāvs III.58.

Abhisantāpeti [ahhi + santāpeti, Causative of santapati] to burn out, scorch, destroy M I.121.

Abhisanda [abhi + sanda of syad, cp. BSanskrit abhisyanda, e. g. M Vastu II.276] outflow, overflow, yield, issue, result; only in following phrases: cattāro puññ- a-bhisandā kusal- a-bhisandā (yields in merit) S V.391 sq.; A II.54 sq.; III.51, 337; VI.245, and kamm- a-bhisanda result of kamma Miln 276. - Cp. abhisandana.

Abhisandana (nt.) [ = abhisanda] result, outcome, consequence Ps I.17 (sukhassa).

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Abhisandahati [abhi + sandahati of saŋ + dhā] to put together, to make ready Th 1, 151; ger. abhisandhāya in sense of a prep. = on account of, because of J II.386 ( = paṭicca C.).

Abhisandeti [abhi + sandeti, Causative of syad] to make overflow, to make full, fill, pervade D I.73, 74.

Abhisanna (adj.) [pp. of abhisandati = abhi + syand, cp. Sanskrit abhisanna] overflowing, filled with (-*), full Vin I. 279 (*kāya a body full of humours, cp. II.119 and Miln 134); J I.17 (V.88; pītiyā); Miln 112 (duggandha*).

Abhisapati [abhi + sapati, of shap] to execrate, curse, accurse Vin IV.276; J IV.389; V.87; DhA I.42. -pp. abhisatta.

Abhisapana (nt.) [from abhisapati] cursing, curse PvA 144 (so read for abhisampanna).

Abhisamaya [abhi + samaya, from sam + i, cp. abhisameti and sameti; BSanskrit abhisamaya, e. g. Divy 200, 654] "coming by completely", insight into, comprehension, realization, clear understanding, grasp, penetration. See on term Kvu trsl. 381 sq. - Esp. in full phrases: attha* grasp of what is proficient S I.87 = A III.49 = It 17, cp. A II.46; ariyasaccānaṃ a. full understanding of the 4 noble truths S V.415, 440, 441 [cp. Divy 654: anabhisamitānāṃ caturnāṃ āryasatyānāṃ a.]; Sn 758 (sacca* = sacc- a-vabodha SnA 509); Miln 214 (catusacc*); Sdhp 467 (catusacc*), 525 (saccānaṃ); dhamm- a-bhisamaya full grasp of the Dhamma, quasi conversion [cp. dharm- a-bhisamaya Divy 200] S II.134; Miln 20, 350; VvA 219; PvA 9 etc. frequent; sammā-mān- a-bhisamaya full understanding of false pride in stereotype phrase" acchecchi (for acchejji) taṇhaṃ, vivattayi saññojanaṃ sammāmāna-bhisamayā antam akāsi dukkhassa" at S IV.205, 207, 399; A III.246, 444; It 47; cp. māna* S I.188 = Th 2, 20 (tato māna-bhisamayā upasanto carissasi, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. 239 "hath the mind mastereotyped vain imaginings, then mayst thou go thy ways calm and serene"); Sn 342 (explained. by mānassa abhisamayo khayo vayo pahānaṃ SnA 344). Also in following passages: S II.5 (paññāya), 104 (id.), 133 sq. (Abhisamaya Saŋyutta); Sn 737 (phassa*, explained. ad sensum but not at verbum by phassa-nirodha SnA 509); Ps II.215; Pug 41; Vv 1610 ( = saccapaṭivedha VvA 85); DA I.32; DhA I.109; VvA 73 (bhāvana*), 84 (sacchikiriya*); Dpvs I.31. -anabhisamaya not grasping correctly, insufficient understanding, taken up wrongly S III.260; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162 (Mrs. Rh. D. translations. "lack of coordination").

Abhisamāgacchati [abhi + sam + āgacchati, cp. in meaning adhigacchati] to come to (understand) completely, to grasp fully, to mastereotypeKhA 236 (for abhisamecca Sn 143).

Abhisamācārika (adj.) [abhi + samācārika, to samācāra] belonging to the practice of the lesser ethics; to be practiced; belonging to or what is the least to be expected of good conduct, proper. Of sikkhā Vin V.181; A II.243 sq.; of dhamma M I.469; A III.14 sq.; 422.

Abhisamikkhati (and *ekkhati), [abhi + sam + īks, cp. samikkhati] to behold, see, regard, notice J. IV.19 (2nd sg. med. *samekkhase = olokesi C.). - ger. *samikkha and *samekkha [B.Sanskrit *samīks.ya, e.g. Jtm. p. 28, 30 etc.] J V.340 (*samikkha, v. l. sañcikkha = passitvā C.); 393, 394 ( = disvā C.).

Abhisameta [pp. of abhisameti, from abhi + sam + i, taken as caus. formation, against the regular form SanskritPāli samita and B.Sanskrit abhisamita] completely grasped or realised, understood, mastereotyped S V.128 (dhamma a.), 440 (anabhisametāni cattāri ariyasaccāni, cp. Divy 654 anabhisamitāni c.a.); A IV.384 (appattaṃ asacchikataṃ +).

Abhisametāvin (adj.) [possess. adj. -formation, equalling a n. ag. form., pp. abhisameta] commanding full understanding or penetration, possessing complete insight (of the truth) Vin III.189; S II.133; V.458 sq.

Abhisameti [abhi + sameti, sam + i; in inflexion base is taken partly as ordinary and partly as causative, e. g. aor. *samiṃsu and *samesuṃ, pp. sameta: Sanskrit samita. Cp. B.Sanskrit abhisamayati, either caus. or denom. formation, Divy 617: caturāryasatyāni a.] to come by, to attain, to realise, grasp, understand (cp. adhigacchati) Miln 214 (catusacca-bhisamayaŋ abhisameti). Freg. in combination. abhisambujjhati, abhisameti; abhisambujjhitvā abhisametvā, e. g. S II.25; III.139; Kvu 321. - fut. *samessati S V.441. - aor. *samiṃsu Miln 350; *samesuṃ S V.415. - ger. *samecca (for *icca under influence of *sametvā as caus. form.; Trenckner's explination. Notes 564 is unnecessary and hardly justifiable) S V.438 (an* by not thoroughly understanding); A V.50 (samm-attha* through complete realisation of what is proficient); Sn 143 ( = abhisamāgantvā KhA 236); and *sametvā S II.25; III.139. -pp. abhisameta (q.v.).

Abhisampanna at PvA 144 is wrong reading for v. l. abhisapana (curse).

Abhisamparāya [abhi + samparāya] future lot, fate, state after death, future condition of rebirth; usually in following phrases: kā gati ko abhisamparāyo (as hendiadys) "what fate in the world-to-come" , D II.91; Vin I.293; S IV.59, 63; V.346, 356, 369; DhA I.221. - evaṃ-gatika evan abhisamparāya (adj.) "leading to such and such a revirn, such and such a future state" D I.16, 24, 32, 33 etc. ( = evaṃ-vidhā paralokā ti DA I.108). -abhisamparāyaṃ (acc. as adv.) in future, after death A I.48; II.197; III.347; IV.104; Pv III.510 ( = punabbhave PvA 200). - diṭṭhe c-eva dhamme abhisamparāyañ ca "in this world and in the world to come" A II.61; Pug 38; Miln 162; PvA 195 etc. (see also diṭṭha). - Used absolutely at PvA 122 ( = fate).

Abhisambujjhati [abhi + sambujjhati] to become wideawake, to awake to the highest knowledge, to gain the highest wisdom (sammāsambodhiṃ) D III.135; It 121. aor. *sambujjhi S V.433; PvA 19. In combination. abhisambujjhati abhisameti, e. g. S. II.25; III.139. - ppr. med. *sambudhāna; pp. *samBuddha - Causative *sambodheti to make awake, to awaken, to enlighten; pp. *bodhita.

Abhisambujjhana (nt.) = abhisambodhi J I.59.

AbhisamBuddha [pp. of abhisambujjhati] (a) (pass.) realised, perfectly understood D III.273; S IV.331; It 121. an* not understood M I.71, 92, 114, 163, 240. - (b) (med.) one who has come to the realisation of the highest wisdom, fully-awakened, attained Buddhahood, realising, enlightened (in or as to = acc.) Vin I.1; D II.4; M I.6 (sammāsambodhiṃ); S I.68, 138, 139 and passim PvA 94, 99.

AbhisamBuddhatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhisamBuddha] thorough realisation, perfect understanding S V.433.

Abhisambudhāna (adj.) [formation of a ppr. med. from pp. abhsam + budh instead of abhisam + bujjh*] awaking, realising, knowing, understanding Dh 46 ( = bujjhanto jānanto ti attho DhA I.337).

Abhisambodhi (f.) [abhi + sambodhi] the highest enlightenment J I.14 (parama*). Cp. abhisambujjhana and (sammā-) sambodhi.

Abhisambodhita (adj.) [pp. of abhisambodheti, Causative of abhi + sambujjhati] awakened to the highest wisdom PvA 137 (Bhagavā).

Abhisambhava [from abhisambhavati] only in dur* hard to overcome or get over, hard to obtain or reach, troublesome S V.454; A V.202; Sn 429, 701; J V.269, VI.139, 439.

Abhisambhavati (*bhoti) [abhi + sambhavati] "to come up to", i. e. to be able to (get or stand or overcome); to attain, reach, to bear A IV.241; Th 1, 436; Nd1 471,

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485; J III.140; V.150, 417; VI.292, 293, 507 (fut. med. *sambhossaŋ = sahissāmi adhivāsessāmi C.); Ps II.193. ger. *bhutvā Th 1, 1057 and *bhavitvā Sn 52 (cp. Nd2 85). - aor. *bhosi D II.232. - grd. *bhavanīya D II.210; Ps II.193. - See also abhisambhuṇāti.

Abhisambhuṇāti [considered to be a bastard form of abhisambhavati, but probably of different origin and etymology; also in Bh. Sanskrit frequent] to be able (to get or reach); only in negative ppr. anabhisambhuṇanto unable D I.101 ( = asampāpuṇanto avisahamāno vā DA I.268); Nd1 77, 312.

Abhisambhū (adj.) [from abhi + sam + bhū] getting, attaining (*) D II.255 (lomahaṃsa*).

Abhisambhūta [pp. of abhisambhavati] attained, got Sdhp 556.

Abhisammati [abhi + sam, Sanskrit abhishamyati] to cease, stop; trs. (Causative) to allay, pacify, still J VI.420 (pp. abhisammanto for *shammento Reading uncertain).

Abhisara [from abhi + sarati, of sr to go] retinue J V.373.

Abhisallekhika (adj) [abhi + sallekha + ika] austereotype, stereotype, only in f. *ā (scil. kathā) A III.117 sq.; IV.352, 357; V.67.

Abhisavati (better -ssavati*) [abhi + savati, of sru] to flow towards or into J VI.359 (najjo Gangaṃ a.).

Abhisasi aor. of abhisaŋsati (q. v.).

Abhisādheti [abhi + sādheti] to carry out, arrange; to get; procure, attain J VI.180; Miln 264.

Abhisāpa [abhisapati] a curse, anathema S III.93 = It 89 (which latter reads abhilāpa and It A expls. by akkosa: see vv. ll. under abhilāpa and cp. Brethren 376 n. 1.); Th 1,1118.

Abhisāriyā (f.) [Sanskrit abhisārikā, from abhi + sr] a woman who goes to meet her lover J III.139.

Abhisāreti [abhi + sāreti, Causative of abhisarati] to approach, to persecute J VI.377.

Abhisiṃsati [ = abhisaŋsati, abhi + shaṃs. As to Sanskrit shaṃs > Pāli siṃs cp. āsiṃsati, as to meaning cp. nature of prayer as a solemn rite to the "infernals", cp. im-precare], to utter a solemn wish, Vv 8118 (aor. *sīsi. v. l. *sisi. VvA 316 expls. by icchi sampaṭicchi).

Abhisiñcati [abhi + siñQ-ati from sic to sprinkle; see also āsiñcati and ava*, Vedic only ā*] to sprinkle over, fig. to anoint (King), to consecrate A I.107 (Khattiy- a-bhisekena) J I.399 (fig. *itvā ger. II.409 (id.); VI.161 (id.); Nd1 298; Miln 336 (amatena lokaṃ abhisiñci Bhagavā); PvA 144 (read abhisiñci cimillikañ ca . . .) - Pass. abhisiñcati Miln 359. -pp. abhisitta. - Causative abhiseceti.

Abhisitta [pp. of abhisiñcati, Sanskrit *sikta] 1. sprinkled over, anointed Sn 889 (manasā, cp. N1 298); Miln 336 (amatena lokaṃ Q.).- 2. consecrated (King), inaugurated (more frequent in this conn. is avasitta), Vin III.44; A I.107 (Khattiyo Khattiyehi Khattiy- a-bhisekena a.); II.87 (v.l. for avasitta, also an*).

Abhiseka [from abhi + sic, cp. Sanskrit abhis.eka] anointing, consecration, inauguration (as king) A I.107 (cp. abhisitta); II.87 read abhisek- -anabhisitto; J II.104, 352; DhA I.350; PvA 74. Cp. ābhisekika.

Abhisecana (nt.) = abhiseka, viz. (a) ablution, washing off Th 2, 239 and 245 (udaka*). - (b) consecration J II.353.

Abhiseceti [caus. of abhisiñcati] to cause to be sprinkled or inaugurated J V.26. (imper. abhisecayassu).

Abhisevanā (f.) [abhi + sevana from sev] pursuit, indulgence in (-*) Sdhp 210 (pāpakamma*).

Abhissara (adj.) [abhi + issara] only negative an* in formula atāṇo loko anabhissaro "without a Lord or protector" M II.68 (v.l. *abhisaro); Ps I.126 (v.l. id.).

Abhihaṃsati [abhi + haṃsati from hrs.] 1. (trs.) to gladden, please, satisfy S IV.190 (abhihaṭṭhuṃ); A V.350 (id.). 2. (intr.) to find delight in (c. acc.), to enjoy S V.74 (rūpaṃ manāpaṃ); A IV.419 sq. (T. reads *hiṃsamāna jhānaṃ v.l. *hisamāna).

Abhihaṭa [pp. of abhiharati] brought, offered, presented, fetched D I.166 = Pug 55 ( = puretaraṃ gahetvā āhaṭaṃ bhikkhaṃ Pug A 231); DhA II.79.

Abhihaṭṭhuṃ [ger. of abhiharati]. Only in praise abhihaṭṭhuṃ pavāreti, to offer having fetched up. M. I.224; A V.350, 352; S IV.190, V.53, 300. See note in Vinaya Texts II.440.

Abhihata [pp. of abhihanati] hit, struck PvA 55.

Abhihanati (and *hanti) [abhi + han] 1. to strike, hit PvA 258. - 2. to overpower, kill, destroy J V.174 (inf. *hantu for T. hantuṃ). -pp. abhihata (q. v.).

Abhiharati [abhi + harati, cp. Sanskrit abhyāharati and Vedic āharati and ābharati] - 1. to bring (to), to offer, fetch D III.170; J I.54, 157; III.537; IV.421; DA I.272. - 2. to curse, revile, abuse [cp. Sanskrit anuvyāharati and abhivyā*] A I.198. - Pass. abhihariyati VvA 172 (for abhiharati of Vv 3710; corresponds with ābhata VvA 172). -pp. abhihaṭa (q.v.). - Causative abhihāreti 1. to cause to be brought, to gain, to acquire D II.188 = 192 = 195 Th 1, 637; J IV.421 (abhihārayaŋ with gloss abhibhārayiṃ). - 2. to betake oneself to, to visit, take to, go to Sn 414 (Paṇḍavaṃ *hāresi = āruhi Sn A 383), 708 (vanantaṃ abhihāraye = vanaṃ gaccheyya SnA 495); Th 2, 146 (aor. *hārayiṃ; uyyānaṃ = upanesi ThA 138). - 3. to put on (mail), only in fut. abhihessati J IV.92 (kavacaṃ; C. expls. wrongly by *hanissati bhindissati so evidently taking it as abhibhavissati). - 4. At J VI.27 kiṃ yobbanena ciṇṇena yaṃ jarā abhihessati the latter is fut. of abhibhavati (for *bhavissati) as indicated by gloss abhibhuyyati.

Abhihāra [from abhiharati] bringing, offering, gift S I.82; Sn 710; J I.81 (āsana-).

Abhihiṃsati spurious reading at A IV.419 for *haṃsati (q.v.).

Abhihiṃsanā (and *ṃ) [for abhihesanā cp. Pāli hesā = Sanskrit hres.ā, and hesitaṃ] neighing Vv 6410 = VvA 279 (gloss abhihesana). See in detail under abhisaŋsanā.

Abhihīta S I.50. Read abhigīta with SS. So also for abhihita on p. 51. "So enchanted was I by the Buddha's rune" . The godlet ascribes a magic potency to the couplet.

Abhihesana see abhihiṃsanā.

Abhihessati see abhihāreti 3 and 4.

Abhīta (adj.) [a + bhīta] fearless J VI.193. See also abhida 1.

Abhīruka (adj.) [a + bhīru + ka] fearless DA I.250.

Abhumma (adj.) [a + bhumma] groundless, unfounded, unsubstantial, J V.178; VI.495.

Abhūta (adj.) [a + bhūta] not real, false, not true, usually as nt. *ṃ falsehood, lie, deceit Sn 387; It 37; instr. abhūtena falsely D I.161. -vādin one who speaks falsely or tells lies Sn 661 = Dh 306 = It 42; explained. as "ariy- ūpavāda-vasena alika -vādin" SnA 478; as "tucchena paraṃ abhācikkhanto" DhA III.477.

Abhejja (adj.) [grd. of a + bhid, cp. Sanskrit abhedya] not to be split or divided, not to be drawn away or caused to be dissented, inalienable Sn 255 (mitto abhejjo parehi); J I.263 (varasūra . . .) III.318 (*rūpa of strong character =

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abhijja-hadaya); Pug 30 ( = acchejja Pug A 212); Miln 160 (*parisā); Sdhp 312 (+ appadusiya); Pgdp 97 (*parivāra).

Amacca [Vedic amātya (only in meaning "companion"), adj. formation from amā an adverbial loc.-gen. of pronoun. 1st person, Sanskrit ahaṃ = Idg. *emo (cp. Sanskrit m-ama), meaning "(those) of me or with me", i. e. those who are in my house] 1. friend, companion, fellow-worker, helper, esp. one who gives his advice, a bosom-friend It 73; J VI. 512 (sahajātā amaccā); Pv II.620 (a *- paricārikā welladvising friends as company or around him). Freq. in combination. with mitta as mitt- a-maccā, friends and colleagues D III.189-90; S 190 = A II.67; PvA 29; or with ñātī (ñāti-sālohitā intimate friends and near-relations), mitta-maccā ñātisālohitā Vin II.126; Sn p. 104 ( = mittā ca kammakarā ca SnA 447); mittā vā amaccā vā ñātī vā sālohitā vā A I.222; PvA 28; amaccā ñāti-sanghā ca A I.152. 2. Especially a king's intimate friend, king's favourite, confidant J I.262; PvA 73 (*kula), 74 (amaccā ca purohito ca), 81 (sabba-kammika amacca), 93; and his special adviser or privy councillor, as such distinguished from the official ministereotype (purohita, mahāmatta, pārisajja); usually combined. with pārisajjā (pl.) viz. D I.136 ( = piya-sahāyaka DA I.297, but cp. the following explination. of pārisajjā as "sesā āṇatti-karā"); Vin I.348; D III.64 (amaccā pārisajjā gaṇakamahāmattā); A I.142 (catunnaṃ Mahārājānaṃ a. pārisajjā). See on the question of ministereotype in general Fick, Sociale Gliederung p. 93, 164 and Banerjea, Public Administration in Ancient India pp. 106-120.

Amajja [etymology*] a bud J V.416 ( = makula C.).

Amajjapāyaka [a + majja + pāyaka, cp. Sanskrit amadyapa] one who abstains from intoxicants, a teetotaler J II.192.

Amata1 (nt.) [a + mata = mrta pp. of mr, Vedic amrta = Gr. a)-m(b)rot-oanda)mbrosi/a = Latin im-mort-a(lis] 1. The drink of the gods, ambrosia, water of immortality, (cp. BSanskrit "rain of Ambrosia" Jtm 221). - 2. A general conception of a state of durability and non-change, a state of security i. e. where there is not any more rebirth or re-death. So Bdhgh at KhA 180 (on Sn 225) "na jāyati na jīyati na mīyati ti amatan ti vuccati", or at DhA I.228 "ajātattā na jiyyati na miyyati tasmā amatan ti vuccati". - Vin I.7 = M I.169 (apārutā tesaŋ amatassa dvārā); Vin I.39; D II.39, 217, 241; S I.32 ( = rāgadosamoha-khayo), 193; III.2 (*ena abhisitta "sprinkled with A."); IV.94 (*assa dātā), 370; V.402 (*assa patti); A I.45 sq.; III.451; IV.455; V.226 sq., 256 sq. (*assa dātā); J I.4 (V.25); IV.378, 386; V.456 (*mahā-nibbāna); Sn 204, 225, 228 ( = nibbāna KhA 185); Th 1, 310 ( = agada antidote); It 46 = 62 (as dhātu), 80 (*assa dvāra); Dh 114, 374 ( = amata-mahā-nibbāna DhA IV.110); Miln 258 (*dhura savanūpaga), 319 (agado amataṃ and nibbānaṃ amataṃ), 336 (amatena lokaṃ abhisiñci Bhagavā), 346 (dhamm- a-mataṃ); DA I.217 (*nibbāna); DhA I.87 (*ṃ pāyeti); Dāvs II.34; V.31; Sdhp 1, 209, 530, 571. -ogadha diving into the ambrosia (of Nibbāna) S V. 41, 54, 181, 220, 232; A III.79, 304; IV.46 sq., 317, 387; V.105 sq.; Sn 635; Th 1, 179, 748; Dh 411 ( = amataṃ nibbānaṃ ogahetvā DhA IV.186); Vv 5020. -osadha the medicine of Ambrosia, ambrosial medicine Miln 247. -gāmin going or leading to the ambrosia (of Nibbāna) S I.123; IV.370; V.8; A III.329; Th 2, 222. -dasa one who sees Amata or Nibbāna Th 1, 336. -dundubhi the drum of the Immortal (Nibbāna) M I.171 = Vin I.8 (has *dudrabhi). -dvāra the door to Nibbāna M I.353; S I. 137 = Vin I.5; S II.43, 45, 58, 80; A V.346. -dhātu the element of Ambrosia or Nibbāna A III.356. -patta having attained to Ambrosia A IV.455. -pada the region or place of Ambrosia S I.212 ("Bourne Ambrosial" translation. p. 274); II.280; Dh 21 ( = amatassa adhigama-vupāyo vuttaṃ hoti DhA I.228). -phala ambrosial fruit S I.173 = Sn 80. -magga the path to Ambrosia DhA I.94.

Amata2 (adj.) [see amata1] belonging to Amrta = ambrosial Sn 452 = S I.189 (amatā vācā = amata-sadisā sādubhāvena SnA 399: "ambrosial"), 960 (gacchato amataṃ disaŋ = nibbānaṃ, taṃ hi amatan ti tathā niddisitabbato disā cā ti SnA 572). Perhaps also at It 46 = 62 (amataṃ dhātuṃ = ambrosial state or Amrta as dhātu).

Amatabbāka (*) at VvA 111, acc. to Hardy (Index) "a precious stone of dark blue colour".

Amattaññu (adj.) [a + matta + *ñu = Sanskrit amātrajña] not knowing any bounds (in the taking of food), intemperate, immoderate It 23 (bhojanamhi); Dh 7 (id.); Pug 21.

Amattaññutā (f.) [abstr. to prec.] immoderation (in food) D III.213; It 23 (bhojane); Pug 21; Dhs 1346 (bhojane); DhsA 402.

Amatteyyatā (f.) [from matteyyatā] irreverence towards one's mother D III.70, 71.

Amanussa [a + manussa] a being which is not human, a fairy demon, ghost, god, spirit, yakkha Vin I.277; D I. 116; S I.91, J I.99; Dhs 617; Miln 207; DhsA 319; DhA I.13 (*pariggahīta haunted); PvA 216. - Cp. amānusa.

Amanussika (adj.) [from amanussa] belonging to or caused by a spirit Vin I.202, 203 (*a-bādha being possessed by a demon).

Amama (adj.) [a + mama, gen. of ahaṃ, pronoun. 1st person, lit. "not (saying: this is) of me"] not egotistical, unselfish Sn 220 (+ subbata), 777; J IV.372 (+ nirāsaya); VI.259 ( = mamāyana-taṇhā-rahita C.); Pv IV.134 ( = mamaṃkāravirahita PvA 230); Mhvs 1, 66, combined. with nirāsa (free from longing), at Sn 469 = 494; Ud 32; J IV.303; VI.259.

Amara (adj.) [a + mara from mr] not mortal, not subject to death Th 1, 276; Sn 249 ( = amara-bhāva-patthanatāya pavatta-kāya-kilesa SnA 291); J V.80 ( = amaraṇa-sabhāva), 218; Dāvs V.62.

Amaratta (nt.) [abstr. from amara] immortality J V.223 ( = devatta C.).

Amarā (*) a kind of slippery fish, an eel (*) Only in expression amarā-vikkhepika eel-wobbler, one who practices eel-wriggling, from *vikkhepa "oscillation like the a. fish". In English idiom "a man who sits on the fence" D I.24; M I.521; Ps I.155. The explination. given by Bdhgh at DA I.115 is "amarā nāma maccha-jāti, sā ummujjana-nimmujjan-ādi vasena . . gahetuṃ na Sakkoti" etc. This meaning is not beyond doubt, but Kern's explination. Toev. 71 does not help to clear it up.

Amala (adj.) [a + mala] without stain or fault J V.4; Sdhp 246, 591, 596.

Amassuka (adj.) [a + massu + ka] beardless J II.185.

Amājāta (adj.) [amā + jāta; amā adv. "at home", Vedic amā, see under amacca] born in the house, of a slave J I.226 (dāsa, so read for āmajāta, an old mistake, explained. by C. forcibly as "āma ahaṃ vo dāsī ti"!). See also āmāya.

Amātika (adj.) [a + mātika from mātā] without a mother, motherless J V.251.

Amānusa (adj.) [Vedic amā, usually of demons, but also of gods; a + mānusa, cp. amanussa] non- or superhuman, unhuman, demonic, peculiar to a non-human (Peta or Yakkha) Pv II.1220 (kāma); IV.157 (as n.); IV.36 (gandha, of Petas). - f. *ī Dh 373 (rati = dibbā rati DhA IV.110); Pv III.79 (ratti, love).

Amāmaka (adj.) [a + mama + ka, cp. amama] "not of me" i. e. not belonging to my party, not siding with me DhA I.66.

Amāya (adj.) [a + māyā] not deceiving, open, honest Sn 941 (see Nd1 422: māyā vuccati vañcanikā cariyā). Cp. next.

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Amāyāvin (adj.) [a + māyāvin, cp. amāya] without guile, not deceiving, honest D III.47 (asaṭha +), 55 (id.), 237; DhA I.69 (asaṭhena a.).

Amitābha (adj.) [a + mita (pp. of mā) + ā + bhā] of boundless or immeasurable splendour Sdhp 255.

Amitta [Vedic amitra; a + mitta] one who is not friend, an enemy D III.185; It 83; Sn 561 ( = paccatthika SnA 455); Dh 66, 207; J VI.274 (*tāpana harassing the enemies).

Amilātatā (f.) [a + milāta + tā] the condition of not being withered J V.156.

Amu* base of demonstr. pronoun. "that", see asu.

Amucchita (adj.) [a + mucchita] not infatuated (lit. not stupified or bewildered), not greedy; only in phrase agathita amucchita anajjhāpanna (or anajjhopanna) D III.46; M I.369; S II.194. See ajjhopanna.

Amutta (adj.) [a + mutta] not released, not free from (c. abl.) It 93 (mārabandhanā).

Amutra (adv.) [pronoun. base amu + tra] in that place, there; in another state of existence D I.4, 14, 184; It 99.

Amū'ha-vinaya "acquittal on the ground of restored sanity" (Childers) Vin I.325 (IX.6, 2); II.81 (IV.5), 99 (IV.14, 27); IV.207, 351; M II.248.

Amoha (adj.) [a + moha, cp. Sanskrit amogha] not dull. As n. absence of stupidity or delusion D III.214; Pug 25. The form amogha occurs at J VI.26 in the meaning of "efficacious, auspicious" (said of ratyā nights).

Amba [Derivation unknown. Not found in pre-Buddhist literature. The Sanskrit is āmra. Probably non-Aryan], the Mango tree, Mangifera Indica D I.46, 53, 235; J II.105, 160; Vv 7910; Pug 45; Miln 46; PvA 153, 187. -aṭṭhi the kernel or stone of the m. fruit DhA III.207, 208. -ārāma a garden of mangoes, mango grove Vv 795; VvA 305. -kañjika mango gruel Vv 3337 ( = ambilakañjika VvA 147). -pakka a (ripe) mango fruit J II.104, 394; DhA III.207. -panta a border of mango trees VvA 198. -pānaka a drink made from mangoes DhA III.207. -piṇḍi a bunch of mangoes J III.53; DhA III.207. -pesikā the peel, rind, of the m. fruit Vin II.109. -potaka a mango sprout DhA III.206 sq. -phala a m. fruit PvA 273, 274. -rukkha a m. tree DhA III.207; VvA 198. -vana a m. grove or wood D II.126; J I.139; VvA 305. -siñcaka one who waters the mangoes, a tender or keeper of mangoes Vv 797.

Ambaka1 (adj.) [ = ambakā*] "womanish" (*), inferior, silly, stupid, of narrow intellect. Occurs only with reference to a woman, in combination. with bālā A III.349 (v. l. amma*) = V.139 (where spelt ambhaka with v. l. appaka* and gloss andhaka); V.150 (spelt ambhaka perhaps in different meaning). -maddarī see next.

Ambaka2 [demin. of amba] a little mango, only in *maddarī a kiṇd of bird [etymology uncertain] A I.188.

Ambakā (f.) [Sanskrit ambikā demin. of ambī mother, wife, see Pāli amma and cp. also Sanskrit ambālikā f.] mother, good wife, used as a general endearing term for a woman Vin I.232 = D II.97 (here in play of words with Ambapālī explained. by Bdhgh at Vin I.385 as ambakā ti itthiyikā).

Ambara1 (nt.) [Vedic ambara circumference, horizon] the sky, Dāvs I.38; IV.51; V.32. - Note. At J V.390 we have to read muraja-ālambara, and not mura-jāla-ambara.

Ambara2 (m.-nt.) [etymology = ambara1 (*) or more likely a distortion of kambala; for the latter speaks the combination. rattambara = ratta-kambala. - The word would thus be due to an erroneous syllable division rattak-ambala ( = ambara) instead of ratta-kambala] some sort of cloth and an (upper) garment made of it (cp. kambala) Vv 537 (ratt* = uttariya VvA 236).

Ambala at J II.246 (*koṭṭhaka-āsana-sālā) for ambara1 (*) or for ambaka2 (*), or should we read kambala**.

Ambāṭaka the hog-plum, Spondias Mangifera (a kind of mango) Vin II.17 (*vana); DA I.271 (*rukkha).

Ambila (adj.) [Sanskrit amla = Latin amarus] sour, acid; one of the 6 rasas or tastes, viz. a., lavaṇa, tittaka, kaṭuka, kasāya, madhura (see under rasa): thus at Miln 56. Another enumeration at Nd2 540 and Dhs 629. - J I.242 (*anambila), 505 (loṇ*); II.394 (loṇ*); DA I.270 (*yāgu sour gruel); DhA II.85 (ati-ambila, with accuṇha and atisīta).

Ambu (nt.) [Vedic ambu and ambhas = Gr. o)/mbros, Latin imber rain; cp. also Sanskrit abhra rain-cloud and Gr. a)fro/s scum: see Pāli abbha] water J V.6; Nd1 202 (a. vuccati udakaṃ); Dāvs II.16. - Cp. ambha. -cārin "living in the water", a fish Sn 62 ( = maccha Nd2 91). -sevāla a water-plant Th 1, 113.

Ambuja (m. and nt.) [ambu + ja of jan] "water-born", i. e. 1. (m.) a fish S I.52. - 2. (nt.) a lotus Sn 845 ( = paduma Nd1 202); Dāvs V.46; Sdhp 360.

Ambuda [ambu + da from dā] "water-giver", a cloud Dāvs V.32; Sdhp 270, 275.

Ambha and Ambho (nt.) [see ambu] water, sea Dāvs IV.54.

Ambhaka see ambaka.

Ambho (indecl.) [from haṃ + bho, see bho, orig. "hallo you there"] part. of exclamation, employed: 1. to draw attention = look here, hey! hallo! Vin III.73 ( = ālapan- a-dhivacana); J II.3; PvA 62. - 2. to mark reproach and anger = you silly, you rascal D I.194; It 114; J I.174 (v. l. amho), 254; Miln 48.

Amma (indecl.) [voc. of ammā] endearing term, used (1) by children in addressing their mother = mammy, mother dear D I.93; J II.133; IV.1, 281 (amma tāta uṭṭhetha daddy, mammy, get up!); DhA II.87; PvA 73, 74. (2) in general when addressing a woman familiarly = good woman, my (good) lady, dear, thus to a woman J I.292; PvA 63; DhA II.44; to a girl PvA 6; to a daughter DhA II.48; III.172. - Cp. ambakā.

Ammaṇa (nt.) [of uncertain etymology; Sanskrit armaṇa is Sanskritised Pāli. See on form and meaning Childers s. v. and Kern, Toev. p. 72] 1. a trough J V.297; VI.381 (bhatt*). 2. a certain measure of capacity J I.62; II.436 (taṇḍul*). As *ka at J II.117 (v. l. ampaṇaka); DA I.84.

Ammā (f.) [onomat. from child language; Sanskrit ambā, cp. Gr. a)mma/s mother, Oisl. amma "granny", Ohg. amma "mammy", nurse; also Latin amita father's sistereotypeand amāre to love] mother J III.392 (gen. ammāya). - Voc. amma (see sep.).

Amha and Amhan (nt.) [Sanskrit ashman, see also asama2] a stone Sn 443 (instr. amhanā, but SnA 392 reads asmanā = pāsāṇena). -maya made of stone, hard Dh 161 ( = pāsāṇa* DhA III.151).

Amha, Amhi see atthi.

Amhā (f.) [etymology uncertain; Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1889, 201 too vague] a cow (*) A I.229. The C. says nothing.

Amhākaṃ, Amhe see ahaṃ.

Amho = ambho J I.174 (v. l.).

Aya1 see ayo.

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Aya2 (from i, go) 1. income, in aya-potthaka receipt book J I.2. - 2. inlet (for water, aya-mukha) D I.74; A II. 166, IV.287.

Ayaṃ (pronoun.) [Sanskrit ayaŋ etc., pronoun. base Idg. *i (cp. Sanskrit iha), f. *ī. Cp. Gr. i)n, min; Latin is (f. ea, nt. id); Goth is, nt. ita; Ohg. er ( = he), nt. ez ( = it); Lith. jīs (he), f. jī (she).] demonstr. pronoun. "this, he"; f. ayaŋ; nt. idaŋ and imaṃ "this, it" etc. This pronoun. combines in its inflection two stems, viz. as* (ayaŋ in nom. m. and f.) and im* (id* in nom. nt.). I. Forms. A. (sg.) nom. m. ayaŋ Sn 235; J I.168, 279; f. ayaŋ [Sanskrit iyaṃ] Kh VII.12; J II.128, 133; nt. idaŋ Sn 224; J III.53; and imaṃ Miln 46. acc. m. imaṃ J II.160; f. imaṃ [Sanskrit īmāṃ] Sn 545, 1002; J I.280. gen. dat. m. imassa J I.222, 279 and assa Sn 234, 1100; Kh VII.12 (dat.); J II.158; f. imissā J I.179 and assā [Sanskrit asyā*] J I.290; DhA III.172. instr. m. nt. iminā J I.279; PvA 80 and (peculiarly or perhaps for amunā) aminā Sn 137; f. imāya [Sanskrit anayā] J I.267. The instr. anena [Sanskrit anena] is not proved in Pāli. abl. asmā Sn 185; Dh 220; and imasmā (not proved). loc. m. nt. imasmiṃ Kh III.; J II. 159 and asmiṃ Sn 634; Dh 242; f. imissā PvA 79 (or imissaŋ*) and imāyaṃ (no reference). - B. (pl.) nom. m. ime J I.221; Pv I.83; f. imā [Sanskrit imā*] Sn 897 and imāyo Sn 1122; nt. imāni [ = Sanskrit] Vin I.84. acc. m. ime [Sanskrit imān] J I.266; II.416; f. imā [Sanskrit imā*] Sn 429; J II.160. gen. imesaŋ J II.160 and esaŋ [Sanskrit es.āṃ] M II.86, and esānaṃ M II.154; III.259; f. also āsaŋ J I.302 ( = etāsaŋ C.) and imāsaŋ. instr. m. nt imehi J VI.364; f. imāhi. loc. m. nt. imesu [Sanskrit es.u] J I.307. II. Meanings (1) ayaŋ refers to what is immediately in front of the speaker (the subject in question) or before his eyes or in his present time and situation, thus often to be translated. by "before our eyes", "the present", "this here", "just this" (and not the other) (opp. para), viz. atthi imasmiṃ kāye "in this our visible body" Kh III.; yath- a-yaṃ padīpo "like this lamp here" Sn 235; ayaŋ dakkhiṇā dinnā "the gift which is just given before our eyes" Kh VII.12; ime pādā imaṃ sīsaŋ ayaŋ kāyo Pv I.83; asmiṃ loke paramhi ca "in this world and the other" Sn 634, asmā lokā paraṃ lokaṃ kathaṃ pecca na socati Sn 185; cp. also Dh 220, 410; J I.168; III.53. - (2) It refers to what immediately precedes the present of the speaker, or to what has just been mentioned in the sentence; viz. yaṃ kiñci vittaṃ . . . idam pi Buddhe ratanaṃ "whatever . . . that" Sn 224; ime divase these days (just gone) J II.416; cp. also Vin I.84; Sn 429; J II.128, 160. - (3) It refers to what immediately follows either in time or in thought or in connection: dve ime antā "these are the two extremes, viz." Vin I.10; ayaŋ eva ariyo maggo "this then is the way" ibid.; cp. J I.280. (4) With a touch of (often sarcastic) characterisation it establishes a closer personal relation between the speaker and the object in question and is to be translated. by "like that, such (like), that there, yonder, yon", e. g. imassa vānarindassa "of that fellow, the monkey" J I.279; cp. J I. 222, 307; II 160 (imesaŋ sattānaṃ "creatures like us"). So also repeated as ayañ ca ayañ ca "this and this", "so and so" J II.3; idañ c- idañ ca "such and such a thing" J II.5. - (5) In combination with a pronoun. rel. it expresses either a generalisation (whoever, whatever) or a specialisation ( = that is to say, what there is of, i. e. Ger. und zwar), e. g. ya-yaṃ taṇhā Vin I.10; yo ca ayaŋ . . . yo ca ayaŋ "I mean this . . . and I mean" ibid.; ye kec- ime Sn 381; yadidaŋ "i. e." Miln 25; yatha-y-idaŋ "in order that" (w. pot.) Sn 1092. See also seyyathīdaṃ. - (6) The gen. of all genders functions in general as a possessive pronoun. of the 3rd = his, her, its (lit. of him etc.) and thus resembles the use of tassa, e. g. āsava- ssa na vijjanti "his are no intoxications" Sn 1100; sīlaṃ assā bhindāpessāmi "I shall cause her character to be defamed" J I.290; assa bhariyā "his wife" J II.158 etc. frequent

Ayana (nt.) [Vedic ayana, from i] (a) "going", road. - (b) going to, goal S V.167 (ekāyano maggo leading to one goal, a direct way), 185 (id.); DA I.313; Dāvs IV.40. See also eka*.

Ayasa (nt.) [a + yasa, cp. Sanskrit ayasha*] ill repute, disgrace Miln 139, 272; Dāvs I.8.

Ayira (and Ayyira) (n.-adj.) [Vedic ārya, Metathesis for ariya as diaeretic form of ārya, of which the contracted (assimilation) form is ayya. See also ariya] (n.) ariyan, nobleman, gentleman (opp. servant); (adj.) arīyan, wellborn, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, gentlemanly J V.257; Vv 396. - f. ayirā lady, mistress (of a servant) J II.349 (v. l. oyyakā); voc. ayire my lady J V.138 ( = ayye C.).

Ayiraka = ayira; cp. ariyaka and ayyaka; D III.190 (v. l. BB yy); J II.313.

Ayo and Aya (nt.) [Sanskrit aya* nt. iron and ore, Idg. *ajes-, cp. Av. ayah, Latin aes, Goth. aiz, Ohg. er ( = Ger. Erz.), Ags. ār ( = E. ore).] iron. The nom. ayo found only in set of 5 metals forming an alloy of gold (jātarūpa), viz. ayo, loha (copper), tipu (tin), sīsa (lead), sajjha (silver) A III.16 = S V.92; of obl. cases only the instr. ayasā occurs Dh 240 ( = ayato DhA III.344); Pv I.1013 (paṭikujjita, of Niraya). - Iron is the material used kat)e)coxh/n in the outfit and construction of Purgatory or Niraya (see niraya and Avīci and cp. Vism 56 sq.). - In compounds. both ayo and aya* occur as bases. I. ayo: -kapāla an iron pot A IV.70 (v. l. *guhala); Nd2 304 III. D 2 (of Niraya). -kūṭa an iron hammer PvA 284. -khīla an iron stake S V.444; M III.183 = Nd2 304 III. C; SnA 479. -gu'a an iron ball S V.283; Dh 308; It 43 = 90; Th 2, 489; DA I.84. -ghana an iron club Ud 93; VvA 20. -ghara an iron house J IV.492. -paṭala an iron roof or ceiling (of Niraya) PvA 52. -pākāra an iron fence Pv I.1013 = Nd2 304 III. D 1. -maya made of iron Sn 669 (kūṭa); J IV.492 (nāvā); Pv I.1014 (bhūmi of N.); PvA 43, 52. -muggara an iron club PvA 55. -sanku an iron spike S IV.168; Sn 667. II. aya*: -kapāla = ayo DhA I.148 (v. l. ayo). -kāra a worker in iron Miln 331. -kūṭa = ayo J I.108; DhA II.69 (v. l.). -nangala an iron plough DhA I.223; III.67. -paṭṭaka an iron plate or sheet (cp. loha*) J V.359. -paṭhavi an iron floor (of Avīci) DhA I.148. -sanghāṭaka an iron (door) post DhA IV.104. -sūla an iron stake Sn 667; DhA I.148.

Ayojjha (adj.) [Sanskrit ayodhya] not to be conquered or subdued M II.24.

Ayya (n.-adj.) [contracted form for the diaeretic ariya (q. v. for etymology). See also ayira] (a) (n.) gentleman, sire, lord, mastereotypeJ III.167 = PvA 65; DhA I.8 (ayyā pl. the worthy gentlemen, the worthies), 13 (amhākaṃ ayyo our worthy Sir); II.95. - (b) (adj.) worthy, gentlemanly, honourable Vin II.191; DhA II.94 sq. - The voc. is used as a polite form of address (cp. Ger. "Sie" and E. address "Esq.") like E. Sir, milord or simply "you" with the implication of a pluralis majestatis; thus voc. proper ayya J I.221, 279, 308; pl. nom. as voc. ayyā in addressing several J II.128, 415; nom. sg. as voc. (for all genders and numbers) ayyo Vin II.215; J III.126, 127. - f. ayyā lady, mistress M II.96 ( = mother of a prince); DhA I.398; voc. ayye my lady J V.138. -putta lit. son of an Ariyan, i. e. an aristocratic (young) man gentleman (cp. in meaning kulaputta); thus (a) son of my mastereotype(lit.) said by a servant J III.167; (b) lord, mastereotype "governor" J I.62 (by a servant); DA I.257 ( = sāmi, opp. dāsi-putta); PvA 145 (by a wife to her husband); DhA II.110; (c) prince (see W.Z.K.M. XII., 1898, 75 sq. and Epigraphia Indica III.137 sq.) J VI.146.

Ayyaka [demin. of ayya] grandfather, (so also BSanskrit, e. g. M Vastu II.426; III.264) J III.155; IV.146; VI.196; Pv I.84; Miln 284. ayyaka-payyakā grandfather and great grandfather,

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forefathers, ancestors J I.2; PvA 107 ( = pitāmahā). - f. ayyakā grandmother, granny Vin II.169; S I.97; J II.349 (here used for "lady", as v. l. BB); and ayyikā Th 2, 159; Vism 379.

Ara [Vedic ara from r, rṇoti; see etymology under appeti and cp. more esp. Latin artus limb, Gr. a(/rma chariot, also Pāli aṇṇava] the spoke of a wheel D II.17 (sahass- a-ra adj. with thousand spokes), cp. Miln 285; J IV.209; VI.261; Miln 238; DhA II.142; VvA 106 (in allegorical etymology of arahant = saŋsāra-cakkassa arānaṃ hatattā "breaker of the spokes of the wheel of transmigration") = PvA 7 (has saŋsāra-vaṭṭassa); VvA 277.

Arakkhiya (adj.) [a + rakkhiya, grd. of rakkhati] not to be guarded, viz. (1) impossible to watch (said of women folk) J II.326 (a. nāma itthiyo); III.90 (mātugāmo nāma a.). - (2) unnecessary to be guarded Vin II.194 (Tathāgatā).

Arakkheyya (adj.) [in form = arakkhiya] only in nt. "that which does not need to be guarded against", what one does not need to heed, superfluous to beware of A IV.82 (cattāri Tathāgatassa a* āni). - 3 arakkheyyāni are enumerated at D III.217 (but as ārakkh*, which is also given by Childers).

Araghaṭṭa [Sanskrit araghaṭṭaka (so Halāyudha, see Aufrecht p. 138), dialect.] a wheel for raising water from a well Bdgh. on cakkavaṭṭaka at CV V.16, 2 (Vin II.318). So read for T. arahatta-ghaṭi-yanta acc to Morris, J.Pāli Text Society 1885, 30; cp. also Vin. Texts III.112. - The 2rd part of the cpd. is doubtful; Morris and Aufrecht compare the modern Hindī form arhaṭ or rahaṭ "a well-wheel".

Araja (adj.) [a + raja] free from dust or impurity S IV.218 (of the wind); Vv 536 ( = apagata-raja VvA 236).

Arañña (nt.) [Vedic araṇya; from araṇa, remote, + ya. In the Rig V. araṇya still means remoteness (opp. to amā, at home). In the Ath V. it has come to mean wilderness or forest. Connected with ārād and āre, remote, far from]. forest D I.71; M I.16; III.104; S I.4, 7, 29, 181, 203 (mahā); A I.60 (*vanapatthāni); II.252; III.135, 138; Sn 39, 53, 119; Dh 99, 329, 330; It 90; Vv 567; Ps I.176. [The commentators, give a wider meaning to the word. Thus the O. C. (Vin III.46, quoted Vism 72 and SnA 83) says every place, except a village and the approach thereto, is arañña. See also Vin III.51; DA I.209; PvA 73; VvA 249; J I.149, 215; II.138; V.70]. -āyatana a forest haunt Vin II.201; S II.269; J I.173; VvA 301; PvA 54, 78, 141. -kuṭikā a hut in the forest, a forest lodge S I.61; III.116; IV.116, 380; DhA IV.31 (as v. l.; T. has *kuṭi). -gata gone into the forest (as loneliness) M I.323; A III.353; V.109 sq., 207, 323 sq. -ṭhāna a place in the forest J I.253. -vāsa a dwelling in the forest, a hermitage J I.90. -vihāra living in (the) loneliness (of the forest) A III.343 sq.

Araññaka (and āraññāka) (adj.) [arañña + ka] belonging to solitude or to the forest, living in the forest, fond of solitude, living as hermits (bhikkhū) M I.214 (ā*), 469; III.89; S II.187, 202 (v. l. ā*), 208 sq.; 281; A III.343, 391; IV.291, 344, 435; V.10. See also āraññaka.

Araññakatta (nt.) [abstr. from araññaka] the habit of one who lives in the forest, indulgence in solitude and sequestration, a hermit's practice, seclusion S II.202, 208 sq. See also āraññakatta.

Araṇa1 (adj.-n.) [Vedic araṇa from *ara vr, which as abl. ārā is used as adv. far from, cp. Pāli ārakā. Orig. meaning "removed from, remote, far". See also arañña]. (adj.) living in solitude, far from the madding crowd M III.237 (*vibhanga-sutta); S I.44, 45; J I.340 (tittha**).

Araṇa2 (nt.) [a + raṇa] quietude, peace Nett 55 (+ tāṇa), 176 (or as adj. = peaceful) ThA 134 (+ saraṇa); Vbh 19 sq. (opp. saraṇa). See saraṇa2. -vihārin (or araṇā-vihārin) [to be most likely taken as araṇā*, abl. of araṇa in function of ārakā, i. e. adv. far from, away; the spelling araṇa would refer it to araṇa2. As regards meaning the Pāli Commentators explination. it as opp. of raṇa fight, battle, i. e. peacefullness, friendliness and see in it a syn. of metta. Thus Dhammapāla at PvA 230 expls. it as "mettā-vihārin", and in this meaning it is found frequent in BSanskrit e. g. Divy 401; Av. SH II.131 (q. v. for further reference under note 3); M Vastu I.165; II.292. Cp. also the epithet of the Buddhas raṇañjaha] one who lives in seclusion, an anchoret, hermit; hence a harmless, peaceful person A I.24; Th 2, 358, 360; Pv IV.133 ( = PvA 230); ThA 244. Cp. Dhs trsl. 336.

Araṇi and *ī (f.) [Vedic araṇī and araṇi from r] wood for kindling fire by attrition, only in following compounds: *potaka small firewood, all that is needed for producing fire, chiefly drill sticks Miln 53; *sahita (nt.) same Vin II.217; J I. 212 (ī); V.46 (ī); DhA II.246; *mathana rubbing of firewood J VI.209. - Note. The reading at PvA 211 araṇiyehi devehi sadisa-vaṇṇa is surely a misreading (v. l. BB ariyehi).

Arati (f.) [a + rati] dislike, discontent, aversion Sn 270, 436, 642, 938; Dh 418 ( = ukkaṇṭhitattaṃ DhA IV.225); Th 2, 339 ( = ukkaṇṭhi ThA 239); Sdhp 476.

Aravinda [ara + vinda (*) Halāyudha gives as Sanskrit aravinda nt.] a lotus, Nymphaea Nelumbo Dāvs V.62.

Araha (adj.) (-*) [Vedic arha of arh] 1. worthy of, deserving, entitled to, worth Dh 195 (pūjā*); Pv II.86 (dakkhiṇā*); VvA 23 (daṇḍa* deserving punishment). Freq. in cpd. maha-raha [Sanskrit maha-rgha] worth much, of great value, costly, dear J I.50, 58; III.83, etc. (see mahant). - 2. fit for, apt for, suitable PvA 26 (paribhoga* fit for eating).

Arahati [Vedic arhati, etymology uncertain but cp. agghati] to be worthy of, to deserve, to merit ( = Latin debeo) Sn 431, 552 (rājā arahasi bhavituṃ); J I.262; Dh 9, 10, 230; Pv III.66. - ppr. arahant (q. v.). Cp. also adj. araha.

Arahatta1 (nt.) [abstr. formation from arahat*, 2nd base of arahant in compounds.: see arahant IV.2] the state or condition of an Arahant, i. e. perfection in the Buddhist sense = Nibbāna (S IV.151) final and absolute emancipation, Arahantship, the attainment of the last and highest stage of the Path (see magga and anāgāmin). This is not restricted by age or sex or calling. There is one instance in the Canon of a child having attained Arahantship at the age of 7. One or two others occur in the Comy ThA 64 (Selā); PvA 53 (Sankicca). Many women Arahants are mentioned by name in the oldest texts. About 400 men Arahants are known. Most of them were bhikkhus, but A III.451 gives the names of more than a score lay Arahants (cp. D II.93 = S V.360, and the references in Dial. III.5 n4). Arahattaṃ is defined at S IV.252 as rāga-kkhaya, dosa*, moha*. Descriptions of this state are to be found in the formulae expressing the feelings of an Arahant (see arahant II.). Vin II.254; D III.10, 11, 255; A III.34, 421, 430; V.209; Pug 73; Nett 15, 82; DA I.180, 188, 191; DhA II 95; IV.193; PvA 14. - Phrases: arahattaṃ sacchikaroti to experience Arahantship Vin II.74; D I.229; arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti to attain or reach Arahantship (usually in aor. pāpuṇi) J II.229 ThA 64; DhA II.49 (saha paṭisambhidāhi) 93 (id.); PvA 53, 54, 61, 233 and frequent elsewhere; cp. arahattāya paṭipanna D III.255; A I.120; IV.292 sq., 372 sq. -gahaṇa attainment of Arahantship DhA I.8. -patta (and patti) one who has attained Ar. S I.196; V.273; A II.157; III.376; IV.235. -phala the fruit of Ar. Vin I.39, 41, 293; III.93; D III.227, 277; S III.168; V.44; A I.23, 45; III.272; IV.276; Dhs 1017; Vbh 326. -magga the Path of Ar. S I.78; A III.391; DA I.224. -vimokkha the emancipation of Ar. Nd2 19.

Arahatta2 in *ghaṭi see araghaṭṭa.

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Arahant (adj.-n.) [Vedic arhant, ppr. of arhati (see arahati), meaning deserving, worthy]. Before Buddhism used as honorific title of high officials like the English "His Worship" ; at the rise of Buddhism applied popularly to all ascetics (Dial. III.3-6). Adopted by the Buddhisṭs as t. t. for one who has attained the Summum Bonum of religious aspiration (Nibbāna). I. Cases nom. sg. arahaṃ Vin I.9; D I.49; M I.245, 280; S I.169; see also formula C. under II., and arahā Vin I.8, 25, 26; II.110, 161; D III.255; It 95; Kh IV.; gen. arahato S IV.175; Sn 590; instr. arahatā S III.168; DA I.43; acc. arahantaṃ D III.10; Dh 420; Sn 644; Loc. arahantamhi Vv 212. - nom. pl. arahanto Vin I.19; IV.112; S I.78, 235; II.220; IV.123; gen. arahataṃ Vin III.1; S I.214; Sn 186; It 112; Pv I.1112. Other cases are of rare occurrence. II. Formulae. Arahantship finds its expression in frequent occurring formulae, of which the standard ones are the following: A. khīṇā jāti vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ na-paraṃ itthattāya "destroyed is (re-) birth, lived is a chaste life, (of a student) done is what had to be done, after this present life there is no beyond". Vin I.14, 35, 183; D I.84, 177, 203; M I.139; II.39; S I. 140; II.51, 82, 95, 120, 245; III.21, 45, 55, 68, 71, 90, 94, 195, 223; IV.2, 20, 35, 45, 86, 107, 151, 383; V.72, 90, 144, 222; A I.165; II.211; III.93; IV.88, 179, 302; V.155, 162; Sn p. 16; Pug 61, etc. - B. eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto "alone, secluded, earnest, zealous, mastereotypeof himself" D I.177; II.153 and continued with A: S I.140, 161; II.21; III.36, 74; IV.64; V.144, 166; A I.282; II.249; III.70, 217, 301, 376; IV. 235. - C. arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anupatta-sadattho parikkhīṇa-bhava-saññojano sammad-aññā vimutto: D III.83, 97; M I.4, 235; S I.71; III.161, 193; IV.125; V.145, 205, 273, 302; A I.144; III.359, 376; IV.362, 369, 371 sq., It 38. D. ñāṇañ ca pana me dassanaṃ udapādi akuppā me ceto-vimutti ayaŋ antimā jāti n'atthi dāni punabbhavo "there arose in me insight, the emancipation of my heart became unshake able, this is my last birth, there is now no rebirth for me: S II.171; III.28; IV.8; V.204; A I.259; IV.56, 305, 448. III. Other passages (selected) Vin I.8 (arahā sītibhūto nibbuto), 9 (arahaṃ Tathāgato Sammāsambuddho), 19 (ekādasa loke arahanto), 20 (ekasaṭṭhi id.). 25 sq.; II. 110, 161; III.1; IV.112 (te arahanto udake kī'anti); D I.49 (Bhagavā arahaṃ), 144; III.10, 255: M I.245 (Gotamo na pi kālaṃ karoti: arahaṃ Samaṇo Gotamo), 280; S I.9, 26, 50 (Tathāgato), 78, 140, 161, 169, 175, 178 (+ sītibhūta), 208, 214, 235 (khīnāsavā arahanto); III. 160 (arahā tissa*), 168; IV.123, 175, 260, 393; V.159 sq., 164, 200 sq.; A I.22 (Sammāsambuddho), 27, 109, 266; Iī.134; III.376, 391, 439; IV.364, 394; V.120; Sn 186, 590, 644, 1003; It 95 (+ khīṇāsava), 112; Kh IV. (dasahi angehi samannāgato arahā ti vuccati: see KhA 88); Vv 212; I.217; Dh 164, 420 (khīṇāsava +); Ps II.3, 19, 194, 203 sq.; Pug 37, 73; Vbh 324, 336, 422; Pv I.11 (khettūpamā arahanto), 1112; IV.132. IV. In compounds. and der. we find two bases, viz. (1) arahanta* in *ghāta the killing or murder of an Arahant (considered as one of the six deadly crimes): see abhiṭhāna; *ghātaka the murderer of the A.: Vin I.89, 136, 168, 320; *magga (arahatta**) the path of an A.: D II 144. - (2) arahat* in (arahad-)dhaja the flag or banner of an A.: J I.65. V. See further details and passages under anāgāmin, khīṇa, Buddha. On the relationship of Buddha and Arahant see Dial. II.1-3; III.6. For riddles or word-play on the form arahant see M I.280; A IV.145; DA I.146 = VvA 105, 6 = PvA 7; DhA IV.228; DhsA 349.

Arāti [a + rāti, cp. Sanskrit arāti] an enemy Dāvs IV.1.

Ari [Ved. ari; from r] an enemy. - The word is used in exegesis and word explination, thus in etymology of arahant (see reference under arahant v.); of bhūri Ps II.197. - Otherwise in late language only, e. g. Sdhp 493 (*bhūta). See also arindama and aribhāseti.

Ariñcamāna [ppr. med. of Pāli riñcati for ricyati] not leaving behind, not giving up, i. e. pursuing earnestly Sn 69 (jhānaṃ = aja*hamana SnA 123, cp. Nd2 94).

Ariṭṭha1 (adj.) [a + riṭṭha = Vedic aris.ṭa, pp of a + ris. to hurt or be hurt] unhurt Sdhp 279.

Ariṭṭha2 [Sanskrit aris.ṭa, N. of a tree] a kind of spirituous liquor Vin IV.110.

Ariṭṭhaka (adj.) [from ariṭṭha] (a) unhurt; perfect DA 1,94 (*ṃ ñāṇaṃ). - (b) [from ariṭṭha in meaning of "soap-berry plant"*] in phrase mahā ariṭṭhako maṇi S I.104 "a great mass of soap stone" (cp. Rh. D. in J. R. A. S. 1895, 893 sq.), "a shaped block of steatite" (Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S 130).

Aritta (nt.) [Vedic aritra, Idg. *ere to row (Sanskrit r to move); cf. Gr. e)re/ssw to row, e)retmo/s rudder, Latin remus, Ohg. ruodar = rudder; Ags. rowan = E. row] a rudder. Usually in combination. with piya (phiya) oar, as piya-rittaṃ (phiy*) oar and rudder, thus at S I.103 (T. piya*, v. l. phiya*); A II.201 (piya*); J IV.164 (T. piya*, v.l. phiya*); Sn 321 (piya +; SnA 330 phiya = dabbi-padara, aritta = veḷudaṇḍa). DhsA 149.

Arindama [Sanskrit arindama, ariṃ + dama of dam] a tamer of enemies, victor, conqueror Pv IV.315 ( = arīnaṃ damanasīla PvA 251); Sdhp 276.

Aribhāseti [ = ariṃ bhāseti] to denounce, lit. to call an enemy J IV.285. Correct to Pari* according to Fausboll (J V. corr.)

Ariya (adj.-n.) [Vedic ārya, of uncertain etymology The other Pāli forms are ayira and ayya] 1. (racial) Aryan D II.87. 2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth. - 3. (ethical) in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. Hence: right, good, ideal. [The early Buddhists had no such ideas as we cover with the words Buddhist and Indian. Ariya does not exactly mean either. But it often comes very near to what they would have considered the best in each]. - (adj.): D I.70 = (*ena sīlakkhanhena samannāgata fitted out with our standard morality); III.64 (cakkavatti-vatta), 246 (diṭṭhi); M I.139 (pannaddhaja); II.103 (ariyāya jātiyā jāto, become of the Aryan lineage); S II.273 (tuṇhībhāva); IV.250 (vaddhi), 287 (dhamma); V.82 (bojjhangā), 166 (satipaṭṭhānā), 222 (vimutti), 228 (ñāṇa), 255 (iddhipādā), 421 (maggo), 435 (saccāni), 467 (paññā-cakkhu); A I.71 (parisā); II.36 (ñāya); III.451 (ñāṇa); IV.153 (tuṇhībhāva); V.206 (sīlakkhandha); It 35 (paññā), 47 (bhikkhu sammaddaso); Sn 177 (patha = aṭṭhangiko maggo SnA 216); Dh 236 (bhūmi), 270; Ps II.212 (iddhi). -alamariya fully or thoroughly good D I.163 = III.82 = A IV.363; na-lamariya not at all good, object, ignoble ibid. - (m.) Vin I.197 (na ramati pāpe); D I.37 = (yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā etc.: see 3rd. jhāna), 245; III.111 (*ānaṃ anupavādaka one who defames the noble); M I.17, 280 (sottiyo ariyo arahaṃ); S I.225 (*ānaṃ upavādaka); II.123 (id.); IV.53 (*assa vinayo), 95 (id.); A I.256 (*ānaṃ upavādaka); III.19, 252 (id.); IV.145 (dele! see arīhatatta); V.68, 145 sq., 200, 317; It 21, 108; Dh 22, 164, 207; J III.354 = Miln 230; M I.7, Q35 (ariyānaṃ adassāvin: "not recognising the Noble Ones") PvA 26, 146; DhA II.99; Sdhp 444 (*ānaṃ vaṃsa). anariya (adj. and n.) not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, common, uncultured A I.81; Sn 664 ( = asappurisa SnA 479; DhsA 353); J II.281 ( = dussīla pāpadhamma C.); V.48 (*rūpa shameless), 87; DhA IV.3. - See also ñāṇa, magga, sacca, sāvaka. -a-vakāsa appearing noble J V.87. - uposatha the ideal feast day (as one of 3) A I.205 sq., 212. - kanta loved by the Best D III.227. - gaṇā (pl.) troops of worthies

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J VI.50 ( = brāhmaṇa-gaṇā, te kira tāda ariya-cārā ahesuṃ, tena te evam āha C.). - garahin casting blame on the righteous Sn 660. - citta a noble heart. - traja a true descendant of the Noble ones Dpvs V.92. - dasa having the ideal (or best) belief It 93 = 94. - dhana sublime treasure; always as sattavidha* sevenfold, viz. saddhā*, sīla*, hiri*, ottappa*, suta*, cāga*, paññā* "faith, a moral life, modesty, fear of evil, learning, self-denial, wisdom" ThA 240; VvA 113; DA II.34. - dhamma the national customs of the Aryans ( = ariyānaṃ eso dhammo Nd1 71, 72) M I.1, 7, 135; A II.69; V.145 sq., 241, 274; Sn 783; Dhs 1003. - puggala an (ethically) model person, Ps I.167; Vin V.117; ThA 206. - magga the Aryan Path. - vaṃsa the (fourfold) noble family, i. e. of recluses content with the 4 requisites D III.224 = A II.27 = Ps I.84 = Nd2 141; cp. A III.146. - vattin leading a noble life, of good conduct J III.443. - vatā at Th 1, 334 should be read *vattā (nom. sg. of vattar, vac) "speaking noble words": - vāsa the most excellent state of mind, habitual disposition, constant practice. Ten such at D III.269, 291 = A V.29 (Passage recommended to all Buddhists by Asoka in the Bhabra Edict). - vihāra the best practice S V.326. - vohāra noble or honorable practice. There are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk. They are otherwise known as the 4 vacī-kammantā and represent sīla nos. 4-7. See D III.232; A II.246; Vin V.125. - sangha the communion of the Nobles ones PvA 1. - sacca, a standard truth, an established fact, D I.189, II.90, 304 sq.; III 277; M I.62, 184; III.248; S V.415 sq. = Vin I.10, 230. It 17; Sn 229, 230, 267; Dh 190; DhA III.246; KhA 81, 151, 185, 187; ThA 178, 282, 291; VvA 73. - sāvaka a disciple of the noble ones ( = ariyānaṃ santike sutattā a. SnA 166). M I.8, 46, 91, 181, 323; II.262; III.134, 228, 272; It 75; Sn 90; Miln 339; DhA I.5, (opp. putthujjana). - sīlin of unblemished conduct, practising virtue D I.115 ( = sīlaṃ ariyaṃ uttamaṃ parisuddhaṃ DA I.286); M II.167. When the commentators, many centuries afterwards, began to write Pāli in S. India and Ceylon, far from the ancient seat of the Aryan clans, the racial sense of the word ariya was scarcely, if at all, present to their minds. Dhammapāla especially was probably a non-Aryan, and certainly lived in a Dravidian environment. The then current similar popular etmologies of ariya and arahant (cp. next article) also assisted the confusion in their minds. They sometimes therefore erroneously identify the two words and explain Aryans as meaning Arahants (DhA I.230; SnA 537; PvA 60). In other ways also they misrepresented the old texts by ignoring the racial force of the word. Thus at J V.48 the text, speaking of a hunter belonging to one of the aboriginal tribes, calls him anariya-rūpa. The C. explains this as "shameless", but what the text has, is simply that he looked like a non-Aryan. (cp "frank" in English).

Arīhatatta in phrase "arīhatta ariyo hoti" at A IV.145 is wrong reading for arīnaṃ hatattā. The whole phrase is inserted by mistake from a gloss explaining arahā in the following sentence "ārakattā kilesānaṃ arīnaṃ hatattā . . . arahā hoti", and is to be deleted (omitted also by SS).

Aru (nt.) [Vedic aru*, unknown etymology] a wound, a sore, only in compounds: *kāya a heap of sores M II.64 = Dh 147 = Th 1, 769 ( = navannaṃ vaṇamukhānaṃ vasena arubhūta kāya DhA III.109 = VvA 77); *gatta (adj.) with wounds in the body M I.506 (+ pakka-gatta); Miln 357 (id); *pakka decaying with sores S IV.198 (*āni gattāni); *bhūta consisting of wounds, a mass of wounds VvA 77 = DhA III.109.

Aruka = aru; only in cpd. *ūpamacitto (adj.) having a heart like a sore (of a man in anger) A I.124 = Pug 30 (explained at Pug A 212 as purāṇa-vaṇa-sadisa-citto "an old wound" i. e. continually breaking open).

Aruṇa [Vedic aruṇa (adj.) of the colour of fire, i. e. ruddy, nt. the dawn; of Idg. *ereu as in Sanskrit reddish, Av. white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. *reu as in Sanskrit rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etymology under rohita), Gr. e)rudro/s, Latin ruber.] the sun Vin II.68; IV.245; J II.154; V.403; VI.330; Dpvs I.56; DA I.30. a. uggacchati the sun rises J I.108; VvA 75, and see compounds -ugga sunrise Vin IV.272; S V.29, 78, 101, 442 (at all Saŋyutta pass. the v.l. SS is aruṇagga); Vism 49. -uggamana sunrise (opp. oggamanna). Vin III.196, 204, 264; IV.86, 166, 230, 244; DhA I.165; II.6; PvA 109. -utu the occasion of the sun (-rise) DhA I.165. -vaṇṇa of the colour of the sun, reddish, yellowish, golden Vism 123; DhA I 1.3 = PvA 216. -sadisa (vaṇṇa) like the sun (in colour) PvA 211 (gloss for suriyavaṇṇa).

Arubheda the Rigveda ThA 206.

Arūpa (adj.) [a + rūpa] without form or body, incorporeal, D I.195 sq.; III.240; Sn 755; It 62; Sdhp 228, 463, 480. See details under rūpa. -a-vacara the realm or world of Formlessness, Dhs 1281-1285; Ps I.83 sq., 101. -kāyika belonging to the group of formless beings Miln 317 (devā). -ṭhāyin standing in or being founded on the Formless It 62. -taṇhā "thirst" for the Formless D III.216. -dhātu the element or sphere of the Incoporeal (as one of the 3 dhātus rūpa*, arūpa*, nirodha*; see dhātu) D III.215, 275; It 45. -bhava formless existence D III.216. -loka the world of the Formless, Sdhp 494. -saññin not having the idea of form D II.110; III.260; Exp. I.252.

Arūpin (adj.) [a + rūpin] = arūpa; D I.31 (arūpī attā hoti: see DA I.119), 195; III.111, 139; It 87 (rūpino va arūpino va sattā).

Are (indecl.) [onomat. Cp. Sanskrit lalallā, Gr. lale/w, Latin lallo = E. lull, Ger. lallen and without redupl. Ags. holā, Ger. halloh, E. lo. An abbrev. form of are is re. Cf. also alālā] exclam. of astonishment and excitement: he! hallo! I say!, implying an imprecation: Away with you (with voc.) J I.225 (dāsiputta-ceṭaka); IV.391 (duṭṭha-caṇḍāla); DA I.265 ( = re); VvA 68 (dubbinī), 217 ("how in the world").

Ala1 frequent spelling for a'a.

Ala2 (adj.) [alaṃ adv. as adj.] enough, only in negative anala insufficient, impossible M I.455; J II.326 = IV.471.

Alaṃ (indecl.) [Vedic araṃ. In meaning 1. alaṃ is the expanded continuation of Vedic araṃ, an adv. acc. of ara (adj.) suitable; fitly, aptly rightly from r Cp. aṇṇava, appeti, ara. In meaning 2. alaṃ is the same as are] emphatic particle 1. in affirmative sentences: part. of assurance and emphasis = for sure, very much (so), indeed, truly. Note. In connection with a dat. or an infin. the latter only apparently depend upon alaṃ, in reality they belong to the syntax of the whole sentence (as dat. or inf. absolute). It is customary however (since the practice of the Pāli grammarians) to regard them as interdependent and interpret the construction as "fit for, proper" ( = yuttaṃ Pāli Com.), which meaning easily arises out of the connotation of alaṃ, e.g. alam eva kātuṃ to be sure, this is to be done = this is proper to be done. In this sense (c. dat.) it may also be compd. with Vedic araṃ c. dat. - (a) (abs.) only in combination. with dat. or inf. (see c. and Note above). - (b.) (*-) see compounds - (c.) with dat. or infin.: alaṃ antarāyāya for certain an obstacle M I.130 (opp. na-laṃ not at all); alaṃ te vippaṭisārāya you ought to feel sorry for it Vin II.250; alaṃ vacanāya one says rightly S II.18; alaṃ hitāya untold happiness DhA II.41. - ito ce pi so bhavaṃ Gotamo yojana sate viharati alam eva . . . . . upasankamituṃ even if he were 100 miles from here, (surely) even so (i. e. it is fit or proper even then) one must go to him D I.117 (explained. at DA I.288 by yuttam eva = it is proper); alam eva kātuṃ kalyāṇaṃ indeed one

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must do good = it is appropriate to do good Pv II.923 ( = yuttaṃ PvA 122); alaṃ puññāni kātave "come, let us do meritorious works" Vv 4415 ( = yuttaṃ VvA 191). 2. in negative or prohibitive sentences: part. of disapprobation reproach and warning; enough! have done with! fie! stop! alas! (etc. see are). - (a) (abs.) enough: na-laṃ thutuṃ it is not enough to praise Sn 217; te pi na honti me alaṃ they are not enough for me Pv I.63. - (b) with voc.: alaṃ Devadatta mā te rucci sanghabhedo "look out D. or take care D. that you do not split up the community" Vin II.198; alaṃ Vakkali kin te iminā pūtikāyena diṭṭhena . . . S III.120. - (c) enough of (with instr.): alaṃ ettakena enough of this, so much of that Miln 18; alam me Buddhena enough for me of the Buddha = I am tired of the B. DhA II.34. -attha (adj.) "quite the thing", truly good, very profitable, useful D II.231; M II.69 (so read for alamatta); A II.180; Th 1, 252; J I.401 (so read for *atta). -ariya truly genuine, right noble, honourable indeed, only in *ñāṇa-dassana [cp. BSanskrit alamārya-jñāna-darshana Lal V.309, 509] Vin I.9; A III.64, 430; V.88; J I.389 (cp. ariya). -kammaniya (quite or thoroughly) suitable Vin III.187. -pateyya: see the latter. -vacanīyā (f.) a woman who has to be addressed with "alaṃ" (i. e. "fie"), which means that she ceases to be the wife of a man and returns to her parental home Vin III.144, cp. 274 (Bdhgh's. explination.). -samakkhātar one who makes sufficiently clear It 107. -sājīva one who is thoroughly fit to associate with his fellow A III.81. -sāṭaka "curse-coat", one who curses his waist-coat (alaṃ sāṭaka!) because of his having eaten too much it will not fit; an over-eater; one of the 5 kinds of gluttons or improper eaters as enumerated at DhA IV.16 = DhsA 404.

Alakkhika (and īka) (adj.) [a + lakkhika] unfortunate unhappy, of bad luck Vin III.23; J III.259.

Alakkhī (f.) [a + lakkhi] bad luck, misfortune Th 1, 1123.

Alagadda [Der. unknown. In late Sanskrit alagarda is a watersnake] a kind of snake M I.133 = DA I.21; DhA IV. 132 (*camma, so read for T. alla-camma, vv. ll. alanda* and alandu*).

Alagga (adj.) [pp. of laggati] not stuck or attached Nd2 107 (also alaggita); alaggamāna (ppr.) id. DhA III.298.

Alaggana (nt.) [a + laggana] not hanging on anything, not being suspended DA I.180.

Alaṃkata [pp. of alankaroti] 1. "made too much", made much of, done up, adorned, fitted out Dh 142 ( = vattha-bharaṇa-paṭimaṇḍita DhA III.83); Pv II.36; Vv 11; J III.392; IV.60. - 2. "done enough" (see alaṃ, use with instr.), only negative analankata in meaning "insatiate" S I.15 (kāmesu).

Alaṃkaraṇa (nt.) [alaṃ + karaṇa, from alankaroti] doing up, fitting out, ornamentation J I.60.

Alaṃkaraṇaka (adj.) [from alankaraṇa] adorning, embellishing, decorating DhA I.410.

Alaṃkaroti [alaṃ + karoti, Vedic ara*karoti] to make much of i. e. to adorn, embellish, decorate J I.60; III.189; VI. 368. ger. *karitvā DhA I.410; PvA 74. -pp. alankata. - Causative alankārāpeti to cause to be adorned J I.52.

Alaṃkāra [from alankaroti, cp. Vedic ara*krti] "getting up" i. e. fitting ont, ornament, decoration; esp. trinkets, oQnaments D III.190; A III.239; 263 sq.; J VI.368; PvA 23, 46, 70 (-* adj. adorned with), 74; Sdhp 249.

Alattaka [Sanskrit alaktaka] lac, a red animal dye J IV.114 (*pāṭala); DhA II.174; IV.197.

Alanda and Alandu see alagadda.

Alamba (adj.) [a + lamba] not hanging down, not drooping, short J V.302; VI.3 (*tthaniyo not flabby: of a woman's breasts cp. alamb- ordhva-stanī Sushruta I.371).

Alasa (adj.) [a + lasa] idle, lazy, slack, slothful, languid S I.44, 217; Sn 96 ( = jāti-alaso SnA 170); J IV.30; Dh 280 ( = mahā-alaso DhA III.410). Opp. analasa vigorous, energetic S I.44; D III.190 (dakkha +); Vin IV.211; Nd2 141 (id.).

Alasatā (f.) [abstr. from alasa] sloth, laziness; only in negative analasatā zeal, industry VvA 229.

Alassa (nt.) at S I.43 is spurious spelling for ālassa idleness, sloth; v. l. BB ālasya.

Alāta (nt.) [Sanskrit alāta, related to Latin altāre altar, adoleo to burn] a firebrand A II.95 (chava* a burning corpse, see chava); J I.68; Pug 36; DhA III.442.

Alāpu (nt.) [ = alābu, with p for b: so Trenckner Notes 6216] a gourd, pumpkin Dh 149 ( = DhA III.112; vv. ll. alābu and alābbu).

Alābu [Sanskrit alābū f.] a long white gourd, Cucurbita Lagenaris M I.80 (tittaka*), 315 (id.); PvA 47 (id.); DhsA 405. - See also alāpu.

Alābhaka [a + labhaka] not getting, loss, detriment Vin III.77.

Alālā (indecl.) [a + lālā interjection from sound root *lal, see etymology under are] "not saying lā lā" i. e. not babbling, not dumb, in *mukha not (deaf &) dumb SnA 124 ( = ane'amūga of Sn 70).

Alika (adj.) [Sanskrit alīka] contrary, false, untrue S I.189; J III.198; VI.361; Miln 26, 99. - nt. *ṃ a lie, falsehood Dh 264. -vādin one who tells a lie, a liar Dh 223 = VvA 69 (has alīka*); J II.4; SnA 478 (for abhūta-vādin Sn 661).

Alīnatā (f.) [abstr. of alīna] open mindedness, prudence, sincerity J I.366.

Alu'ita (adj.) [a + lu'ita, pp. of lul] umoved, undisturbed Miln 383.

Aloṇika (adj.) [a + loṇika] not salted J III.409; VvA 184.

Aloma (adj.) [a + loma] not hairy (upon the body) J VI.457.

Alola (adj.) [a + lola] undisturbed, not distracted (by desires), not wavering: of firm resolution, concentrated Sn 65 ( = nillolupa Nd2 98; = rasavisesesu anākula SnA 118).

Alla (adj.) (only *-) [Vedic ārdra, to Gr. a)/rdw moisten, a)/rda dirt] - 1. moist, wet M III.94 (*mattikā-puñja a heap of moist clay; may be taken in meaning 2). - 2. fresh (opp. stale), new; freshly plucked, gathered or caught, viz.*a-valepana see adda3; *kusamuṭṭhi freshly plucked grass A V.234 = 249; *gomaya fresh dung A V.234; DhA I.377; *camma living skin Vism 195; *tiṇa fresh grass DA I.77; PvA 40; *dārūni green sticks J I.318; *madhu fresh honey DhA II.197; *maṃsa-sarīra a body of living flesh DhA II.51 = IV.166; *rasa fresh-tasting DhA II.155; *rohita-maccha fresh fish J III.333. 3. wet = with connotation of clean (through being washed), freshly washed, *kesa with clean hair PvA 82 (sīsaŋ nahātvā allakesa); usually combined. with allavattha with clean clothes (in an ablution; often as a sign of mourning) Ud 14, 91; DhA IV.220; or with odāta vattha (id.) J III.425. *pāṇi with clean hand Pv II.99 ( = dhotapāṇi PvA 116). [For analla-gatta at S I.183 better read, with ibid 169, an-allīna-gatta. For allacamma at DhA IV.132 alagadda-camma, with the v.l., is preferable].

Allāpa [Sanskrit ālāpa; ā + lāpa] conversation, talk; only in cpd. *sallāpa conversation (lit. talking to and fro or together) J I.189; Miln 15; VvA 96; PvA 86.

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Allika (*) [either from alla = allikaṃ nt. in meaning defilement, getting soiled by (-*), or from allīyati = alliyakaṃ, a der. from ger. alliya clinging to, sticking to. The whole word is doubtful.] only in cpd. (kāma-) sukh- allik-a-nuyoga given to the attachment to sensual joys Vin I.10; D III.113, 130; S IV.330; V.421; Nett 110.

Allīna [pp. of allīyati; Sanskrit ālīna] (a) sticking to, adhering or adhered to, clinging M I.80; A V.187; Nd2 under nissita (in form asita allīna upagata). - (b.) soiled by (-*), dirtied A II.201. -anallīna "to which nothing sticks", i. e. pure, undefiled, clean S I.169 (id. p. on p. 183 reads analla: see alla). Cp. ālaya.

Allīyati [ā + līyati, lī, līyate, layate] to cling to, stick to, adhere to (in both senses, good or bad); to covet. - (a) lit. kesā sīsaŋ allīyiṃsu the hair stuck to the head J I.64; khaggo lomesu allīyi the sword stuck in the hair J I.273. - (b) fig. to covet, desire etc.: in idiomatic phrase allīyati (S III.190 v. l.; T. ālayati) kelāyati vanāyati (S III.190 v.l.; T. manāyati; M I.260 T. dhanāyati, but v.l. p. 552 vanāyati) mamāyati "to caress dearly and be extremely jealous of" (c. acc.) at M I.260 and S III.190. J IV.5; V.154 (allīyituṃ, v.l. illīyituṃ); DhsA 364 (vanati bhajati a); pp. allīna - Causative alliyāpeti [cp. Sanskrit ālāpayati, but B.Sanskrit allīpeti M Vastu III.144; pp. allīpita ibid. I.311; III.408; pass. allīpīyate III.127.] to make stick, to to bring near to (c. acc. or loc.) J II.325 (hatthiṃ mahābhittiyan alliyāpetvā); IV.392 (sīsena sīsaŋ alliyāpetvā).

A'a [etymology unknown] 1. the claw of a crab M I.234; S I.123; J I.223, 505 (*chinno kakkaṭako; T. spells ala*); II.342; III.295; - 2. the nails (of finger or toe) (*) in *chinna one whose nails are cut off Vin I.91.

A'āra (adj.) [Is it the same as u'āra*] only used with reference to the eyelashes, and usually explained. by visāla, i.e. extended, wide, but also by bahala, i.e. thick. The meaning and etymology is as yet uncertain. Kern, (Toev. s.v.) transls. by "bent, crooked, arched". *akkhin with wide eyes (eyelashes*) J I.306 ( = visāla-netta C.); -pamha with thick eye-lashes Vv 357 ( = bahala-saŋyata-pakhuma C.; v.l. -pamukha); -bhamuka having thick eyebrows or *lashes J VI.503 (so read for *pamukha; C. expls by visāl-akkhigaṇḍa). Cp. ā'āra.

A'haka in udak- a'haka VvA 155 read ā'haka.

Ava- (prefix) I. Relation between ava and o. Phonetically the difference between ava and o is this, that ava is the older form, whereas o represents a later development. Historically the case is often reversed - that is, the form in o was in use first and the form in ava was built up, sometimes quite independently, long afterwards. Okaḍḍhati, okappati, okappanā, okassati, okāra, okantati, okkamati, ogacchati, odāta and others may be used as examples. The difference in many cases has given rise to a differentiation of meaning, like E. ripe: rife, quash: squash; Ger. Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2). - A. The old Pāli form of the prefix is o. In same cases however a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its archaic character. In words forming the 2nd part of a cpd. we have ava, while the absolute form of the same word has o. See e.g. avakāsa (-*) > okāsa (*-); avacara > ocaraka; avatata; avadāta; avabhāsa; avasāna. - B. 1. the proportion in the words before us (early and later) is that o alone is found in 65% of all cases, ava alone in 24%, and ava as well as o in 11%. The proportion of forms in ava increases as the books or passages become later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 Nikāyas) are the following forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamati, okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati. - (1) The Pāli form (o) shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit forms (ava*). See the following: avakappanā harnessing: okappanā confidence; avakkanti (not Sanskrit): okkanti appearance; avakkhitta thrown down: okkhitta subdued; avacara sphere of motion: ocaraka spy; avatiṇṇa descended: otiṇṇa affected with love; avaharati to move down, put off: oharati to steal. (2) In certain secondary verb-formations, arisen on Pāli grounds, the form o is used almost exclusively pointing thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Pāli. Among these formations are Deminutives in *ka usually; the Gerund and the Infinitive usually; the Causatives throughout. II. Ava as prefix. [Pāli ava = Vedic ava and occasionally o; Av. ava; Latin au- (aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.); Obg. u-; Oir. o, ua. See further relations in Walde, Latin Wtb. under au]. - Meaning. (Rest:) lower, low (opp. ut*, see e. g. ucca-vaca high and low, and below III. c), explained. as heṭṭhā (DhA IV.54 under avaṃ) or adho (ibid. 153; SnA 290). - (Motion:) down, downward, away (down), off; e. g. avasūra sun-down; adv. avaṃ (q. v., opp. uddhaṃ). - (a) lit. away from, off: ava-kantati to cut off; *gaṇa away from the crowd; *chindati cut off; *yīyati fall off; *bhāsati shine out, effulge; *muñcati take off; *siṭṭha left over. - down, out, over: *kirati pour down or out over; *khitta thrown down; *gacchati go down; *gāheti dip down; *tarati descend; *patita fallen down; *sajjati emit; *siñcati pour out over; *sīdati sink down. - (b) fig. down in connection with verbs of emotion (cp. Latin de- in despico to despise, lit. look down on), see ava-jānāti, *bhūta, *mānita, *vajja, *hasati. away from, i. e. the opposite of, as equivalent to a negation and often taking the place of the negative prefix a* (an*), e. g. in avajaya ( = ajaya), *jāta, *mangala ( = a*), *pakkhin, *patta. Affinities of ava. - (a) apa. There exists an exceedingly frequent interchange of forms with apa* and ava*, the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For a comparison of the two the BSanskrit forms are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature of the word in question. See on this apa 2 and cp. the following words under ava: avakata, *karoti, *khalita, *anga, ottappa, avattha, *nīta, *dāna, *pivati, *rundhati, *lekhati, *vadati, *varaka, *sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, *hita, avāpurīyati, avekkhati. - (b) abhi. The similarity between abhi and ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi II. b and ava II. a. The two prefixes are practically synonymous in the following words: *kankhati, *kamati, *kiṇṇa, *khipati, *maddati, *rata, *lambati, *lekheti, *lepana, *siñcati. - (c) The contrary of ava is ut (cp. above II.2). Among the frequent contrast-pairs showing the two, like E. up and down, are the following ukkaṃsa-vakaṃsa, uggaman-oggamana, ucca-vaca, ullangheti-olangheti, ullitta-valitta; ogilituṃuggilituṃ, onaman-unnamana. Two other combinations. founded on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chidda-vacchidda and ava* in contrast with vi* in olambavilamba, olugga-vilugga.

Avaṃ (adv.) [Vedic avāk and avāṃ] the prep. ava in adv. use, down, downward; in C. often explained. by adho. Rarely absolute, the only passage found so far being Sn 685 (avaṃ sari he went down, v. l. avasari, explained. by otari SnA 486). Opp. uddhaṃ (above, up high). Freq. in cpd. avaṃsira (adj.) head downward (+ uddhaṃpāda feet up), a position characteristic of beings in Niraya (Purgatory), e. g. S I.48; Sn 248 (patanti sattā nirayaŋ avaṃsirā = adhogata-sīsā SnA 290); Vv 5225 (of Revatī, + uddhaṃpāda); Pv IV.146; J I.233 (+ uddhapāda); IV.103 (nirayaŋ vajanti yathā adhammo patito avaṃsiro); Nd1 404 (uddhaṃpāda +); DhA IV.153 (gloss adhosira). - On avaṃ* cp. further avakkāra, avākaroti, avekkhipati.

Avakaṃsa [from ava-kar.sati; on ṃs: *rs. cp. haṃsati: har.sati] dragging down, detraction, abasement, in cpd. ukkaṃsa-vak.r lifting up and pulling down, raising and lowering, rise and fall D I.54.

Avakankhati (-*) [ava + kankhati; cp. Sanskrit anu-kānk.sati] to wish for, strive after S IV.57 (n'); J IV.371 (n'); V 340 (n'), 348 (n' = na pattheti C).

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Avakaḍḍhati [ava + kaḍḍhati, cp. avakassati and apakassati] Nett 4 (avakaḍḍhayitvā). Pass. avakaḍḍhati J IV.415 (hadayaŋ me a. my hcart is weighed down = sokena avakaḍḍhīyati C; v.l. avakassati). -pp. avakaḍḍhita.

Avakaḍḍhita [pp. of avakaḍḍhati] pulled down, dragged away DhA III.195.

Avakata = apakata, v.l. at It 89.

Avakanta [for *avakatta, Sanskrit avakrtta; pp. of avakantati, see kanta2] cut, cut open, cut off J IV.251 (galak- a-vakantaṃ).

Avakantati and okantati (okk.r) [cp. Sanskrit avakrntati, ava + kantati, cp. also apakantati] to cut off, cut out, cut away, carve - (ava:) J IV.155. -pp. avakanta and avakantita.

Avakantita [pp. of avakantati] cut out PvA 213.

Avakappanā and okappanā (f.) [ava + kappanā] preparation, fixing up, esp. harnessing J VI.408.

Avakaroti [Sanskrit apakaroti, cp. Pāli apa*] "to put down", to despise, throw away; only in der, avakāra and avakārin. pp. avakata (q. v.). - See also avākaroti and cp. avakirati 2.

Avakassati and okassati [cp. Sanskrit avakar.sati, ava + krs.; see also apakassati and avakaḍḍhati] to drag down, to draw or pull away, distract, remove. - A V.74 = Vin II.204 (+ vavakassati).

Avakārakaṃ (adv.) [from avakāra] throwing away, scattering about Vin II.214.

Avakārin (adj.) (-*) [from avakāra] despising, degrading, neglecting Vbh 393 sq. (an*).

Avakāsa and okāsa [ava + kāsh to shine, cp. Sanskrit avakāsha] 1. "appearance": akkhudda-vakāso dassanāya not little (or inferior) to behold (of appearance) D I.114; ariyāvakāsa appearing noble or having the app. of an Aryan J V.87; kata-vakāsa put into appearance Vv 229. - 2. "opportunity": kata* given leave D I.276 Sn 1030; anavakāsakārin not giving occasion Miln 383. - anavakāsa not having a chance or opportunity (to happen), impossible; always in stereotype phrase aṭṭhānaṃ etaṃ anavakāso Vin II.199; A I.26; V.169; Pug 11, 12; PvA 28.

Avakirati and okirati [ava + kirati] 1. to pour down on, to pour out over; aor. avakiri PvA 86; ger. *kiritvā J V.144. - 2. to cast out, reject, throw out; aor. avākiri Vv 305 = 485 (v.l. *kari; VvA 126 expls by chaḍḍesi vināsesi). - Pass. avakirīyati Pv III.110 ( = chaḍḍīyati PvA 174); grd. *kiriya (see sep.). See also apakiritūna. pp. okiṇṇa.

Avakiriya [grd of avakirati] to be cast out or thrown away; rejectable, low, contemptible J V.143 (taken by C. as ger. = avakiritvā).

Avakujja (adj.) [ava + kujja, cp. B.Sanskrit avakubja M Vastu I.29, avakubjaka ibid. 213; II.412] face downward, head first, prone, bent over (opp. ukkujja and uttāna) J I.13 = Bu II.52; J V.295; VI.40; Pv IV.108; PvA 178. -pañña (adj.) one whose reason is turned upside down (like an upturned pot, i.e. empty) A I.130; Pug 31 ( = adhomukha-pañña Pug A 214).

Avakkanta (-*) [pp. of next] entered by, beset with, overwhelmed by (instr.) S III.69 (dukkha*, sukha* and an*).

Avakkanti (f.) [from avakkamati] entry, appearance, coming down into, opportunity for rebirth S II.66 (nāmarūpassa); III.46 (pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ); Pug 13 ( = okkanti nibbatti pātubhāvo PugA 184); Kvu 142 (nāmarūpassa); Miln 123 (gabbhassa).

Avakkama [from avakkamati] entering, appearance J V.330 (gabbhassa).

Avakkamati and okkamati [ava + kamati from kram] to approach. to enter, go into or near to, to fall into, appear in, only in ger. (poetically) avakamma J III.480 (v.l. apa*).

Avakkāra [Sanskrit avaskara faeces, from avaṃ + karoti] throwing away, refuse, sweepings; only in cpd. *pātī a bowl for refuse, slop basin, ash-bin Vin I.157, 352; II.216; M I.207; DhA I.305.

Avakkhalita [pp. of avakkhaleti, Causative of k.sal] washed off, taken away from, detracted DA I.66 (v.l. apa*).

Avakkhitta and okkhitta [pp. of avakkhipati] 1. [ = Sanskrit avaks.ipta] thrown down, flung down, cast down, dropped; thrown out, rejected. (ava:) M I.296 (ujjhita +); DA I.281 (an*), 289 (pinḍa); PvA 174 (piṇḍa). 2. [ = Sanskrit utks.ipta*] thrown off, gained, produced, got (cp. uppādita), in phrase sed- a-vakkhitta gained by sweat A II.67; III.45.

Avakkhipati and okkhipati [ava + khipati; cp. Sanskrit avaks.ipati] to throw down or out, cast down, drop; fig. usually applied to the eyes = to cast down, hence transferred to the other senses and used in meaning of "to keep under, to restrain, to have control over" (cp. also avakkhāyati), aor. *khipi DA I.268 (bhusaŋ, v. l. avakkhasi).

Avakkhipana (nt.) [from avakkhipati] throwing down, putting down J I.163.

Avagacchati [ava + gacchati] to come to, approach, visit (cp. Vedic avagacchati) PvA 87.

Avagaṇḍa (-kāraka) (adj.) [ava + gaṇḍa*] "making a swelling", i. e. puffing out the cheeks, stuffing the cheeks, full (when eating); only nt. *ṃ as adv. after the manner or in the way of stuffing etc. Vin II.214; IV.196.

Avagata [pp. of avagacchati] at PvA 222 is uncertain reading; the meaning is "known, understood" (aññāta Pv IV.111); perhaps we should read āvikata or adhigata (so v.l. BB).

Avagāhati and ogāhati [ava + gāhati] to plunge or enter into, to be absorbed in (acc. and loc.) Vism 678 (vipassanāvīthiṃ); Sdhp 370, 383.

Avaguṇṭhana (adj.) (-*) [from oguṇṭheti] covering Sdhp 314.

Avaggaha [Sanskrit avagraha] hindrance, impediment, used at DA I.95 as syn. for drought (dubuṭṭhikā).

Avanga see apanga.

Avaca (adj.) [der. from ava after the analogy of ucca > ut] low, only in combination. ucca-vacā (pl.) high and low, see ucca. KvuA 38.

Avacana (nt.) [a + vacana] "non-word", i. e. the wrong word or expression J I.410.

Avacara (-*) (n.-adj.) [ava + car, also BSanskrit avacara in same sense, e.g. anta*pura-vacarā the inmates of the harem Jtm 210] (a) (adj.) living in or with, moving in D I.206 (santika* one who stays near, a companion); fig. dealing or familiar with, at home in A II.189 (atakka*); IV.314 (parisā*); J I.60 (tā'a* one conversant with music, a musician, see tā'a1); II.95 (sangāma*); Miln 44 (id. and yoga*). - (b) (n.) sphere (of moving or activity), realm, plane (of temporal existence); only as t.t in kāma-vacara rupa-vacara arūpa-vacara or the 3 realms of sense-desires, form and non-form: kāma* D I.34 (*deva); Dhs 431 (as adj.); rūpa* Pug 37; arūpa* Pug 38; Ps I.83, 84, 101; Dhs A 387; PvA 138, 163; to be omitted in Dhs 1268, 1278.

Avacaraka and ocaraka (adj.-n.) [from avacara] 1. only in cpd. kāma-vacarika as adj. to kāma-vacara, belonging to the sphere of sense experiences, Sdhp. 254. - 2. Late form of ocaraka, spy, only in C. on Th 1, 315 ff. quoted in Brethren 189, n 3. Occurs in BSk (Divy 127).

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Avacaraṇa (nt.) [from avacarati 1] being familiar with, dealing with, occupation J II.95.

Avacuttha 2nd pret. of vac, in prohib form mā evaṃ avacuttha do not speak thus J VI.72; DhA IV.228.

Avacchidda (-*) (adj.) [ava + chidda] perforated, only in redupl. (intensive) cpd. chidda-vacchidda perforated all over, nothing but holes J III.491; DhA I.122. 284, 319. Cp. chidda-vicchidda.

Avacchedaka (-*) (adj) [ava + cheda + ka] cutting off, as nt. *ṃ adv. in phrase kaba'a-vacchedakaṃ after the manner of cutting off mouthfuls (of food) Vin II.214; IV.196; cp. āsāvacchedika whose hope or longing has been cut off or destroyed Vin I. 259.

Avajaya [ava + jaya, cp. apajita] defeat DhA II.228 (v.l. for T. ajaya).

Avajāta (adj.) [ava + jāta; cp. B.Sanskrit avajāta in meaning misborn, miscarriage] low-born, of low or base birth, fig. of low character (opp. abhijāta) Sn 664 ( = Buddhassa avajātaputta SnA 479); It 63; Miln 359.

Avajānāti [ava + jñā] 1. to deny Vin II.85; A III.164 = Pug 65. - 2. (later) to despise DhA III.16; PvA 175 (grd. *jānitabba) - Of short stem-form ñā are found the foll: grd. avaññeyya PvA 175, and with o: grd. oñātabba PvA 195; pp. avañāta, besides avaññāta.

Avajīyati [ava + jīyati; Sanskrit avajiryate] to be diminished, to be lost, be undone J I.313 (jitaṃ a; v.l. avajījy*); Dh 179 (jitaṃ a = dujjitaṃ hoti DhA III.197).

Avajja (adj.) [Sanskrit avadya, seemigly a + vadya, but in reality a der. from ava. According to Childers = Sanskrit avarjya from vraj, thus meaning "not to be shunned, not forbidden". This interpretn is justified by context of Dh 318, 319. The Pāli commentator refers it to ava + vad (for *ava-vadya) in sense of to blame, cp. apavadati] low, inferior, blamable, bad, deprecable Dh 318, 319; Dhs 1160. More fig. in negative form anavajja blameless, faultless D I.70 ( = anindita DA I.183); A II.26 = It 102; Sn 47 (*bhojin carrying on a blameless mode of livelihood, see Nd2 39), 263 ( = anindita agarahita KhA 140): Ps II.116, 170; Pug 30, 41, 58; Sdhp 436. Opp. sāvajja.

Avajjatā (f.) [abstr. to prec.), only negative an* blamelessness, faultlessness Pug 25, 41; Dhs 1349.

Avajjha (adj.) [grd of a + vadhati, Sanskrit vadhya, vadh] not to be killed or destroyed, inviolable Sn 288; J V.69; VI.132.

Avañcana (adj.) [a + vañcana from vañc] not (even) tottering, i.e. unfit for any motion (esp. walking), said of crippled feet J I.214 = Cp III.910.

Avañña (adj.) [to avaññā] despised, despicable Pv III.113 ( = avaññeyya avajānitabba PvA 175).

Avaññatti (f.) [ava + ñatti = Sanskrit *avajñapti, from ava + jñā] only as negative an* the fact of not being despised, inferior or surpassed, egotism, pride, arrogance It 72; Vbh 350, 356; *kāma (adj.) wishing not to be surpassed, unvilling to be second, wanting to be praised A II.240; IV.1 sq.

Avaññā (f.) [Sanskrit avajñā, from ava + jñā] contempt, disregard, disrespect J I.257 (*ya).

Avaññāta (adj.) [pp. of avajānāti] despised, treated with contempt PvA 135 (an*); Sdhp 88, 90.

Avaṭaṃsaka ( = vaṭ*) see Vin Texts II.347.

Avaṭṭhāna (nt.) [Sanskrit avasthāna] position, standing place J I.508; PvA 286.

Avaṭṭhita (ad.) [Sanskrit avasthita, ava + thita] "standing down" = standing up, firm, fixed, settled, lasting Th 1, 1140. Usually negative an* unsettled, unsteady; not lasting, changeable Dh 38 (*citta; cp. DhA I.308 cittaṃ thāvaraṃ n'atthi); PvA 87 ( = na sassata not lasting for ever).

Avaṭṭhitatā (f.) [abstr. from prec.] steadiness, only as negative an* unsteadiness, fickleness ThA 259.

Avaṭṭhiti (f.) [Sanskrit avasthiti] (firm) position, posture, steadfastness S V.228; Dhs 11, 570.

Avaḍḍhi (f.) [a + vaḍḍhi] "non-growth", decay DhA III.335; C on A III.76 (cp. apajaha).

Avaṇṭa (adj.) [a + vaṇṭa] without a stalk J V.155.

Avaṇṇa [a + vaṇṇa] blame, reproach, fault D I.1 ( = dosā nindā DA I.37); It 67; Pug 48, 59.

Avaṇṇanīya (adj.) [grd. of a + vaṇṇeti] indescribable J V.282.

Avataṃsa see vataṃsaka.

Avatata and otata [ava + tata, pp. of tan] stretched over, covered, spread over with Vv 643 (-*); VvA 276 ( = chādita).

Avatiṭṭhati [ava + tiṭṭhati] to abide, linger, stand still. D I.251 = S IV.322 = A V.299 (tatra*); S I.25 (v.l. otiṭṭhati); Th. 1, 21; J II.62; IV.208 (aor. avaṭṭhāsi). pp. avaṭṭhita (q. v.).

Avatiṇṇa and otiṇṇa [pp. of otarati] fallen into, affected with (-*), as ava* rare late or poetical form of o, e. g. J V.98 (issa-*). See otiṇṇa.

Avattha1 [der. uncertain] aimless (of cārikā, a bhikkhu's wandering, going on tour) A III.171 (C. avavatthika).

Avattha2 [Sanskrit apāsta, apa + āsta, pp. of as2] thrown away J V.302 ( = chaḍḍita C.).

Avattharaṇa (nt.) [from avattharati] setting in array, deploying (of an army) J II.104 (of a robber-band), 336.

Avattharati [ava + tharati, str] to strew, cover over or up J I.74 (*amāna ppr.), 255 (*itvā ger.); IV.84; Dāvs I.38. -pp. otthaṭa Cp. pariy*.

Avatthāraṇa (nt.) = avattharaṇa DA I.274.

Avatthu (and* ka) (adj.) [a + vatthu] groundless, unfounded (fig) Vin II.241; J I.440 (*kaṃ vacanaṃ). For lit meaning see vatthu.

Avadāta ( = odāta) Dāvs III.14 (metri causa).

Avadāna see apadāna.

Avadāniya (adj.) [from avadāna cutting off; ava + dā2 to cut] stingy, niggardly Sn 774 ( = Nd1 36 which expls. as follows: avaṃ gacchanti ti pi avadāniyā; maccharino pi vuccanti avadāniyā; buddhānaṃ vacanaṃ n-a-diyantī ti avadāniyā. Sn A 516 condenses this explination. into the following: avangamanatāya maccharitāya Buddha-dīnaṃ vacanaṃ anādiyanatāya ca avadāniyā).

Avadāpana (cleansing): see vodāpana.

Avadāpeti (to deal out) only BSk pary* Divy 202.

Avadāyati [denom. from avadā in same meaning as anuddā, to dā1: see dayati2] to have pity on, to feel sorry for J IV.178 (bhūtānaṃ na-vadāyissaŋ, gloss n-a-nukampiyaṃ).

Avadīyati [Sanskrit avadīryati, ava + ḍr1, ḍrṇāti, see etymology under darī] to burst, split open J VI.183 ( = bhijjati C.) see also uddīyati,

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Avadehaka (-*) (adj.) [ava + deha + ka but more likely direct from ava + dih] in the idiom udarāvadehakaṃ bhuñjati, to eat one's fill M I.102; Th 1, 935. Vism 33 has udarāvadehaka-bhojana, a heavy meal.

Avadhāraṇa (nt.) [Cp. Sanskrit avadhāraṇa, from ava + dhr] calling attention to, affirmation, emphasis; as t.t. used by C's in explanation of evaṃ at DA I.27; and of kho at PvA 11, 18.

Avadhi 3 sg. aor. of vadhati. - At DhA II.73 avadhi = odhi.

Avanata see oṇata.

Avanati (-*) (f.) [from avanamati] stooping, bending, bowing down, humiliation Miln 387 (unnat-a-vanati).

Avani (f.) [Vedic avani] bed or course of a river; earth, ground Dāvs IV.5.

Avapakāsati [ava + pa + kāsati = kassati, from krs.] is a doubtful compd. of kassati, the combined. ava + pa occurring only in this word. In all likelihood it is a distortion of vavakassati (vi + ava + kassati), supplementing the ordinary apakassati. See meaning and further discussion under apakāsati - Vin II.204 (apakāsati +; v.l. avapakassati; Bdhgh. in explination. on p. 325 has apapakāsati which seems, to imply (a)vavakassati); A III.145 sq. (avapakāsituṃ).

Avapatta see opatta.

Avapāyin (-*) (adj.) [cp. avapivati] coming for a drink, drinking J I.163.

Avapivati [ava + pā, cp. apapibati] to drink from J I.163.

Avabujjhati (-*) [Cp. BSanskrit avabudhyate] to understand A IV.96 = It 83 (n-avabujjhati); A IV.98 (id.) J I.378 = III.387 (interchanging with anubujjhati at the latter pass.).

Avabodha [ava + bodha] perception, understanding, full knowledge Sn A 509 (sacca*). - Neg. an* not awakened to the truth Vv 826 ( = ananubodha VvA 319).

Avabodhati (-*) [cp. Sanskrit avabodhati] to realise, perceive, pay attention to J III.151 na-va*).

Avabhāsa [later form of obhāsa] Only in cpd. gambhīrāvabhāso D II.55, looking deep. Same cpd. at A II.105 = Pug 46 has obhāsa.

Avabhāsaka (-*) (adj.) [from avabhāsa] shining, shedding light on, illuminating Sdhp 14.

Avabhāsita (-*) [late form of obhāsita] shining with, resplendent Sdhp 590.

Avabhuñjati [ava + bhuñjati] to eat, to eat up J III.272 (inf. *bhottuṃ), 273.

Avabhūta (adj.) [ava + bhūta, pp. of ava + bhū] "come down", despised, low, unworthy M II.210.

Avamangala (adj.) [ava + mangala, ava here in privative function] of bad omen, unlucky, infaustus (opp. abhimangala); nt. bad luck, ill omen J I.372, 402; II.197; VI.10, 424; DhA III.123; PvA 261. Cf. next.

Avamaññati [Sanskrit avamanyate] to slight, to disregard, despise DhA I.170; PvA 37, 175; Sdhp 271. -pp. Causative avamānita.

Avamangalla (adj.) [from avamangala] of bad omen, nt. anything importune, unlucky J I.446.

Avamāna and omāna [from ava + man, think] disregard, disrespect, contempt J II.386; III.423; V.384. Cp. next.

Avamānana (nt.) [from avamāna] = avamāna J I.22.

Avamāneti [Causative of avamaññati] to despise J V.246. pp. avamānita PvA 36.

Avaya only in negative anavaya.

Avayava [Dern uncertain. Cp. mediaeval Sanskrit avayava] limb, member, constituent, part VvA 53 (sarīra* = gattā). 168, 201, 276; PvA 211 (sarīra* = gattā), 251 (mūl* the fibres of the root). As t. t. g. at SnA 397. In the commentaries avayava is often used where aṃga would have been used in the older texts.

Avarajjhati (-*) [ava + rajjhati of rādh, cp. Sanskrit avarādhyate] to neglect, fail, spurn Th 1, 167; J IV.428 (v.l. *rujjh*).

Avaruddha [from avarundhati] 1. Doubtful reading at Vin IV.181, apparently meaning "in revolt, out of hand" (of slaves) - 2. [late form of oruddha] restrained Sdhp. 592.

Avaruddhaka [avruddha + ka] subdued, expelled, banished J VI.575; Dpvs I.21 (Np).

Avaruddhati [Sanskrit aparundhati; ava + ruddhati of rudh] to expel, remove, banish J VI.505 ( = nīharati C.), 515. See also avarundhati.

Avarundhati [ava + rundhati. Only referred to by Dhp. in his Cy (ThA 271) on oruddha] to put under restraint, to put into one's harem as subsidiary wife.

Avalambati [ = olambati]. Only in late verse. To hang down. Pv II.118; 102. Ger. avalamba (for *bya) Pv III.35; cp. olubbha.

Avalitta (-*) [Sanskrit avalipta, pp. of ava-limpati] besmeared; in cpd. ullitta-valitta "smeared up and down" i. e. plastereotyped inside and outside A I.101.

Avalekhati [ava + lekhati, likh, Sanskrit avalikhati] to scrape off Vin II.221 (v. l. apa*).

Avalekhana1 (nt.) [from avalekhati] (a) scraping, scraping off Vin II.141 (*pidhara), 221 (*kaṭṭha). (b) scratching in, writing down J IV.402, (*sattha a chisel for engraving letters).

Avalekhana2 (nt.) v. l. for apalekhana.

Avalepana (-*) (nt.) [from ava + lip] smearing, daubing, plastereotypeng M I.385 (pīta*); Sn 194 (kāyo taca-maṃs- a-valepano the body plastereotyped with skin and flesh).

Avasa (adj.) [a + vasa] powerless Sdhp 290.

Avasaṭa and Osaṭa [Sanskrit apasrta, cp. also samavasrta, pp. of ava + sr] withdrawn, gone away; one who has left a community and gone over to another sect, a renegade Vin IV.216, 217 ( = titthāyatanaṃ saŋkata).

Avasarati [ava + sr] to go down, to go away (to) Sn 685 (v. l. BB. T. avaṃsari).

Avasāna (-*) [for osāna] (nt.) stopping ceasing; end, finish, conclusion J I.87 (bhattakicc-a-vasāne at the end of the meal); PvA 76 (id.).

Avasāya [from avaseti] stopping, end, finish Th 2, 12 ( = avasānaṃ niṭṭhānaṃ ThA 19). But the id. p. at Dhp 218 has anakkhāte.

Avasiñcanaka (-*) (adj.) [from osiñcati] pouring over (act. and med.), overflowing J I.400 (an*).

Avasiṭṭha (sic and not osiṭṭha) [pp. of avasissati, Sanskrit avashis.ṭa] left, remaining, over S II.133; J I.138; V.339; VvA 66, pl. avasiṭṭhā all who are left, the others PvA 165 (janā).

Avasiṭṭhaka (adj.) [from avasiṭṭha] remaining, left J III.311.

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Avasitta (-*) [pp. of osiñcati] besprinkled, anointed, consecrated, only in phrase rājā khattiyo muddha-vasitto of a properly consecrated king (see also khattiya) D I. 69; II.227; III.64; Pug 56; DA I.182 (T. muddha-vassita, v. l. *abhisitta); etc. - See also abhisitta.

Avasin (adj.-n.) [a + vasin from vash] not having control over oneself, D II.275.

Avasissati [Sanskrit avashis.yate; Pass. of ava + shis; but explained. by Kern, Toev. s. v. as fut of avasīdati] to be left over, to remain, in phrase yaṃ pamāṇa-kataṃ kammaṃ na taṃ tatra-vasissati D I.251; A V.299 = S IV.322; J II.61 (see explination. on p. 62). Also in the phrases taco ca nahārū ca aṭṭhi ca avasissatu sarīre upasussatu maṃsa-lohitaṃ M I.481; A I.50; S II.28, and sarīrāni avasissanti S II. 83. With the latter phrases cp. avasussati.

Avasī metri causa for avasi, a + vasi, aor. of vas4 to stop, stay, rest J V.66 (mā avasī).

Avasussati [Sanskrit *ava-sus.yati of shus.] to dry up, to wither; in later quotations of the old kāmaṃ taco ca nahāru ca aṭṭhi ca avasussatu (upasussatu sarīre maṃsalohitaṃ) J I.71, 110; Sdhp 46. It is a later spelling for the older avasissatu see Trenckner (M I.569). - fut. avasucchati ( = Sanskrit **shoks.yati, fut. of Intens.) J VI.550 (v. l. BB *sussati; C. avasucchissati).

Avasūra [ava + sūra; ava here in function of *avaṃs see ava II] sundown, sunset, acc. *ṃ as adv. at or with sundown J V 56 (anāvasūraṃ metrically).

Avasesa1 [Sanskrit, from ava + shis., cp. avasissati] remainder, remaining part; only in compounds an* (adj.) without any remainder, i. e. fully, completely M I.220 = A V.347 (*dohin); A I.20 sq., 88; Sn 146; Pug 17; Dhs 363, 553; SnA 417 (*pharaṇa); PvA 71 (*ato, adv. altogether, not leaving anything out); and sa-vasesa leaving something over, having something left A I.20 sq., 88; Pv III.55 (jīvita* having still a little life left).

Avasesa2 (adj.) [see prec.] remaining, left Sn 694 (āyu avaseso); J III.19; Vbh 107 (taṇhā ca avasesā ca kilesā); PvA 19 (avasesā ca ñātakā the rest of the relatives), 21 (avasesā parisā), 201 (aṭṭhi-tacamatt- a-vasesa-sarīra with a body on which nothing but skin and bones were left), 206 (aṭṭhi-sanghātamatt- a-vasesa-sarīra). - nt. (as pred.) *ṃ what is left PvA 52 (app- avasesaŋ); KhA 245 (n- atthi tesaŋ avasesaŋ).

Avasesaka (adj.) [from avasesa2] being left, overflowing, additional, more J I.400 (an*); Dpvs IV.45.

Avassa (adj.) [a + vash] against one's will, inevitable J I. 19 (*bhāvin); V.319 (*gāmitā). Usually as nt. *ṃ adv. inevitably (cp. BSanskrit avashyaṃ Divy 347; Av. SH I.209 etc.) J III.271; DA I.263; Sdhp 293.

Avassakaṃ (adv.) [see avassa] inevitably Dpvs IX.13.

Avassajati and ossajati [ava + srj, perhaps ud + srj = Sanskrit utsrjati, although the usual Vedic form is avasrjati. The form ossajati puzzled the BSanskrit writers in their sanskritisation apotsrjati = apa + ut + srj Divy 203] to let loose, let go, send off, give up, dismiss, release (ava): J IV.425; V.487 (aor. avassaji read for avissaji).

Avassana (nt.) [a + vassana, Sanskrit vāsana of vāsh to bleat] not bleating J IV.251.

Avassaya [Sanskrit *avāshraya for the usual apāshraya, see Pāli apassaya1] support, help, protection, refuge J I.211; II. 197; IV.167; Miln 160; DhA II.267; IV.198; PvA 5, 113.

Avassava [ava + sava, Sanskrit *srava from sru to flow] outflow, effect, only negative anassava no further effect Vin II.89; M I.93; II.246; A III.334 sp.

Avasseti [ava + ā + shri, for the usual *apāshrayati; see apasseti] to lean against, to depend on, find shelter in (loc.) J II.80 (aor. avassayiṃ = vāsaŋ kappesiṃ C.). pp. avassita.

Avassāvana (nt.) [from ava + Causative of sru to flow] straining, filtering (*) J II.288.

Avassita [for apassita, Sanskrit apashrita] depending on, dealing with J V.375. See apassita.

Avassuta (adj.) [Sanskrit *avasruta, pp. of ava + sru, cp. avassava] 1. (lit.) flowing out or down, oozing, leaking J IV. 20. - 2. (fig.) (cp. anvāssava and āsava) filled with desire, lustful (opp. anavassuta, q. v.) Vin II.236; S IV.70, 184 (an*); A I.261, 262 (an*); II.240; IV.128, 201; Sn 63 (an*); Pug 27, 36; Dpvs II.5 (T. reads avassita). Neg. anavassuta: 1. not leaking, without a leak J IV.20 (nāvā = udaka-pavesan- a-bhāvena a. C.). - 2. free from leakage, i. e. from lust or moral intoxication Dh 39 (*citta); Sn 63 (see explained. in detail at Nd2 40); SnA 116 ( = kilesa-anvāssava-virahita).

Avahaṭa [pp. of avaharati] taken away, stolen Miln 46.

Avaharaṇa (-*) [from avaharati in both meanings] taking away, removal; theft PvA 47 (sāṭaka*), 92 (soka*).

Avaharati and oharati [ava + hr] to steal J I.384; PvA 47 (avahari vatthaṃ), 86 (id., = apānudi). -pp. avahaṭa (q. v.).

Avahasati [ava + has] to laugh at, deride, mock J V.111 (aññamaññaṃ); PvA 178. - aor. avahasi J IV.413.

Avahāra [from avaharati] taking, acquiring, acquisition Vin V.129 (pañca avahārā, viz. theyya*, pasayha*, parikappa*, paṭicchanna*, kusa*).

Avahīyati [for ohīyati] to be left behind, to stay behind J V.340.

Avāgata [ava + ā + gacchati] only in phrase dhammā avāgat-amhā, we are fallen from righteousness, J V.82. (C. explains apāgata).

Avākaroti [either ava + ā + karoti or avaṃ + karoti, the latter more probable. It is not necessary to take it with Kern, Toev. s. v. as Sanskrit apākrṇoti, apa + ā + kr] 1. to revoke, undo, rescind, not fulfill, spoil, destroy J III.339 (avākayirā = avakareyya chindeyya C.); V.495, 500; VI. 280. - 2. to give back, restore J VI.577 ( = deti C.).

Avākirati wrong by Hardy VvA Index for avakirati (q. v.).

Avāṭuka see apāṭuka.

Avāpuraṇa (nt.) [same as apāpuraṇa] a key S III.132; A IV.374.

Avāpurati [same as apāpurati] to open (a door) J I.63; VI.373.

Avāvaṭa (adj.) [a + vāvaṭa] unobstructed, unhindered, free. Of a woman, not married J V.213 ( = apeta-varaṇā, which read for *bharaṇā, apariggahitā C.).

Avikampamāna (adj.) [a + vi + kampamāna, ppr. med. of kamp] not hesitating, not wavering, not doubting J IV.310 ( = anosakkamāna C.; Kern takes it at this passage as a + vikalpamāna, see Toev. s.v., but unnecessarily); VI.176 ( = nirāsanka C.); J VI.273.

Avikampin (adj.) [from a + vi + kamp] unmoved, not shaking, steady Vv 5022 ( = acala VvA 215).

Avikopin (adj.) [a + vikopin; from vi + kup] not agitated, not moving, unshaken, undisturbed J VI.226 (acchejja +).

Avikkhepa [a + vikkhepa] calmness, balance, equanimity D III.213; A I.83; Ps I.94; II.228; Dhs 11, 15, 570.

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Avicāreti [a + vicāreti] not to examine VvA 336.

Aviccaṃ at J V.434 read aviviccaṃ [a + viviccaṃ] i. e. not secretly, openly.

Avijānaṃ [a + vijānaṃ] not knowing, ignorant *h 38, 60; It 103.

Avijjā (f.) [Sanskrit avidyā; from a + vid] ignorance; the main root of evil and of continual rebirth (see paṭicca-samuppāda, cp. S II.6, 9, 12; Sn p. 141 and many other passages). See on term Cpd.83 n. 3, 187 sq, 262 sq. and for further detail vijjā. avijjā is termed an anusaya (D III.254, 282; S IV.205, 208 sq., 212); it is one of the āsavā (Vin III.4; D I.84; III.216; It 49; Dhs 1100, 1109), of the oghā (D III.230, 276; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162), of the nīvaraṇāni (S II.23; A I.223; It 8; Dhs 1162, 1486), of the saŋyojanāni (D III.254; Dhs 1131, 1460). See for various characterisatons the following passages: Vin I.1; III.3; D III.212, 230, 234, 274; M I.54, 67, 144; S II.4, 26, 263; III.47, 162; IV.256; V.52; A I.8, 285; II.132, 158, 247; III.84 sq., 414; IV.228; It 34 (yā kāc- imā duggatiyo asmiṃ loke paramhi ca avijjāmūlakā sabbā icchā-lobha-sammussayā), 57, 81; Sn 199, 277, 729 (jāti-maraṇa-saŋsāraṃ ye vajanti punappunaṃ . . . avijjāy-eva sā gati), 730, 1026, 1033 (avijjāya nivuto loko); Dh 243; Nd2 99; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162; DhA III.350; IV.161 (*paligha).

Aviññāṇaka (adj.) [a + viññāṇa + ka] senscless, without feeling or consciousness, unfeeling DhA I.6 (saviññāṇaka +).

Aviññū (adj.) = aviddasu.

Avitakka (adj.) [a + vitakka] free from thought D III.219, 274; Th 2, 75 ("where reasonings cease" trsl.); Dhs 161 ("free from the working of conception" trsl.), 504 etc.

Avidūra (adj.) [a + vidūra] not far, near; usually in loc. -e as adv. near Sn. 147.

Aviddasu (adj.) [a + viddasu] ignorant, foolish Sn 762 ( = bāla Sn A 509); Dh 268 = Nd2 514 ( = aviññū DhA III.395); PvA 18 (so read for avindasu).

Avināsaka (*ika) (adj.) [a + vināsa + ka] not causing destruction A III.38 (*ika); J V.116 ( = anāsaka C.).

Avināsana (adj.) [a + vināsana] imperishable Dpvs IV.16.

Avinicchayaññū (adj.) [a + vinicchaya + ñū] not knowing how to decide J V.367.

Avinibbhujaṃ (adj.) [ppr. of a + vinibbhujati] unable to distinguish or to know J v.121 ( = atīrento C.).

Avinibbhoga (ad.) [a + vinibbhoga] not to be distinguished, indistinct J III.428 (*sadda).

Avipariṇāma [a + viparināma] absence of change, steadfastness, endurance D I.18; III.31, 33 (*dhamma); DA I.113 ( = jarā-vasena vipariṇāmassa abhāvato).

Avippaṭisāra [a + vippaṭisāra] absence of regret or remorse A III.46.

Avippavāsa (adj.-n.) [a + vippavāsa] thoughtfulness, mindfulness, attention; adj. not neglectful, mindful, attentive, eager Vin V.216; Sn 1142 (cp. Nd2 101: anussatiyā bhāvento); DA I.104 (appamādo vuccati satiyā avippavāso); DhA IV.26 (appamāda = satiyā avippavāsa).

Aviruddha (adj.) [a + viruddha] not contrary, unobstructed, free, without difficulties Dh 406; Sn 365, 704, 854.

Avirū'hi (f.) [a + virū'hi] absence or cesssation of growth Sn 235; DhA I.245 (*dhamma).

Avirodha [a + virodha] absence of obstruction, gentleness M II.105 = Th 1, 875.

Avirodhana (nt.) = avirodha J III.320, 412; V.378.

Avivāda [a + vivāda] absence of contesting or disputing, agreement, harmony D III.245; Sn 896 (*bhūma SnA 557 or *bhumma Nd1 308, explained. as Nibbāna).

Avisaŋvādaka (adj.) [a + visaŋvada + ka] not deceiving, not lying D I.4; III.170; Pug 57; DA I.73.

Avisaŋvādanatā (f.) [abstr. from a + visaŋvāda] honesty, faithfulness, uprightness D III.190.

Avisaŋvādeti [a + visaŋ + Causative of vad] to keep one's word, to be honest, to be true J V.124.

Avisaggatā (f.) [a + visaggatā, v.l. viy*, thus as a + viyagga, Sanskrit vyagra = ākula] state of being undisturbed, harmony, balance J VI.224 (C. avisaggata). Cp. avyagga.

Avisare at J V.117 according to Kern, Toev. s.v. corrupted from avisaye, i. e. towards a wrong or unworthy object [a + visaya, loc], C. differently: avisare = avisaritvā atikkamitva; v.l. adhisare.

Avisāhaṭa (adj.) [a + visāhaṭa] imperturbed Dhs 15, 24, 287, 570. (*mānasata).

Avissaji at J VI.79 is with Kern, Toev. s. v. better to be read avassaji (see avassajati).

Avissajjiya (adj.) [grd. of a + vissajjati] not to be given away, inalienable (cp. avebhangiya) Vin I.305 (*ika for *iya); II.170 (five such objects in detail); V.216 (+ avebh*); J VI.568.

Avissāsaniya (adj.) [a + visāsana + iya, ika] not to be trusted, untrustworthy J III.474.

Aviha [of uncertain etymology] the world of the Aviha's, i.e. the 12th of the 16 Brahmā-worlds, cp. Kindred Sayings 48 n. 3; Cpd.139. - S I.35, 60; A I.279; Pug 17.

Avihiṃsa (Avihesa) (f.) [a + vihiṃsā] absence of cruelty, mercy, humanity, friendliness, love D III.213, 215, 240 (avihesā); Sn 292 ( = sakaruṇabhāva SnA 318); It 82 (*vitakka).

Aviheṭhaka (adj.) [a + viheṭhaka] not harassing, not hurting D III.166 (but cp. SnA 318 avihesaka in same context); Miln 219.

Avī* in general see vī*.

Avīci [B.Sanskrit avīci a + vīci (*) no intermission, or no pleasure (*), unknown, but very likely popular etymology] 1. avīciniraya, one of the (great) hells (see niraya), described in vivid colours at many passages of the Pāli canon, e.g. at Vin II.203 = It 86; Nd1 18, 347, 405 = Nd2 304 IIID; Ps I.83; Dhs 1281; J I.71, 96; III.182; IV.159; DhA I.148; PvA 52; SnA 290; Sdhp 37, 194; Pgdp 5 sq.; etc etc. - 2. disintegration, decay Vism 449 (a. jarā nāma).

Avekalla (*-) adj.) [a + vekalla] without deficiency, in *buddhi complete knowledge J VI.297.

Avekkhati [B.Sanskrit avīk.sate. The regular Pāli form however is apekkhati, to which the BSanskrit av* corresponds] to look at, to consider, to see It 33 (v.l. ap*); Dh 28, 50, J IV.6; DhA I.259 ( = passati).

Avekkhipati [avaṃ + khipati, avaṃ here in form ave corresponds to ava*, cp. pure for pura* etc.] to jump, hop, lit. to throw (a foot) down J IV.251 ( = pacchimapāde khipati C.).

Avecca (adv.) [Usually taken as ava + ger. of i (*itya), cp. adhicca and abhisamecca, but by Pāli grammarians as a + vecca. The form is not sufficiently clear semantically; B.Sanskrit avetya, e.g. Jtm. 210, is a Sanskritisation of the Pāli form] certainly, definitely, absolutely, perfectly, explained. by Bdhgh. as acala (on D II.217), or as paññāya ajjhogahetvā (on Sn 229); by Dhp. as apara-paccaya-bhāvena (on Pv IV.125). - Usually in phrase Buddhe Dhamme Sanghe avecca-pasādo perfect faith in the B., the Dhamma and the Sangha, e.g. at M I.47; S II.69; IV.271 sq., 304; V.344, 405; A I.222; II.56; III.212, 332, 451; IV.406; V.183; further at Ps I.161 (*pasanna); Sn 229 (yo ariyasaccāni avecca passati); Pv IV.125.

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Avedha (adj.) [a + vedha, grd. of vidh (vyadh) to pierce, Sanskrit avedhya] not to be hurt or disturbed, inviolable, unshakable, imperturbable Sn 322 (*dhamma = akampanasabhāva SnA 331).

Avebhangika (adj.) [from a + vi + bhanga] not to be divided or distributed Vin I.305. Cp. next.

Avebhangiya (nt.) [ = avebhangika] that which is not to be divided, an inalienable possession; 5 such objects enumerated at Vin II.171, which are the same as under avissajjiya (q. v.); V.129.

Avera (adj.) [a + vera] peaceable, mild, friendly Sn 150 ( = veravirahita KhA 248); Sdhp 338. - *ṃ (nt.) friendliness, kindness D I.247 (*citta); Dh 5 ( = khantimetta DhA I 51).

Averin (adj.-n.) = avera Dh 197, 258.

Avosita [reading uncertain, cp. avyosita] only in negative an* unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101.

Avyagga (ad) [a + vyagga, Sc. vyagra] not bewildered, not confused S V.66. Cp. avisaggatā.

Avyattatā (f.) [abstr. from avyatta] state or condition of not being manifest or visible, concealment, hiding DhA II.38.

Avyatha (adj.) [a + vyatha, cp. Sanskrit vyathā misfortune] not miserable, fortunate J III.466 ( = akilamāna C.).

Avyaya [a + vyaya | absence of loss or change, safety D. I.72 (instr. *ena safely); Miln 393 (as abbaya T.).

Avyāpajjha1 (abyābajjha) (nt.) [a + vyapajjha or bajjha, a confusion between the roots bādh or pad] (act.) kindness of heart; (pass.) freedom from suffering (Ep. of Nibbāna) Vin I.183 (avyāpajjh*a-dhimutQa); It 31 (abyābajjh-ārāma).

Avyāpajjha2 (abyābajjha) adj.) [either a + *vyāpadya or more likely a + *vyābādhya] free from oppression or injury; not hurting, kind D II.242 (avera +), 276; M I.90; It 16 = 52 (sukhaṃ); Miln 410 (avera +).

Avyāpanna (adj.) [a + vyāpanna] free from desire to injure, free from malice, friendly, benevolent D III.82,83 (*citta); A II.220 (id.); Pug 68 (id.). - Same in B.Sanskrit e.g. Divy 105, 302.

Avyāpāda [a + vyāpāda] absence of desire to injure, freedom from malice D III.215, 229, 240; It 82 (all MSS. have aby*); Dhs 33, 36, 277, 313, 1056.

Avyāyata (adj.) [a + vyāyata of yam] at random, without discrimination, careless J I.496 ( = avyatta C.).

Avyāyika (adj.) [from avyaya] not liable to loss or change, imperishable J V.508 ( = avigacchanaka C.).

Avyāvaṭa (adj.) [a + vyāvaṭa = Sk vyāprta] not occupied, i. e. careless, neglectful, not worrying Vin III.136; Nd2 72 (abyāvaṭa for appossukka Sn 43); J III.65; VI.188. Miln 177 (abyā*).

Avyāseka (adj.) [a + vy + āseka] untouched, unimpaired D I.182 (*sukha = kilesa vyāseka-virahitattā avyāseka DA I.183); Pug 59.

Avyāharati [a + vy + āharati] not to bring or procure J V.80.

Avyosita (adj.) [a + vyosita, Sanskrit vyavasita] not having reached perfection, imperfect Th 1, 784 (aby*).

Avhaya [from avhayati; cp. Sanskrit āhvaya "betting"] calling, name; adj. (-*) called, having the name of Sn 684 (isi*), 686 (Asit*), 689 (kanhasiri*), 1133 (Sace*, cp. Nd2 624).

Avhayati and Avheti [Sanskrit āhvayati, ā + hū or hvā] - 1. to call upon, invoke, appeal to D I.244 (avhayāma imper.); PvA 164. - 2. to call, call up, summon M 1.17; J II.10, 252 ( = pakkosati); V.220 (avhayesi); VI.18, 192, 273 (avhettha pret.); Vv 331 (avheti). - 3. to give a name, to call, to address SnA 487 ( = āmanteti ālapati). -pp. avhāta (q. v.).

Avhāta [pp. of avhayati] called, summoned J III.165 = (an* = anāhuta ayāctia) = Pv I.123, cp. PvA 64. The id. p. at Th 2, 129 reads ayācita.

Avhāna (nt.) [from avhayati, Sanskrit āhvāna in different meaning] 1. begging, calling, asking Sn 710; Vism 68 (*a-nabhin and anā). - 2. addressing, naming SnA 605 ( = nāma).

Avhāyana (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit āhvayana] calling to, asking, invocation, imploration D I.11 (Sir-avhāyane, v. l. avhayana; explained. at DA I.97 with reading Sirivhāyana as "ehi Siri mayhaṃ sire patiṭṭhāhī ti evaṃ sire Siriyā avhayanaṃ"), 244, 245 (v. l. avhāna).

Avhāyika (adj.) [from avhaya] calling, giving a name; (m.) one who gives a name J I.401 = III.234.

Asa (adj.) [for asaŋ = asanto, a + santo, ppr. of as in meaning "good"] bad J IV.435 = VI.235 (sataṃ vā asaŋ, acc. sg. with v. l. santaṃ . . ., explained- by sappurisaŋ vā asappurisaŋ vā C.); V.448 (n. pl. f. asā explained. by asatiyo lāmikā C.; cp. p. 446 V.319).

Asaŋvata (adj.) [pp. of + saŋvuṇati, cp. saŋvuta] unrestricted, open J VI.306.

Asaŋvara [a + saŋvāra] absence of closing or restraint, no control Dhs 1345.

Asaŋvāsa (adj.) [a + saŋvāsa] deprived of co-residence, expelled from the community Vin IV.213, 214.

Asaŋvindaṃ [ppr. a + saŋvindati] not finding, not knowing Th 1, 717.

Asaŋvuta (adj.) [pp. of a + saŋvuṇāti, cp. saŋvata] not restrained Dhs 1345, 1347.

Asaŋsaṭṭha (adj.) [a + saŋsaṭṭha] not mixed or mixing, not associating, not given to society M I.21Q; S I.63; Sn 628 = Dh 404 ( = dassana-savana-samullāpa paribhogakāya-saŋsaggānaṃ abhāvena SnA 468 = DhA IV.173).

Asaŋhārima (adj.) = asaŋhāriya (*) Vin IV.272.

Asaŋhāriya (adj.) [grd. of a + saŋharati] not to be destroyed or shattered It 77; Th 1, 372; Nd2 110.

Asaŋhīra (adj.) [ = asaŋhāriya of saŋ + hr] immovable, unconquerable, irrefutable Vin II.96; S I.193; A IV.141; V.71; Sn 1149 (as Ep. of Nibbāna, cp. Nd2 110); J I. 62; IV.283 (*citta unfaltering); Dpvs IV.12.

Asakka (adj.) [a + sakka; Sanskrit ashakya] impossible J V. 362 (*rūpa).

Asakkuṇeyya (adj.) [grd. of a + Sakkoti] impossible, unable to J I.55; KhA 185 and passim.

Asakkhara (adj.) [a + sakkhara] not stony, free from gravel or stones, smooth J V.168; DhA III.401 (opp. sasakkhara).

ASakyadhītā (f.) [a + Sakyadhītā] not a true Buddhist nun Vin IV.214.

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Asagguṇa [a + sagguṇa] bad quality, vice Sdhp 382 (*bhāvin, the a* belongs to the whole cpd.).

Asankita and *iya (adj.) [a + sankita, pp. of shank] not hesitating, not afraid, not anxious, firm, bold J I.334 (*iya); V.241; Sdhp 435, 541.

Asankuppa (adj.) [a + sankuppa, grd. of kup] not to be shaken; immovable; steady, safe (Ep. of Nibbāna) Sn 1149 (cp. Nd2 106); Th 1, 649.

Asankusaka (adj.) [a + sankusaka, which is distorted from Sanskrit sankasuka splitting, crumbling, see Kern, Toev. p. 18] not contrary J VI.297 (*vattin, C. appaṭilomavattin, cp. J translation. VI.143).

Asankheyya (adj.) [a + sankheyya, grd. of saŋ-khyā] incalculable, innumerable, nt. an immense period A II.142; Miln 232 (cattāri a.), 289 DhA I.5, 83, 104.

Asanga (adj.) [a + sanga] not sticking to anything, free from attachment, unattached Th 2, 396 (*mānasa, = anāsattacitta ThA 259); Miln 343. Cp. next.

Asangita (adj.) [from asanga, a + sangita, or should we read asangika*] not sticking or stuck, unimpeded, free, quick J V.409.

Asacca (adj.) [a + sacca] not true, false J V.399.

Asajjamāna (adj.) [ppr. med. of a + sajjati, sañj] not clinging, not stuck, unattached Sn 38, 71 (cp. Nd2 107); Dh 221 (nāmarūpasmiṃ a. = alaggamana DhA III.298).

Asajjittho 2nd sg. pret. med. of sajjati to stick or cling to, to hesitate J I.376. See sajjati.

Asajjhaya [a + sajjhāya] non-repetition Dh 241 (cp. DhA III.347).

Asañña (adj.) [a + saññā] unconscious, *sattā unconscious beings N. of a class of Devas D I.28 (cp. DA I.118 and BSanskrit asaŋjñika-sattvā* Divy 505).

Asaññata (adj.) [a + saññata, pp. of saŋ + yam] unrestrained, intemperate, lacking self-control It 43 = 90 = Sn 662 = Dh 307.

Asaññin (adj.) [a + saññin] unconscious D I.54 (*gabbhā, cp. DA I.163); III.111, 140, 263; It 87; Sn 874.

Asaṭha (adj.) [a + saṭha] without guile, not fraudulent, honest D III.47, 55, 237; DhA I.69.

Asaŋṭhita (adj.) [a + saṇṭhita] not composed, unsettled, fickle It 62, 94.

Asat (Asanto) [a + sat, ppr. of asti] not being, not being good, i. e. bad, not genuine (cp. asa); frequent, e. g. Sn 94, 131, 881, 950; Dh 73, 77, 367; It 69 (asanto nirayaŋ nenti). See also asaddhamma.

Asati (and Asanāti q. v.) [Sanskrit ashnāti, ash to partake of, to eat or drink cp. aṃsha share, part] to eat; imper. asnātu J V 376; fut. asissāmi Th 1, 223; Sn 970. - ppr. med. asamāna J V.59; Sn 239. ger. asitvā Miln 167; and asitvāna J IV.371 (an*). pp. asita (q. v.). See also the spurious forms asmiye and añhati (añhamāna Sn 240), also āsita1.

Asatiyā (adv.) [instr. of a + sati] heedlessly, unintentionally J III.486.

Asatta (adj.) [pp. of a + sajjati] not clinging or attached, free from attachment Sn 1059; Dh 419; Nd2 107, 108; DhA IV.228.

Asattha (n. adj.) [a + sattha] absence of a sword or knife, without a knife, usually combined. with adaṇḍa in var. phrases: see under daṇḍa. Also at Th 1, 757 (+ avaṇa).

Asadisa (adj.) [a + sadisa] incomparable, not having its like DhA II.89; III.120 (*dāna).

Asaddha (adj.) [a + saddha] not believing, without faith D III.252, 282.

Asaddhamma [a + sat + dhamma, cp. asat and BSanskrit asaddharma] evil condition, sin, esp. sexual intercourse; usually mentioned as a set of several sins, viz. as 3 at It 85; as 4 at A II.47; as 7 at D III.252, 282; as 8 at Vin II.202.

Asana1 (nt.) [Vedic ashan(m)] stone, rock J II.91; V.131.

Asana2 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ashana of ash, cp. asati] eating, food; adj. eating J I.472 (ghata-sana Ep. of the fire; V.64 (id.). Usually in negative form anasana fasting, famine, hunger Sn 311 ( = khudā SnA 324); DA I.139. See also nirasana.

Asana3 (nt.) [Sanskrit asana] the tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J I.40 (as Bodhi-tree of Gotama); II.91; V.420; VI.530.

Asana4 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit asanā, to asyati to hurl, throw] an arrow M I.82 = S I.62. Cp. asani.

Asanāti [see asati] to eat, to consume (food) J I.472; V. 64; VI.14 (Esb. note: read asnāti; C. paribhuñjati).

Asani (f.) [Vedic ashani in same meaning; with Sanskrit ashri corner, caturashra four cornered (see assa), to Latin ācer pointed, sharp, Gr. a)/kros pointed, Ags. egl sting, Ohg. ekka corner, point. Connected with this is Sanskrit ashan (see asana1). Cp. also aṃsa and asama2] orig. a sharp stone as hurling-weapon thence in mythol. Indra's thunderbolt, thunder-clap, lightning J I.71, 167; II.154; III.323; Miln 277; VvA 83. -aggi the fire of thunder, i. e. lightning or fire caused by lightning DhA III.71. -pāta the falling of the thunderbolt, thunderclap, lightning DA I.280 (or should we read asannipāta*); PvA 45. -vicakka same as *pāta (*) S II. 229 ( = lābha-sakkāra-silokassa adhivacana); D III.44, 47.

Asantasaŋ and -anto (adj.) [ppr. of a + santasati] fearless, not afraid Sn 71, 74; J IV.101; VI.306; Nd2 109.

Asantāsin (adj.) [a + santāsin, cp. asantāsaŋ] fearless, not trembling, not afraid Sn 850; Dh 351; Nd2 109; DhA IV.70.

Asantuṭṭha [pp. of a + santussati] not contented with, greedy, insatiate, unhappy Sn 108. Cp. next.

Asantuṭṭhitā (f.) [abstr. from asantuṭṭhita = asantuṭṭha] dissatisfaction, discontentment D III.214 (so read for tutth*) = A I.95.

Asanthava [a + santhava] dissociation, separation from society, seclusion Sn 207.

Asandhitā (f.) [a + sandhi + tā] absence of joints, disconnected state J VI.16.

Asannata (adj.) [a + sannata] not bent or bending Sdhp 417.

Asapatta (adj.-n.) [a + sapatta = Sanskrit sapatna] (act.) without enmity, friendly (med.) having no enemy or foe, secure, peaceful D II.276; Sn 150 ( = vigata-paccatthika, mettavihārin KhA 249); Th 2, 512.

Asapattī (f.) [a + sapattī] without co-wife or rival in marriage S IV.249.

Asappurisa [a + sappurisa, cp. asat] a low, bad or unworthy man M III.37; SnA 479 ( = anariya Sn 664).

Asabala (adj.) [a + sabala] unspotted D II.80 = III.245.

Asabbha (adj.) [a + sabbha, i. e. *sabhya cp. sabhā and in meaning court: courteous, hof: hoflich etc.] not belonging to the assembly-room, not consistent with good manners,

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impolite, vile, low, of base character J III.527 (mātugāma); Dh 77 = J III.367 = Th 1, 994; Miln 221; DhA I.256; ThA 246 (akkhi). Cp. next. - Note. Both sabbha and sabbhin occur only in the negative form.

Asabbhin = asabbna J I.494, more frequent in compounds as asabbhi*, e.g. -kāraṇa a low or sinful act Miln 280. -rūpa low, common J VI.386 ( = asādhu-jātika, lāmaka), 387 ( = asabbhijātika), 414 ( = apaṇḍita-jātika). Cp. prec.

Asabha [Sanskrit r.sabha] see usabha.

Asama1 (adj.) [a + sama] unequal, incomparable J I.40 (+ appaṭipuggala); Sdhp 578 (+ atula). Esp. frequent in cpd. *dhura lit. carrying more than an equal burden, of incomparable strength, very steadfast or resolute Sn 694 ( = asama-viriya SnA 489); J I.193; VI.259, 330.

Asama2 (nt.) [the diaeretic form of Sanskrit ashman hurling stone, of whieh the contracted form is amha (q. v.); connected with Latin ocris "mons confragosus"; Gr. a)/kmwn anvil; Lith. akmu*~ stone, see also asana1 (Sanskrit ashan stone for throwing) and asani] stone, rock DA I.270, 271 (*muṭṭhika having a hammer of stone; v. l. BB. ayamuṭṭhika); SnA 392 (instr. asmanā).

Asamaggiya (nt.) [abstr. from a + samagga] lack of concord, disharmony J VI.516 (so read for asāmaggiya).

Asamaṇa at Pug 27 is to be read assamaṇa (q. v.).

Asamapekkhana (nt.) and *ā (f.) [from a + sam + apekkhati] lack of consideration S III.261; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162.

Asamāhita (adj.) [a + samāhita] not composed, uncontrolled, not firm It 113 (opp. susamāhita); Dh 110, 111; Pug 35.

Asamijjhanaka (adj.) [a + samijjhana + ka] unsuccessful, without result, fruitless; f. *ikā J III.252.

ASamiddhi (f.) [a + Samiddhi] misfortune, lack of success J VI.584.

Asamosaraṇa (nt.) [a + samosaraṇa] not coming together, not meeting, separation J V.233.

Asampakampiya (adj.) [grd. of a + sampakampeti] not to be shaken, not to be moved Sn 229 ( = kampetuṃ vā cāletuṃ vā asakkuṇeyyo KhA 185).

Asampajañña (nt.) [a + sampajañña] lack of intelligence D III.213; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162, 1351.

Asampāyanto [ppr. of a + sampāyati] unable to solve or explain Sn p. 92.

Asambādha (adj.) [a + sambādha] unobstructed Sn 150 ( = sambādha-virahita KhA 248); J I.80; ThA 293.

Asammodiya (nt.) [a + sammodiya] disagreement, dissension J VI.517 ( = asamaggiya C.).

Asammosa [a + sammosa cp. B.Sanskrit asammo.sadharman Ep. of the Buddha; Divy 49 etc] absence of confusion D III.221 = Dhs 1366.

Asayaŋvasin (adj.) [a + sayaŋ + vasiṃ] not under one's own control, i. e. dependent D II.262; J I.337.

Asayha (adj.) [a + sayha, grd. of sah = Sanskrit asahya] impossible, insuperable J VI.337. Usually in cpd. *sāhin conquering the unconquerable, doing the impossible, acchieving what has not been achieved before Th 1, 536, Pv II.922 (Angīrasa); It 32.

Asahana (nt.-adj.) [a + sahana] not enduring, non-endurance, inability J III.20; PvA 17.

Asahāya (adj.) [a + sahāya] one who is without friends; who is dependent on himself Miln 225.

Asā see āsa.

Asāta (adj.) [a + sāta, Sanskrit ashāta, Kern's interpretation and etymology of asāta at Toev. s.v. p. 90 is improbable] disagreeable Vin I.78 (asātā vedanā, cp. asātā vedanā M Vastu I 5); Sn 867; J I.288, 410; II.105; Dhs 152, 1343.

Asādhāraṇa (adj.) [a + sādhāraṇa cp. asādhāraṇa Divy 561] not general, not shared, uncommon, unique Vin III.35; Kh VIII.9; J I.58, 78; Miln 285; DA I.71; Sdhp 589, 592.

Asāmapāka (adj.) [a + sāma + pāka] one who does not cook (a meal) for himself (a practice of ascetics) DA I.270.

Asāra (n. adj.) [a + sāra] that which is not substance, worthlessness; adj. worthless, vain, idle Sn 937 ( = asāra nissāra sāra-pagata Nd1 409); Dh 11, 12 (cp. DhA I.114 for interpretation).

Asāraka (adj.) [a + sāraka] unessential, worthless, sapless, rotten Th 1, 260; J II.163 = DhA I.144.

Asāraddha (adj.) [a + sāraddha] not excited, cool A I.148 = It 119 (passaddho kāyo a.; v.l. assāraddha).

Asāhasa (nt.) [a + sāhasa] absence of violence, meekness, peaceableness D III.147 (asāhase rata fond of peace); acc. as adv. asāhasaŋ without violence, not arbitrarily J III.319; instr. asāhasena id. J VI.280; Dh 257 ( = amusāvādena DhA III.382).

Asi [Vedic asi, Av. aṃhū Latin ensis] a sword, a large knife D I.77 ( = DA I.222); M II.99; A I.48 = (asinā sīsaŋ chindante); IV.97 (asinā hanti attānaṃ); J IV.118 (asi sunisito), 184; V.45 (here meaning "sickle"), 475 (asiñ ca me maññasi, probably faulty for either "āsiñ ca me" or "āsiñcam me"); Vism 201 (ñāṇa-si the sword of knowledge); PvA 253 (asinā pahaṭa). -camma sword and shield Vin II.192; A III.93; J VI.449. -tharu the hilt of a sword DhA IV.66. -nakha having nails like swords Pgdp 29. -patta having sword-like leaves, with swords (knives) for leaves (of the sword-leaf-wood in Niraya, a late feature in the descriptions of Purgatory in Indian speculative Theology, see e. g. Mārk-aṇḍeyapurāṇa XII.24 sq.; Mhbhārata XII.321; Manu IV.90; XII. 75; Scherman, Visionsliteratur pp. 23 sq.) J VI.250 (*niraya); PvA 221 (*vana); Sdhp 194. -pāsa having swords for snares (a class of deities) Miln 191. -māla (-kamma) sword-garland (-torture) J III.178 (+sīsaŋ chindāpeti); Dāvs III.35. Preferable to interpretation "sword-dirt", see māla (mālā). -lakkhana "swordsign", i.e. (fortune-telling from) marks or a sword D I.9; J I.455. -loma having swords for hair S II.257, cp. Vin III.106. -sūna slaughter-house (so also B.Sanskrit asisūnā Divy 10, 15; see further detail under "kāma" similes) Vin II.26; M I.130, 143; A III.97. -sūla a swordblade Th 2, 488 (explained. at ThA 287 by adhikuṭṭanatthena, i.e. with reference to the executioner's block, cp. also sattisūla).

Asika (adj.) (-*) [asi + ka] having a sword, with a sword in phrase ukkhitt-asika with drawn sword, M I.377; J I.393.

Asita1 [Sanskrit ashita, pp. of *asati, Sanskrit ashnāti] having eaten, eating; (nt.) that which is eaten or enjoyed, food M I.57; A III.30, 32 (*pīta-khāyita etc.); PvA 25 (id.); J VI.555 *(āsana having enjoyed one's food, satisfied). Cp. āsita1.

Asita2 (adj.) [a + sita pp. of *shri, Sanskrit ashrita] not clinging to, unattached, independent, free (from wrong desires) D II.261 (*a-tiga); M I.386; Th 1, 38, 1242 (see Mrs Rh. D. in Brethren 404 note 2); J II.247; It 97; Sn 251, 519, 593, 686 (Asitavhaya, called the Asita i.e. the Unattached; cp. SnA 487), 698 (id.), 717, 957, 1065 (cp. Nd2 111 and nissaya).

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Asita3 (adj.) [Sanskrit asita; Idg. *ās, cp. Latin āreo to be dry, i. e. burnt up; Gr. a)/zw to dry; orig. meaning burnt, hence of burnt, i. e. black colour (of ashes)] black-blue, black M II.180 (*vyābhangī); A III.5 (id.); Th 2, 480 ( = indanīla ThA 286); J III.419 (*a-pangin black-eyed); v. 302; Dāvs I.45.

Asita4 (m. nt.) [from asi] a sickle J III.129; V 46.

Asīti (num.) [Sanskrit ashīti] 80 (on symbolical meaning and frequent application see aṭṭha1 B 1 c, where also most of the ref's. In addition we mention the following:) J I.233 (*hattha 80 hands, i. e. 80 cubits deep); III.174 (*sahassa-vāraṇa-parivuta); VI.20 (vassasahassāni); Miln 23 (asītiyā bhikkhusahassehi saddhiṃ); Vīsm 46 (satakoṭiyo) DhA I.14, 19 (mahātherā); II.25 (*koṭi-vibhava). Cp. ā*sītika.

Asu (pronoun.) [Sanskrit asau (m.), adas (nt.); base amu* in oblique cases and derivation, e.g. adv. amutra (q.v.)] pronoun. d*monstr. "that", that one, usually combined. with yo (yaṃ), e. g. asu yo so puriso M I.366; yaṃ aduṃ khettaṃ S IV.315. nom. sg. m. asu S IV.195; Miln 242; f. asu J V.396 (asū metri causa-); nt. aduṃ M I.364, 483; A I.250. Of oblique cases e. g. amunā (instr.) A I.250. Cp. also next.

Asuka (pronoun.-adj.) [asn + ka] such a one, this or that, a certain Vin III.87; J I.148; PvA 29, 30, 35, 109, 122 (*ṃ gatiṃ gata).

Asuci (adj.) [a + suci] not clean, impure, unclean Sn 75 (*manussā, see Nd2 112); Pug 27, 36; Sdhp 378, 603.

Asucīka (nt.) [abstr. from asuci] impurity, unclean living, defilement Sn 243 (*missita = asucibhāva-missita SnA 286.

Asubha (adj.) [a + subha] impure, unpleasant, bad, ugly, nasty; nt. *ṃ nastiness, impurity. Cp. on term and the Asubha-meditation, as well as on the 10 asubhas or offensive objects Dhs. trsl. 70 and Cpd.121 n. 6. - S IV.111 (asubhato manasikaroti); V.320; Sn 341; Sdhp 368. -subha-subha pleasant unpleasant, good and bad Sn 633; J III. 243; Miln 136. -a-nupassin realising or intuiting the corruptness (of the body) It 80, 81; DhA I.76. -kathā talk about impurity Vin III.68. -kammaṭṭhāna reflection on impurity DhA III.425. -nimitta sign of the unclean i. e. idea of impurity Vism 77. -bhāvanā contemplation of the impurity (of the body) Vin III.68. -saññā idea of impurity D III.253, 283, 289, 291. -saññin having an idea of or realising the impurity (of the body) It 93.

Asura [Vedic asura in more comprehensive meaning; connected with Av. ahuro Lord, ahuro mazdā*; perhaps to Av. anhu.s and Latin erus mastereotype a fallen angel, a Titan; pl. asurā the Titans, a class of mythological beings. Dhpāla at PvA 272 and the C. on J V.186 define them as kā'akañjaka-bhedā asurā. The are classed with other similar inferior deities, e. g. with garu'ā, nāgā, yakkhā at Miln 117; with supaṇṇā, Gandhabbā, yakkhā at DA I.51. The fight between Gods and Titans is also reflected in the oldest books of the Pāli Canon and occurs in identical description at the following passages under the title of deva-sura-sangāma: D II.285; S I.222 (cp. 216 sq.), IV.201 sq., V.447; M I.253; A IV.432. - Rebirth as an Asura is considered as one of the four unhappy rebirths or evil fates after death (apāyā; viz. niraya, tiracchāna-yoni, petā or pettivisaya, asurā), e. g. at It 93; J V.186; Pv IV.111, see also apāya. - Other passages in general: S I.216 sq. (fight of Devas and Asuras); IV.203; A II.91; IV.198 sq., 206; Sn 681; Nd1 89, 92, 448; DhA I.264 (*kaññā); Sdhp 366, 436. -inda Chief or king of the Titans. Several Asuras are accredited with the role of leaders, most commonly Vepacitti (S I.222; IV.201 sq.) and Rāhu (A II.17, 53; III.243). Besides these we find Pahārāda (gloss Mahābhadda) at A IV.197. -kāya the body or assembly of the asuras A I.143; J V.186; ThA 285. -parivāra a retinue of Asuras A II.91. -rakkhasā Asuras and Rakkhasas (Rak.sasas) Sn 310 (defined by Bdhgh at SnA 323 as pabbata-pāda-nivāsino dānava-yakkha-saññitā).

Asuropa [probably a haplological contraction of asura-ropa. On various suggestions as to etymology and meaning see Morris's discussion at J P T S. 1893, 8 sq. The word is found as āsulopa in the Asoka inscriptions] anger, malice, hatred; abruptness, want of forbearance Pug 18 = Vbh 357; Dhs 418, 1060, 1115, 1341 (an*); DhsA 396.

Asussūsaŋ [ppr. of a + susūsati, Desid. of shru, cp. Sanskrit shushrū.sati] not wishing to hear or listen, disobedient J V.121.

Asūyaka see anasūyaka.

Asūra (adj.) [a + sura1] - 1. not brave, not valiant, cowardly Sn 439. - 2. uncouth, stupid J VI.292 (cp. Kern. Toev. p. 48).

Asekha (and Asekkha) (adj. n.) [a + sekha] not requiring to be trained, adept, perfect, m. one who is no longer a learner, an expert; very often meaning an Arahant (cp. B.Sanskrit occurring only in phraseāh those in training and the adepts, e.g. Divy 261, 337; Av. SH I.269, 335; II.144) Vin I.62 sq.; III.24; S I.99; D III.218, 219; It 51 (asekho sīlakkhandho; v. l. asekkha); Pug 14 ( = arahant); Dhs 584, 1017, 1401; Kvu 303 sq. -muni the perfectly Wise DhA III.321. -bala the power of an Arahant, enumerated in a set of 10 at Ps II.173, cp. 176.

Asecanaka (adj.) [a + secana + ka, from sic to sprinkle, cp. B.Sanskrit asecanaka-darshana in same meaning e. g. Divy 23, 226, 334] unmixed, unadulterated, i. e. with full and unimpaired properties, delicious, sublime, lovely M I.114; S I.213 (a. ojava "that elixir that no infusion needs" Mrs Rh. D.) = Th 2, 55 (explained. as anāsittakaṃ pakatiyā -va mahārasaŋ at ThA 61) = Th 2, 196 ( = anāsittakaṃ ojavantaṃ sabhāva-madhuraṃ ThA 168); S V.321; A III. 237 sq. Miln 405.

Asevanā (f.) [a + sevanā] not practising, abstinence from Sn 259 ( = abhajanā apayirupāsanā KhA 124).

Asesa (adj.) [a + sesa] not leaving a remnant, without a remainder, all, entire, complete Sn 2 sq., 351, 355, 500, 1037 ( = sabba Nd2 113). As *- (adv.) entirely, fully, completely Sn p. 141 (*virāga-nirodha); Miln 212 (*vacana inclusive statement).

Asesita (adj.) [pp. of a + Causative of shis., see seseti and sissati] leaving nothing over, having nothing left, entire, whole, all J III.153.

Asoka1 (adj.) [a + soka, cp. Sanskrit ashoka] free from sorrow Sn 268 ( = nissoka abbū'ha-soka-salla KhA 153); Dh 412; Th 2, 512.

Asoka2 [Sanskrit ashoka] the Asoka tree, Jonesia Asoka J V.188; Vv 354, 359 (*rukkha); Vism 625 (*ankura); VvA 173 (*rukkha).

Asoṇḍa (adj.) [a + soṇḍa] not being a drunkard, abstaining from drink J V.116. - f. asoṇḍī A III.38.

Asotatā (nt.) [abstr. a + sota + ta, having no ears, being earless J VI.16.

Asnāti [Sanskrit ashnāti to eat, to take food; the regular Pāli forms are asati (as base) and asanāti] to eat; imper. asnātu J V.376.

Asman (nt.) [Vedic ashman; the usual Pāli forms are amha and asama2] stone, rock; only in instr. asmanā SnA 362.

Asmasati [spurious form for the usual assasati = Sanskrit āshvasati] to trust, to rely on J V.56 (Pot. asmase).

Asmi (I am) see atthi.

Asmimāna [asmi + māna] the pride that says "I am", pride of self, egotism (same in B.Sanskrit e.g. Divy 210, 314) Vin I.3; D III.273; M I.139, 425; A III.85; Ps I.26; Kvu 212; DhA I.237. Cp. ahaṃ asmi.

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Asmiye 1 sg. ind. pres. med. of ash to eat, in sense of a fut. "I shall eat" J V.397, 405 (C. bhuñjissāmi). The form is to be explained. as denom. formn. from -āsha food, = aṃsiyati and with metathesis asmiyati. See also añhati which would correspond either to *aṃshyati or ashnāti (see asati).

Assa1 [for Aṃsa1, q. v. for etymology] shoulder; in cpd. assapuṭa shoulder-bag, knapsack i. e. a bag containing provisions, instr. assupuṭena with provisions. Later exegesis has interpreted this as a bag full of ashes, and vv. ll. as well as Commentators take assa = bhasma ashes (thus also Morris J P T S. 1893, 10 without being able to give an etymology). The word was already misunderstood by Bdhgh. when he explained the Dīgha passage by bhasmapuṭena, sīse chārikaṃ okiritvā ti attho DA I.267. After all it is the same as puṭaṃsa (see under aṃsa1). - D I.98, cp. A II.242 (v. l. bhasma*); DA I.267 (v.l. bhassa*).

Assa2 [for aṃsa2 = Sanskrit ashra point, corner, cp. Sanskrit ashri, Gr. a)/krosando)cu/s sharp, Latin acer] corner, point; occurs only in cpd. caturassa four-cornered, quadrangular, regular (of symmetrical form, Vin II.316; J IV.46, 492; Pv II.119. Perhaps also at Th 2, 229 (see under assa3). Occurs also in form caturaṃsa under catur).

Assa3 [Vedic ashva, cp. Av. aspo; Gr. i(/ppos, dial. i(/kkos; Latin equus; Oir. ech; Gall. epo-; Cymr. ep, Goth. aīhva; Os. ehu; Ags. eoh] a horse; often mentioned alongside of and combined. with hatthi (elephant) Vin III.6 (pañca-mattehi assa-satehi), 52 (enumerated under catuppadā, quadrupeds, with hatthi oṭṭha goṇa gadrabha and pasuka); A II.207; V.271; Sn 769 (gava-ssa). At Th II.229 the commentary explains caturassa as "four in hand" ; but the context shows that the more usual sense of caturassa (see assa2) was probably what the poet meant; Dh 94, 143, 144 (bhadra, a good horse), 380 (id.); Vv 203 (+ assatarī); VvA 78; DhA I.392 (hatthi-assa-dayo); Sdhp 367 (duṭṭh*). -ājāniya [cp. BSanskrit ashvājāneya Divy 509, 511] a thoroughbred horse, a blood horse A I.77, 244; II.113 sq., 250 sq.; III.248, 282 sq.; IV.188, 397; V.166, 323; PvA 216. See also ājāniya. -a-roha one who climbs on a horse, a rider on horseback, N. of an occupation "cavalry" D I.51 (+ hattha-roha; explained. at DA I.156 by sabbe pi assācariyaassavejja-assabhaṇḍādayo). -kaṇṇa N. of a tree, Vatica Robusta, lit. "horse-ear" (cp. similarly Goth. aīhva-tundi the thornbush, lit. horse-tooth) J II.161; IV.209; VI.528. -khalunka an inferior horse ("shaker"), opp. sadassa. A I.287 = IV.397. -tthara a horse cover, a horse blanket Vin I.192; D I.7 -damma a horse to be tamed, a fierce horse, a stallion A II.112; *sārathi a horse trainer A II. 112, 114; V.323 sq.; DhA IV.4. -potaka the young of a horse, a foal or colt J II.288. -bandha a groom J II. 98; V.449; DhA I.392. -bhaṇḍa (for *bandha* or should we read *paṇḍaka*) a groom or horse-trainer, a trader in horses Vin I.85 (see on form of word Kern, Toev. p. 35). -bhaṇḍaka horse-trappings J II.113. -maṇḍala circus Vism 308, cp. M I.446. -maṇḍalika exercising-ground Vin III.6. -medha N. of a sacrifice: the horse-sacrifice [Vedic ashvamedha as Np.] S I.76 (v. l. sassa*); It 21 (+ purisamedha); Sn 303. -yuddha a horse-fight D I.7. -rūpaka a figure of a horse, a toy horse DhA II.69 (+ hatthi-rūpaka). -lakkhaṇa (earning fees by judging) the marks on a horse D I.9. -laṇḍa horse-manure, horsedung DhA IV.156 (hatthi-laṇḍa +). -vāṇija a horsedealer Vin III.6. -sadassa a noble steed of the horse kind A I.289 = IV.397 (in comparison with purisa*).

Assa4 is gen. dat. sg. of ayaŋ, this.

Assa5 3. sg. Pot. of asmi (see atthi).

Assaka1 (-*) [assa3 + ka] with a horse, having a horse; an- without a horse J VI.515 (+ arathaka).

Assaka2 (adj.) [a + saka; Sanskrit asvaka] not having one's own, poor, destitute M I.450; II.68; A III.352; Ps I.126 (v. l. asaka).

Assatara [Vedic ashvatara, ashva + compar. suffix tara in function of "a kind of", thus lit. a kind of horse, cp. Latin matertera a kind of mother. i. e. aunt] a mule Dh 322 = DhA I.213; DhA IV.4 ( = va'avāya gadrabhena jāta); J IV.464 (kambojake assatare sudante; imported from Cambodia); VI.342. - f. assatarī a she-mule Vin II.188; S I.154; II.241; A II.73; Miln 166. - assatarī-ratha a chariot drawn by she-mules Vv 203, 208 (T. assatarī ratā) = 438; Pv I.111 ( = assatariyutta ratha PvA 56); J VI.355.

Assattha1 [Vedic ashvattha, explained. in K Z I.467 as ashva-ttha dial. for ashva-stha "standing place for horses, which etymology is problematic; it is likely that the Sanskrit word is borrowed from a local dialect.] the holy fig-tree, Ficus, Religiosa; the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, i. e. the Bo tree Vin IV.35; D II.4 (sammā-sambuddho assatthassa mūle abhisambuddho); S V.96; J I.16 (V.75, in word-play with assattha2 of V.79).

Assattha2 [pp. of assasati; cp. BSanskrit āsvasta Av. SH I.210] encouraged, comforted A IV.184 (v. l. as gloss assāsaka); Ps I.131 (loka an*; v. l. assaka); J I.16 (V.79 cp. assattha1); VI.309 ( = laddhassasa C.), 566.

Assaddha (adj.) [a + saddhā] without faith, unbelieving, Sn 663; Pug 13, 20; Dhs 1327; DhA II.187.

Assaddhiya (nt.) [a + saddhiya, in form, but not in meaning a grd. of saddahati, for which usually saddheyya; cp. Sanskrit ashradheyya incredible] disbelief S I.25; A III.421; V.113 sq., 146, 148 sq., 158, 161; Vbh 371; DA I.235; Sdhp 80.

Assama [ā + shram] a hermitage (of a brahmin ascetic esp. a jaṭila) Vin I.24 = IV.108; I.26, 246; III.147; Sn 979; Sn p. 104, 111; J I.315 (*pada) V.75 (id.) 321. VI.76 (*pada). The word is not found anywhere in the Canon in the technical sense of the later Sanskrit law books, where "the 4 āshramas" is used as a t. t. for the four stages in the life of a brahmin priest (not of a brahmin by birth). See Dial. I.211-217.

Assamaṇa [a + samaṇa] not a true Samaṇa Vin I.96; Sn 282; Pug 27 (so read for asamaṇa); Pug A 207. - f. assamaṇī Vīn IV.214.

Assaya [ā + sayati, shri] resting place, shelter, refuge, seat DA I.67 (puññ*). Cp. BSanskrit rājāshraya Jtm 3156; ashraya also in meaning "body": see Av. SH. I.175 and Index II.223.

Assava (adj.) [ā + sunāti, shru] loyal D I.137; Sn 22, 23, 32; J IV.98; VI.49; Miln 254; an* inattentive, not docile DhA I.7.

Assavati [ā + sru] to flow J II.276 ( = paggharati C.). Cp. also āsavati.

Assavanatā (f.) [abstr. from assavana] not listening to, inattention M I.168.

Assavanīya (adj.) [a + savanīya] not pleasant to hear Sdhp 82.

Assasati [ā + shvas, on semantical inversion of ā and pa see under ā1 3] 1. to breathe, to breathe out, to exhale, J I 163; VI.305 (gloss assāsento passāsento susu ti saddaṃ karonto); Vism 272. Usually in combination. with passasati to inhale, i. e. to breathe in and out, D II.291 = M I.56, cp. M I.425; J II.53, cp. V.36. - 2. to breathe freely or quietly, to feel relieved, to be comforted, to have courage S IV.43; J IV.93 assasitvāna ger. = vissamitvā c.); VI.190 (assāsa imper., with mā soci); med. assase J IV.57 (C. for asmase T.; explained. by vissase), 111 (*itvā). - 3. to enter by the breath, to bewitch, enchant, take possession J IV.495 ( = assāsa-vātena upahanati āvisati C.). - Causative assāseti. -pp. assattha2. See also assāsa-passāsa.

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Assāda [ā + sādiyati, svad] taste, sweetness, enjoyment, satisfaction D I.22 (vedanānaṃ samudaya atthangama assāda etc.); M I.85; S II.84 sq. (*a-nupassin), 170 sq.; III.27 sq. (ko rūpassa assādo), 62, 102; IV.8 sq., 220; V.193, 203 sq.; A I.50 (*a-nupassin), 258, 260; II.10; III.447 (*diṭṭhi) J I.508; IV.113, Sn 448; Ps I.139 sq., (*diṭṭhi), 157; cp. I.1017; Pv IV.62 (kām*); Vbh 368 (*diṭṭhi); Nett 27 sq.; Miln 388; Vism 76 (paviveka-ras-); Sdhp 37, 51. See also appassāda under appa.

Assādanā (f.) [cp. assāda] sweetness, taste, enjoyment S I.124; Sn 447 ( = sādubhāva SnA 393).

Assādeti [Denominitive from assāda] to taste S II.227 (lābha-sakkārasilokaṃ); Vism 73 (paviveka-sukha-rasaŋ); DhA I.318.

Assāraddha v. l. at It 111 for asāraddha.

Assāvin (adj.) [ā + sru] only in an* not enjoying or finding pleasure, not intoxicated Sn 853 (sātiyesu a. = sāta-vatthusa kāmaguṇesu taṇhā-santhava-virahita SnA 549). See also āsava.

Assāsa [Sanskrit āshvāsa, ā + shvas] 1. (lit.) breathing, esp. breathing out (so Vism 272), exhalation, opp. to passāsa inhalation, with which often combined. or contrasted; thus as cpd. assāsa-passāsa meaning breathing (in and out), sign of life, process of breathing, breath D II.157 = S I.159 = Th 1, 905; D III.266; M I.243; S I.106; IV.293; V.330, 336; A IV.409; V.135; J II.146; VI.82; Miln 31, 85; Vism 116, 197. - assāsa in contrast with passāsa at Ps I.95, 164 sq., 182 sq. - 2. (fig.) breathing easily, freely or quietly, relief, comfort, consolation, confidence M I.64; S II.50 (dhamma-vinaye); IV.254 (param-assāsa-ppatta); A I.192; III.297 sq. (dhamma-vinaye); IV.185; J VI.309 (see assattha2); Miln 354; PvA 104 (*matta only a little breathing space); Sdhp 299 (param*), 313.

Assāsaka (adj. n.) [from assāsa] 1. (cp. assāsa 1) having breath, breathing, in an* not able to draw breath Vin III.84; IV.111. - 2. (cp. assāsa2) (m. and nt.) that which gives comfort and relief, confidence, expectancy J I.84; VI. 150. Cp. next.

Assāsika (adj.) [from assāsa in meaning of assāsa 2, cp. assāsaka 2] only in negative an* not able to afford comfort, giving no comfort or security M I.514; III.30; J II.298 ( = aññaṃ assāsetuṃ asamatthaṭāya na assāsika). Cp. BSanskrit anāshvāsika in stereotype phrase anitya adhruva anāshvāsika vipariṇāmadharman Divy 207; Av. SH. 139, 144; whereas the corresponds Pāli equivalent runs anicca addhuva asassata ( = appāyuka) vipariṇāma-dhamma thus inviting the conjecture that BSanskrit āshvāsika is somehow distorted out of Pāli asassata.

Assāsin (adj.) [Sanskrit āshvāsin] reviving, cheering up, consoled, happy S IV.43 (an*).

Assāseti [Causative of assasati] to console, soothe, calm, comfort, satisfy J VI.190, 512; DhA I.13.

Assita (adj.) [Sanskrit ashrita, ā + pp. of shri] dependent on, relying, supported by (acc.); abiding, living in or on D II.255 (tad*); Vv 5016 (sīho va guhaṃ a.); Th 1, 149 (janaṃ ev- assito jano); Sdhp 401.

Assirī (adj.) [a + sirī] without splendour, having lost its brightness, in assirī viya khāyati Nett 62 = Ud 79 (which latter has sassar- iva, cp. C. on passage l. c.).

Assu1 (nt.) [Vedic ashru, Av. asrū, Lith aszarà, with etymology not definitely clear: see Walde, Latin Wtb. under lacrima] a tear Vin I.87 (assūni pavatteti to shed tears); S II.282 (id.); Dh 74; Th 2, 496 (cp. ThA 289); KhA 65; DhA I.12 (*puṇṇa-netta with eyes full of tears); II.98; PvA 125. -dhārā a shower of tears DhA IV.15 (pavatteti to shed). -mukha (adj.) with tearful face [cp. BSanskrit ashrumukha e. g. Jtm 3116] D I.115, 141; Dh 67; Pug 56; DA I.284; PvA 39. -mocana shedding of tears PvA 18.

Assu2 is 3rd pl. pot. of atthi.

Assu3 (indecl.) [Sanskrit sma] expletive part. also used in emphatic sense of "surely, yes, indeed" Sn 231 (according to Fausboll, but preferably with Pāli T. S. ed. as tayas su for tay- assu, cp. KhA 188); Vv 324 (assa v. l. SS) = VvA 135 (assū ti nipāta-mattaṃ). Perhaps we ought to take this assu3 together with the following assu4 as a modification of ssu (see su2). Cp. āsu.

Assu4 part. for Sanskrit svid (and sma*) see under su2. According to this view Fausbolls reading ken- assu at Sn 1032 is to be emended to kena ssu.

Assuka (nt.) [assu1 + ka] a tear Vin II.289; Sn 691; Pv IV.53.

Assutavant (adj.) [a + sutavant] one who has not heard, ignorant M I.1, 8, 135; Dhs 1003, 1217, cp. Dhs trsl. 258.

Aha1 (indecl.) [cp. Sanskrit aha and Pāli aho; Germ. aha; Latin ehem etc.] exclamation of surprise, constereotypeation, pain etc. "ch! alas! woe!". Perhaps to be seen in cpd. *kāmā miserable pleasures lit. "woe to these pleasures!") gloss at ThA 292 for T. kāmakāmā of Th 2, 506 (explained. by C. as "ahā ti lāmaka-pariyāyo"). See also ahaha.

Aha2 (-*) and Aho (*-) (nt.) [Vedic ahan and ahas] a day. (1) *aha only in following compounds and cases: instr. eka-hena in one day J VI. 366; loc. tadahe on that (same) day PvA 46; acc. katipa-haṃ (for) some or several days J I.152 etc. (kattpa-ha); sattāhaṃ seven days, a week Vin I.1; D II. 14; J IV.2, and frequent; anvahaṃ daily Dāvs IV.8. - The initial a of ahaṃ (acc.) is elided after i, which often appears lengthened: kati -haṃ how many days* S I.7; eka-ha-dvī -haṃ one or two days J I.292; dvīha-tī -han two or three days J II.103; VvA 45; eka-ha-dvī -h- accayena after the lapse of one or two days J I.253. - A doublet of aha is anha (through metathesis from ahan), which only occurs in phrases pubbanho and sāyanha (q. v.); an adj. der. from aha is *ahika: see pañca-hika (consisting of 5 days). - (2) aho in cpd. ahoratta (m. and nt.) [cp. BSanskrit ahorātraṃ Av. SH. I.209] and ahoratti (f.) day and night, occurring mostly in oblique cases and adverbially in acc. ahorattaṃ: M I.417 (*a-nusikkhin); Dh 226 (id.; explained. by divā ca rattiñ ca tisso sikkhā sikkhamāna DhA III. 324); Th 1, 145 (ahorattā accayanti); J IV.108 (*ānaṃ accaye); Pv II.131 (*ṃ); Miln 82 (ena). - ahorattiṃ Dh 387; J VI.313 (v. l. BB for T. aho va rattiṃ).

Ahaṃ (prom.) [Vedic ahaṃ = Av. az*m; Gr. e)gw/(n); Latin ego; Goth. ik, Ags. ic, Ohg. ih etc.] pronoun. of 1st person "I". nom. sg. ahaṃ S III.235; A IV.53; Dh 222, 320; Sn 172, 192, 685, 989, 1054, 1143; J I.61; II.159. - In pregnant sense (my ego, myself, I as the one and only, i. e. egotistically) in following phrases: yaṃ vadanti mama . . na te ahaṃ S I.116, 123; ahaṃ asmi "I am" (cp. ahaṃkāra below) S I.129; III.46, 128 sq.; IV.203; A II.212, 215 sq.; Vism 13; ahaṃ pure ti "I am the first" Vv 8450 ( = ahamahaṃkārā ti VvA 351). - gen. dat. mayhaṃ Sn 431, 479; J I.279; II.160, mama S I.115; Sn 22, 23, 341, 997; J II.159, and mamaṃ S I.116; Sn 253 ( = mama C.), 694, 982. - instr. mayā Sn 135, 336, 557, 982; J I.222, 279. - acc. maṃ Sn 356, 366, 425, 936; J II. 159; III.26, and mamaṃ J III.55, 394. - loc. mayi Sn 559; J III 188. The enclitic form in the sg. is me, and functions in different cases, as gen. (Sn 983; J II.159), acc. (Sn 982), instr. (J I.138, 222), and abl. - Pl. nom. mayaŋ (we) Sn 31, 91, 167, 999; J II.159; VI.365, amhe J II. 129, and vayaŋ (q. v.). - gen. amhākaṃ J I.221; II.159 and asmākaṃ Sn p. 106. - acc. amhe J I.222; II.415 and asme J III.359. - instr. amhehi J I.150; II.417 and asmābhi ThA 153 (Ap. 132). - loc. amhesu J I.222. The enclitic form for the pl. is no (for acc. dat and gen.): see under vayaŋ. -kāra selfishness, egotism, arrogance (see also mamaṃkāra) M III.18, 32; S II.253; III.80, 136, 169 sq.; IV.41, 197, 202; A I.132 sq.; III.444; Ud 70; Nett 127, and frequent passim.

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Ahaha [onomat. after exclamation ahahā: see aha1] 1. exclamation of woe J III.450 (ahahā in metre). - 2. (nt.) N. of a certain division of Purgatory (Niraya), lit. oh woe! A V.173 = Sn p. 126.

Ahāsa [a + hāsa, cp. Sanskrit ahāsa and] absence of exultancy, modesty J III.466 ( = an-ubbillāvitattaṃ C.).

Ahāsi 3rd sg. aor. of harati (q. v.).

Ahi [Vedic ahi, with Av. aži perhaps to Latin anguis etc., see Walde Latin Wtb. s. v.] a snake Vin II.109; D I.77; S IV.198; A III.306 sq.; IV.320; V.289; Nd1 484; Vism 345 (+ kukkura etc.); VvA 100; PvA 144. -kuṇapa the carcase of a snake Vin III.68 = M I.73 = A IV.377. -gāha a snake catcher or trainer J VI.192. -guṇṭhika (* reading uncertain, we find as vv. ll. *guṇḍika, *guṇṭika and *kuṇḍika; the BSanskrit paraphrase is *tuṇḍika Divy 497. In view of this uncertainty we are unable to pronounce a safe etymology; it is in all probability a dialectical; may be Non-Aryan, word. See also under kuṇḍika and guṇṭhika and cp. Morris in J.Pāli Text Society 1886, 153) a snake charmer J I.370 (*guṇḍ*); II.267; III.348 (*guṇḍ*); IV.456 (T. *guṇṭ; v. l. BB *kuṇḍ*) 308 (T. *kuṇḍ*, v. l. SS *guṇṭh*), 456 (T. *guṇṭ*; v. l. BB *kuṇḍ); VI.171 (T. *guṇḍ*; v. l. BB *kuṇḍ*); Miln 23, 305. -chattaka (nt.) "a snake's parasol", a mushroom D III.87; J II.95; Ud 81 (C. on VIII.5, 1). -tuṇḍika = *guṇṭhika Vism 304, 500. -peta a Peta in form of a snake DhA II.63. -mekhalā "snake-girdle", i. e. outfit or appearance of a snake DhA I.139. -vātaka (-roga) N. of a certain disease ("snakewind-sickness") Vin I.78; J II.79; IV.200; DhA I.169, 187, 231; III.437. -vijjā "snake-craft", i. e. fortune-telling or sorcery by means of snakes D I.9 ( = sappa-daṭṭhatikicchana-vijjā c- eva sapp- avhāyana-vijjā ea "the art of healing snake bites as well as the invocation of snakes (for magic purposes)" DA I.93).

Ahiṃsaka (adj.) [from ahiṃsā] not injuring others, harmless, humane, S I.165; Th 1, 879; Dh 225; J IV.447.

Ahiṃsā (f.) [a + hiṃsā] not hurting, humanity, kindness D III.147; A I.151; Dh 261, 270; J IV.71; Miln 402.

Ahita (adj.-n.) [a + hita] not good or friendly, harmful, bad; unkindliness D III.246; Dh 163; Sn 665, 692; Miln 199 (*kāma).

Ahirika and Ahirīka (adj.) [from a + hirī] shameless, unscrupulous D III.212, 252, 282; A II.219; Dh 244; Sn 133 (*īka); It 27 (*īka); Pug 19 (also nt. unscrupulousness); Dhs 365; Nett 39, 126; DhA III.352.

Ahīnindriya see discussed under abhinindriya.

Ahuvāsiṃ 1st sg. pret. of hotī (q. v.) I was Vv 826 ( = ahosiṃ VvA 321).

Ahuhāliya (nt.) [onomat.] a hoarse and loud laugh J III.223 ( = danta-vidaŋsaka-mahā-hasita C.).

Ahe (indecl.) [ = aho, cp. aha1] exclamation of surprise or bewilderment: alas! woe etc., perhaps in cpd. ahevana a dense forest (lit. oh! this forest, alas! the forest (i. e. how big it is) J V.63 (uttamāhevan and aho, if reading is correct, which is not beyond doubt. C. on p. 64 expls. as "ahevanaṃ vuccati vanasaṇḍo").

Aho (indecl.) [Sanskrit aho, for etymology see aha1] exclamation of surprise, astonishment or constereotypeation: yea, indeed, well; I say! for sure! VvA 103 (aho ti acchariy- atthena nipāto); J I.88 (aho acchariyaṃ aho abbhutaṃ), 140. Usually combined. with similar emphatic particles, e. g. aho vata DhA II.85; PvA 131 ( = sādhu vata); aho vata re D I. 107; Pv II.94 5. Cp. ahe.

Ahosi-kamma (nt.) an act or thought whose kamma has no longer any potential force: Cpd.145. At p. 45 ahosikakamma is said to be a kamma inhibited by a more powerful one. See Buddhaghosa in Vism. Chap. XIX.

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Ā1 (indecl.) [Vedic ā, prep. with acc., loc., abl., meaning "to, towards", and also "from". Orig. an emphatic-deictic part. (Idg. -e) = Gr. h)_ surely, really; Ohg. -ā etc., increment of a (Idg. -e), as in Sanskrit a-sau; Gr. e\kei_ (cp. a3), see Brugmann, Kurze Vergl. Gr. 464, 465] a frequent prefix, used as well-defined simple base-prefix (with rootderivations), but not as modification (i. e. first part of a double prefix cpd. like sam-ā-dhi) except in one case ā-ni-saŋsa (which is doubtful and of different origin, viz. from combination. āsaŋsa-nisaŋsa, see below 3b). It denotes either touch (contact) or a personal (close) relation to the object (ā ti anussaraṇ- atthe nipāto PvA 165), or the aim of the action expressed in the verb. - (1.) As prep. c. abl. only in J in meaning "up to, until, about, near" J VI.192 (ā sahassehi = yāva s. C.), prob. a late development. As prefix in meaning "forth, out, to, towards, at, on" in following applications: - (a) aim in general or touch in particular (lit.), e. g. ākaḍḍhati pull to, along or up; -kāsa shining forth; -koṭeti knock at; -gacchati go towards; -camati rinse over; -neti bring towards, ad-duce; -bhā shining forth; -bhujati bend in; -masati touch at; -yata stretched out; -rabhati at-tempt; -rohana a-scending; -laya hanging on; -loketi look at; -vattati ad-vert; -vahati bring to; -vāsa dwelling at; -sādeti touch; -sīdati sit by; -hanati strike at. - (b) in reflexive function: close relation to subject or person actively concerned, e. g. ādāti take on or up (to oneself); -dāsa looking at, mirror; -dhāra support; -nandati rejoice; -nisaŋsa subjective gain; -bādha being affected; -modita pleased; -rakkha guarding; -rādhita satisfied; -rāma (personal) delight in; -lingati embrace (to oneself); -hāra taking to (oneself). - (c) in transitive function: close relation to the object passively concerned, e. g. āghātana killing; -carati indulge in; -cikkhati point ont, explain; -jīva living on; -ṇāpeti give an order to somebody; -disati point out to some one; -bhindati cut; -manteti ad-dress; -yācati pray to; -roceti speak to; siñcati besprinkle; -sevati indulge in. - (d) out of meaning (a) develops that of an intensive-frequentative prefix in sense of "all-round, completely, very much", e. g. ākiṇṇa strewn all over, -kula mixed up; -dhuta moved about; -rāva shouting out or very much; -lu'ati move about; -hiṇḍati roam about. - 2. Affinities. Closely related in meaning and often interchanging are the following prep. (prefixes): anu (-bhati), abhi (-saŋsati), pa (-tapati), paṭi (-kankhati) in meaning 1 a-c; and vi (-kirati, -ghāta, -cameti, -lepa, -lopa), sam (-tapati, -dassati) in meaning 1 d. See also 3b. - 3. Combinations: (a) Intensifying combinations. of other modifying prefixes with ā as base: anu + ā (anvā-gacchati, -disati, -maddati, -rohati, -visati, -sanna, -hata), paṭi + ā (paccā-janati, -ttharati, -dāti, -savati), pari + ā (pariyā-ñāta, -dāti, -pajjati, -harati), sam + ā (samā-disati, -dāna, -dhi, -pajjati, -rabhati). - (b) Contrast-combinations. with other prefix in a double cpd. of noun, adj. or verb (cp. above 2) in meaning of "up and down, in and out, to and fro"; ā + ni: āvedhika-nibbedhika, āsaŋsa-nisaŋsa (contracted to ānisaŋsa), āsevita-nisevita; ā + pa: assasatipassasati (where both terms are semantically alike; in exegesis however they have been differentiated in a way which looks like a distortion of the original meaning, viz. assasati is taken as "breathing out", passasati as "breathing in": see Vism 271), assāsa-passāsa, āmoditapamodita, āhuna-pāhuna, āhuneyya-pāhuneyya; ā + paccā:

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Ākoṭita-paccākoṭita; ā + pari: ākaḍḍhana-parikaḍḍhana, āsankita-parisankita; ā + vi: ālokita-vilokita, āvāha-vivāha, āveṭhana-viniveṭhana; a + sam: allāpa-sallāpa: ā + samā: āciṇṇa-samāciṇṇa. - 4. Before double consonants ā is shortened to a and words containing ā in this form are to be found under a*, e. g. akkamaṇa, akkhitta, acchādeti, aññāta, appoṭeti, allāpa, assāda.

Ā2 guṇa or increment of a* in connection with such suffixes as -ya, -iya, -itta. So in āyaSakya from ayasaka; āruppa from arūpa; ārogya from aroga; ālasiya from alasa; ādhipacca from adhipati; ābhidosika from abhidosa etc.

Ā3 of various other origins (guṇa e. g. of .r or lengthening of ordinary root a*), rare, as ālinda (for alinda), āsabha (from usabha).

Ā4 infix in repetition-compounds denoting accumulation or variety (by contrast with the opposite, cp. ā1 3b), constitutes a guṇa- or increment-form of negative prefix a (see a2), as in following: phalāphala all sorts of fruit (lit. what is fruit and not fruit) frequent in Jātakas, e. g. I.416; II.160; III.127; IV.220, 307, 449; V.313; VI.520; kāraṇākāraṇāni all sorts of duties J VI.333; DhA I.385; khaṇḍākhaṇḍa pēle-mēle J I.114; III.256; gaṇḍāgaṇḍa a mass of boils DhA III.297; cirāciraṃ continually Vin IV.261; bhavābhava all kinds of existences Sn 801, cp. Nd1 109; Nd2 664; Th 1, 784 (*esu = mahant-ā-mahantesu bh. C., see Brethren 305); rūpārūpa the whole aggregate ThA 285; etc.

Ākankhati (asp: Ākaŋkhati Ākaṅkhati) [ā + kānk.s, cp. kankhati] to wish for, think of, desire; intend, plan, design Vin II.244 (-amāna); D I.78, 176; S I.46; Sn 569 (-amāna); Sn p. 102 ( = icchati SnA 436); DhA I.29; SnA 229; VvA 149; PvA 229.

Ākankhā (asp: Ākaŋkhā Ākaṅkhā) f. [from ā + kānk.s] longing, wish; as adj. at Th 1, 1030.

Ākaḍḍhati [ā + kaḍḍhati] to pull along, pull to (oneself), drag or draw out, pull up Vin II.325 (Bdhgh. for apakassati, see under apakāsati); IV.219; J I.172, 192, 417; Miln 102, 135; ThA 117 (*eti); VvA 226; PvA 68. Pass. ākaḍḍhiyati J II.122 (*amāna-locana with eyes drawn away or attracted); Miln 102; Vism 163; VvA 207 (*amāna-hadaya with torn heart). -pp. ākaḍḍhita.

Ākaḍḍhana (nt.) [from ākaḍḍhati] drawing away or to, pulling out, distraction VvA 212 (*parikaḍḍhana pulling about); DhsA 363; Miln 154 (*parikaḍḍhana), 352. - As f. Vin III.121.

Ākaḍḍhita [pp. of akaḍḍheti] pulled out, dragged along; upset, overthrown J III.256 ( = akkhitta2).

Ākantana (*) a possible reading, for the durakantana of the text at Th 1, 1123, for which we might read durākantana.

Ākappa [cp. Sanskrit ākalpa ā + kappa] 1. attire, appearance, Vin I.44 (an*) = II.213; J I.505. - 2. deportment Dhs 713 (ā* gamanādi-ākāro DhsA 321). -sampanna, suitably attired, well dressed, A III.78; J IV.542; an* sampanna, ill dressed, J I.420.

Ākampita [pp. of ākampeti, Causative of ā + kamp] shaking, trembling Miln 154 (*hadaya).

Ākara [cp. Sanskrit ākara] a mine, usually in cpd. ratan-ākara a mine of jewels Th 1, 1049; J II.414; VI. 459; Dpvs I.18. - Cp. also Miln 356; VvA 13.

Ākassati [ā + kassati] to draw along, draw after, plough, cultivate Nd1 428.

Ākāra [a + karoti, kr] "the (way of) making", i. e. (1) state, condition J I.237 (avasan* condition of inhabitability); II.154 (patan* state of falling, labile equilibrium), cp. paṇṇ*. - (2) property, quality, attribute D I.76 (anāvila sabb*-sampanna endowed with all good qualities, of a jewel); II.157 (*varūpeta); J II.352 (sabb* paripuṇṇa altogether perfect in qualities). - (3) sign, appearance, form, D I.175; J I.266 (chātak.r sign of hunger); Miln 24 (*ena by the sign of . .); VvA 27 (therassa ā. form of the Th.); PvA 90, 283 (rañño ā. the king's person); Sdhp 363. - (4) way, mode, manner, sa-ākāra in all their modes D I.13 = 82 = III.111; J I.266 (āgaman* the mode of his coming). Esp. in instr. sg. and pl. with num. or pronoun. (in this way, in two ways etc.): chah-ākārehi in a sixfold manner Nd2 680 (cp. kāraṇehi in same sense); Nett 73, 74 (dvādasah-ākārehi); Vism 613 (navah-ākārehi indriyāni tikkhāni bhavanti); PvA 64 (yen-ākārena āgato ten-ākārena gato as he came so he went), 99 (id.). (5) reason, ground, account D I.138, 139; Nett 4, 8 sq., 38; DhA I.14; KhA 100 (in explination. of evaṃ). In this meaning frequent with dass (dasseti, dassana, nidassana etc.) in commentary style "what is meant by", the (statement of) reason why or of, notion, idea PvA 26 (dātabb*dassana), 27 (thoman*-dassana), 75 (kāruññ *ṃ dassesi), 121 (pucchan*-nidassanaṃ what has been asked); SnA 135 (*nidassana). -parivitakka study of conditions, careful consideration, examination of reasons S II.115; IV.138; A II.191 = Nd2 151.

Ākāraka (nt.) [ākāra + ka] appearance; reason, manner (cp. ākāra4) J I.269 (ākārakena = kāraṇena C.).

Ākāravant (adj.) [from ākāra] having a reason, reasonable, founded M I.401 (saddhā).

Ākāsa1 [Sanskrit ākāsha from ā + kāsh, lit. shining forth, i. e. the illuminated space] air, sky, atmosphere; space. On the concept see Cpd.5, 16, 226. On a fanciful etymology of ākāsa (from ā + kassati of krs.) at DhsA 325 see Dhs trsl. 178. D I.55 (*ṃ indriyāni sankamanti the sense-faculties pass into space); III.224, 253, 262, 265; S III.207; IV.218; V.49, 264; J I.253; II.353; III.52, 188; IV.154; VI.126; Sn 944, 1065; Nd1 428; Pv II.118; SnA 110, 152; PvA 93; Sdhp 42, 464. -ākāsena gacchati to go through the air PvA 75 (āgacch*), 103, 105, 162; *ena carati id. J II.103; *e gacchati id. PvA 65 (cando). - Formula "ananto ākāso" frequent; e. g. at D I.183; A II.184; IV. 40, 410 sq.; V.345. -anta "the end of the sky", the sky, the air (on *anta see anta1 4) J VI.89. -ānañca (or a-nañca) the infinity of space, in cpd. *āyatana the sphere or plane of the infinity of space, the "space-infinity-plane", the sphere of unbounded space. The consciousness of this sphere forms the first one of the 4 (or 6) higher attainments or recognitions of the mind, standing beyond the fourth jhāna, viz. (1) ākās-, (2) viññāṇ-ānañc-āyatana (3) ākiñcaññ-, (4) n-eva saññāna-saññ-, (5) nirodha, (6) phala. - D I.34, 183; II.70, 112, 156; III.224, 262 sq.; M I.41, 159.; III. 27, 44; S V.119; Ps I.36; Dhs 205, 501, 579, 1418; Nett 26, 39; Vism 326, 340, 453; DA I.120 (see Nd2 under ākāsa; Dhs 265 sq.; Dhs trsl. 71). As classed with jhāna see also Nd2 672 (sādhu-vihārin). -kasiṇa one of the kasiṇ-āyatanas (see under kasiṇa) D III.268; A I.41. -gangā N. of the celestial river J I.95; III.344. -gamana going through the air (as a trick of elephants) Miln 201. -cārika walking through the air J II.103. -cārin = *cārika VvA 6. -ṭṭha living in the sky (of devatā) Bu I.29; Miln 181, 285; KhA 120; SnA 476. -tala upper story, terrace on the top of a palace SnA 87. -dhātu the element of space D III.247; M I.423; III.31; A I.176; III.34; Dhs 638.

Ākāsa2 (nt.*) a game, playing chess "in the air" (sans voir) Vin II.10 = D I.6 ( = aṭṭhapada-dasapadesu viya ākāse yeva ki'anaṃ DA I.85).

Ākāsaka (adj.) [ākāsa + ka] being in or belonging to the air or sky J VI.124.

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Ākāsati [from ākāsa1] to shine J VI.89.

Ākiñcañña (nt.) [abstr. from akiñcana] state of having nothing, absence of (any) possessions; nothingness (the latter as philosophical t. t.; cp. below *āyatana and see Dhs trsl. 74). - Sn 976, 1070, 1115 (*sambhava, cp. Nd2 116); Th 2, 341 ( = akiñcanabhāva ThA 240; trsl. "cherish no wordly wishes whatsoever"); Nd2 115, see ākāsa; Miln 342. -āyatana realm or sphere of nothingness (cp. ākāsa*) D I.35, 184; II.156; III.224, 253, 262 sq.; M I.41, 165; II.254, 263; III.28, 44, S IV.217; A I.268; IV.40, 401; Ps I.36; Nett 26, 39; Vism 333. See also jhāna and vimokkha.

Ākiṇṇa [pp. of ākirati] 1. strewn over, beset with, crowded, full of, dense, rich in (*-) Vin III.130 (*loma with dense hair); S I.204 (*kammanta "in motley tasks engaged"); IV.37 (gāmanto ā. bhikkhūhi etc.); A III.104 (*vihāro); IV.4; V.15 (an* C. for appakiṇṇa); Sn 408 (*varalakkhaṇa = vipula-varalakkh* SnA 383); Pv II.124 (nānā-dijagaṇ* = āyutta PvA 157); Pug 31; PvA 32 ( = parikiṇṇa); Sdhp 595. - Freq. in idiomatic phrase describing a flourishing city "iddha phīta bahujana ākiṇṇa-manussa", e. g. D I.211; II.147 (*yakkha for *manussa; full of yakkhas, i. e. under their protection); A III.215; cp. Miln 2 (*jana-manussa). - 2. (uncertain whether to be taken as above 1 or as equal to avakiṇṇa from avakirati 2) dejected, base, vile, ruthless S I.205 = J III.309 = 539 = SnA 383. At K. S. 261, Mrs. Rh. D. translates "ruthless" and quotes C. as implying twofold exegesis of (a) impure, and (b) hard, ruthless. It is interesting to notice that Bdhgh. explains the same verse differently at SnA 383, viz. by vipula*, as above under Sn 408, and takes ākiṇṇaludda as vipulaludda, i. e. beset with cruelty, very or intensely cruel, thus referring it to ākiṇṇa 1.

Ākirati [ā + kirati] to strew over, scatter, sprinkle, disperse, fill, heap Sn 665; Dh 313; Pv II.49 (dānaṃ vipulaṃ ākiri = vippakirati PvA 92); Miln 175, 238, 323 (imper. ākirāhi); Sn 383. -pp. ākiṇṇa.

Ākiritatta (nt.) [ākirita + tta; abstr. from ākirita, pp. of ākirati Causative] the fact or state of being filled or heaped with Miln 173 (sakataṃ dhaññassa ā).

Ākilāyati v. l. at KhA 66 for āgilāyati.

Ākucca (or *ā*) [etymology unknown, prob. non-Aryan] an iguana J VI.538 (C. godhā; gloss amatt-ākuccā).

Ākurati [onomat. to sound-root *kur = *kor as in Latin cornix, corvus etc. See gala note 2 B and cp. kukkuṭa kokila, khaṭa etc., all words expressing a rasping noise in the throat. The attempts at etymology by Trenckner (Miln p. 425 as Denominitive of ākula) and Morris (J.Pāli Text Society 1886, 154 as contr. Denominitive of ankura "intumescence", thus meaning "to swell") are hardly correct] to be hoarse Miln 152 (kaṇṭho ākurati).

Ākula (adj.) [ā + *kul of which Sanskrit-Pāli kula, to Idg *quel to turn round, cp. also cakka and carati; lit. meaning "revolving quickly", and so "confused"] entangled, confused, upset, twisted, bewildered J I.123 (salākaggaṃ *ṃ karoti to upset or disturb); Vv 849 (andha*); PvA 287 (an* clear). Often reduplicated as ākulākula thoroughly confused Miln 117, 220; PvA 56; ākula-pākula Ud 5 (so read for akkula-pakkula); ākula-samākula J VI.270. On phrase tantākula-jātā gulā-guṇṭhika-jātā see gu'ā.

Ākulaka (adj.) [from ākula] entangled D II.55 (tant* for the usual tantākula, as given under gu'ā).

Ākulanīya (adj.) [grd. of ā + *kulāyati, Denominitive of kula] in an* not to be confounded or upset PvA 118.

Ākulī (-puppha) at KhA 60 (milāta*) read (according to Index p. 870) as milāta-bakula-puppha. Vism 260 (id. p.) however reads ākulī-puppha "tangle-flower" (*), cp. Ud 5, gāthā 7 bakkula, which is preferably to be read as pākula.

Ākoṭana1 (nt.) [from ākoṭeti] beating on, knocking M I.385; Miln 63, 306; DhsA 144.

Ākoṭana2 (adj.) [ = ākoṭana1] beating, driving, inciting, urging J VI.253 (f. ākoṭanī of paññā, explained. by "nivāraṇapatoda-laṭṭhi viya paññā koṭinī hoti" p. 254).

Ākoṭita [pp. of ākoṭeti] - 1. beaten, touched, knocked against J I.303; Miln 62 (of a gong). - 2. pressed, beaten down (tight), flattened, in phrase ākoṭita-paccākoṭita flattened and pressed all round (of the cīvara) S II. 281; DhA I.37.

Ākoṭeti [a + koṭṭeti, Sanskrit kuṭṭayati; BSanskrit ākoṭayati e. g. Divy 117 dvāraṃ trir ā*, Cowell "break" (*); Av. SH. Index p. 222 s. v.] - 1. to beat down, pound, stamp J I.264. 2. to beat, knock, thrash Vin II.217; J II.274; PvA 55 (aññamaññaṃ); Sdhp 159. - 3. Esp. with reference to knocking at the door, in phrases agga'aṃ ākoṭeti to beat on the bolt D I.89; A IV.359; V.65; DA I.252 (cp. agga'a); dvāraṃ ā. J V 217; DhA II.145; or simply ākoṭeti Vv 8117 (ākoṭayitvāna = appoṭetvā VvA 316). - 4. (intrs.) to knock against anything J I.239. -pp. ākoṭita (q. v.). Causative II. ākoṭapeti J III.361.

Ākhu [Vedic ākhu, from ā + khan, lit. the digger in, i. e. a mole; but given as rat or mouse by Halāyudha] a mouse or rat Pgdp 10.

Āgacchati [ā + gacchati, gam] to come to or towards, approach, go back, arive etc.

I. Forms (same arrangement as under gacchati): (1) vgacch: pres. āgacchati D I.161; J II.153; Pv IV.151; fut. āgacchissati J III.53; aor. āgacchi Pv II.133; PvA 64. - (2) vgam: aor. āgamāsi PvA 81, āgamā D I.108; J III.128, and pl. āgamiṃsu J I.118; fut. āgamissati VvA 3; PvA 122; ger. āgamma (q. v.) and āgantvā J I.151; Miln 14; Causative āgameti (q. v.). - (3) vgā: aor. āgā Sn 841; Pv I.123 ( = āgacchi PvA 64). -pp. āgata (q. v.).

II. Mcanings: (1) to come to, approach, arrive D I.108; Pv I.113; II.133; Miln 14; to return, to come back (cp. āgata) PvA 81, 122. - (2) to come into, to result, deserve (cp. āgama2) D I.161 (gārayhaṃ ṭhānaṃ deserve blame, come to be blamed); Pv IV.151 (get to, be a profit to = upakappati PvA 241). - (3) to come by, to come out to (be understood as), to refer or be referred to, to be meant or understood (cp. āgata 3 and āgama 3) J I.118 (tīṇi piṭakāni āgamiṃsu); SnA 321; VvA 3. See also āgamma.

Āgata [pp. of āgacchati] (1) come, arrived Miln 18 (*kāraṇa the reason of his coming); VvA 78 (*ṭṭhāna); PvA 81 (kiṃ āgat-attha why have you come here) come by, got attained (*-) A II.110 = Pug 48 (*visa); Mhvs XIV. 28 (*phala = anāgānuphala) -āgat-āgatā (pl.) people coming and going, passers by, all comers PvA 39, 78, 129; VvA 190 (Ep. of sangha). -sv-āgata "wel-come", greeted, hailed; nt. welcome, hail Th 2, 337; Pv IV.315, opp. durāgata not liked, unwelcome, A II.117, 143, 153; III. 163; Th 2, 337. - (2) come down, handed down (by memory, said of texts) D I.88; DhA II.35; KhA 229; VvA 30; āgatāgamo, one to whom the āgama, or the āgamas, have been handed down, Vin I.127, 337; II 8; IV.158; A II.147; Miln 19, 21. - (3) anāgata not come yet, i. e. future; usually in combination. with atīta (past) and paccuppanna (present): see atīta and anāgata.

Āgati (f.) [ā + gati] coming, coming back, return S III.53; J II.172. Usually opp. to gati going away. Used in spe-

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cial sense of rebirth and re-death in the course of saŋsāra. Thus in āgati gati cuti upapatti D I.162; A III.54 sq., 60 sq., 74; cp. also S II.67; Pv II.922 (gatiṃ āgatiṃ vā).

Āgada (m.) and āgadana (nt.) [ā + gad to speak] a word; talk, speech DA I.66 ( = vacana).

Āgantar [N. ag. from āgacchati] one who is coming or going to come A I.63; II.159; It 4, 95 (nom. āgantā only one MS, all others āgantvā). an* A I.64; II.160.

Āgantu (adj.) [Sanskrit āgantu] - 1. occasional, incidental J VI.358. - 2. an occasional arrival, a new comer, stranger J VI.529 ( = āgantuka-jana C.); ThA 16.

Āgantuka (adj.-n.) [āgantu + ka; cp. BSanskrit āgantuka in same meaning as Pāli viz. āgantukā bhik.sava* Av. SH I.87, 286; Divy 50] - 1. coming, arriving, new comer, guest, stranger, esp. a newly arrived bhikkhu; a visitor (opp. gamika one who goes away) Vin I.132, 167; II.170; III. 65, 181; IV.24, A I.10; III.41, 366; J VI.333; Ud 25; DhA II.54, 74; VvA 24; PvA 54. - 2. adventitions, incidental ( = āgantu1) Miln 304 (of megha and roga). 3. accessory, superimposed, added Vism 195. -bhatta food given to a guest, meal for a visitor Vin I.292 (opp. gamika*); II.16.

Āgama [from ā + gam] - 1. coming, approach, result, D I.53 (āgamanaṃ pavattatī ti DA I.160; cp. Sdhp 249 dukkh*). - 2. that which one goes by, resource, reference, source of reference, text, Scripture, Canon; thus a designation of(*) the Pātimokkha, Vin II.95 = 249, or of the Four Nikāyas, DA I.1, 2 (dīgh*). A def. at Vism 442 runs "antamaso opamma-vagga-mattassa pi Buddhavacanassa pariyāpuṇaṇaṃ". See also āgata 2, for phrase āgat-āgama, handed down in the Canon, Vin loc. cit. Svāgamo, versed in the doctrine, Pv IV.133 (sv* = suṭṭhu āgat-āgamo, PvA 230); Miln 215. BSanskrit in same use and meaning, e. g. Divy 17, 333, āgamāni = the Four Nikāyas. - 3. rule, practice, discipline, obedience, Sn 834 (āgamā parivitakkaṃ), cp. Davs V.22 (takk.r, discipline of right thought) Sdhp 224 (āgamato, in obedience to). 4. meaning, understanding, KhA 107 (vaṇṇ*). - 5. repayment (of a debt) J. VI.245. - 6. as gram. tt. "augment", a consonant or syllable added or inserted SnA 23 (sa-kār-āgama).

Āgamana (nt.) [from āgacchati, Sanskrit same] oncoming, arrival, approach A III.172; DA I.160; PvA 4, 81; Sdhp 224, 356. an* not coming or returning J I.203, 264.

Āgameti [caus of agacchati] to cause somebody or something to come to one, i. e. (1) to wait, to stay Vin II. 166, 182, 212; D I.112, 113; S IV.291; PvA 4, 55. (2) to wait for, to welcome Vin II.128 (ppr. āgamayamāna); M I.161 (id.) J I.69 (id. + kālaṃ).

Āgamma (adv.) [orig. ger. of āgacchati, q. v. under I.2 for form and under II.3 for meaning. BSanskrit āgamya in meaning after the Pāli form, e. g. Divy 95, 405 (with gen.); Av. SH I.85, 210 etc.; M Vastu I.243, 313]. With reference to (c. acc.), owing to, relating to; by means of, thanks to. In meaning nearly synonymous with ārabbha, sandhāya and paṭicca (see K. S. 318 s. v.) D I.229; It 71; J I.50; VI.424; Kh VIII.14 ( = nissāya KhA 229); PvA 5, 21 etc.

Āgāmitā found only in negative form anāgāmitā.

Āgāmin (adj. n.) [ā + gāmin] returning, one who returns, esp. one who returns to another form of life in saŋsāra (cp. āgati), one who is liable to rebirth A I.63; II.159; It 95. See anāgāmin.

Āgāra (-*) see agāra.

Āgāraka and *ika (adj.-n.) (-*) [cp. BSanskrit āgārika Divy 275, and agārika] belonging to the house, viz. (1) having control over the house, keeping, surveying, in compounds koṭṭh* possessor or keeper of a storehouse Vin I.209; bandhan* prison-keeper A II.207; bhaṇḍ* keeper of wares, treasurer PvA 2 (see also bhaṇḍ*). - (2) being in the house, sharing (the house), companion S III.190 (paṃsv* playmate).

Āgā'ha (adj.) (ā + gā'ha 1; cp. Sanskrit samāgāḍhaṃ] strong, hard, harsh, rough (of speech), usually in instr. as adv. āgā'hena roughly, harshly a I.283, 295; Pug 32 (so to be read for agā'hena, although Pug A 215 has a*, but expls. by atigā'hena vacanena); instr. f. āgā'hāya Vin v. 122 (ceteyya; Bdhgh. on p. 230 reads āga'āya and expls. by da'habhāvāya). See also Nett 77 (āgā'hā paṭipadā a rough path), 95 (id.; v. l. agā'hā).

Āgilāyati [ā + gilāyati; Sanskrit glāyati, cp. gilāna] to be wearied, exhausted or tired, to ache, to become weak or faint Vin II.200; D III.209; M I.354; S IV.184; KhA 66 (hadavaṃ ā.). Cp. āyamati.

Āgu (nt.) [for Vedic āgas nt.] guilt, offence, S I.123; A III.346; Sn 522 = Nd2 337 (in explination. of nāga as āguṃ na karotī ti nāgo); Nd1 201. Note. A reconstructed āgasa is found at Sdhp 294 in cpd. akatāgasa not having committed sin. -cārin one who does evil, D II.339; M II.88; III.163; S II.100, 128; A II.240; Miln 110.

Āghāta [Sanskrit āghāta only in lit. meaning of striking, killing, but cp. BSanskrit āghāta in meaning "hurtfulness" at M Vastu I.79; Av. SH II.129; cp. ghāta and ghāteti] anger, ill-will, hatred, malice D I.3, 31; III.72 sq.; S I.179; J I.113; Dhs 1060, 1231; Vbh 167, 362, 389; Miln 136; Vism 306; DA I.52; VvA 67; PvA 178. -anāghāta freedom from ill will Vin II.249; A V.80. -paṭivinaya repression of ill-will; the usual enumn. of ā-* paṭivinayā comprises nine, for which see D III.262, 289; Vin V.137; A IV.408; besides this there are sets of five at A III.185 sq.; SnA 10, 11, and one of ten at Vin V.138. -vatthu occasion of ill-will; closely connected with *paṭivinaya and like that enumerated in sets of nine (Vin V.137; A IV.408; Ps I.130; J III.291, 404; V.149; Vbh 389; Nett 23; SnA 12), and of ten (Vin V.138; A V. 150; Ps I.130; Vbh 391).

Āghātana (nt.) [ā + ghāta(na), cp. āghata which has changed its meaning] - 1. slaying, striking, destroying, killing Th 1, 418, 711; death D I.31 ( = maraṇa DA I.119). 2. shambles, slaughter-house Vin I.182 (gav*); A IV.138; J VI.113. - 3. place of execution Vin III.151; J I.326, 439; III.59; Miln 110; DhA IV.52; PvA 4, 5.

Āghāteti [Denominitive from āghāta, in form = ā + ghāteti, but different in meaning] only in phrase cittaṃ a. (with loc.) to incite one's heart to hatred against, to obdurate one's heart. Sdhp. 126 = S I.151 = A V.172.

Ācamati [ā + cam] to take in water, to resorb, to rinse J III.297; Miln 152, 262 (+ dhamati). - Causative I. ācamcti (a) to purge, rinse one's mouth Vin II.142; M II. 112; A III.337; Pv IV.1Q3 (ācamayitvā = mukhaṃ vikkhāletvā PvA 241); Miln 152 (*ayamāna). - (b) to wash off, clean oneself after evacuation Vin II.221. - Causative II. ācamāpeti to cause somebody to rinse himself J VI.8.

Ācamana (nt.) [ā + camana of cam] rinsing, washing with water, used (a) for the mouth D I.12 ( = udakena mukhasiddhi-karaṇa DA I.98); (b) after evacuation J III 486. -kumbhī water-pitcher used for rinsing Vin I.49, 52; II.142, 210, 222. -pādukā slippers worn when rinsing Vin I.190; II.142, 222. -sarāvaka a saucer for rinsing Vin II.142, 221.

Ācamā (f.) [from ā + cam] absorption, resorption Nd1 429 (on Sn 945, which both in T. and in SnA reads ājava; explained. by taṇhā in Nidd.). Note. Index to SnA (Pj III) has ācāma.

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Ācaya [ā + caya] heaping up, accumulation, collection, mass (opp. apacaya). See on term Dhs trsl. 195 and Cpd.251, 252. - S II.94 (kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi); A IV.280 = Vin II.259 (opp. apacaya); Dhs 642, 685; Vbh 319, 326, 330; Vism 449; DhA II.25. -gāmin making for piling up (of rebirth) A V.243, 276; Dhs 584, 1013, 1397; Kvu 357.

Ācarati [ā + aarati] - 1. to practice, perform, indulge in Vin I.56; II.118; Sn 327 (ācare dhamma-sandosa-vādaṃ), 401; Miln 171, 257 (pāpaṃ). Cp. pp. ācarita in BSanskrit e. g. Av. S I.124, 153, 213 in same meaning. -pp. āciṇṇa. - 2. to step upon, pass through J V.153.

Ācarin (adj.-n.) [from ā + car] treaching, f. ācarinī a female teacher Vin IV.227 (in contrast to gaṇa and in same sense as ācariya m. at Vin IV.130), 317 (id.).

Ācariya [from ā + car] a teacher (almost syn. with upajjhāya) Vin I.60, 61, 119 (*upajjhāya); II.231; IV.130 (gaṇo vā ācariyo a meeting of the bhikkhus or a single teacher, cp. f. ācarinī); D I.103, 116 (gaṇ*) 238 (sattama-cariyamahāyuga seventh age of great teachers); III.189 sq.; M III.115; S I.68 (gaṇ*), 177; IV.176 (yogg*); A I.132 (pubb*); Sn 595; Nd1 350 (upajjhāya vā āc*); J II.100, 411; IV.91; V.501; Pv IV.323, 351 ( = ācāra-samācāra-sikkhāpaka PvA 252); Miln 201, 262 (mastereotypegoldsmith*); Vism 99 sq.; KhA 12, 155; SnA 422; VvA 138. For contracted form of ācariya see ācera. -kula the clan of the teacher A II.112. -dhana a teacher's fee S I.177; A V.347. -pācariya teacher upon teacher, lit. "teacher and teacher's teacher" (see ā1 3b) D I.94, 114, 115, 238; S IV.306, 308; DA I.286; SnA 452 ( = ācariyo c-eva ācariya-ācariyo ca). -bhariyā the teacher's fee J V.457; VI.178; DhA I.253. -bhariyā a teacher's wife AN 2 9. -muṭṭhi "the teacher's fist" i. e. close-fistedness in teaching, keeping things back, D II.100; S V.153; J II.221, 250; Miln 144; SnA 180, 368. -vaṃsa the line of the teachers Miln 148. -vatta serving the teacher, service to the t. DhA I.92. -vāda traditional teaching; later as heterodox teaching, sectarian teaching (opp. theravāda orthodox doctrine) Miln 148; Dpvs V.30; Mhbv 96.

Ācariyaka [ācariya + ka, different from Sanskrit ācariyaka nt. art of teaching] a teacher Vin I.249; III.25, 41; D I.88, 119, 187; II.112; M I.514; II.32; S V.261; A II.170; IV. 310. See also sācariyaka.

Ācāma [Sanskrit ācāma] the scum or foam of boiling rice D I.166; M I.78; A I.295; J II.289; Pug 55; VvA 99 sq.; DhA III.325 (*kuṇḍaka).

Ācāmeti [for ācameti* cp. Sanskrit ācāmayati, Causative of ā + cam] at M II.112 in imper. ācāmehi be pleased or be thanked(*); perhaps the reading is incorrect.

Ācāra [ā + car] way of behaving, conduct, practice, esp. right conduct, good manners; adj. (-*) practising, indulging in, or of such and such a conduct. - Sn 280 (pāpa*); J I.106 (vipassana*); II.280 (*ariya); VI.52 (ariya*); SnA 157; PvA 12 (sīla*), 36, 67, 252; Sdhp 441. -an* bad behaviour Vin II.118 (*ṃ ācarati indulge in bad habits); DhA II.201 (*kiriyā). Cp. sam*. -kusala versed in good manners Dh 376 (cp. DhA IV.111). -gocara pasturing in good conduct; i. e. practice of right behaviour D I.63 = It 118; M I.33; S V.187; A I.63 sq.; II.14, 39; III.113, 155, 262; IV.140, 172, 352; V.71 sq., 89, 133, 198; Vbh 244, 246 (cp. Miln 368, 370, quot. Vin III.185); Vism I.8. -vipatti failure of morality, a slip in good conduct Vin I.171.

Ācārin (adj. n.) [from ācāra] of good conduct, one who behaves well A I.211 (anācārī viratā l. 4 from bottom is better read as ācārī virato, in accordance with v. l.).

Ācikkhaka (adj. n.) [ā + cikkha + ka of cikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA I.71.

Ācikkhati [Freq. of ā + khyā, i. e. akkhāti] to tell, relate, show, describe, explain D I.110; A II 189 (atthaṃ ā to interpret); Pug 59; DhA I.14; SnA 155; PvA 121, 164 (describe). - imper. pres. ācikkha Sn 1097 ( = brūhi Nd2 119 and 455); Pv I.109; II.81; and ācikkhāhi DhA II.27. aor. ācikkhi PvA 6, 58, 61, 83. - ācikkhati often occurs in stock phrase ācikkhati deseti paññāpeti paṭṭhapeti vivarati etc., e. g. Nd1 271; Nd2 465; Vism 163. - attānaṃ ā. to disclose one's identity PvA 89, 100. -pp. ācikkhita (q. v.). - Causative II. ācikkhāpeti to cause some body to tell DhA II.27.

Ācikkhana (adj.-nt.) [ā + cikkhana of cikkhati] telling, announcing J III.444; PvA 121.

Ācikkhita [pp. of acikkhati] shown, described, told PvA 154 (*magga), 203 (an* = anakkhāta).

Ācikkhitar [n. ag. from ācikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA II.107 (for pavattar).

Āciṇa [pp. of ācināti* or is it distorted from āciṇṇa*] accumulated; practised, performed Dh 121 (pāpaṃ = pāpaṃ āciṇanto karonto DhA III.16). It may also be spelt ācina.

Āciṇṇa [ā + ciṇṇa, pp. of ācarati] practiced, performed, (habitually) indulged in M I.372 (kamma, cp. Miln 226 and the explination. of āciṇṇaka kamma as "chronic karma" at Cpd.144); S IV.419; A V.74 sq.; J I.81; DA I.91 (for aviciṇṇa at D I.8), 275; Vism 269; DhA I.37 (*samāciṇṇa thoroughly fulfilled); VvA 108; PvA 54; Sdhp 90. -kappa ordinance or rule of right conduct or customary practice (*) Vin I.79; II.301; Dpvs IV.47; cp. V.18.

Ācita [pp. of ācināti] accumulated, collected, covered, furnished or endowed with J VI.250 ( = nicita); Vv 411; DhsA 310. See also āciṇa.

Ācināti [ā + cināti] to heap up, accumulate S III.89 (v. l. ācinati); IV.73 (ppr. ācinato dukkhaṃ); DhsA 44. -pp. ācita and āciṇa (ācina). - Pass. ācīyati (q. v.).

Ācīyati (and āceyyati) [Pass. of ācināti, cp. cīyati] to be heaped up, to increase, to grow; ppr. āceyyamāna J V.6 ( = ācīyanto vaḍḍhanto C.).

Ācera is the contracted form of ācariya; only found in the Jātakas, e. g. J IV.248; VI.563.

Ācela in kañcanācela-bhūsita "adorned with golden clothes" Pv II.127 stands for cela*.

Ājañña is the contracted form of ājāniya.

Ājava see ācamā.

Ājāna (adj.) [ā + jāna from jñā] understandable, only in cpd. durājāna hard to understand S IV.127; Sn 762; J I.295, 300.

Ājānana (nt.) [ā + jānana, cp. Sanskrit ajñāna] learning, knowing, understanding; knowledge J I.181 (*sabhāva of the character of knowing, fit to learn); PvA 225.

Ājānāti [ā + jānāti] to understand, to know, to learn D I.189; Sn 1064 (*amāna = vijānamāna Nd2 120). As aññāti at Vism 200. -pp. aññāta. Cp. also āṇāpeti.

Ājāniya (ājānīya) (adj. n.) [cp. BSanskrit ājāneya and Sanskrit ājāti birth, good birth. Instead of its correct derivation from ā + jan (to be born, i. e. well-born) it is by Bdhgh. connected with ā + jñā (to learn, i. e. to be trained). See for these popular etymology e. g. J I.181: sārathissa cittarucitaṃ kāraṇaṃ ājānana-sabhāvo ājañño, and DhA IV.4: yaṃ assadamma-sārathi kāraṇaṃ kāreti tassa khippaṃ jānana

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samatthā ājāniyā. - The contracted form of the word is ājañña] of good race or breed; almost exclusively used to denote a thoroughbred horse (cp. assājāniya under assa3). (a) ājāniya (the more common and younger Pāli form): Sn 462, 528, 532; J I.178, 194; Dpvs IV.26; DhA I.402; III.49; IV.4; VvA 78; PvA 216. - (b) ājānīya: M I.445; A V.323; Dh 322 = Nd2 475. - (c) *jañña = (mostly in poetry): Sn 300 = 304; J I.181; Pv IV.154; purisājañña "a steed of man", i. e. a man of noble race) S III.91 = Th 1, 1084 = Sn 544 = VvA 9; A V.325. -anājāniya of inferior birth M I.367. -susu the young of a noble horse, a noble foal M I. 445 (*ūpamo dhamma-pariyāyo).

Ājānīyatā (f.) [abstr. from ājāniya] good breed PvA 214.

Ājira [ = ajira with lengthened initial a] a courtyard Mhvs 35, 3.

Ājīva [ā + jīva; Sanskrit ājīva] livelihood, mode of living, living, subsistence, D I.54; A III.124 (parisuddha*); Sn 407 (*ṃ = parisodhayi = micchājīvaṃ hitvā sammājīvaṃ eva pavattayī SnA 382), 617; Pug 51; Vbh 107, 235; Miln 229 (bhinna*); Vism 306 (id.); DhsA 390; Sdhp 342, 375, 392. Esp. frequent in the contrast pair sammā-ājīva and micchā-ā* right mode and wrong mode of gaining a living, e. g. at S II.168 sq.; III.239; V.9; A I.271; II 53, 240, 270; IV.82; Vbh 105, 246. See also magga (ariyaṭṭhangika). -pārisuddhi purity or propriety of livelihood Miln 336; Vism 22 sq., 44; DhA IV.111. -vipatti failure in method of gaining a living A I.270. -sampadā perfection of (right) livelihood A I.271; DA I.235.

Ājīvaka (and *ika) [ājīva + ka, orig. "one finding his living" (scil. in a peculiar way); cp. BSanskrit ājīvika Divy 393, 427] an ascetic, one of the numerous sects of non-buddhist ascetics. On their austereotypeties, practice and way of living see esp. DhA II.55 sq. and on the whole question A. L. Basham, Hist. and Doctrines of the ājīvikas, 1951. - (a) ājīvaka: Vin I.291; II.284; IV.74, 91; M I.31, 483: S I.217; A III.276, 384; J I.81, 257, 390. - (b) ājīvika: Vin I.8; Sn 381 (v. l. BB. *aka). -sāvaka a hearer or lay disciple of the ājīvaka ascetics Vin II 130, 165; A I.217.

Ājīvika (nt.) (or ājīvikā f.*) [from ājīva] sustenance of life, livelihood, living Vbh 379 (*bhaya) Miln 196 (id.); PvA 274, and in phrase ājīvik-a-pakata being deprived of a livelihood, without a living M I.463 = S III.93 (T. reads jīvikā pakatā) = It 89 (reads ājīvikā pakatā) = Miln 279.

Ājīvin (adj.-n.) [from ājīva] having one's livelihood, finding one's subsistence, living, leading a life of (-*) D III.64; A V.190 (lūkha*)

Āṭa [etymology* Cp. Sanskrit āṭi Turdus Ginginianus, see Aufrecht, Halāyudha p. 148] a kind of bird J VI.539 ( = dabbimukha C.).

Āṭaviya is to be read for aṭaviyo (q. v.) at J VI.55 [ = Sanskrit āṭavika].

Āṭhapanā (f.) at Pug 18 and v. l. at Vbh 357 is to be read aṭṭhapanā (so T. at Vbh 357).

Āṇañja see ānejja.

Āṇaṇya see ānaṇya.

Āṇatti (f.) [ā + ñatti (cp. āṇāpeti), Causative of jñā] order, command, ordinance, injunction Vin I.62; KhA 29; PvA 260; Sdhp 59, 354.

Āṇattika (adj.) [āṇatti + ka] belonging to an ordinance or command, of the nature of an injunction KhA 29.

Āṇā (f.) [Sanskrit ājñā, ā + jñā] order, command, authority Miln 253; DA I.289; KhA 179, 180, 194; PvA 217; Sdhp 347, 576. rāj-āṇā the king's command or authority J I.433; III.351; PvA 242. āṇaṃ deti to give an order J I.398; *ṃ pavatteti to issue an order Miln 189, cp. āṇāpavatti J III.504; IV.145.

Āṇāpaka (adj. n.) [from āṇāpeti] 1. (adj.) giving an order Vism 303. - 2. (n.) one who gives or calls out orders, a town-crier, an announcer of the orders (of an authority) Miln 147.

Āṇāpana (nt.) [abstr. from āṇāpeti] ordering or being, ordered, command, order PvA 135.

Āṇāpeti [ā + ñāpeti, Causative of ā + jānāti from jñā, cp. Sanskrit ājñāpayati] to give an order, to enjoin, command (with acc. of person) J III.351; Miln 147; DhA II.82; VvA 68 (dāsiyo), 69; PvA 4, 39, 81.

Āṇi (Vedic āṇi to aṇu fine, thin, flexible, in formation an n-enlargement of Idg. *olenā, cp. Ohg. lun, Ger. lunse, Ags. lynes = E. linch, further related to Latin ulna elbow, Gr. w)le/nh, Ohg. elina, Ags. eln = E. el-bow. See Walde, Lāt. Wtb. under ulna and lacertus]. - 1. the pin of a wheel-axle, a linch-pin M I.119; S II.266, 267; A II.32; Sn 654; J VI.253, 432; SnA 243; KhA 45, 50. - 2. a peg, pin, bolt, stop (at a door) M I.119; S. II 266 (drum stick); J IV.30; VI.432, 460; Th 1, 744; Dh I.39. 3. (fig.) (*-) peg-like (or secured by a peg, of a door), small, little in *colaka a small (piece of) rag Vin II.271, cp. I.205 (vaṇabandhana-colaka); *dvāra Th 1, 355; C. khuddaka-dvāra, quoted at Brethren 200, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "the towngate's sallyport" by Neumann as "Gestock" (fastening, enclosure) āṇi-gaṇṭhik-āhato ayopatto at Vism 108; DA I.199 is apparently a sort of brush made of four or five small pieces of flexible wood.

Ātanka [etymology uncertain; Sanskrit ātanka] illness, sickness, disease M I.437; S III.1; Sn 966 (*phassa, cp. Nd1 486). Freq. in cpd. appātanka freedom from illness, health (cp. appābādha) D I.204; III.166; A III.65, 103; Miln 14. - f. abstr. appātankatā M I.124.

Ātankin (adj.) [from ātanka] sick, ill J V.84 ( = gilāna C.).

Ātata [from ā + tan, pp. tata; lit. stretched, covered over] generic name for drums covered with leather on one side Dpvs XIV.14; VvA 37 (q. v. for enumn. of musical instruments), 96.

Ātatta [ā + tatta1, pp. of ā-tapati] heated, burnt. scorched, dry J V.69 (*rūpa = sukkha-sarīra C.).

Ātapa [ā + tapa] - 1. sun-heat Sn 52; J I.336; Dhs 617; Dpvs I.57; VvA 54; PvA 58. - 2. glow, heat (in general) Pv I.74; Sdhp 396. - 3. (fig.) (cp. tapa2) ardour, zeal, exertion PvA 98 (viriyā-tapa; perhaps better to be read *ātāpa q. v.). Cp. ātappa. -vāraṇa "warding off the sun-heat", i. e. a parasol, sun-shade Dāvs I.28; V.35.

Ātapatā (f.) [abstr. of ātapa] glowing or burning state, heat Sdhp 122.

Ātapati [ā + tap] to burn J III.447.

Ātappa (nt.) [Sanskrit *ātāpya, from ātāpa] ardour, zeal, exertion D I.13; III.30 sq., 104 sq., 238 sq.; M III.210; S II.132, 196 sq.; A I.153; III.249; IV.460 sq.; V.17 sq.; Sn 1062 ( = ussāha usso'hi thāma etc. Nd2 122); J III.447; Nd1 378; Vbh 194 ( = vāyāma); DA I.104.

Ātāpa [ā + tāpa from tap; cp. tāpeti] glow, heat; fig. ardour, keen endeavour, or perhaps better "torturing, mortifica-

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tion" Miln 313 (cittassa ātāpo paritāpo); PvA 98 (viriya*). Cp. ātappa and ātāpana.

Ātāpana (nt.) [ā + tāpana] tormenting, torture, mortification M I.78; A I.296 (*paritāpana); II.207 (id.); Pug 55 (id.); Vism 3 (id.).

Ātāpin (adj.) [from ātāpa, cp. BSanskrit ātāpin Av. SH I.233; II. 194 = Divy 37; 618] ardent, zealous, strenuous, active D III.58, 76 sq., 141 (+ sampajāna), 221, 276; M I.22, 56, 116, 207, 349; II.11; III.89, 128, 156; S 113, 117 sq., 140, 165; II.21, 136 sq.; III.73 sq.; IV.37, 48, 54, 218; V.165, 187, 213; A II.13 sq.; III 38, 100 sq.; IV. 29, 177 sq., 266 sq., 300, 457 sq.; V.343 sq.; Sn 926; Nd1 378; It 41, 42; Vbh 193 sq.; Miln 34, 366; Vism 3 ( = viriyavā); DhA I.120; SnA 157, 503. - Freq. in the formula of Arahantship "eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto": see arahant II. B. See also satipaṭṭhāna. Opp. anātāpin S II.195 sq.; A II.13; It 27 (+ anottappin).

Ātāpeti [ā + tāpeti] to burn, scorch; fig. to torment, inflict pain, torture M I.341 (+ paritāpeti); S IV.337; Miln 314, 315.

Ātitheyya (nt.) [from ati + theyya] great theft (*) A I.93; IV. 63 sq. (v. l. ati* which is perhaps to be prcferred).

Ātu [dialectical] father M I.449 (cp. Trenckner's note on p. 567: the text no doubt purports to make the woman speak a sort of patois).

Ātuman [Vedic ātman, diaeretic form for the usual contracted attan; only found in poetry. Cp. also the shortened form tuman] self. nom. sg. ātumo Pv IV.52 ( = sabhāvo PvA 259), ātumā Nd1 69 (ātumā vuccati attā), 296 (id.), and ātumāno Nd1 351; acc. ātumānaṃ Sn 782 ( = attānaṃ SnA 521), 888, 918; loc. ātume Pv II.1311 ( = attani C.).

Ātura (adj.) [Sanskrit ātura, cp. BSanskrit ātura, e. g. Jtm 3170] ill, sick, diseased; miserable, affected S III.1 (*kāya); A I. 250; Sn 331; Vv 8314 (*rūpa = abhitunna-kāya VvA 328); J I.197 (*anna "food of the miserable", i. e. last meal of one going to be killed; C. expls. as maraṇabhojana), 211 (*citta); II.420 (*anna, as above); III.201; V.90, 433; VI.248; Miln 139, 168; DhA I.31 (*rūpa); PvA 160, 161; VvA 77; Sdhp 507. Used by Commentators as syn. of aṭṭo, e. g. at J IV.293; SnA 489. -anātura healthy, well, in good condition S III.1; Dh 198.

Āthabbaṇa (nt.) [ = athabbaṇa, q. v.] the Atharva Veda as a code of magic working formulas, witchcraft, sorcery Sn 927 (v. l. ath*, see interpreted at Nd1 381; explained. as āthabbaṇika-manta-ppayoga at SnA 564).

Āthabbaṇika (adj. n.) [from athabbana] one conversant with magic, wonder-worker, medicine-man Nd1 381; SnA 564.

Ādapeti [Causative of ādāti] to cause one to take, to accept, agree to M II.104; S I.132.

Ādara [Sanskrit ādara, prob. ā + dara, cp. semantically Ger. ehrfurcht awe] consideration of, esteem, regard, respect, reverence, honour J V.493; SnA 290; DA I.30; DhsA 61; VvA 36, 61, 101, 321; PvA 121, 123, 135, 278; Sdhp 2, 21, 207, 560. -anādara lack of reverence, disregard, disrespect; (adj.) disrespectful S I.96; Vin IV.218; Sn 247 ( = ādara-virahita SnA 290; DA I.284; VvA 219; PvA 3, 5, 54, 67, 257.

Ādaratā (f.) [abstr. from ādara] = ādara, in negative an* want of consideration J IV.229; Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 (in explination. of dovacassatā).

Ādariya (nt.) [abstr. from ādara] showing respect of honour; negative an* disregard, disrespect Vin II.220; A V.146, 148; Pug 20; Vbh 371; miln 266.

Ādava [ā + dava2*] is gloss at VvA 216 for maddava Vv 5123; meaning: excitement, adj. exciting. The passage in VvA is somewhat corrupt, and therefore unclear.

Ādahati1 [ā + dahati1] to put down, put on, settle, fix Vism 289 (samaṃ ā. = samādahati). Cp. sam* and ādhiyati.

Ādahati2 [ā + dahati2] to set fire to, to burn J VI.201, 203.

Ādā [ger. of ādāti from reduced base *da of dadāti 1b] taking up, taking to oneself Vin IV.120 ( = anādiyitvā C.; cp. the usual form ādāya).

Ādāti (ādadāti) [ā + dadāti of dadāti base 1 dā] to take up, accept, appropriate, grasp, seize; grd. ādātabba Vin I.50; inf. ādātuṃ D III.133 (adinnaṃ theyyasankhātaṃ ā.). ger. ādā and ādāya (see sep.); grd. ādeyya, Causative ādapeti (q. v.). - See also ādiyati and ādeti.

Ādāna (nt.) [ād + āna, or directly from ā + dā, base 1 of dadāti] taking up, getting, grasping, seizing; fig. appropriating, clinging to the world, seizing on (worldly objects). (1) (lit.) taking (food), pasturing M III.133; J V.371 (and *esana). - (2) getting, acquiring, taking, seizing S II.94; A IV.400 (daṇḍ*); PvA 27 (phal*); esp. frequent in adinn* seizing what is not given, i. e. theft: see under adinna. - (3) (fig.) attachment, clinging A V.233, 253 (*paṭinissagga); Dh 89 (id.; cp. DhA II.163); Sn 1103 (*taṇhā), 1104 (*satta); Nd1 98 (*gantha); Nd2 123, 124. -an* free from attachment S I.236 (sādānesu anādāno "not laying hold mong them that grip" trsl.); A II.10; It 109; J IV.354; Miln 342; DhA IV.70 ( = khandhādisu niggahaṇo). Cp. upa*, pari*.

Ādāya [ger. of ādāti, either from base 1 of dadāti (dā) or base 2 (dāy). See also ādiya] having received or taken, taking up, seizing on, receiving; frequent used in the sense of a prep. "with" (c. acc.) Sn 120, 247, 452; J V.13; Vbh 245; DhA II.74; SnA 139; PvA 10, 13, 38, 61 etc. - At Vin I.70 the form ādāya is used as a noun f. ādāyā in meaning of "a casually taken up belief" (tassa ādāyassa vaṇṇe bhaṇati). Cp. upa*, pari*.

Ādāyīn (adj.-n.) [from ā + dadāti base 2, cp. ādāya] taking up, grasping, receiving; one who takes, seīzes or appropriates D I.4 (dinn*); A III.80; V.137 (sār*); DA I.72.

Ādāsa [Sanskrit ādarsha, ā + drsh, Pāli dass, of dassati1 2] a mirror Vin II.107; D I.7, 11 (*pañha mirror-questioning, cp. DA I.97: "ādāse devataṃ otaretvā pañha-pucchanaṃ"), 80; II.93 (dhamna*-ādāsaŋ nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi); S V.357 (id.); A V.92, 97 sq., 103; J I.504; Dhs 617 (*maṇḍala); Vism 591 (in simile); KhA 50 (*daṇḍa) 237; DhA I.226. -tala the surface of the mirror, in similes at Vism 450, 456, 489.

Ādāsaka = ādāsa Th 2, 411.

Ādi [Sanskrit ādi, etymology uncertain] - 1. (m.) starting-point, beginning Sn 358 (acc. ādiṃ = kāraṇaṃ SnA 351); Dh 375 (nom. ādi); Miln 10 (ādimhi); J VI.567 (abl. ādito from the beginning). For use as nt. see below 2 b. - 2. (adj. and adv.) (a) (*-) beginning, initially, first, principal, chief: see compounds - (b) (*-) beginning with, being the first (of a series which either is supposed to be familiar in its constituents to the reader or hearer or is immediately intelligible from the context), i. e. and so on, so forth (cp. adhika); e. g. rukkha-gumb-ādayo (acc. pl.) trees, jungle etc. J I.150; amba-panas- ādīhi rukkehi sampanno (and similar kinds of fruit) J I.278; amba-labuj-ādīnaṃ phalānaṃ anto J II.159; asi-satti-dhami-ādīni āvudhāni (weapous, such as sword, knife, bow and the like) J I.150; kasi-gorakkh- ādīni karonte manusse J II.128; . . . ti ādinā nayena in this and similar ways J I.81; PvA 30. Absolute as nt. pl. ādinī with ti (evaṃ) (ādīni), closing a quotation, meaning "this and such like", e. g. at J II.128,

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416 (ti ādīni viravitvā). - In phrase ādiṃ katvā meaning "putting (him, her, it) first", i. e. heginning with, from . . . on, from . . . down (c. acc.) e. g. DhA I.393 (rājānaṃ ādiṃ K. from the king down); PvA 20 (vihāraṃ ādikatvā), 21 (pañcavaggiye ādiṃ K.). -kammika [cp. BSanskrit ādikarmaka Divy 544] a beginner Vin III.146; IV.100; Miln 59; Vism 241; DhsA 187. -kalyāṇa in phrase ādikalyāṇa majjhe-kalyāṇa pariyosāna-kalyāṇa of the Dhamma, "beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the end" see references under dhamma C. 3 and cp. DA I.175 ( = ādimhi kalyāṇa etc.); SnA 444; abstr. *kalyāṇatā Vism 4. -pubbangama original Dpvs IV.26. -brahmacariyaka belonging to the principles or fundaments of moral life D I.189; III.284; M I.431; II.125, 211; III. 192; S II.75, 223; IV.91; V.417, 438; f. *ikā Vin I.64, 68; A I.231 sq. -majjhapariyosāna beginning, middle and end Miln 10; cp. above ādikalyāṇa.

Ādika (adj.) [ādi + ka] from the beginning, initial (see adhika); instr. ādikena in the beginning, at once, at the same time M I.395, 479; II.213; S II.224; J VI.567. Cp. ādiya3.

Ādicca [Vedic āditya] the sun S I.15, 47; II.284; III.156; V.44, 101; A I.242; V.22, 263, 266 sq.; It 85; Sn 550, 569, 1097 ("ādicco vuccati suriyo" Nd2 125); DhA IV. 143; Sdhp 14, 17, 40. -upaṭṭhānā sun-worship D I.11 ( = jīvikatthāya ādiccaparicariyā DA I.97); J II.72 (*jātaka; ādiccaṃ upatiṭṭhati p. 73 = suriyaṃ namassamāno tiṭṭhati C.). -patha the path of the sun, i. e. the sky, the heavens Dh 175 ( = ākāsa DhA III.177). -bandhu "kinsman of the sun", Ep. of the Buddha Vin II.296; S I.186, 192; A II.54; Sn 54, 915, 1128; Nd1 341; Nd2 125b; Vv 425, 7810; VvA 116.

Ādiṇṇa [Sanskrit ādīrṇa, pp. of ā + dr, see ādiyati2] broken, split open S IV.193 ( = sipātikā with burst pod); cp. M I.306.

Ādiṇṇata (nt.) [abstr. from ādiṇṇa] state of being broken or split Ps I.49.

Āditta [ā + ditta1, Sanskrit ādīpta, pp. of ā + dīp] set on fire, blazing, burning Vin I.34; Kv 209 (sabbaṃ ādittaṃ); S III.71; IV.19, 108; A IV.320 (*cela); Sn 591; J IV.391; Pv I.85 ( = paditta jalita PvA 41); Kvu 209; DA I.264; PvA 149; Sdhp 599. -pariyāya the discourse or sermon on the fire (lit. being in fllames) S IV.168 sq.; Vin I.34; DhA I.88.

Ādina only at D I.115 (T. reading ādīna, but v. l. S id. ādina, B p. abhinna) in phrase ādina-khattiya-kula primordial. See note in Dial. I.148.

Ādiya1 (adj.) grd. of admi, ad, Sanskrit ādya] edible, eatable A III.45 (bhojanāni).

Ādiya2 in -mukha is uncertain reading at A III.164 sq. (vv. ll. ādeyya- and ādheyya), meaning perhaps "grasp-mouth", i. e. gossip; thus equal to ger. of ādiyati1. Perhaps to be taken to ādiyati2. The same phrase occurs at Pug 65 (T. ādheyya-, C. has v. l. ādheyya-) where Pug A 248 explinations. "ādito dheyyamukho, paṭhama-vacanasmiṃ yeva ṭhapita-mukho ti attho" (sticking to one's word). See ādheyya.

Ādiya3 = ādika, instr. ādiyena in the beginning J VI.567 ( = ādikena C.).

Ādiya4 ger. of ādiyati.

Ādiyati1 [ā + diyati, med. pass. base of dadāti4, viz. di* and dī*; see also ādāti and ādeti] to take up; take to oneself, seize on, grasp, appropriate, fig. take notice of, take to heart, heed. - pres. ādiyati A IIJ.46; Sn 119, 156, 633, 785, Nd1 67; Nd2 123, 124; J III.296: V.367. - pot. ādiye Sn 400; imper. ādiya M III.133 (so read for ādissa*). - aor. ādiyi D III.65; A III.209, ādiyāsi Pv IV.148 (sayaŋ daṇḍaṃ ā. = acchinditvā gaṇhasi PvA 241), and ādapayi (Causative formation from ādāti*) to take heed S I.132 (v. l. ādiyi, trsl. "put this into thy mind"). - ger. ādiyitvā Vin IV.120 ( = ādā); J II.224 (C. for ādiya T.); III.104; IV.352 (an* not heeding; v. l. anāditvā, cp. anādiyanto not attending J III.196); DhA III.32 (id.); PvA 13 (T. anādayitva not heeding), 212 (vacanaṃ anādiyitvā not paying attention to his word), ādiya S III.26 (v. l. an* for anādīya); J II.223 ( = ādiyitvā C.); see also ādiya2, and ādīya S III.26 (an*). See also upādiyati and pariyādiyati.

Ādiyati2 [ā + diyati, Sanskrit ādīryate, Pass. of dr to split: see etymology under darī] to split, go asunder, break Ps I.49. pp. ādiṇṇa. See also avadīyati. Cp. also upādiṇṇa.

Ādiyanatā (f.) [abstr. formation ādiyana (from ādiya ger. of ādiyati) + ta] in an* the fact of not taking up or heeding SnA 516.

Ādisati [ā + disati] (a) to announce, tell, point out, refer to. - (b) to dedicate (a gift, dakkhiṇaṃ or dānaṃ). pres. ind. ādisati D I.213 = A I.170 (tell or read one's character); Sn 1112 (atītaṃ); Nd1 382 (nakkhattaṃ set the horoscope); Miln 294 (dānaṃ); pot. ādiseyya Th 2, 307 (dakkhiṇaṃ); Pv IV.130 (id. = uddiseyya PvA 228), and ādise Vin I.229 = D II.88 (dakkhiṇaṃ); imper. ādisa PvA 49. - fut. ādissati Th 2, 308 (dakkhiṇaṃ) PvA 88 (id.). - aor. ādisi Pv II.28; PvA 46 (dakkhiṇaṃ); pl. ādisiṃsu ibid. 53 (id.) and ādisuṃ Pv I.106 (id.). - ger. ādissa Vin III.127; Sn 1018; Pv II.16 (dānaṃ), and ādisitvāna Th 2, 311. - grd. ādissa (adj.) to be told or shown M I.12.

Ādiso (adv.) [orig. abl. of ādi, Qormed with *sa*] from the beginning, i. e. thoroughly, absolutely D I.180; M III.208.

Ādissa at M III.133 is an imper. pres. meaning "take", and should probably better be read ādiya (in corresponsion with ādāna). It is not grd. of ādisati, which its form might suggest.

Ādissa2 (adj.) blameworthy M I.12; MA = garāyha.

Ādīna at D I.115 and S V.74 (vv. ll. ādina, and abhinna) see ādina. See diṇṇa.

Ādīnava [ā + dīna + va (nt.), a substantivised adj., orig. meaning "full of wretchedness", cp. BSanskrit ādīnava M Vastu III.297 (misery); Divy 329] disadvantage, danger (in or through = loc.) D I.38 (vedanānaṃ assādañ ca ādīnavañ ca etc.), 213 (iddhi-pāṭihāriye M I.318; S I.9 (ettha bhīyo); II.170 sq. (dhātūnaṃ); III.27, 62, 102 (rūpassa etc.); IV.7, 168; A I.57 (akaraṇīye kayiramāne) 258 (ko loke assādo); III.250 sq.; 267 sq. (duccarite), 270 (puggala-ppasāde); IV.439 sq.; V.81; J I.146; IV.2; It 9 = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; Sn 36, 50 (cp. Nd2 127), 69, 424, 732; Th 2, 17 (kāye ā. = dosa ThA 23), 485 (kāmesu ā. = dosa ThA 287); Pv III.107 ( = dosa PvA 214); IV.67 ( = dosa PvA 263); Ps I.192 sq.; II.9, 10; PvA 12, 208. - There are several sets of sources of evil or danger, viz. five dussīlassa sīla-vipattiyā ā. at D II.85 = III.235 = A III.252; five akkhantiyā ā. at Vbh 378; six of six each at D III.182 sq. - In phrase kāmānaṃ ā. okāro sankileso D I.110, 148; M I.115; Nett 42; DhA 16. -a-nupassin realising the danger or evil of S II.85 (upā dāniyesu dhammesu) abstr. *a-nupassanā Vism 647 sq., 695. -dassāvin same as *a-nupassin D I.245 (an*); A V.178 (id.); D III.46; S II.194, 269; A III.146; V.181 sq.; Nd2 141. -pariyesanā search for danger in (-*) S II.171; III.29; IV.8 sq. -saññā consciousness of danger D I.7); III.253, 283; A III.79.

Ādīpanīya (adj.) [grd. of ā + dīpeti] to be explained Miln 270.

Ādīpita [pp. of ādīpeti, ā + caus. of dīp, cp. dīpeti] ablaze, in flames S I.31 (loka; v. l. ādittaka) 108; J V.366; DhA III.32 (v. l. āditta).

Ādu (indecl.) [see also adu] emphatic (adversative) part. (1) of affirmation and emphasis: but, indeed, rather J III.

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499 = VI.443; V.180; VI.552. - (2) as 2nd component of a disjunctive question, mostly in corresponsion udāhu . . . ādu ( = kiṃ . . . udāhu SnA 350), viz. is it so . . . or" Th 1, 1274 = Sn 354; Pv IV.317 = DhA I.31; J V.384; VI.382; without udāhu at J V.460 (adu). The close connection with udāhu suggests an explination. of ādu as a somehow distorted abbreviation of udāhu.

Ādeti [a + deti, base2 of dadāti (day* and de*), cp. also ādiyati] to take, receive, get Sn 121 ( = gaṇhāti SnA 179), 954 ( = upādiyati gaṇhāti Nd1 444); cp. I.43; J III. 103, 296; V.366 ( = gaṇhāti C.; cp. ādiyati on p. 367); Miln 336.

Ādeyya (adj.) [grd. of ādāti (q. v.)] to be taken up, acceptable, pleasant, welcome, only in phrase *vacana welcome or acceptable speech, glad words Vin II.158; J VI.243; Miln 110; ThA 42.

Ādeva, ādevanā [ā + div. devati] lamenting, deploring, crying etc. in stereotype phrase (explaining parideva or pariddava) ādevo paridevo ādevanā pari ādevitattaṃ pari* Nd1 370 = Nd2 416 = Ps I.38.

Ādesa [from ādisati, cp. Sanskrit ādesha] information, pointing out; as tt. g. characteristic, determination, substitute, e. g. kutonidānā is at SnA 303 said to equal kiṃ-nidānā, the to of kuto (abl.) equalling or being substituted for the acc. case: paccatta-vacanassa to-ādeso veditabbo.

Ādesanā (f.) [ā + desanā] pointing out, guessing, prophesy; only in phrase *pāṭihāriya trick or marvellous ability of mind-reading or guessing other peoples character Vin II. 200; D I.212, 213; III.220; A I.170, 292; V.327; Ps II. 227. For pāṭihāriya is subsiituted *vidhā (lit. variety of, i. e. act or performance etc.) at D III.103.

Ādhāna (nt.) [ā + dhāna] - 1. putting up, putting down, placing, laying A IV.41 (aggissa ādhānaṃ, v. l. of 6 MSS ādānaṃ). - 2. receptacle M I.414 (udak.r), cp. ādheyya. 3. enclosure, hedge Miln 220 (kaṇṭak.r thorny brake, see under kaṇṭaka). -gāhin holding one's own place, i. e. obstinate (*), reading uncertain and interchanging with ādāna, only in one stereotype phrase, viz. sandiṭṭhi-parāmāsin ādhāna-gāhin duppaṭinissaggin Vin II.89; M I.43, 96; A III.335 (v. l. ādāna*, C. expls by da'hagāhin); D III.247 (adhāna*).

Ādhāra [ā + dhāra] - 1. a container, receptacle, basin, lit. holder A III.27; J VI.257. - 2. "holding up", i. e. support, basis, prop. esp. a (round) stool or stand for the alms-bowl (patta) Vin II.113 (an* patto); M III.95; S V.21; J V.202. - fig. S V.20 (an* without a support, cittaṃ); Vism 8, 444. - 3. (tt. g.) name for the loc. case ("resting on") Sn 211.

Ādhāraka (m. and nt.) [ā + dhāraka, or simply ādhāra + ka] - 1. a stool or stand (as ādhāra2) (always m., except at J I.33 where *āni pl. nt.) J I.33; DhA III.290 = VvA 220; DhA III.120 = 186 (one of the four priceless things of a Tathāgata, viz.: setacchattaṃ, nisīdanapallanko, ādhārako pādapīṭhaṃ). - 2. a reading desk, pulpit J III.235; IV.299.

Ādhāraṇatā (f.) [ā + dhāraṇatā] concentration, attention, mindfulness SnA 290 (+ da'hīkaraṇa), 398 (id.).

Ādhārita [pp. of ā + dhāreti, cp. dhāreti1] supported, held up Miln 68.

Ādhāvati [ā + dhavati1] to run towards a goal, to run after M I.265 (where id. p. S II.26 has upadh*); DA I. 39. Freq. in combination. ādhāvati paridhāvaQi to run about, e. g. J I.127, 134, 158; II.68.

Ādhāvana (nt.) [from ādhāvati] onrush, violent motion Miln 135.

Ādhipacca (and ādhipateyya) (nt.) [from adhi + pati + ya "being over-lord"; see also adhipateyya] supreme rule, lordship, sovereignty, power S V.342 (issariy*); A I.62 (id.), 147, 212; II.205 (id.); III.33, 76; IV.252 sg.; Pv II.959 (one of the ṭhānas, cp. ṭhāna II.2b; see also D III. 146, where spelt ādhipateyya; explained. by issariya at PvA 137); J I.57; Dāvs V.17; VvA 126 (gehe ā = issariya). The three (att*, lok.r, dhamm*) at Vism 14.

Ādhuta [ā + dhuta1] shaken, moved (by the wind, i. e. fanned Vv 394 (v. l. adhuta which is perhaps to be preferred, i. e. not shaken, cp. vātadhutaṃ Dāvs V.49; VvA 178 expls. by saṇikaṃ vidhūpayamāna, i. e. gently fanned).

Ādheyya (adj.) [grd. of ā + dadhāti cp. ādhāna2] to be deposited (in one's head and heart Pug A), to be heeded, to be appropriated [in latter meaning easily mixed with ādheyya, cp. vv. ll. under ādiya2]; nt. depository ( = ādhātabbatā ṭhapetabbatā Pug A 217) Pug 34 (*ṃ gacchati is deposited); Miln 359 (sabbe tass- ādheyya2 honti they all become deposited in him, i. e. his deposits or his property). -mukha see ādiya2.

Ānaka [Sanskrit ānaka, cp. Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1893, 10] a kind of kettledrum, beaten only at one end S II.266; J II. 344; Dpvs XVI.14.

Ānañca, mfn. and n. [S. ānantya], endless; endlessness, infinity; Vism 333, 1 (nāssa anto ti anantaṃ, anantam eva ~aṃ, viññāṇaṃ ~aṃ); — ifc see ākāsa and viññāṇa

Ānañja see ānejja, āneñja.

Ānaṇya (nt.) [Sanskrit ānrṇya, so also BSanskrit e. g. Jtm 3118; from a + rṇa, Pāli iṇa but also aṇa in composition, thus an-aṇa as base of ānaṇya] freedom from debt D I.73; A III.354 (Ep. of Nibbāna, cp. anaṇa); Nd1 160; Vism 44; DA I.3.

Ānadati [ā + nadati] to trumpet (of elephants) J IV.233.

Ānana (nt.) [Vedic āna, later Sanskrit ānana from an to breathe] the mouth; adj. (-*) having a mouth Sdhp 103; Pgdp 63 (vikaṭ*).

Ānantarika (and *ya) [from an + antara + ika] without an interval, immediately following, successive Vin I.321; II. 212; Pug 13; Dhs 1291. -kamma "conduct that finds retribution without delay" (Kvu trsl. 275 n. 2) Vin II.193; J I.45; Kvu 480; Miln 25 (cp. Dhs trsl. 267); Vism 177 (as prohibiting practice of kammaṭṭhāna).

Ānanda [Vedic Ānanda, from ā + nand, cp. BSanskrit ānandī joy Divy 37] joy, pleasure, bliss, delight D I.3; Sn 679, 687; J I.207 (*maccha Leviathan); VI.589 (*bheri festive drum); DA I 53 ( = pītiyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ).

Ānandati [ā + nandati] to be pleased or delighted J VI. 589 (aor. ānandi in T. reading ānandi vittā, explained. by C. as nandittha was pleased; we should however read ānandi-cittā with gladdened heart). See also ānandiya.

Ānandin (adj.) [from ā + nand] joyful, friendly Th 1, 555; J IV.226.

Ānandiya (adj.-.) [grd. of Ānandati] enjoyable, nt. joy, feast J VI.589 (*ṃ acarati to celebrate the feast = Ānandachaṇa C.).

Ānandī (f.) [ā + nandī, cp. Ānanda] joy, happiness in cpd. ānandi-citta J VI.589 (so read probably for ānandi vitta: see Ānandati).

Ānaya (adj.) [ā + naya] to be brought, in suvānaya easy to bring S I.124 = J I.80.

Ānayati see āneti.

Ānāpāna (nt.) [āna + apāna, compounds of an to breathe] in haled and exhaled breath, inspiration and respiration S V.132,

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311 sq.; J I.58; Ps I.162 (-kathā); usually in cpd. *sati concentration by in-breathing and out-breathing (cp. Man. of Mystic 70) M I.425 (cp. D II.291); III.82; Vin III.70; A I.30; It 80; Ps I.166, 172, 185 (-samādhi); Nd2 466 B (id.); Miln 332; Vism 111, 197, 266 sq.; SnA 165. See detail under sati. [apnia]

Ānāpeti see āneti.

Ānāmeti [ā + nāmeti, Causative of namati, which is usually spelt nameti] to make bend, to bend, to bring toward or under J V.154 (doubtful reading fut ānāmayissasi, v. l. ānayissati, C. ānessasi = lead to).

Ānisaŋsa [ā + ni + saŋsa, BSanskrit distorted to anushaṃsa] praise i. e. that which is commendable, profit, merit, advantage, good result, blessing in or from (c. loc.). There are five ānisaŋsā sīlavato sīla-sampadāya or blessings which accrue to the virtuous enumerated at D II.86, viz. bhoga-kkhandha great wealth, kittisadda good report, visārada self-confidence, asammūlho kālaṃ karoti an untroubled death, saggaṃ lokaṃ uppajjati a happy state after death. - D I.110, 143; III.132 (four), 236 (five); M I.204; S I.46, 52; III.8, 93 (mahā-); V.69 (seven), 73, 129, 133, 237 (seven), 267, 276; A I.58 (karaṇīye kariyamāne); II.26, 185, 239, 243 (sikkhā-); III.41 (dāne), 248 (dhammasavane), 250 (yāguyā), 251 (upaṭṭhita-satissa), 253 sq. (sīlavato sīlasampadāya etc., as above), 267 (sucarite), 441; IV.150 (mettāya ceto-vimuttiyā), 361 (dhammasavane), 439 sq. (nekkhamme avitakke nippītike), 442, 443 sq. (ākās-ānañcāyatane); V.I, 106 (mahā-), 311; It 28, 29, 40 (sikkhā-); Sn 256 (phala-), 784, 952; J I.9, 94; V.491 (v. l. anu-); Nd1 73, 104, 441; Kvu 400; Miln 198; VvA 6, 113; PvA 9 (dāna-) 12, 64 ( = phala), 208, 221 ( = guṇa); Sdhp 263. - Eleven ānisaŋsas of mettā (cp. Ps II.130) are given in detail at Vism 311 314; on another eight see pp. 644 sq.

Ānisada (nt.) [a + sad] "sit down", bottom, behind M I. 80 = 245; J III.435 (gloss asata) Vism 251 = KhA 45 (-ttaca), 252 (-maṃsa).

Ānuttariya (nt.) [see also anuttariya which as -- probably represents ānutt-] incomparableness, excellency, supreme ideal D III.102 sq.; A V.37.

Ānīta [pp. of ānetī] fetched, brought (here), brought back adduced J I.291; III.127; IV.1.

Ānupuṭṭha metri causa for anupuṭṭha (q. v.).

Ānupubba (nt.) [abstr. from anupubba] rule, regularity, order Th 1, 727 (cp. M Vastu II.224 ānupubbā).

Ānupubbatā (f.) (or -ta nt.*) [from last] succession; only in tt. g. pad¢nu-pubbatā word sequence, in explination. of iti Nd1 140; Nd2 137 (v. l. -ka).

Ānupubbikathā [for anupubbi- representing its isolated composition form, cp. ānubhāva and see also anupubbi-] regulated exposition, graduated sermon D I.110; II.41 sq.; M I.379; J I.8; Miln 228; DA I.277, 308; DhA IV.199.

Ānubhāva [the dissociated composition form of anubhāva, q. v. for details. Only in later language] greatness, magnificence, majesty, splendour J I.69 (mahanto); II.102 (of a jewel) V.491; DhA II.58.

Ānejja and ānañja [abstr. from an + *añja or *ejja = *ijja. The Sanskritised equivalent would be *iñjya or *iñgya of ing to stir, move, with a peculiar substitution of *ang in Pāli, referring it to a base with r (probably Sanskrit rj, rñjati) in analogy to a form like Sanskrit rṇa = Pāli aṇa and iṇa, both a and i representing Sanskrit r. The form añja would thus correspond to a Sanskrit *añjya (*añgya). The third Pāli form ān-eñja is a direct (later, and probably re-instituted) formation from Sanskrit iñjya, which in an interesting way became in BSanskrit re-sanskritised to āñijya (which on the other hand may represent āñejja and thus give the latter the feature of a later, but more specifically Pāli form). The editions of Pāli Texts show a great variance of spelling, based on MSS. vacillation, in part also due to confusion of derivation] immovability, imperturbability, impassibility. The word is n. but occurs as adj. at Vin III. 109 (ānañja samādhi, with which cp. BSanskrit ānijyā shāntih. at Av. SH I.199. - The term usually occurs in cpd. ānejja-ppatta (adj.) immovable lit. having attained impassibility, explained. by Bdhgh. at Vin III.267 (on Pār. I.1, 6) as acala, niccala, i. e. motionless. This cpd. is indicated below by (p.) after the reference. - The various spellings of the word are as follows: - 1. ānejja D I.76 (v. l. ānañja-p.) A II.184 (p.); III.93 (p.), 100 (p.), 377 sq. (p.); Nd2 471 (v. l. aneja, ānañja) = Vbh 137 (āneñja); Nd2 569a (v. l. ānañja), 601 (v. l. anejja and aneñja); Pug 60 (p.); DA I.219 (v. l. BB āneñja). - 2. ānañja Vin III.4 (p.) (v. l. ānañca-, anañja-, ānañja-; Bdhgh. ānejja- p. 267), 109; Ud 27 (samādhi, adj. v. l. ānañca); DhA IV.46. See also below cpd. -kāraṇa. - A peculiarity of Trenckner a spelling is āṇañja at M II.229 (v. l. aṇañja, aneñja, āneñja), 253, 254. - 3. āneñja S II.82. (v. l. āṇañje, or is it āṇeñja*); D III.217 (-¢bhisankhāra of imperturbable character, remaining static, cp. Kvu trsl. 358); Nd1 90 (id.), 206, 442; Ps II.206; Vbh 135, 340; Vism 377 (p.), 386 (sixteen- fold), 571; Nett 87, 99. See also iñjati. -kāraṇa trick of immovability, i. e. pretending to be dead (done by an elephant, but see differently Morris J P T S. 1886, 154) J I.415; II.325 (v. l. āṇañja, āneñca, ānañca); IV.308; V.273, 310.

Āneñjatā (f.) [from āneñja] steadfastness Vism 330, 386.

Āneti [ā + neti] to bring, to bring towards, to fetch, procure, convey, bring back Sn 110; PvA 54, 92. pot. 1st pl. ānema (or imper. 2nd pl ānetha M I.371. fut. ānayissati S I.124; Pv II.65; J III.173; V.154 (v. l.), and ānessati J V.154. inf. ānayituṃ Pv II 610, ger. ānetvā PvA 42, 74. aor. ānesi PvA 3, and ānayi Pv I.77 (sapatiṃ). -pp. ānīta (q. v.). - Med. pass. ānīyati and āniyyati D II.245 (āniyyataṃ imper. shall be brought); M I. 371 (ppr. ānīyamāna). - Causative II. ānāpeti to cause to be fetched J III.391; V.225.

Āpa and āpo (nt.) [Vedic ap and āp, f. sg. apā, pl. āpah., later Sanskrit also āpah. nt. - Idg. *ap and *ab, primarily to Lith. .spe water, Old Prussian ape river, Gr. *)lpi/a N. of the Peloponnesus; further (as *ab) to Latin amnis river, Sanskrit abda cloud, and perhaps ambu water] water; philosophically t. t. for cohesion, representative of one of the 4 great elements (cp. mahābhūta), viz. paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo: see Cpd.268 and Dhs trsl. 201, also below -dhātu. D II.259; M I.327; S II.103; III.54, 207; A IV.312, 375; Sn 307, 391 (-ṃ), 392 (loc. āpe), 437 (id.); J IV.8 (paṭhavi-āpa-teja-); Dhs 652; Miln 363 (gen. āpassa, with paṭhavī etc.); Sdhp 100. -kasiṇa the water-device, i. e. meditation by (the element of) water (cp. Mystic 75 n.) D III.268; J I.313; Dhs 203; Vism 170; DhA I 312; III.214. -dhātu the fluid element, the essential element in water, i. e element of cohesion (see Cpd.155 n. 2; Mystic 9 n. 2; Dhs trsl. 201, 242) D III.228, 247; M I.187, 422: Dhs 652; Nett 74. See also dhātu. -rasa the taste of water A I.32; SnA 6. -sama resembling water M I.423.

Āpakā (f.) [ = āpagā] river J V.452; VI.518.

Āpagā (f.) [āpa + ga of gam] a river Th 1, 309; Sn 319; J V.454; Dāvs I.32; VvA 41.

Āpajjati [Sanskrit āpadyate, ā + pad] to get into, to meet with (acc.); to undergo; to make, produce, exhibit Vin II.126 (saŋvaraṃ); D I.222 (pariyeṭṭhiṃ); It 113 (vuddhiṃ); J I.73; Pug 20, 33 (diṭṭh-¢nugatiṃ); PvA 29 (ppr. āpajjanto); DhA II.71 - pot. āpajjeyya D I.119 (musā-vādaṃ). - aor. āpajji J V.349; PvA 124 (sankocaṃ) and

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āpādi S I.37; A II.34; It 85; J II.293; 3rd pl. āpādu D II.273. - ger. āpajjitva PvA 22 (saŋvegaṃ), 151. pp. āpanna (q. v.). - Causative āpādeti (q. v.). - Note. The reading āpajja in āpajja naṃ It 86 is uncertain (vv. ll. āsajja and ālajja). The id. p. at Vin II.203 (CV. VII.4, 8) has āsajjanaṃ, for which Bdhgh, on p. 325 has āpajjanaṃ. Cp. pariyāpajjati.

Āpaṇa [Sanskrit āpaṇa, ā + paṇ] a bazaar, shop Vin I.140; J I.55; V.445; Pv II.322; Miln 2, 341; SnA 440; DhA I. 317; II.89; VvA 157; PvA 88, 333 (phal- fruit shop), 215.

Āpaṇika [from āpaṇa] a shopkeeper, tradesman J I.124; Miln 344; VvA 157; DhA II.89.

Āpatacchika at J VI.17 is C. reading for apatacchika in khār¢pat- (q. v.).

Āpatati [ā + patati] to fall on to, to rush on to J V.349 ( = upadhāvati C.); VI.451 ( = āgacchati C.); Miln 371.

Āpatti (f.) [Sanskrit āpatti, from ā + pad, cp. apajjati and BSanskrit āpatti, e. g, Divy 330] an ecclesiastical offence (cp. Kvu trsl. 362 n. 1), Vin I.103 (-khandha), 164 (-ṃ paṭikaroti), 322 (-ṃ passati), 354 (avasesā and anavasesā); II.2 sq. (-ṃ ropeti), 59, 60 (-pariyanta), 88 (-adhikaraṇa), 259 (-ṃ paṭikaroti); IV.344; D III.212 (-kusalatā); A I.84 (id.), 87; II.240 (-bhaya); Dhs 1330 sq. (cp. Dhs trsl. 346). anāpatti Vin III.35. -vuṭṭhānatā forgiveness of an offence Vin II.250 (put before anāpatti).

Āpattika (adj.) [āpatti + ka, cp. BSanskrit āpattika Divy 303] guilty of an offence M I.443; Vin IV.224. an- Vin I.127.

Āpatha in micchāpatha, dvedhāpatha as classified in Vbh Ind. p. 441 should be grouped under patha as micchā-, dvedhā-.

Āpathaka in -jjhāyin Nd2 3422 is read āpādaka- at Nd1 226, and āpātaka- at Vism 26.

Āpadā (f.) [Sanskrit āpad, from ā + pad, cp. āpajjati and BSanskrit āpad, e. g. in āpadgata Jtm 3133] accident, misfortune, distress, D III.190; A II.68 (loc. pl. āpadāsu), 187; III. 45; IV.31; Th 1, 371; J IV.163 (āpadatthā, a difficult form; vv. ll. T. aparattā, āpadatvā, C. aparatthā; explained. by āpadāya); V.340 (loc. āpade), 368; PvA 130 (quot.); Sdhp 312, 554. Note. For the contracted form in loc. pl. āpāsu ( = *āpatsu) see *āpā.

Āpanna [pp. of āpajjati] - 1. entered upon, fallen into, possessed of, having done Vin I.164 (āpattiṃ ā.); III.90; D I.4 (dayāpanna merciful); Nd2 32 (taṇhāya). - 2. unfortunate, miserable J I.19 (V.124). Cp. pari-.

Āpā (and āvā) (f.) [for āpadā, q. v.] misery, misfortune J II.317 (loc. pl. āpāsu, v. l. avāsu, C. āpadāsu); III.12 (BB āvāsu); V.82 (avāgata gone into misery, v. l. apagata, C. apagata parihīna), 445 (loc. āvāsu, v. l. avāsu, C. āpadāsu), 448 (āvāsu kiccesu; v. l. apassu, read āpāsu). Note. Since *āpā only occurs in loc. pl., the form āpāsu is to be regarded as a direct contraction of Sanskrit āpatsu.

Āpāṇa [ā + pāṇa] life, lit. breathing, only in cpd. -koṭi the end of life Miln 397; Dāvs III.93; adj. -koṭika M II.120; Vism 10.

Āpātha [etymology* Trenckner, Miln p. 428 says: "I suspect ā. to be corrupted from āpāta (cp. āpatati), under an impression that it is allied to patha; but it is scarcely ever written so"] sphere, range, focus, field (of consciousness or perception; cp. Dhs trsl. 199), appearance A II.67; J I.336; Vbh 321; Miln 298; Vism 21, 548; DA I.228; DhsA 308, 333; VvA 232 (-kāla); DhA IV.85; Sdhp 356. Usually in phrase āpāthaṃ gacchati to come into focus, to become clear, to appear M I.190; S IV.160, or -ṃ āgacchati Vin I.184; A III.377 sq.; IV.404; Vism 125. Cp. -gata below. -gata come into the sphere of, appearing, visible M I.174 = Nd2 jhāna (an- unapproached); PvA 23 (āpāthaṃ gata). -gatatta abstr. from last: appcarance Vism 617.

Āpāthaka (adj.) [from āpātha] belonging to the (perceptual) sphere of, visible, in -nisādin lying down visible D III.44, 47. Cp. āpathaka.

Āpādaka (adj.-n.) [from ā + pad] - 1. (adj.) producing, leading to (*-) VvA 4 (abhiññ- catuttha-jjhāna). - 2. (n.) one who takes care of a child, a protector, guardian A I.62 = 132 = It 110 (+ posaka). - f. āpādikā a nurse, fostereotypemother Vin II.289 (+ posikā).

Āpādā (f.) [short for āpādikā] a nursing woman, in an- not nursing, unmarried J IV.178.

Āpādi aor. of āpajjati (q. v.).

Āpādeti [Causative of āpajjati] to produce, make out, bring, bring into M I.78; III.248; S IV.110 (addhānaṃ to live one's life, cp. addhānaṃ āpādi J II.293 = jīvit-addhānaṃ āpādi āyuṃ vindi C.); SnA 466. - Cp. pari-

Āpāna (nt.) [from ā + pā] drinking; drinking party, banquet; banqueting-hall, drinking-hall J I.52 (-maṇḍala); V.292 (-bhūmi); Vism 399 (id.); DhA I.213 (id., rañño).

Āpānaka (adj.) [āpāna + ka] drinking, one who is in the habit of drinking D I.167.

Āpānīya (adj.) [from āpāna, ā + pā] drinkable, fit for drinking or drinking with, in -kaṃsa drinking-bowl, goblet M I. 316; S II.110.

Āpāyika (adj.-n.) [from apāya] one suffering in an apāya or state of misery after death Vin II.202 = It 85 (v. l. ap-); Vin II.205; D I.103; A I.265; It 42; Vism 16; PvA 60.

Āpiyati [from r, cp. appāyati and appeti] to be in motion (in etymology of āpo) Vism 364.

Āpucchati [ā + pucchati] to enquire after, look for, ask, esp. to ask permission or leave; aor. āpucchi J I.140; PvA 110; grd. āpucchitabba DhA I.6; ger. āpucchitvā Vin IV.267 (apaloketvā +); Miln 29; PvA 111; āpucchitūna (cp. Geiger * 211) Th 2, 426; āpuccha Th 2, 416, and āpucchā [ = āprcchya, cp. Vedic ācyā for ācya], only in negative form an- without asking Vin II.211, 219; IV.165, 226 ( = anapaloketvā); DhA I.81. -pp. āpucchita Vin IV.272.

Āpūrati [a + pūrati] to be filled, to become full, to increase J III.154 (cando ā. = pūrati C.); IV.26, 99, 100.

Āpeti [Causative of āp, see appoti and pāpuṇāti] to cause to reach or obtain J VI.46. Cp. vy-.

Āphusati [ā + phusati] to feel, realise, attain to, reach; aor. āphusi Vv 169 ( = adhigacchi VvA 84).

Ābaddha [pp. of ābandhati] tied, bound, bound up DA I. 127; fig. bound to, attached to, in love with DhA I.88; PvA 82 (Tissāya -sineha); Sdhp 372 (sineh, -hadaya).

Ābandhaka (adj.) [ā + bandh, cp. Sanskrit ābandha tie, bond] (being) tied to (loc.) PvA 169 (sīse).

Ābandhati (ā + bandhati, Sanskrit ābadhnāti, bandh] to bind to, tie, fasten on to, hold fast; fig. to tie to, to attach to, J IV.132, 289; V.319, 338, 359. -pp. ābaddha.

Ābandhana (nt.) [from ā + bandh] - 1. tie, bond DA I. 181 = Pug A 236 (-atthena ñāti yeva ñāti-parivaṭṭo). 2. tying, binding Vism 351 (-lakkhaṇa, of āpodhātu). 3. reins (*) or harness (on a chariot) J V.319 (but cp. C. explination. "hatthi-assa-rathesu ābandhitabbāni bhaṇḍakāni", thus taking it as ā + bhaṇḍa + na, i. e. wares, loads etc.). With this cp. Sanskrit ābandha, according to Halāyudha 2, 420 a thong of leather which fastens the oxen to the yoke of a plough.

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Ābādha [ā + bādh to oppress, Vedic ābādha oppression] affliction, illness, disease Vin IV.261; D I.72; II.13; A I.121; III.94, 143; IV.333, 415 sq., 440; Dh 138; Pug 28; Vism 41 (udara-vāta-) 95; VvA 351 (an- safe and sound); SnA 476; Sdhp 85. - A list of ābādhas or illnesses, as classified on grounds of aetiology, runs as follows: pittasamuṭṭhānā, semha-, vāta-, sannipātikā, utu-pariṇāmajā, visama-parihārajā, opakkamikā, kammavipākajā (after Nd2 304I.C., recurring with slight variations at S IV.230; A II.87; III.131; V.110; Nd1 17, 47; Miln 112, cp. 135). Another list of illnesses mentioned in tha Vinaya is given in Index to Vin II., p. 351. - Five ābādhas at Vin I. 71, viz. kuṭṭhaṃ gaṇḍo kilāso soso apamāro said to be raging in Magadha cp. p. 93. - Three ābādhas at D III.75, viz. icchā anasanaṃ jarā, cp. Sn 311. - See also cpd. appābādha (health) under appa.

Ābādhika (adj.-n.) [from ābādha] affected with illness, a sick person A III.189, 238; Nd1 160; Miln 302; DA 212; DhA I.31; PvA 271. - f. ābādhikinī a sick woman A II.144.

Ābādhita [pp. of ābādheti, Causative of ā + bādh] afflicted, oppressed, molested Th 1, 185.

Ābādheti [ā + Causative of bādh, cp. ābādha] to oppress, vex, annoy, harass S IV.329.

Ābila (adj.) [Sanskrit āvila; see also Pāli āvila] turbid, disturbed, soiled J V.90.

Ābhata [pp. of ā + bharati from bhr] brought (there or here), carried, conveyed, taken D I.142; S. I.65; A II.71, 83; It 12, 14 with phrase yathābhataṃ as he has been reared (cp. J V.330 evaṃ kicchā bhaṭo); Pv III.5 (ratt- = rattiyaṃ ā. PvA 199); DhA II.57, 81; IV.89; VvA 65. Cp. yathābhata.

Ābhataka (adj.) = ābhata; DA I.205 (v. l. ābhata).

Ābharaṇa (nt.) [Sanskrit ābharaṇa, ā + bhr] that which is taken up or put on, viz. ornament, decoration, trinkets D I. 104; Vv 802; J III.11, 31; DhA III.83; VvA 187.

Ābharati [ā + bhr] to bring, to carry; ger. ābhatvā J IV.351.

Ābhassara (adj.-n.) [etymology uncertain; one suggested in Cpd.138 n. 4 is ā + *bha + *sar, i. e. from whose bodies are emitted rays like lightning, more probably a combination. of ābhā + svar (to shine, be bright), i. e. shining in splendour] shining, brilliant, radiant, N. of a class of gods in the Brahma heavens "the radiant gods", usually referred to as the representatives of supreme love (pīti and mettā); thus at D I.17; Dh 200; It 15; DhA III.258 (-loka). In another context at Vism 414 sq.

Ābhā (f.) [Sanskrit ābhā, from ā + bhā, see ābhāti] shine, splendour, lustre, light D II.12; M III.147 (adj. --); S II.150 (-dhātu); A II.130, 139; III.34; Mhvs XI.11; VvA 234 (of a Vimāna, v. l. pabhā); DhA IV.191; Sdhp 286.

Ābhāti [ā + bhā] to shine, shine forth, radiate Dh 387 ( = virocati DhA IV.144); J V.204. See also ābheti.

Ābhāveti [ā + bhāveti] to cultivate, pursue Pv II.1319 (mettacittaṃ; gloss and v. l. abhāvetvā; explained. as vaḍḍhetvā brūhetvā PvA 168).

Ābhāsa [Sanskrit ābhāsa, from ā + bhās] splendour, light, appearance M III.215.

Ābhicetasika (adj.) See abhicetasika. This spelling, with guṇa of the first syllable, is probably more correct; but the short a is the more frequent.

Ābhidosika (adj.) [abhidosa+ika] belonging to the evening before, of last night Vin III.15 (of food; stale); M I.170 (-kālakata died last night); Miln 291.

Ābhidhammika (adj.) [abhidhamma + ika] belonging to the specialised Dhamma, versed in or studying the Abhidhamma Miln 17, 341; Vism 93. As abhi- atKhA 151; J IV.219.

Ābhindati [ā + bhindati] to split, cut, strike (with an axe) S IV.160 (v. l. a-).

Ābhisekika (adj.) [from abhiseka] belonging to the consecration (of a king) Vin V.129.

Ābhujati [ā + bhujati, bhuj1] to bend, bend towards or in, contract; usually in phrase pallankaṃ ā- "to bend in the round lap" or "bend in hookwise", to sit crosslegged (as a devotee with straightened back), e. g. at Vin I.24; D I.71; M I.56 (v. l. ābhuñjitvā), 219; A III. 320; Pug 68; Ps I.176; J I.71, 213; Miln 289; DA I. 58, 210. In other connection J I.18 (V.101; of the ocean "to recede"); Miln 253 (kāyaṃ).

Ābhujana (nt.) [from ābhujati] crouching, bending, turning in, in phrase pallank-ābhujana sitting cross-legged J I 17 (V.91); PvA 219.

Ābhujī (f.) [lit. the one that bends, prob. a poetic metaphor] N. of a tree, the Bhūrja or Bhojpatr J V.195 ( = bhūjapatta-vana C.), 405 ( = bhūjapatta C.).

Ābhūñjati [ā + bhuj2, Sanskrit bhunakti] to enjoy, partake of, take in, feel, experience J IV.456 (bhoge; Rh. D. "hold in its hood"*); DhsA 333.

Ābhuñjana (nt.) [from ābhuñjati] partaking of, enjoying, experiencing DhsA 333.

Ābheti [*ābhayati = ābhāti, q. v.] to shine Pv II.126 (ppr. -entī); Vv 82 (-antī, v. l. -entī; = obhāsentī VvA 50).

Ābhoga [from ābhuñjati, bhuj2 to enjoy etc. The translators of Kvu derive it from bhuj1 to bend etc. (Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4) which however is hardly correct, cp. the similar meaning of gocara "pasturing", fig. perception etc.] ideation, idea, thought D I.37 ( = manasikāro samannāhāro DA I.122; cp. semantically āhāra = ābhoga, food); Vbh 320; Miln 97; Vism 164, 325, 354; Dāvs 62; KhA 42 (-paccavekkhana), 43 (id.) 68.

Āma1 (indecl.) [a specific Pāli formation representing either amma (q. v.) or a gradation of pronoun. base amu- "that" (see asu), thus deictic-emphatic exclamn. Cp. also BSanskrit āma e. g. Av. SH I.36] affirmative part. "yes, indeed, certainly" D I.192 sq. (as v. l. BB.; T. has āmo); J I.115, 226 (in C. explination. of T. amā-jāta which is to be read for āmajāta); II.92; V.448; Miln 11, 19, 253; DhA I.10, 34; II.39, 44; VvA 69; PvA 12, 22, 56, 61, 75, 93 etc.

Āma2 (adj.) [Vedic āma = Gr. w)mo/s, connected with Latin amārus. The more common Pāli form is āmaka (q. v.)] raw, viz. (a) unbaked (of an earthen vessel), unfinished Sn 443; (b) uncooked (of flesh), nt. raw flesh, only in following compounds: -gandha "smell of raw flesh", verminous odour, a smell attributed in particular to rotting corpses (cp. similarly BSanskrit āmagandha M Vastu III.214) D II.242 sq.; A I.280; Sn 241, 242 ( = vissagandha kuṇapagandha SnA 286), 248, 251; Dhs 625; and -giddha greedy after flesh (used as bait) J VI.416 ( = āmasankhāta āmisa C.).

Āmaka (adj.) [ = āma2] raw, uncooked D I.5 = Pug 58 (-maṃsa raw flesh); M I.80 (titta-kalābu āmaka-cchinno). -dhañña "raw" grain, corn in its natural, unprepared state D I.5 = Pug 58 (see DA I.78 for definition); Vin IV.264; V.135. -sāka raw vegetables Vism 70. -susāna "cemetery of raw flesh" charnel grove (cp. āmagandha under ama2), i. e. fetid smelling cremation ground J I.264, 489; IV.45 sq.; VI.10; DhA I.176; VvA 76; PvA 196.

Āmaṭṭha [Sanskrit āmrs.ṭa, pp. of āmasati; cp. āmasita] touched, handled J I.98 (an-); DA I.107 ( = parāmaṭṭha); Sdhp 333.

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Āmaṇḍaliya [ā + maṇḍala + iya] a formation resembling a circle, in phrase -ṃ karoti to form a ring (of people) or a circle, to stand closely together M I 225 (cp. Sanskrit āmaṇḍalikaroti).

Āmata in anāmata at J II.56 is metric for amata.

Āmattikā (f.) [ā + mattikā] earthenware, crockery; in -āpaṇa a crockery shop, chandler's shop Vin IV.243.

Āmaddana (nt.) [ā + maddana of mrd] crushing VvA 311.

Āmanta (adj.-adv.) [either ger. of āmanteti (q. v.) or root der. from ā + mant, cp. āmantaṇā] asking or asked, invited, only as an- without being asked, unasked, uninvited Vin I.254 (-cāra); A III.259 (id.).

Āmantana (nt.) and -nā (f., also -ṇā) [from āmanteti] addressing, calling; invitation, greeting Sn 40 (ep. Nd2 128); -vacana the address-form of speech i. e. the vocative case (cp. Sanskrit āmantritaṃ id.) SnA 435; KhA 167.

Āmantanaka (adj.-n.) [from āmantana] addressing, speaking to, conversing; f. -ikā interlocutor, companion, favourite queen Vv 188 ( = allāpa-sallāpa-yoggā kī'anakāle vā tena (i. e. Sakkena) āmantetabbā VvA 96).

Āmantaṇīya (adj.) [grd. of āmanteti] to be addressed J IV.371.

Āmantita [pp. of āmanteti] addressed, called, invited Pv II.313 ( = nimantita PvA 86).

Āmanteti [denom. of ā + *mantra] to call, address, speak to, invite, consult J VI.265; DA I.297; SnA 487 ( = ālapati and avhayati); PvA 75, 80, 127. - aor. āmantesi D II.16; Sn p. 78 ( = ālapi SnA 394) and in poetry āmantayi Sn 997; Pv II.27; 37 (perhaps better with v. l. SS samantayi). - ger. āmanta ( = Sanskrit *āmantrya) J III.209, 315 ( = āmantayitvā* C.), 329; IV.111; V.233; VI.511. pp. āmantita (q. v.). - Causative II. āmantāpeti to invite to come, to cause to be called, to send for D I.134 (v. l. āmanteti); Miln 149.

Āmaya [etymology* cp. Sanskrit āmaya] affliction, illness, misery; only as an- (adj.) not afflicted, not decaying, healthy, well (cp. BSanskrit nirāmaya II.9) Vin I.294; Vv 1510 ( = aroga VvA 74); 177; 368; J III.260, 528; IV. 427; VI.23. Positive only very late, e. g. Sdhp 397.

Āmalaka [cp. Sanskrit āmalaka] emblic myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica Vin I.201, 278; II.149 (-vaṇṭika pīthu); S I.150; A V.170; Sn p. 125 (-matti); J IV.363; V.380 (as v. l. for T. āmala); Miln 11; DhA I.319; VvA 7.

Āmalakī (f.) āmalaka Vin I.30; M I.456 (-vana).

Āmasati [ā + masati from mrsh] to touch (upon), to handle, to lay hold on Vin II.221; III.48 (kumbhiṃ); J III.319 (id.); A V.263, 266; J IV.67; Ps II.209; Miln 306; SnA 400; DhsA 302; VvA 17. - aor. āmasi J II.360; ger. āmasitvā Vin III.140 (udakapattaṃ) J II.330; grd. āmassa J II.360 (an-) and āmasitabba id. (C.). -pp. āmaṭṭha and āmasita (q. v.).

Āmasana (nt.) [from āmasati] touching, handling; touch Vin IV.214. Cp. III.118; Miln 127, 306; DA I.78.

Āmasita [pp. of āmasati] touched, taken hold of, occupied VvA 113 (an- khetta virgin land).

Āmāya (adj.) [to be considered either a der. from amā (see amājāta in same meaning) or to be spelt amāya which metri causa may be written ā-] "born in the house" (cp. semantically Gr. i)qagenh/s > indigenous), inborn, being by birth, in cpd. -dāsa (dāsī) a born slave, a slave by birth J VI.117 ( = gehadāsiyā kucchismiṃ jātadasī C.), 285 ( = dāsassa dāsiyā kucchimhi jātadāsā).

Āmāsaya [āma2 + āsaya, cp. Sanskrit āmāshaya and āmāshraya] receptacle of undigested food, i. e. the stomach Vism 260; KhA 59. Opp. pakkāsaya.

Āmilāka (nt.*) [etymology*] a woollen cover into which a floral pattern is woven DA I.87.

Āmisa (nt.) [der. from āma raw, q. v. for etymology - Vedic āmis (m.); later Sanskrit ā (nt.), both in lit. and fig. meaning] 1. originally raw meat; hence prevailing notion of "raw, unprepared, uncultivated"; thus -khāra raw lye Vin I. 206. - 2. "fleshy, of the flesh" (as opposed to mind or spirit), hence material, physical; generally in opposition to dhamma (see dhamma B 1. a. and also next no.), thus at M I.12 (-dāyāda); It 101 (id.); A I.91 = It 98 (-dāna material gifts opp. to spiritual ones); Dhs 1344 (-paṭisanthāra hospitality towards bodily needs, cp. Dhs trsl. 350). - 3. food, esp. palatable food (cp. E. sweetmeat); food for enjoyment, dainties Vin II.269 sq.; J II.6; Miln 413 (lok-); DA I.83 (-sannidhi), - 4. bait S I.67; IV.158; J IV.57, 219; VI.416; DA I.270. - 5. gain, reward, money, douceur, gratuity, " ti." PvA 36, 46; esp. in phrase -kiñcikkha-hetu for the sake of some (little) gain S II.234; A I.128; V.265, 283 sq., 293 sq.; Pug 29; Pv II.83 ( = kiñci āmisaŋ patthento PvA 107); Miln 93; VvA 241 ( = bhogahetu). - 6. enjoyment Pv II.82 ( = kāmāmise-laggacitto PvA 107). - 7. greed, desire, lust Vin I.303 (-antara out of greed, selfish, opp. mettacitto); A III.144 (id.), 184 (id.); I.73 (-garū parisā); J V.91 (-cakkhu); Ps II.238 (mār-). See also compounds with nir- and sa-.

Āmuñcati [ā + mtic] to put on, take up; to be attached to, cling to DhsA 305. -pp. āmutta (q. v.).

Āmutta [Sanskrit āmukta, pp. of ā + muc, cp. also BSanskrit āmukta jewel Divy 2, 3 etc., a meaning which might also be seen in the later Pāli passages, e. g. at PvA 134. Semantically cp. ābharaṇa] having put on, clothed in, dressed with, adorned with (always --) D I.104 (-mālābharaṇa); Vin II.156 = Vv 208 (-maṇi-kuṇḍala); S I.211; J IV.460; V. 155; VI.492; Vv 721 ( = paṭimukka); 802 (-hatthābharaṇa); Pv II.951 (-maṇikuṇḍala);J IV.183; VvA 182.

Āmeṇḍita (or āmeḍita) [Sanskrit āmreḍita fram ā + mreḍ, dialectical] - (nt.) sympathy in -ṃ karoti to show sympathy (* so Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1887, 106) DA I.228 = SnA 155 (v. l. at DA āmeḍita).

Āmo = āma D I.192, 3.

Āmoda [Sanskrit āmoda, from ā + mud] that which pleases; fragrance, perfume Dāvs V.51.

Āmodanā (f.) [from ā + mud] rejoicing Dhs 86, 285.

Āmodamāna (adj.) [ppr. med. of āmodeti] rejoicing, glad S I.100 (v. l. anu-) = It 66; Vv 648 ( = pamodamāna VvA 278); J V.45.

Āmodita [pp. from āmodeti] pleased, satisfied, glad J I.17 (V.80); V.45 (-pamodita highly pleased); Miln 346.

Āmodeti [Sanskrit āmodayati, Causative of ā + mud] to please, gladden, satisfy Th 1, 649 (cittaṃ); J V.34. -pp. āmodita (q. v.).

Āya [Sanskrit āya; ā + i] 1. coming in, entrance M III.93. 2. tax J V.113. - 3. income, earning, profit, gain (opp. vaya loss) A IV.282 = 323; Sn 978; J I.228; KhA 38 (in explination. of kāya), 82 (in etymology of āyatana); PvA 130. 4. (āyā f.*) a lucky dice ("the incomer") J VI.281. -kammika a treasurer DhA I.184. -kusala clever in earnings Nett 20. -kosalla proficiency in money making D III.220 (one of the three kosallas); Vbh 325. -pariccāga expediture of one's income PvA 8. -mukha (lit.) entrance, inflow, going in D I.74 ( = āgamana-magga DA

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1.78); M II.15; A II.166; (fig.) revenue income, money SnA 173.

Āyata [Sanskrit āyata, pp. of ā + yam, cp. āyamati] - 1. (adj.) outstretched, extended, long, in length (with numeral) D III.73 (ñātikkhaya, prolonged or heavy*); M I.178 (dīghato ā-; tiriyañ ca vitthata); J I.77, 273 (tettiṃs--angul-āyato khaggo); III.438; Vv 8415 (-aṃsa; cp. explination. at VvA 339); SnA 447; DhsA 48; PvA 152 (dāṭhā fangs; lomā hair), 185 (-vaṭṭa); Sdhp 257. - 2. (n.) a bow J III.438. -agga having its point (end) stretched forward, i. e. in the future (see āyati) It 15, 52. -paṇhin having long eye-lashes (one of the signs of a Mahāpurisa) D II.17 = III.143. -pamha a long eye-lash Th 2, 384 ( = dīghapakhuma ThA 250).

Āyataka (adj.) [ = āyata] - 1. long. extended, prolonged, kept up, lasting Vin II.108 (gītassara); A III.251 (id.); J I.362. - 2. sudden, abrupt, instr. -ena abruptly Vin II.237.

Āyatana (nt.) [Sanskrit āyatana, not found in the Vedas; but frequent in BSanskrit From ā + yam, cp. āyata. The pl. is āyatanā at S IV.70. - For full definition of term as seen by the Pāli Commentators see Bdhgh's explination at DA I. 124, 125, with which cp. the popular etymology at KhA 82: "āyassa vā tananato āyatassa vā saŋsāradukkhassa nayanato āyatanāni" and at Vism 527 "āye tanoti āyatañ ca nayatī ti ā."] - 1. stretch, extent, reach, compass, region; sphere, locus, place, spot; position, occasion (corresponding to Bdhgh's definition at DA I.124 as "samosaraṇa") D III.241, 279 (vimutti-); S II.41, 269; IV.217; V.119 sq., 318. sq.; A III.141 (ariya-); V.61 (abhibh-, q. v.) Sn 406 (rajass- "haunt of passion" = rāgādi-rajassa uppatti-deso SnA 381); J I.80 (raj-). Freq. in phrase araññ- a lonely spot, a spot in the forest J I.173; VvA 301; PvA 42, 54. - 2. exertion, doing, working, practice, performance (comprising Bdhgh's definition at DA I.124 as paññatti), usually --, viz. kamm- Nd1 505; Vbh 324, 353; kasiṇ- A V.46 sq., 60; Ps I.28; titth- A I.173, 175; Vbh 145, 367; sipp- (art, craft) D I.51; Nd2 505; Vbh 324, 353; cp. an- non-exertion, indolence, sluggishness J V.121. - 3. sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense-organ and object; relation, order. - Cpd.p. 183 says rightly: "āyatana cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense-organs (the mind being regarded as 6th sense) and sense objects". - These āyatanāni (relations, functions, reciprocalities) are thus divided into two groups, inner (ajjhattikāni) and outer (bāhirāni), and comprise the following: (a) ajjhatt-: 1. cakkhu eye, 2. sota ear, 3. ghāna nose, 4. jivhā tongue, 5. kāya body, 6. mano mind; (b) bāh-: 1. rūpa visible object, 2. sadda sound, 3. gandha odour, 4. rasa taste, 5. phoṭṭhabba tangible object, 6. dhamma cognizable object. - For details as regards connotation and application see Dhs trsl. introduction li sq. Cpd.90 n. 2; 254 sq. - Approximately covering this meaning (3) is Bdhgh's definition of āyatana at DA I.124 as sañjāti and as kāraṇa (origin and cause, i. e. mutually occasioning and conditioning relations or adaptations). See also Nd2 under rūpa for further classifications. - For the above mentioned 12 āyatanāni see the following passages: D II.302 sq.; III.102, 243; A III.400; V.52; Sn 373 (cp. SnA 366); Ps I.7, 22, 101, 137; II. 181, 225, 230; Dhs 1335; Vbh 401 sq.; Nett 57, 82; Vism 481; ThA 49, 285. Of these 6 are mentioned at S I.113, II.3; IV.100, 174 sq.; It 114; Vbh 135 sq., 294; Nett 13, 28, 30; Vism 565 sq. Other sets of 10 at Nett 69; of 4 at D II.112, 156; of 2 at D II.69. - Here also belongs ākās- ānañc- āyatana, ākiñcaññ- etc. (see under ākāsa etc. and s. v.), e. g. at D I.34 sq., 183; A IV.451 sq.; Vbh 172, 189, 262 sq.; Vism 324 sq. - Unclassified passages: M I.61; II.233; III.32, 216, 273; S I.196; II.6, 8, 24, 72 sq.; III.228; IV.98; V.426; A I.113, 163, 225; III.17, 27, 82, 426; IV.146, 426; V.30, 321, 351, 359; Nd1 109, 133, 171, 340; J I.381 (paripuṇṇa-); Vbh 412 sq. (id.). -uppāda birth of the āyatanas (see above 3) Vin I.185. -kusala skilled in the ā. M III.63. -kusalatā skill in the spheres (of sense) D III.212; Dhs 1335. -ṭṭha founded in the sense-organs Ps I.132; II.121.

Āyatanika (adj.) [from āyatana] belonging to the sphere of (some special sense, see āyatana 3) S IV.126 (phass- niraya and sagga).

Āyati (f.) [from ā + yam, cp. Sanskrit āyati] "stretching forth", extension, length (of time), future. Only (*) in acc. āyatiṃ (adv.) in future Vin II.89, 185; III.3; Sn 49; It 115 (T. reads āyati but cp. p. 94 where T. āyatiṃ, v. l. āyati); J I.89; V.431; DA I 236.

Āyatika (adj.) [from last] future S I.142.

Āyatikā (f.) [of āyataka] a tube, waterpipe Vin II.123.

Āyatta [Sanskrit āyatta, pp. of ā + yat]. - 1. striving, active, ready, exerted J V.395 (-mana = ussukkamana C.). 2. striven after, pursued J I.341. - 3. dependent on Vism 310 (assāsa-passāsa-); Nett 194; Sdhp 477, 605.

Āyanā (f.) [*] at DhsA 259 and Vism 26 is a grammarian's construction, abstracted from f. abstr. words ending in -āyanā, e. g. kankhā > kankhāyanā, of which the correct explination. is a derivation from caus.-formation kankhāyati > kankhāy + a + nā. What the idea of Bdhgh. was in propounding his explination. is hard to say, perhaps he related it to i and understood it to be the same as āyāna.

Āyamati [ā + yam] to stretch, extend, stretch out, draw out Miln 176, usually in stereotype phrase piṭṭhi me āgilāyati tam ahaṃ āyamissāmi "my back feels weak, I will stretch it" Vin II.200; D III.209; M I.354; S IV.184; J I.491. Besides this in commentaries e. g. J III.489 (mukhaṃ āyamituṃ).

Āyasa (adj.) [Sanskrit āyasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S II. 182; A III.58; Dh 345; J IV.416; V.81; Vv 845 (an-* cp. the rather strange explination. at VvA 335).

ĀyaSakya (nt.) dishonour, disgrace, bad repute A IV.96; J V.17; VvA 110; usually in phrase -ṃ pāpuṇāti to fall into disgrace Th 1, 292; J II.33 = 271; III.514. [Bdhgh. on A IV.96 explains it as ayasaka + ya with guṇa of the initial, cp. ārogya].

Āyasmant (adj.) [Sanskrit āyus.mant, the Pāli form showing assimilation of u to a] lit. old, i. e. venerable; used, either as adj. or absolute as a respectful appellation of a bhikkhu of some standing (cp. the semantically identical thera). It occurs usually in nom. āyasmā and is explained. in Nd by typical formula "piya-vacanaṃ garu-, sagārava-sappaṭiss¢dhivacanaṃ", e. g. Nd1 140, 445; Nd2 130 on var. Sn loci (e. g. 814, 1032, 1040, 1061, 1096). - Freq. in all texts, of later passages see SnA 158; PvA 53, 54, 63, 78. - See also āvuso.

Āyāga [ā + yāga of yaj] sacrificial fee, gift; (m.) recipient of a sacrifice or gift (deyyadhamma) Sn 486 ( = deyyadhammānaṃ adhiṭṭhāna-bhūta SnA 412); Th 1, 566; J VI. 205 (-vatthu worthy objact of sacrificial fees).

Āyācaka (adj.-n.) [from ā + yāc] one who begs or prays, petitioner Miln 129.

Āyācati [ā + yāc, cp. Buddh. Sanskrit āyācate Divy 1.] - 1. to request, beg, implore, pray to (acc.) Vin III.127; D I.240; PvA 160. - 2. to make a vow, to vow, promise A I. 88; J I.169 = V.472; I.260; II.117. -pp. āyācita (q. v.).

Āyācana (nt.) [from āyācati] - 1. asking, adhortation, addressing (t. t. g. in explination. of imperative) SnA 43, 176, 412. - 2. a vow, prayer A I.88; III.47; J I.169 = V.472.

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Āyācita [pp. of āyācati] vowed, promised J I.169 (-bhattajātaka N.).

Āyāta [pp. of āyāt.; cp. BSanskrit āyāta in same meaning at Jtm 210] gone to, undertaken Sdhp 407.

Āyāti [ā + yāti of yā] to come on or here, to come near, approach, get into S I.240; Sn 669; Sn p. 116 ( = gacchati SnA 463); J IV.410; pv II.1212 ( = āgacchati PvA 158); DhA I.93 (imper. āyāma let us go). -pp. āyāta.

Āyāna (nt.) [from ā + yā to go] coming, arrival: see āyanā.

Āyāma [from ā + yam, see āyamati] - 1. (lit.) stretching, stretching out, extension Vin I.349 = J III.488 (mukh-). 2. (applied) usually as linear measure: extension, length (often combined. with and contrasted to vitthāra breadth or width and ubbedha height), as n. (esp. in abl. āyāmato and instr. āyāmena in length) or as adj. (*-): J I.7, 49 (-ato tīṇi yojanasatāni, vitthārato aḍḍhatiyāni); III.389; Miln 17 (ratanaṃ so'asahatthaṃ āyāmena aṭṭhahatthaṃ vitthārena), 282 (ratanaṃ catuhatth-āyāmaṃ); Vism 205 (+ vitth-); Khb 133 (+ vitthāra and parikkhepa); VvA 188 (so'asayojan-), 199 (-vitthārehi), 221 (-ato + vitth-); PvA 77 (+ vitth-), 113 (id. + ubbedha); DhA I.17 (saṭṭhi-yojan-).

Āyāsa [cp. Sanskrit āyāsa, etymology*] trouble, sorrow, only [ed: * Upāyāsa] negative an- (adj.) peaceful, free from trouble A IV.98; Th 1, 1008.

Āyu (nt.) [Vedic āyus; Av. āyu, gradation form of same root as Gr. ai)w/n "aeon", ai)e/n always; Latin aevum, Goth. aiws. Ohg. ewa, io always; Ger. ewig eternal; Ags. āe eternity, ā always (cp. ever and aye)] life, vitality, duration of life, longevity D III.68, 69, 73, 77; S III.143 (usmā ca); IV.294; A I.155; II.63, 66 (addh-); III.47; IV.76, 139; Sn 694, 1019; It 89; J I.197 (dīgh-); Vv 555 (cp. VvA 247 with its definition of divine life as comprising 30 600 000 years); Vism 229 (length of man's āyu = 100 years); Dhs 19, 82, 295, 644, 716; Sdhp 234, 239, 258. - Long or divine life, dibbaṃ āyu is one of the 10 attributes of ādhipateyya or majesty (see ṭhāna), thus at Vin I.294; D III.146; S IV.275 sq.; A I.115; III. 33; IV.242, 396; Pv II.959 ( = jīvitaṃ PvA 136). -ūhā see āyūhā. -kappa duration of life Miln 141; DhA I.250. -khaya decay of life (cp. jīvita-kkhaya) D I.17 (cp. DA I.110); III.29. -pamāṇa span or measure of life time D II.3; A I.213, 267; II.126 sq.; IV.138, 252 sq., 261; V.172; Pug 16; Vbh 422 sq.; SnA 476. -pariyanta end of life It 99; Vism 422. -sankhaya exhaustion of life or lifetime Dpvs V.102. -sankhāra (usually pl. -ā) constituent of life, conditions or properties resulting in life, vital principle D II.106; M I.295 sq.; S II.266; A IV.311 sq.; Ud 64; J IV.215; Miln 285; Vism 292; DhA I.129; PvA 210. Cp. BSanskrit āyuh.-saŋskāra Divy 203.

Āyuka (*-) (adj.) [from āyu] - being of life; having a life or age A IV.396 (niyat-); VvA 196 (yāvatāyukā dibbasampatti divine bliss lasting for a lifetime). Esp. frequent in combination. with dīgha (long) and appa (short) as dīghāyuka A IV.240; PvA 27; appāyuka A IV.247; PvA 103; both at Vism 422. In phrase vīsati-vassasahass-āyukesu manussesu at the time when men lived 20 000 years D II.5-12 (see Table at Dial. II.6); DhA II.9; PvA 135; dasa-vassasahass-āyukesu manussesu (10 000 years) PvA 73; cattā'īsa- DhA I.103; catusaṭṭhi-kapp-āyukā subhakiṇhā Vism 422.

Āyukin (adj.) [from āyu] = āyuka; in appāyukin short lived Vv 416.

Āyuta (adj.) [Sanskrit ayuta, pp. of ā + yu, yuvati] - 1. connected with, endowed, furnished with Th 1, 753 (dve pannaras-āyuta due to twice fifteen); Sn 301 (nārī-varagaṇ- = -saŋyutta SnA 320); Pv II.124 (nānā-saragaṇ- = -yutta PvA 157). - 2. seized, conquered, in dur- hard to conquer, invincible J VI.271 ( = paccatthikehi durāsada C.).

Āyutta [Sanskrit āyukta; pp. of ā + yuj] - 1. yoked, to connected with, full of Pv I.1014 (tejas-āyuta T., but PvA 52 reads -āyutta and explinations. as samāyutta); PvA 157 ( = ākiṇṇa of Pv II.124). - 2. intent upon, devoted to S I.67.

Āyuttaka (adj.-n.) [āyutta + ka] one who is devoted to or entrusted with, a trustee, agent, superintendent, overseer J I.230 (-vesa); IV.492; DhA I.101, 103, 180.

Āyudha is the Vedic form of the common Pāli form āvudha weapon, and occurs only spuriously at D I.9 (v. l. āvudha).

Āyuvant (adj.) [from āyu] advanced in years, old, of age Th 1, 234.

Āyusmant (adj.) [Sanskrit āyus.mant; see also the regular Pāli form āyasmant] having life or vitality PvA 63 (āyusmāviññāṇa feeling or sense of vitality; is reading correct*).

Āyussa (adj.) [Sanskrit *āyus.ya] connected with life, bringing (long) life A III.145 dhamma).

Āyūhaka (adj.) [from āyūhati] keen, eager, active Miln 207 (+ viriyavā).

Āyūhati [ā + y + ūhati with euphonic y, from Vedic ūhati, ūh1, a gradation of vah (see etymology under vahati). Kern's etymology on Toev. 99 = āyodhati is to be doubted, more acceptable is Morris' explination. at J.Pāli Text Society 1885, 58 sq., although contradictory in part.] lit. to push on or forward, aim at, go for, i. e. (1) to endeavour, strain, exert oneself S I.1 (ppr. anāyūhaṃ unstriving), 48; J VI.35 ( = viriyaṃ karoti C.), 283 ( = vāyamati C.). - (2) to be keen on (w. acc.), to cultivate, pursue, do Sn 210 ( = karoti SnA 258); Miln 108 (kammaṃ ūyūhitvā), 214 (kammaṃ āyūhi), 326 (maggaṃ). -pp. āyūhita (q. v.).

Āyūhana (adj.-nt.) [from āyūhati] - 1. endeavouring, striving, Ps I.10 sq., 32, 52; II.218; Vism 103, 212, 462, 579. f. āyūhanī Dhs 1059 ("she who toils" trsl.) = Vbh 361 = Nd2 taṇhā 1. (has āyūhanā). - 2. furtherance, pursuit DA I.64 (bhavassa).

Āyūhā f. [āyu + ūhā] life, lifetime, only in -pariyosāna at the end of (his) life PvA 136, 162; VvA 319.

Āyūhāpeti [Causative II. from āyūhati] to cause somebody to toil or strive after DhsA 364.

Āyūhita [*Sanskrit ā + ūhita, pp. of ūh] busy, eager, active Miln 181.

Āyoga [Sanskrit āyoga, of ā + yuj; cp. āyutta] - 1. binding, bandage Vin II.135; Vv 3341; VvA 142 (-paṭṭa). - 2. yoke Dhs 1061 (avijj-), 1162. - 3. ornament, decoration Nd1 226; J III.447 (-vatta, for v. l. -vanta*). - 4. occupation, devotion to, pursuit, exertion D I.187; Dh 185 ( = payoga-karaṇa DhA III.238). - 5. (t. t.) obligation, guarantee(*) SnA 179. - Cp. sam-.

Ārakatta (nt.) [*ārakāt + tvaṃ] warding off, keeping away, holding aloof, being far from (c. gen.); occurring only in pop. etymology of arahant at A IV.145; DhA IV.228; DA I.146 = VvA 105, 106 = PvA 7; cp. DhsA 349.

Ārakā (adv.) [Sanskrit ārāt and ārakāt, abl. form. from *āraka, see ārā2] far off, far from, away from, also used as prep. c. abl. and as adj. pl. keeping away from, removed, far Vin II.239 = A IV.202 (sanghamhā); D I.99, 102 (adj.) 167; M I.280 (adj.) S II.99; IV.43 sq.; A I.281; It 91; J I.272; III.525; V.451; Miln 243; VvA 72, 73 (adj. + viratā).

Ārakkha [ā + rakkha] watch, guard, protection, care D II.59; III.289; S IV.97, 175, 195; A II.120; III.38; IV. 266, 270, 281 (-sampadā), 322 (id.), 400; V.29 sq.; J I.203; II.326; IV.29 (-purisa); V.212 (-ṭṭhāna, i. e. harem), 374 (-parivāra); Pug 21 (an-), 24; Miln 154; Vism 19

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(-gocara preventive behaviour, cautiousness); SnA 476 (-devatā); KhA 120 (id.), 169; DhA II.146; PvA 195; Sdhp 357, 365.

Ārakkhlka [from ārakkha] a guard, watchman J IV.29.

Ārakkheyya see arakkheyya.

Āragga (nt.) [ārā + agga; Sanskrit ārāgra of ārā an awl, a prick] the point of an awl, the head of certain arrows, having the shape of an awl, or an arrow of that kind (see Halayudha p. 151) A I.65; Sn 625, 631; Dh 401, 407; Vism 306; DhA II 51; IV.181.

Āracayāracayā [ā + racayā a ger. or abl. form. from ā + *rac, in usual Sanskrit meaning "to produce", but here as a sound-root for slashing noise, in reduplication for sake of intensification. Altogether problematic] by means of hammering, slashing or beating (like beating a hide) Sn 673 (gloss ārajayārajayā from ā + *rañj or *raj). - SnA 481 explinations. the passage as follows: ārajayārajayā; i. e. yathā manussā allacammaṃ bhūmiyaṃ pattharitvā khīlehi ākoṭenti, evaṃ ākoṭetvā pharasūhi phā'etvā ekam ekaṃ koṭiṃ chinditvā vihananti, chinnachinnakoṭi punappuna samuṭṭhāti; āracayāracayā ti pi pāṭho, āviñjitvā (v. l. BB. āvijjhitvā) āviñjitvā ti attho. - Cp. ārañjita.

Āraññaka (adj.) [from arañña + ka] belonging to solitude or the forest, sequestereotyped; living in the forest, fond of seclusion, living as hermits (bhikkhū). Freq. spelt araññaka (q. v.). - Vin I.92 (bhikkhū); II.32, 197, 217 (bh.), 265 (bh.); M I.214; A III.100 sq., 219; IV.21; V.66; J III.174 (v. l. BB. a-); Miln 342; DhA II.94 (vihāra).

Āraññakatta (nt.) [abstr. from āraññaka, see also araññakatta] the habit of sequestration or living in solitude M I.214; III.40; A I.38.

Āraññika (adj.) = āraññaka Vin III.15; A I.24; Pug 69; Vism 61, 71 (where defined); Miln 341.

Ārañjita [in form = Sanskrit *ārañjita, ā + pp. of rañjayati, Causative of rañj or raj, but in meaning different. Perhaps to rac (as *racita) to furnish with, prepare, or better still to be regarded as an idiomatic Pāli form of soundroot *rac (see āracayā-) mixed with rañj, of which we find another example in the double spelling of āracayā (and ārajayā) q. v.] furrowed, cut open, dug up, slashed, torn (perhaps also "beaten") M I.178 (hatthipadaṃ dantehi ārañjitaṃ an elephant-track bearing the marks of tusks, i. e. occasional slashes or furrows).

Ārata [Sanskrit ārata, pp. of ā + ram, cp. ārati] leaving off, keeping away from, abstaining J IV.372 ( = virata); Nd2 591 (+ virata paṭivirata).

Ārati (f.) [Sanskrit ārati, ā + ram] leaving off, abstinence Vv 639 ( = paṭivirati VvA 263); in exegetical style occurring in typ. combination. with virati paṭivirati veramaṇī, e. g. at Nd2 462; Dhs 299.

Āratta (nt.*) [Sanskrit cp. ārakta, pp. of ā + raj] time, period (orig. affected, tinted with), only in cpd. vassāratta the rainy season, lent J IV.444; Dāvs II.74.

Āraddha (adj.) [pp. of ā + rabh] begun, started, bent on, undertaking, holding on to, resolved, firm A I.148 (āraddhaṃ me viriyaṃ It 30; PvA 73 (ṭhapetuṃ began to place), 212 (gantuṃ). Cp. ārādhaka 1. -citta concentrated of mind, decided, settled D I.176; M I.414; S II.21; Sn p. 102; SnA 436. Cp. ārādheti 1. -viriya (adj.) strenuous, energetic, resolute Vin I.182; D III.252, 268, 282, 285; A I.24; Sn 68, 344; It 71 (opp. hīna-viriya); Nd2 131; Ps I.171; ThA 95. Cp. viriyārambha; f. abstr. -viriyatā M I.19.

Ārabbha (indecl.) [ger. of ārabhati2 in abs. function; cp. Sanskrit ārabhya meaning since, from] - 1. beginning, under taking etc., in cpd. -vatthu occasion for making an effort, concern, duty, obligation D III.256 = A IV.334 (eight such occasions enumd). - 2. (prep. with acc.) lit. beginning with, taking (into consideration), referring to, concerning, with reference to, about D I.180; A II.27 = It 103 (senāsanaṃ ā.); Sn 972 (upekhaṃ; v. l. ārambha; C. uppādetvā); Pv I.41 (pubbe pete ā.); DhA I.3; II.37; PvA 3 (seṭṭhiputta-petaṃ ā.), 16, and passim.

Ārabhati1 [not with Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1889, 202 from rabh and identical with ārabhati2, but with Kern, Toev. s. v. identical with Sanskrit ālabhate, ā + labh meaning to seize the sacrificial animal in order to kill it; cp. nirārambha] to kill, destroy M I.371 (pāṇaṃ).

Ārabhati2 and ārabbhati [ā + rabhati, Sanskrit ārabhati and ārambhati, ā + rabh] to begin, start, undertake, attempt S I.156 (ārabbhatha "bestir yourselves") = Miln 245 = Th 1, 256 (bh.); Pug 64 (bh.); viriyaṃ ārabhati to make an effort, to exert oneself (cp. ārambha) A IV.334. aor. ārabhi DhA II.38 and ārabbhi PvA 35. - ger. ārabbha, see sep. -pp. āraddha (q. v.).

Ārambha [Sanskrit ārambha in meaning "beginning", fr ā + rabh (rambh) cp. ārabhati] - 1. attempt, effort, inception of energy (cp. Dhs trsl. 15 and K. S. p. 318 giving C. def. as kicca, karaṇīya, attha, i. e. 1. undertaking and duty, 2. object) S I.76 (mah-); V.66, 104 sq. (-dhātu); III.338 (id.), 166 (-ja; T. arabbhaja, v. l. ārambhaja to be preferred) = Pug 64; Miln 244; Net 41; DhsA 145. -viriyārambha (cp. āraddha-viriya) zeal, resolution, energy Vin II.197; S IV.175; A I.12, 16. - 2. support, ground, object, thing Nett 70 sq., 107; an- unsupported, independent Sn 743 ( = nibbāna SnA 507). Cp. also nirambha, upārambha, sārambha.

Ārammaṇa (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ālambana, lamb, but in meaning confounded with rambh (see rabhati)] primary meaning "foundation", from this applied in the following senses: (1) support, help, footing, expedient, anything to be depended upon as a means of achieving what is desired, i. e. basis of operation, chance Sn 1069 ( = ālambana, nissaya, upanissaya Nd2 132); Pv I.41 (yaṃ kiñc- ārammaṇaṃ katvā); ārammaṇaṃ labhati (+ otāraṃ labhati) to get the chance S II.268; IV.185. - (2) condition, ground, cause, means, esp. a cause of desire or clinging to life, pl. -ā causes of rebirth (interpreted by taṇhā at Nd1 429), lust Sn 474 ( = paccayā SnA 410), 945 ( = Nd1 429); KhA 23; DhA I.288 (sappāy-); PvA 279. - (3) a basis for the working of the mind and intellect; i. e. sense-object, object of thought or consciousness, the outward constituent in the relation of subject and object, object in general. In this meaning of "relation" it is closely connected with āyatana (see āyatana3), so that it sometimes takes its place, it is also similar to visaya. Cpd.3 distinguishes a 5 fold object, viz. citta, cetasika, pasāda- and sukhuma-rūpa, paññatti, nibbāna. See on term especially Cpd.3, 14; Dhs trsl. XLI. and 209. - A 1. sq.; IV.385; Sn 506; Ps I.57 sq., 84 (four ā.); II.97, 118, 143; Dhs 1 (dhamm- object of ideation), 180, 584, 1186 et passim; Vbh 12, 79, 92, 319, 332 (four); Nett 191 (six); Vism 87 sq., 375 (-sankantika), 430 sq. (in var. sets with reference to var. objects), 533; DhsA 48, 127; VvA 11, 38. - rūpārammaṇa lit. dependence on form, i. e. object of sight, visible form, especially striking appearance, visibility, sight D III.228; S III.53; A I.82; J I.304; II.439, 442; PvA 265. ārammaṇaṃ karoti to make it an object (of intellection or intention), to make it one's concern (cp. Pv I.41, above 1). - ārammaṇa-kusala clever in the objects (of meditation) S III.266; ā--paccayatā relation of presentation (i. e. of subj. and obj.) Nett 80. - (4) (*-) (adj.) being supported by, depending on, centred in, concentrated upon PvA 8 (nissay-), 98 (ek-); VvA 119 (buddh- pīti rapture centred in the Buddha).

Āraha (adj.) metri causa for araha deserving J VI.164.

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Ārā1 (f.) [Sanskrit ār¢; *el "pointed", as in Ohg. āla = Ger. ahle, Ags. āel = E awl; Oicel. alr] an awl; see cp. āragga. Perhaps a der. of ārā is ā'akā (q. v.).

Ārā2 (indecl.) [Vedic ārād, abl. as adv.; orig. a root der. from *ara remoteness, as in Sanskrit araṇa foreign and araṇya solitude q. v. under araṇa1 and arañña] far from, remote (from) (adv. as well as prep. with abl.) Sn 156 (pamādamhā), 736; Dh 253 (āsavakkhayā; DhA III.377 expls. by dūragata); J II.449 (jhānabhūmiyā; = dūre ṭhita C.); V.78 (saŋyame; = dūrato C.). See also ārakā. -cāra [in this combination. by Kern, Toev. s. v. unecessarily explained. as ārā = ārya; cp. similar phrases under ārakā] a life remote (from evil) A IV.389. -cārin living far from evil leading a virtuous life D I.4; M I.179; III.33; A III. 216, 348; IV.249; V.138, 205; DA I.72 ( = abrahmacariyato dūra-cārin).

Ārādhaka (adj.-n.) [from ā + rādh] 1. [perhaps for *āraddhaka because of analogy to āraddha of ā + rabh] successful, accomplishing or accomplished, undertaking, eager Vin I.70 (an- one who fails); M I.491; II.197 = A I.69 = Miln 243; S V.19; A V.329 (in correlation with āraddhaviriya). - 2. pleasing, propitiating Miln 227; VvA 220 (-ikā f.).

Ārādhana (nt.) and -ā (f.) (either from ā + rādh or ā + rabh, cp. ārādhaka] satisfying, accomplishing; satisfaction, accomplishment D II.287 (opp. virādhanā failure); M I.479; II.199; A V.211 sq.; J IV.427.

Ārādhanīya (adj.) [grd. from ārādheti] to be attained, to be won; successful Vin I.70 (an-); J II.233 (dur-).

Ārādhita [pp. of ārādheti; Sanskrit ārādhita, but BSanskrit ārāgita, e. g. Divy 131, 233] pleased Sdhp 510.

Ārādheti [Causative of ā + rādh, in meaning 2 confused with ārabhati. In BSanskrit strangely distorted to ārāgayati; frequent in Divy as well as Av. SH] - 1. to please, win favour, propitiate, convince J I.337 (dārake), 421, 452; II.72 (manusse); IV.274 (for ābhirādheti T.); Vism 73 (ārādhayanto Nāthassa vana-vāsena mānasaŋ); DhA II.71; Dāvs III.93 (ārādhayi sabbajanaṃ); Miln 352. In older literature only in phrase cittaṃ ārādheti to please one's heart, to gladden, win over, propitiate D I.118 sq., 175 (but cp. āraddha-citta to ārabhati); M I85, 341; S II.107; V.109; J II.372; Miln 25. - 2. to attain, accomplish, fulfill, succeed S V.23 (maggaṃ), 82, 180, 294; It III. (v. l. ārām-); Sn 488 = 509. Cp. ārādhaka 1. -pp. ārādhita (q. v.). - See also parābhetvā.

Ārāma [Sanskrit ārāma, ā + ram] - 1. pleasure, fondness of (*-), delight, always as adj. (*-) delighting in, enjoying, finding pleasure in (usually combined. with rata, e. g. dhammārāma dhammarata finding delight in the Dh.) S I.235; IV.389 sq. (bhav-, upādān-); A I.35, 37, 130; II.28 (bhāvan-); It 82 (dhamm-); Sn 327 (id.; explained. by SnA 333 as rati and "dhamme ārāmo assā ti"); Pug 53 (samagg-); Vbh 351. - 2. a pleasure-ground, park, garden (lit. sport, sporting); classified at Vin III.49 as pupph- and phal- a park with flowers or with fruit (i. e. orchard), def. at DhA III.246 as veḷuvana-Jīvak- ambavan- ādayo, i. e. the park of veḷuvana, or the park belonging to Jīvaka or mango-groves in general. Therefore: (a) (in general) a park, resort for pastime etc. Vin II.109; D I. 106; Dh 188; Vv 795 (amb- garden of mangoes); VvA 305 (id.); Pv II.78 (pl. ārāmāni = ārām- ūpavanāni PvA 102). - (b) (in special) a private park, given to the Buddha or the Sangha for the benefit of the bhikkhus, where they meet and hold discussions about sacred and secular matters; a place of recreation and meditation, a meeting place for religious gatherings. Amongst the many ārāmas given to the bhikkhus the most renowned is that of Anāthapiṇḍika (Jetavana; see J I.92-94) D I.178; Vin IV.69; others more frequently mentioned are e. g. the park of Ambapālī (Vin I.233); of Mallikā (D I.178), etc. - Vin I.39, 140, 283, 291; II.170; III.6, 45, 162; IV.85; A II.176; Dpvs V.18. -pāla keeper of a park or orchard, gardener Vin II. 109; VvA 288. -ropa, -ropana planter, planting of pleasuregroves S I.33; PvA 151. -vatthu the site of an ārāma Vin I.140; II. 170; III.50, 90.

Ārāmakinī (f.) see ārāmika.

Ārāmatā (f.) [abstr. from ārāma 1] pleasure, satisfaction A II.28; III.116; Vbh 381; Miln 233.

Ārāmika (adj.) [from ārāma] 1. (to ārāma 1) finding delight in, fond of (c. gen.) (or servant in general*) Miln 6 (sanghassa trsl. at the service of the order). - 2. (to ārāma 2) belonging to an ārāma, one who shares the congregation, an attendant of the ārāma Vin I.207 sq.; II.177 (and -pesaka), 211; III.24; IV.40; V.204; A II.78 (-samaṇuddesa); III.109 (id.), 275 (-pesaka); J I.38 (-kicca) Vism 74 (-samaṇuddesa). - f. ārāmakiṇī a female attendant or visitor of an ārāma Vin I.208.

Ārāva [cp. Sanskrit ārāva, from ā + ru] cry, sound, noise Dāvs IV.46.

Āraha (nt.) only in pl. gihīnaṃ ārahāni, things proper to laymen, D III.163.

Āriya in anāriya at Sn 815 is metric for anariya (q. v.).

Āruṇṇa (nt.) [orig. pp of ā + rud] weeping, crying, lamenting Miln 357.

Āruppa (adj.) [from arūpa as ā ( = a2) - *rūpya] formless, incorporeal; nt. formless existence D III.275; M I.410, cp. 472; III.163; S I.131 (-ṭṭhāyin); II.123; A IV.316; It 61; Sn 754; J I.406; Dhs 1385 (cp. trsl. 57); Vism 338; DA I.224; SnA 488, 508; Sdhp 5, 10; the four: Vism III, 326 sq.

Āruhati [ā + ruh] to climb, ascend, go up or on to Sn 1014 (aor. āruhaṃ); Sdhp 188; ger. āruhitvā Sn 321 and āruyha J VI.452; Sn 139 (v. l. abhiruyha); It 71. Causative āropeti (q. v.).

Ārūgya see ārogya.

Ārū'ha [pp. of āruhati] - 1. ascended, mounted, gone up, gone on to IV.137; J VI.452 (T. āru'ha); Vism 135 (nekkhamma-paṭipadaṃ an-); VvA 64 (magga-); PvA 47 (-nāva), 56 (hatthi-). - 2. come about, effected, made, done PvA 2, 144 (cp. BSanskrit pratijñām ārūḍha having taken a vow Divy 26). - 3. (of an ornament) put on (to), arrayed J VI.153, 488.

Ārūha see āroha.

Ārogatā (f.) [abstr. from a + roga + tā] freedom from illness, health Miln 341.

Ārogya (nt.) [abstr. from aroga, i. e. ā ( = a2) + roga + ya] absence of illness, health D I.11; III.220 (-mada), 235 (-sampadā); M I.451 (T. ārūgya, v. l. ārogya), 508, 509; S II.109; A I.146 (-mada); II.143; III.72; V.135 sq.; Sn 749, 257 = Dh 204 = J III.196; Nd1 160; Vism 77 (-mada pride of health); PvA 129, 198; Sdhp 234.

Ārocāpana (nt.) [from ārocāpeti, Causative of āroceti] announcement DhA II.167.

Ārocāpeti (Causative II. of āroceti] to make some one announce, to let somebody know, usually in phrase kālaṃ ā. Sn p. 111; J I.115, 125; DhA II.89; PvA 141.

Ārocita [pp. of āroceti] announced, called Vin II.213 (kāla).

Āroceti [ā + roceti, Causative of ruc; cp. BSanskrit ārocayati Sp. Av. SH I.9 etc.] to relate, to tell, announce, speak to, address D I.109, 224; Pv II.89 (aor, ārocayi); PvA 4, 13

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(aññamaññaṃ anārocetvā not speaking to each other), 81, 274 and frequent passim. -pp. ārocita; Causative II. ārocāpeti (q. v.).

Ārodana (nt.) [from ā + rud, cp. āruṇṇa] crying, lamenting A III.268 sq.; J I.34; DhA I.184; II.100.

Āropana (nt.) [from āropeti] "putting on to", impaling Miln 197 (sūl-), 290 (id.).

Āropita [pp. of āropeti] - 1. produced, come forward, set up PvA 2. - 2. effected, made S III.12; PvA 92, 257. - 3. put on (to a stake), impaled PvA 220 ( = āvuta).

Āropeti [Causative of āruhati]. - 1. to make ascend, to lead up to (w. acc.) PvA 76 (pāsādaṃ), 160 (id.) - 2. to put on, take up to (w. acc. or loc.) Pv II.92 (yakkhaṃ yānaṃ āropayitvāna); PvA 62 (sarīraṃ citakaṃ ā.), 100 (bhaṇḍaṃ sakaṭesu ā.). - 3. to put on, commit to the care of, entrust, give over to (w. loc.) J I.227; PvA 154 (rajjaṃ amaccesu ā.). - 4. to bring about, get ready, make PvA 73, 257 (sangahaṃ ā. make a collection); SnA 51, 142. 5. to exhibit, tell, show, give S I.160 (ovādaṃ); Miln 176 (dosaŋ); DhA II.75 (id.) - 6. vādaṃ āropeti to refute a person, to get the better of (gen.) Vin I.60; M II.122; S I.160. -pp. āropita (q. v.).

Āroha (*-) [from ā + ruh] - 1. climbing up, growth, increase, extent, in cpd. -pariṇāha length and circumference S II.206; A I.288; II.250; IV.397; V.19; J III.192; V. 299; VI.20; Vbh 345 (-māna + pariṇāha-māna); SnA 382. - 2. one who has climbed up, mounted on, a rider, usually in cpd. ass- and hatth- horse-rider and elephantrider S IV.310; A II.166 = III.162 (T. ārūha); IV.107; DhsA 305. - 3. outfit, possession (or increase, as 1*) Sn 420 (vaṇṇ-).

Ārohaṇa (nt.) [from ā + ruh] climbing, ascending; ascent J I.70; VI.488; Miln 352; Vism 244; PvA 74.

Ālaka-manda [ālaya-*] at Vin II.152 is of uncertain reading and meaning ("open to view"* or "not having pegs" = ā'aka*) vv. ll. ā'akamanta and ālakamandāra; Bdhgh on p. 321 explinations. ā'akamandā ti ekangaṇā manuss¢bhikiṇṇā, i. e. full of a crowd of people, Ch. quotes ālakamandā as "the city of Kuvera" (cp. Sanskrit alakā).

Ālaggeti [ā + Causative of lag] to (make) hang on to (loc.), to stick on, fasten to Vin II.110 (pattaṃ veḷagge ālaggetvā).

Ālapati [ā + lapati] to address S I.177, 212; J V.201; SnA 42, 347, 383, 394 ( = āmantayi of Sn 997), 487 ( avhayati); PvA 11, 13, 33, 69.

Ālapana (nt.) and -ā (f.) [from ā + lap] talking to, addressing, conversation Vin III.73 (with reference to exclam. "ambho"); J V.253 (-ā); Vism 23 (-ā); SnA 396; PvA 131 (re ti ā.).

Ālapanatā (f.) [abstr. from ālapana] speaking to, conversing with, conversation M I.331) (an-).

Ālamba [Sanskrit ālamba, ā + lamb] anything to hang on, support S I.53 (an- without support); Sn 173 (id. + appatiṭṭha); J III.396; Miln 343; Sdhp 245, 463.

Ālambati [ā + lamb] to hang on to or up, to take hold of, to fasten to Vin I.28, J I.57; VI.192; Vv 8448; ThA 34. - ālambeti id. VvA 32.

Ālambana (adj.-nt.) [from ā + lamb, cp. ālamba] (adj.) hanging down from, hanging up J III.396; IV.457; SnA 214. - (nt.) support, balustrade (or screen*) Vin II.117, 152 (-bāha) Miln 126.

Ālambara and ā'ambara (nt.) [Sanskrit āḍambara] a drum Vin I.15 (l); J II.344 ('); V.390 (l); Vv 5418 (').

Ālaya (m. and nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ālaya, ā + lī, līyate, cp. allīna and allīyati, also nirālaya] - 1. orig. roosting place, perch, i. e. abode settling place, house J I.10 (geh-); Miln 213; DhA II.162 (an- = anoka), 170 ( = oka). - 2. "hanging on", attachment, desire, clinging, lust S I.136 = Vin I.4 (-rāma "devoted to the things to which it clings" K. S.); Vin III.20, 111; S IV.372 (an-); V.421 sq. (id.); A II. 34, 131 (-rāma); III.35; It 88; Sn 177 (kām- = kāmesu taṇhā-diṭṭhi-vasena duvidho ālayo SnA 216), 535 (+ āsavāni), 635; Nett 121, 123 (-samugghāta); Vism 293 (id.), 497; Miln 203 (Buddh -ṃ akāsi*); DhA I.121; IV.186 ( = taṇhā); SnA 468 ( = anoka of Sn 366). - 3. pretence, pretext, feint [cp. BSanskrit ālaya M Vastu III.314] J I.157 (gilān-), 438; III.533 (mat-); IV.37 (gabbhinī); VI 20, 262 (gilān-).

Ālayati see allīyati.

Ālassa (nt.) [Der. from alasa] sloth, idleness, laziness S I.43; D III.182; A IV.59; V.136; Sdhp 567. Spelling also ālasya S I.43 (v. l. BB); Vbh 352; Miln 289, and ālasiya J I.427; DA I.310; DhA I.299; VvA 43.

Ālāna and ā'āna (nt.) [for ānāhana with substitution of l for n (cp. apil and hana for apinandh- and contraction of -āhana to -āna originally meaning "tying to" then the thing to which anything is tied] a peg, stake, post, esp. one to which an elephant is tied J I.415; IV.308; DhA I.126 (') where all MSS. have ā'āhana, perhaps correctly.

Āli1 (m. or f.* [Sanskrit ā'i] a certain kind of fish J V.405.

Āli2 and ā'i (f.) [Sanskrit ālī] a dike, embankment Vin II.256; M III.96; A II.166 (-pabbheda); III.28; J I.336; III.533, 334.

Ālika in saccālika at S IV.306 is sacc-alika distortion of truth, falsehood S IV.306.

Ālikhati [ā + likhati] to draw, delineate, copy in writing or drawing J I.71; Miln 51.

Ālinga [ā + ling] a small drum J V.156 (suvaṇṇ--tala).

Ālingati [ā + ling] to embrace, enfold D I.230; III.73; J I.281; IV.21, 316, 438; V.8; Miln 7; DhA I.101: VvA 260.

Ālitta [pp. of ālimpati; Sanskrit ālipta] besmeared, stained Th 1, 737.

Ālinda (and ā'inda) [Sanskrit alinda] a terrace or verandah before the house-door Vin I.248; II.153; D I.89; M II.119; S IV.290 ('); A V.65 ('); J VI.429; DA I.252; DhA I. 26; IV.196; SnA 55 (-ka-vāsin; v. l. alindaka); Mhvs 35, 3. As ālindaka at J III.283.

Ālippati Pass. of ālimpeti (q. v.).

Ālimpana (nt.) [for ā'imp- = Sanskrit ādīpana, see ālimpeti2] conflagration, burning, flame Miln 43.

Ālimpita [pp. of ālimpeti2] ignited, lit. A IV.102 (v. l. ālepita).

Ālimpeti1 [Sanskrit ālimpayati or ālepayati. ā + lip or limp] to smear, anoint Vin II.107; S IV.177 (vaṇaṃ). - Causative II. ālimpāpeti Vin IV.316. - Pass. ālimpīyati Miln 74 and ālippati DhA IV.166 (v. l. for lippati). -pp. ālitta (q. v.).

Ālimpeti2 [for Sanskrit ādīpayati, with change of d to l over ' and substitution of limp for 'īp after analogy of roots in -mp, like lup > lump, lip > limp] to kindle, ignite, set fire to Vin II.138 (dāyo ālimpetabbo); III.85; D II.163 (citakaṃ); A I.257; DhA I.177 (āvāsaŋ read āvāpaṃ), 225; PvA 62 (kaṭṭhāni). -pp. ālimpita (q. v.).

Ālu (nt.) [Sanskrit ālu and -ka; cognate with Latin ālum and alium, see Walde Latin Wtb. under alium] a bulbous plant, Radix

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Globosa Esculenta or Amorphophallus (Kern), Arum Campanulatum (Hardy) J IV.371 = VI.578; IV.373.

Āluka1 = ālu J IV.46 (C. for ālupa).

Āluka2 (adj.) [etymology*] susceptible of, longing for, affected with (*-) Vin I.288 (sīt-); DA I.198 (id.); J II.278 (taṇh- greedy).

Ālupa (nt.) [etymology* Kern, Toev. s. v. suggests ālu-a > āluva > ālupa] = āluka the edible root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus J IV.46 ( = āluka-kaṇḍa C.). The form āluva occurs at Ap 237.

Ālumpakāra [reading not sure, to ālumpati or ālopa] breaking off, falling off (*) or forming into bits(*) DhA II.55 (-gūtha).

Ālumpati [ā + lup or lump, cp. ālopa] to pull out, break off M I.324.

Ālu'a (adj. [from ā + lul] being in motion, confusion or agitation, disturbed, agitated J VI.431.

Ālu'ati [ā + lul; Sanskrit ālolati, cp. also Pāli ālo'eti] to move here and there, ppr. med. ālu'amāna agitated, whirling about DhA IV.47 (T. ālūl-; v. l. ā'ul-) confuse DhsA 375. Causative ālu'eti to set in motion, agitate, confound J II.9, 33. -pp. ālu'ita (q. v.).

Ālu'ita [pp. of ālu'eti] agitated, confused J II.101; Miln 397 (+ khalita).

Ālepa [cp. Sanskrit ālepa, of ā + lip] ointment, salve, liniment Vin I.274; Miln 74; DhsA 249.

Ālepana (nt.) [from ā + lip] anointing, application of salve D I.7 (mukkh-).

Āloka [ā + lok, Sanskrit āloka] seeing, sight (obj. and subj.), i. e. - 1. sight, view, look S IV.128 = Sn 763; A III. 236 (āloke nikkhitta laid before one's eye). anāloka without sight, blind Miln 296 (andha +). - 2. light A I. 164 (tamo vigato ā. uppanno) = It 100 (vihato); A II. 139 (four lights, i.e. canda-, suriya-, agg-, paññ-, of the moon, sun, fire and wisdom); J II 34; Dhs 617 (opp. and hakāra); VvA 51 (dīp-). - 3. (clear) sight, power of observation, intuition, in combination. with vijjā knowledge D II.33 = S II.7 = 105, cp. Ps II.150 sq. (obhāsaṭṭhena, S A. on II.7). - 4. splendour VvA 53; DvA 71. -kara making light, bringing light, n. light-bringer It 108. -karaṇa making light, illumining It 108. -da giving light or insight Th 1, 3. -dassana seeing light, i. e. perceiving Th 1, 422. -pharaṇa diffusing light or diffusion of light Vbh 334; Nett 89. -bahula good in sight, fig. full of foresight A III.432. -bhūta light J VI 459. -saññā consciousness or faculty of sight or perception D III.223; A II.45; III.93 -saññin conscious of sight, i. e. susceptible to sight or insight D III.49; M III.3; A II 211; III.92, 323; IV.437; V.207; Pug 69. -sandhi "break for the light", a slit to look through, an opening, a crack or casement Vin I.48 = II.209 = 218; II.172; III.65; IV.47; J IV.310; PvA 24.

Ālokana (nt.) [from ā + lok] looking at, regarding DA I.194.

Ālokita (nt.) [pp. of āloketi] looking before, looking at, looking forward (opp. vilokitaṃ looking behind or backward), always in combination. ālokita-vilokita in stereotype phrase at D I.70 = e. g. A II.104, 106, 210; Pug 44, 45, 50; Vism 19; VvA 6; DA I.193 (ālokitaṃ purato pekkhanaṃ vil- anudisā p.).

Āloketar [n. ag. to āloketi] one who looks forward or before, a beholder DA I.194 (opp. viloketar).

Āloketi [Sanskrit ālokayati, ā + lok] to look before, look at, regard, see DA I.193, 194. -pp. ālokita (q. v.).

Ālopa [ā + lup, cp. ālumpati; BSanskrit ālopa, e. g. Av. SH I. 173, 341; Divy 290, 481] a piece (cut off), a bit (of food) morsel, esp. bits of food gathered by bhikkhus D I.5 = A V.206; III.176; A II 209; III.304; IV.318; Th 1, 1055; It 18; Pv II.17; Pug 58; Miln 231, 406; Vism 106; DA I.80 ( = vilopa-karaṇaṃ).

Ālopati [ālopeti* ā + lopeti, Causative of ālumpati] to break in, plunder, violate Th 1, 743.

Ālopika (adj.) [ālopa + ika] getting or having, or consisting of pieces (of food) A I.295; II.206; Pug 55.

Ālo'a [from ā + lu', cp. ālu'ati and ālo'eti] confusion, uproar, agitation DhA I.38.

Ālo'ī (f.) [a + lu'] that which is stirred up, mud, in cpd. sītālo'ī mud or loam from the furrow adhering to the plough Vin I.206.

Ālo'eti [Causative of ālu'ati, cp. ālu'eti] to confuse, mix, shake together, jumble S I.175; J II.272, 363; IV.333; VI.331; Vism 105.

Ā'aka (or -ā f.) [Dimin of a'a (*) or of āQ 1 (*). See Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1886, 158] - 1. a thorn, sting, dart, spike, used either as arrow-straightener Miln 418; DhA I.288; or (perhaps also for piece of bone, fishbone) in making up a comb VvA 349 (-sandhāpana = comb; how Hardy got the meaning of "alum" in Ind. to VvA is incomprehensible). - 2 a peg, spike, stake or post (to tie an elephant to, cp. ālāna). Cp. II.13.

Ā'amba = ā'ambara Vv 189 = 5024. See ālambara.

Ā'avaka (and -ika) (adj.-n.) [ = āṭavika] dwelling in forests, a forest-dweller S II.235. As Np. at Vism 208.

Ā'ādvāraka (adj.) at J V.81, 82 is corrupt and should with v. l. perhaps better be read advāraka without doors. Cp. Kern, Toev. 29 (ālāraka*). J V.81 has ā'āraka only.

Ā'āra (adj.) [ = a'āra or u'āra or = Sanskrit arāla*] thick, massed, dense or crooked, arched (*), only in cpd. -pamha with thick eyelashes Vv 6411 ( = gopakhuma VvA 279); Pv III.35 ( = vellita-dīgha-nīla-pamukha). Cp. alāra.

Ā'ārika and -iya (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit ārālika, of uncertain etymology] a cook D I.51 ( = bhattakāraka DA I.157); J V.296 ( = bhattakāraka C.); 307; VI.276 (-iya, C. -ika = sūpika); Miln 331.

Ā'āhana (nt.) [from ā + ḍah or dah, see dahati] a place of cremation, cemetery D I.55; J I.287 (here meaning the funereal fire) 402; III.505; Pv II.122; Vism 76; Miln 350; DA I.166; DhA I.26; III.276; PvA 92, 161, 163 ( = sarīrassa daḍḍha-ṭṭhāna). - Note. For ā'āhana in meaning "peg, stake" see ālāna.

Ā'ika at A III.352, 384 (an-) is preferably to be read ā'hika, see ā'haka.

Ā'ha (nt.) = ā'haka; only at A III.52 (udak-), where perhaps better with v. l. to be read as ā'haka. The id. p. at A II.55 has ālhaka only.

Ā'haka (m. and nt.) [Sanskrit āḍhaka, from *āḍha probably meaning "grain"] a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka-). Its size is given by Bdhgh. at SnA 476 as follows: "cattāro patthā ā'hakāni doṇaṃ etc." - udakā'haka S V.400; A II.55 = III.337; VvA 155. - In other connections at J I.419 (aḍḍh-); III.541 (mitaṃ ā'hakena = dhañña-māpaka-kammaṃ kataṃ C.); Miln 229 (patt-); DhA III.367 (aḍḍh-).

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-thālikā a bowl of the capacity of an ā'haka Vin I. 240; A III.369; DhA III.370 (v. l. bhatta-thālikā).

Ā'hiya (and ā'hika) (adj.) [from *ā'ha, Sanskrit āḍhya, orig. possessing grain, rich in grain, i. e. wealth; semantically cp. dhañña2] rich, happy, fortunate; only in negative anā'hiya poor, unlucky, miserable M I.450; II.178 (+ da'idda); A III.352 sq. (so read with v. l. BB. -ā'hika for T. -ā'ika; combined. with da'idda; v. l. SS. anaddhika); J V. 96, 97 (+ da'idda; C. na ā'hika).

Āvajati [ā + vajati, vraj] - 1. to go into, to or towards J III.434; IV.49, 107. - 2. to return, come back J V.24, 479.

Āvajjati [not with Senart M Vastu 377 = ava + dhyā, but = Sanskrit āvrṇakti ā + vrj, with pres. act. āvajjeti = Sanskrit āvarjayati] - 1. to reflect upon, notice, take in, advert to, catch (a sound), listen J I.81; II.423; V.3; Miln 106. - 2. to remove, upset (a vessel), pour out Vin I.286 (kumbhiṃ); J II.102 (gloss āsiñcati). - Causative āvajjeti (q. v.).

Āvajjana (nt.) [from āvajjati, cp. BSanskrit āvarjana in different meaning] turning to, paying attention, apprehending; adverting the mind. - See discussion of term at Cpd.85, 227 (the C. derive āvajjana from āvaṭṭeti to turn towards, this confusion being due to close resemblance of jj and ṭṭ in writing); also Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4 (on Kvu 380 which has āvaṭṭanā), 282 n. 2 (on Kvu 491 āvaṭṭanā). - Ps II.5, 120; J II.243; Vbh 320; Miln 102 sq.; Vism 432; DA I.271.

ĀVajjita [pp. of āvajjeti cp. BSanskrit āvarjita, e. g. Divy 171; Itin 221] bent, turned to, inclined; noticed, observed Miln 297; Vism 432 (citta); Sdhp 433.

ĀVajjitatta (nt.) [abstr. from āVajjita] inclination of mind, observation, paying attention Ps II.27 sq.

Āvajjeti [Causative of āvajjati] 1. to turn over, incline, bend M III.96; J IV.56 (so read for āvijjhanto); DA I.10 (kāyaṃ). 2. to incline (the mind); observe, reflect, muse, think, heed, listen for. According to Cpd.227 often paraphrased in C. by pariṇāmeti. - J I.69, 74, 81, 89, 108, 200; Miln 297; DhA II.96; PvA 181 ( = manasikaroti). - 3. to cause to yield A III.27 (perhaps better āvaṭṭ-). pp. āVajjita (q. v.).

Āvaṭa [Sanskrit āvrta, pp. of ā + vr] covered, veiled, shut off against, prohibited D I.97, 246; M I.381 (-dvāra); J VI.267. -anāvaṭa uncovered, unveiled, exposed, open D I.137 (-dvāra); III.191 (-dvāratā); S I.55; J V.213; Pv III.64; Miln 283. Cp. āvuta2 and vy-.

Āvaṭṭa (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit āvarta, ā + vrt] - 1. turning round, winding, twisting M I.382; S I.32 (dvi-r-ā- turning twice); J II.217; SnA 439 (-gangā). - 2. turned, brought round, changed, enticed M I.381; DhA II.153. - 3. an eddy, whirlpool, vortex M I.461 = A II.123 (-bhaya); Miln 122, 196, 377. - 4. circumference J V.337; Dāvs V.24; DhA III 184.

Āvaṭṭati [ = āvattati] in phrase ā. vivaṭṭati to turn forward and backward Vism 504.

Āvaṭṭana (nt.) [from ā + vrt, cp. āvaṭṭa 2 and āvaṭṭanin] turning, twisting; enticement, snare, temptation J III.494; DhA II.153.

Āvaṭṭanā (f.) [most likely for āvajjana. q. v. and see also Kvu trsl. 221, 282] turning to (of the mind), adverting, apprehending Kvu 380, 491.

Āvaṭṭanin (adj.) [from āvaṭṭana] turning (away or towards), changing, tempting, enticing M I.375, 381; A II.190; J II.330 = IV.471; DA I.250. - Cp. etymologically the same, but semantically different āvattanin.

Āvaṭṭin (adj.-n.) [from āvaṭṭa instead of āvaṭṭana] only at M I.91 in negative an- not enticed by (loc.), i. e. kāmesu. Cp. āvattin.

Āvaṭṭeti [ā + vatteti, Causative of vrt, cp. BSanskrit āvartayati to employ spells Divy 438] to turn round, entice, change, convert, bring or win over M I.375, 381, 383, 505; A III.27; DA I.272.

Āvatta1 (adj.) [pp. of āvattati] gone away to, fallen back to, in phrase hīnāy-āvatta (see same phrase under āvattati) M I.460; S II.50; J I.206.

Āvatta2 (nt.) [Sanskrit āvarta, of ā + vrt, cp. āvaṭṭa[ winding, turn, bent J I.70 (in a river); Nett 81 (v. l. āvaṭṭa*), 105 (-hārasampāta).

Āvattaka (adj.) [āvatta + ka] turning, in dakkhiṇ- turning to the right, dextrorsal D II.18; cp. dakkhiṇ¢vatta at DA I.259.

Āvattati [ā + vattati, of vrt] to turn round, come to, go back, go away to, turn to; only in phrase hīnāya āvattati to turn to "the low", i. e. to give up orders and return to the world Vin I.17; M I.460; S II.231; IV.191; Sn p. 92 ( = osakkati SnA 423); Ud 21; Pug 66; Miln 246. pp. āvatta (q. v.). Cp. āvaṭṭati.

Āvattana (adj.-nt.) [Sanskrit āvartana] turning; turn, return Nett 113; Miln 251.

Āvattanin (adj.) [from āvattana] turning round or back Th 1, 16 (cp. āvaṭṭanin).

Āvattin (adj.-n.) [from āvatta, cp. āvaṭṭin in different meaning] returning, coming back, one who returns, in spec. meaning of one who comes back in transmigration, syn. with āgāmin (an-), only in negative anāvattin not returning, a non-returner, with -dhamma not liable to return at D I. 156; III.132; S V.346, 357, 376, 406; M I.91; DA I.313.

Āvatthika (adj.) [ā + vatthika] befitting, original, inherent (one of the 4 kinds of nomenclature) Vism 210 = KhA 107.

Āvapati [a + vap] to give away, to offer, to deposit as a pledge Miln 279.

Āvapana (nt.) [from āvapati] sowing, dispersing, offering,depositing, scattering J I.321.

Āvara (adj.) [from ā + vr] obstructing, keeping off from J V.325 (so to be read in ariya-magg-¢vara).

Āvaraṇa (adj.-n.) [from ā + vr, cp. āvarati; BSanskrit āvaraṇa in pañc- āvaraṇāni Divy 378] shutting off, barring out, withstanding; nt. hindrance, obstruction, bar Vin I.84 (-ṃ karoti to prohibit, hinder); II.262 (id.); D I.246 (syn. of pañca nīvaraṇāni); S V.93 sq.; A III.63; J I.78 (an-); V.412 (nadiṃ -ena bandhāpeti to obstruct or dam off the river); Sn 66 (pahāya pañc- āvaraṇāni cetaso, cp. Nd2 379), 1005 (an--dassāviṇ); Ps I.131 sq.; II.158 (an-); Pug 13; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 341, 342; Miln 21 (dur- hard to withstand or oppose). - dant- "screen of the teeth", lip J IV.188; VI.590.

Āvaraṇatā (f.) [abstr. from āvaraṇa] keeping away from, withholding from A III 436.

Āvaraṇīya (adj.) [grd. from āvarati], M I.273; an- not to be obstructed, impossible to obstruct M III.3; Miln 157.

Āvarati [ā + vr, cp. āvuṇāti] to shut out from (abl.), hold back from, refuse, withhold, obstruct M I.380 (dvāraṃ); Sn 922 (pot. -aye, cp. Nd1 368); DA I.235 (dvāraṃ); Dpvs I.38. -pp. āvaṭa and āvuta2 (q. v.).

Āvalī (f.) [cp. Sanskrit āvalī and see valī] a row, range J V.69; DA I.140.

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Āvasati [ā + vas] to live at or in, to inhabit, reside, stay M II.72; S I.42; Sn 43, 805, 1134; Nd1 123, 127; Nd2 133; J VI.317. -pp. āvuttha (q. v.).

Āvasatha [SkQ āvasatha, from ā + vas] dwelling-place, habitation; abode, house, dwelling Vin I 226 (-¢gāra restinghouse); IV.304 ( = kavāṭabaddha); S I.94, 229; IV.329; Sn 287, 672; J IV.396; VI.425; Pug 51; Miln 279.

Āvaha (adj.) (*-) [from ā + vah] bringing, going, causing Pv II.924 (sukh-); Vv 2211 (id); Dāvs II.37; PvA 86 (upakār-), 116 (anatth-); Sdhp 15, 98, 206.

Āvahati [ā + vahati] to bring, cause, entail, give S I.42 = Sn 181, 182 (āvahāti sukhaṃ metri causā); J III.169; V. 80; Sn 823; Nd1 302; PvA 6. - Pass. āvuyhati VvA 237 (ppr. -amāna).

Āvahana (adj) (*-) [ = āvaha] bringing, causing Th 1, 519; Sn 256.

Āvahanaka (adj.-nt) [ = āvahana] one who brings VvA 114 (sukhassa).

Āva (misery, misfortune) see avā.

Āvāṭa [etymology*] a hole dug in the ground, a pit, a well D I.142 (yaññ-); J I.99, 264; II 406; III.286; IV 46 (caturassa); VI.10; DhA I.223; VvA 63; PvA 225.

Āvāpa [if correct, from ā + vā2 to blow with caus. p. - Cp. J R A S. 1898, 750 sp.] a potter's furnace DhA I.177 (read for āvāsa*), 178.

Āvāra [Sanskrit āvāra, from ā + vr] warding off, protection, guard J VI 432 (yanta-yutta-, does it mean "cover, shield"*). For cpd. khandh-āvāra see khandha.

Āvāreti [Sanskrit āvārayati, ā + Causative of vr] to ward off, hold back, bar, S IV 298; Nett 99.

Āvāsa [Sanskrit āvāsa; ā + vas] sojourn, stay, dwelling, living; dwelling-place, residence Vin I.92; D III.234; S IV.91; A II 68, 168; III.46, 262; Sn 406; Dh 73 (cp. DhA II.77); Nd1 128; J VI.105; Dhs 1122; Pug, 15, 19, 57; KhA 40; DhA I.177 (āvāsaŋ ālimpeti: read āvāpaṃ); PvA 13, 14, 36; VvA 113; Sdhp 247. -anāvāsa (n. and adj.) uninhabited, without a home; an uninhabited place A IV.345; J II.77; Pv II.333; PvA 80 ( = anāgāra); VvA 46. -kappa the practice of (holding Uposatha in different) residence (within the same boundary) Vin II.294, 300, 306; Dpvs IV.47, cp. V.18. -palibodha the obstruction of having a home (in set of 10 Pālibodhas) KhA 39; cp. Vism 90 sq. -sappāyatā suitability of residence Vism 127.

Āvāsika (adj.) [āvāsa + ika] living in, residing at home, being in (constant or fixed) residence, usually applied. to bhikkhus (opp. āgantuka) Vin I.128 sq.; II.15, 170; III. 65; V.203 sq.; M I.473; A I.236; III.261 sq., 366; J IV.310; Pv IV.84 ( = nibaddha-vasanaka PvA 267).

Āvāha [ā + vah] taking in marriage, lit. carrying away to oneself, marriage D I.99; J VI.363; SnA 273, 448; DhA IV.7. Often in cpd. ā- vivāha(ka) lit. leading to (one's home) and leading away (from the bride's home), wedding feast D III.183 (-ka); J I.452; VvA 109, 157. (v. l. -ka).

Āvāhana (nt.) [ā + vshana, of vah] - 1. = āvāha, i. e. marriage, taking a wife D I.11 ( = āvāha-karaṇa DA I. 96). - 2. "getting up, bringing together", i. e. a mass, a group or formation, in senā- a contingent of an army J IV.91.

Āvi (adv.) [Sanskrit āvih., to Gr. a)i/w to hear, Latin audio (from *auizdio) to hear] clear, manifest, evident; openly, before one's eyes, in full view. Only in phrase āvi vā raho openly or secret A V.350, 353; Pv II.716 = DhA IV.21 (āvī v. l.), explained. at PvA 103 by pakāsanaṃ paresaŋ pākaṭavasana. Otherwise in following compounds (with kar and bhū): -kamma making clear, evidence, explanation Vin II.88; III.24; Pug 19, 23; -karoti to make clear, show, explain D III.121; Sn 84, 85, 349; J V.457; Pug 57; VvA 79, 150; -bhavati (-bhoti) to become visible or evident, to be explained, to get clear J I.136; Vism 287 (fnt. āvibhavissati); DhA II.51, 82; bhāva appearance, manifestation D I.78; A III.17; J II.50, 111; Vism 390 sq. (revelation, opp. tirobhāva). Cp. pātur.

Āvijjhati (āviñjati, āviñchati) [ā + vijjhati of vyadh to pierce; thus recognised by Morris J P T S. 1884, 72, against Trenckner, Notes 59 (to piñj) and Hardy Nett. Ind. = vicchāy] - 1. to encircle, encompass, comprise, go round, usually in ger. āvijjhitvā (w. acc.) used as prep. round about, near J I.153 (khettaṃ), 170 (pokkharaṇiṃ); DA I.245 (nagaraṃ bahi avijjhitvā round the outer circle of the town). Ordinarily = go round (acc.) at J IV.59 (chārika-puñjaṃ). - 2. [as in lit. Sanskrit] to swing round, brandish, twirl, whirl round Vin III.127 (daṇḍaṃ āviñji); M III.141 (matthena āviñjati to churn); J I.313; V.291 (cakkaṃ, of a potter's wheel); SnA 481 (T. āviñj-, v. l. āvijjh-; see āracaya-); DhA II.277 (āviñchamāna T.; v. l. āsiñciy-, āvajiy-, āgañch-). - 3. to resort to, go to, approach, incline to S IV.199 (T. āviñch-; v. l. avicch- and āviñj-); Nett 13. - 4. to arrange, set in order J II.406. 5. to pull (*) A IV.86 (kaṇṇasotani āvijjeyyāsi, v. l. āvijj-, āviñj-, āvicc-, āviñch-; cp. Trenckner, Notes 59 āviñjati "to pull"). -pp. āviddha (q. v.).

Āvijjhana (so for āviñchana and āviñjana) (adj.-n.) [from āvijjhati, lit. piercing through, i. e. revolving axis] - 1. ( = āvijjhati 2) swinging round, hanging loose, spinning in āvijjhana-rajju a loose, rope, esp. in mythology the swinging or whirling rope by which Sakka holds the world's wheel or axis, in the latter sense at DhA II.143 (T. āviñch- (v. l. āvijj-) = III.97, 98 (where āviñjanaṭṭhāna for -rajju). Otherwise a rope used in connection with the opening and shutting of a door (pulling rope*) Vin II.120, 148; J V.298, 299 (T. āviñj-, v. l. āvicch- and āvij-). - 2. (cp. āvijjhati 3) going to, approach, contact with DhsA 312 (-rasa, T. āviñj-, v. l. āviñch-; or is it "encompassing"* = āvijjhati 1 *); Vism 444 (āviñjanarasa). - 3. (cp. āvijjhati 5) pulling, drawing along Vin III.121 ( = ākaḍḍhanā nāma).

Āvijjhanaka (ntQ) [from āvijjhati in meaning 2] whirlirg round, that which spins round, the whirling-round wheel (or pole) of the world (cp. the potter's wheel), the worldaxis DhA II.146 (T. āviñch-).

Āviddha [pp. of āvijjhati 2, cp. BSanskrit āviddha in meaning curved, crooked Av. S I.87 Lal. V. 207] whirling or spinning round, revolving; swung round, set into whirling motion J IV.6 (cakkaṃ = kumbhakāra-cakkam iva bhamati C.); V.291. What does an-āviddha at PvA 135 mean*

Āvila (adj.) [is it a haplological contraction from ā + vi + lul to roll about*] stirred up, agitated, disturbed, stained, soiled, dirty A I.9; III.233; J V.16, 90 (ābila); Nd1 488 (+ lu'ita), 489; ThA 251; DA I.226. More frequent as anāvila undisturbed, clean, pure, serene D I.76; S III. 83; IV,118; A I.9; III.236; Sn 160; Dh 82, 413; J III. 157; Miln 35; VvA 29, 30; ThA 251.

Āvilati [from āvila or is it a direct contraction of ā + vi + lulati*] to whirl round, to be agitated, to be in motion Miln 259 (+ lu'ati).

Āvilatta (nt.) [abstr. from āvila] confusion, disturbance, agitation Sn 967; Nd1 488.

Āvisati [ā + vīsh] to approach, to enter Vin IV.334; Sn 936 (aor. āvisi); J IV.410, 496; Vism 42.

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Āvuṇāti [in form = *avrṇoti, ā + vr, cp. āvarati, but in meaning = *āvayati, ā + vā to weave, thus a confusion of the two roots, the latter being merged into the former] to string upon, to fix on to (c. loc.), to impale J I.430; III.35; V.145; VI.105. - Causative II. āvuṇāpeti J III.218 (sūle). -pp. āvuta1 (q. v.), whereas the other pp. āvaṭa is the true derivative of ā + vr.

Āvuta [pp. of āvuṇāti in meaning of Sanskrit āvayati, the corresponding Sanskrit form being ā + uta = ota] - 1. strung upon, tied on, fixed on to D I.76 (suttaṃ); II.13 (id.); A I.286 (tantāvutaṃ web); J III.52 (valliyā); VI.346 (suttakena); DA I.94 (-sutta). - 2. impaled, stuck on (sūle on the pale) J I.430; III.35; V.497; VI.105; PvA 217, 220.

Āvuta2 = āvaṭa (see āvuṇāti and āvuta1) covered, obstructed, hindered It 8 (mohena); also in phrase āvuta nivuta ophuta etc. Nd1 24 (ṭ) = Nd2 365 = DA I.59.

Āvuttha [pp. of āvasati] inhabited D II.50 (an-); S I.33.

Āvudha (nt.) [Vedic āyudha, from ā + yudh to fight] an instrument to fight with, a weapon, stick etc. D III 219; M II.100; A IV.107, 110; Sn 1008; J I.150; II.110; III. 467; IV.160, 283, 437; Nd2 on Sn 72; Miln 8, 339; DhA II.2; IV.207; SnA 225, 466 (-jīvika = issattha). See also āyudha.

Āvuyhamāna ppr. of āvuyhati (Pass. of āvahati), being conveyed or brought VvA 237 (reading uncertain).

Āvuso (voc. pl. m.) [a contracted form of āyusmanto pl. of āyusman, of which the regular Pāli form is āyasmant, with v for y as frequently in Pāli, e. g. āvudha for āyudha] friend, a form of polite address "friend, brother, Sir", usually in conversation between bhikkhus. The grammatical construction is with the pl. of the verb, like bhavaṃ and bhavanto. - Vin II.302; D I.151, 157; II.8; SnA 227; DhA I.9; II.93; PvA 12, 13, 38, 208.

Āveṭhana (nt.) [ā + veṭhana, ves.ṭ] rolling up, winding up or round, fig. explanation Miln 28 (+ nibbeṭhana, lit. rolling up and rolling down, ravelling and unravelling), 231 (-viniveṭhana).

Āveṭhita [pp. of āveṭheti, ā + ves.ṭ, cp. āvedhikā] turned round, slung round or over J IV.383 sq. (v. l. āvedhita and āveḷita, C. expls. by parivattita).

Āveṇi (adj) (*-) [according to Trenckner, Notes 75 from ā + vinā "Sine quā non", but very doubtful] special, peculiar, separate Vin II.204 (-uposatha etc.); J I.490 (-sangha-kammāni).

Āveṇika (adj.) [from āveṇi; cp. BSanskrit āveṇika Av. SH I.14, 108; Divy 2, 182, 268, 302] special, extraordinary, exceptional S IV.239; A V.74 sq.; Vism 268; VvA 112 (-bhāva peculiarity, specialty), KhA 23, 35.

Āveṇiya (adj.) = āveṇika Vin I.71; J IV.358; VI.128.

Āvedha [cp. Sanskrit āviddha, ā + pp. of vyadh] piercing, hole, wound J II.276 (v. l. aveddha; C. = viddha-ṭṭhāne vaṇa).

Āvedhika (adj. f. scil. pannā) [ā + vedhaka of āvedha, vyadh, but confused with āveṭh- of ā + ves.ṭ, cp. āveṭhana and nibbedhaka] piercing, penetrating; or ravelling, turning, rolling up or round (cp. āvijjhati which is derived from ā + vyadh, but takes its meaning from āveṭheti), discrimination, thinking over J II.9 (+ nibbedhikā, v. l. for both ṭh).

Āveḷa (adj. and -ā f.) [not with Muller Pāli Gr. 10, 30, 37 = Sanskrit āpīḍa, but from ā + ves.ṭh to wind or turn round, which in Pāli is represented by āveṭheti as well as āvijjhati; ' then standing for either ḍh (ṭh) or dh (āvedha, q. v.). There may have been an analogy influence through vell to move to and fro, cp. āveḷita. Muller refers to āveḷā rightly the late dial. (Prk.) āmela] - 1. turning round, swinging round; diffusion, radiation; protuberance, with reference to the rays of the Buddha at J I.12, 95, 501. 2. (f.) a garland or other ornament slung round and worn over the head Vv 362 (kañcan-; = āveḷa-pilandhana VuA 167). See āveḷin.

Āvelita ('*) [pp. of ā + vell, cp. āveḷa and BSanskrit āviddha curved, crooked Av. SH I.87, Lal. V. 207] turned round, wound, curved J VI.354 (-singika with curved horns, v. l. āvellita).

Āveḷin (adj.) [from āveḷā] wearing garlands or other headornaments, usually in f. -inī J V.409 ( = kaṇṇālankārehi yuttā C.); Vv 302 (voc. āvelinī, but at id. p. 482 āveline), 323; VvA 125 (on Vv 302 expls. as ratana-maya-pupph- āveḷavatī).

Āvesana (nt.) [from āvisati] entrance; workshop; living-place, house Vin II 117 (-vitthaka, meaning*); M II 53; Pv II.915.

Āsa1 contr.-form of aṃsa in cpd. koṭṭhāsa part., portion etc.: see aṃsa1. Can we compare BSanskrit āsapātrī (see next).

Āsa3 [Sanskrit āsha] food, only in cpd. pātarāsa morning food, breakfast Sn 387 (pāto asitabbo ti pātar-āso piṇḍapātass- etaṃ nāmaṃ SnA 374); DhA IV.211; see further reference under pātar; and pacchā-āsa aftermath S I.74. Can we compare BSanskrit āsa-pātrī (vessel) Divy 246* Der. from āsa is āsaka with abstr. ending āsakattaṃ "cating", food, in nānā- various food or na + anāsak-) Sn 249. See also nirāsa, which may be taken either as nir + *āsha or nir + *āsā.

Āsa3 the adj. form of āsā (f.), wish, hope. See under āsā.

Āsa4 archaic 3rd sg. perf. of atthi to be, only in cpd. itihāsa = iti ha āsa "thus it has been".

Āsaŋsa (adj.) [of *āshaṃsā, see next] hoping, expecting something, longing for A I.108 = Pug 27 (explained. by Pug A 208 as "so hi arahattaṃ āsaŋsati patthetī ti āsaŋso"); SnA 321, 336. Cp. nir-.

Āsaŋsati [for the usual āsiṃsati, ā + shaṃs] to expect, hope for, wish Pug A 208 ( = pattheti). See also āsamāna.

Āsaŋsā (f.) [from ā + shaṃs] wish, desire, expectation, hope J IV.92. - Cp. nirāsaŋsa.

Āsa*ṃsuka (adj.) [from āsaŋsā] full of expectation, longing, hankering after, Th 2, 273 ( = āsiṃsanaka ThA 217; trsl. "cadging").

Āsaka (adj.) [of āsa2] belonging to food, having food, only in negative an- fasting S IV.118; Dh 141 (f. ā fasting = bhatta-paṭikkhepa DhA III.77); J V.17; VI.63.

Āsakatta (nt.) [abstr. from āsaka] having food, feeding, in an- fasting Sn 249 ( = abhojana SnA 292).

Āsankati [ā + shank] to be doubtful or afraid, to suspect, distrust, J I.151 (pret. āsankittha), 163 (aor. āsanki); II. 203; SnA 298. -pp. āsankita (q v.),

Āsankā (fQ) [Sanskrit āshankā from ā + shank] fear, apprehension, doubt, suspicion J I.338; II.383; III.533; VI.350, 370; DhA III.485; VvA 110. - Cp. sāsanka and nirāsanka.

Āsankita (adj.) [pp. of āsankati] suspected, in fear, afraid, apprehensive, doubtful (obj. and subj.) Miln 173, 372 (-parisankita full of apprehension and suspicion); DhA I.223; VvA 110. - Cp. ussankita and parisankita.

Āsankin (*-) (adj.) [from āsankā] fearing, anxious, apprehensive Sn 255 (bhedā-); J III.192 (id.).

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Āsanga [ā + sanga from sañj to hang on, cp. Sanskrit āsanga and āsakti] - 1. adhering, clinging to, attachment, pursuit J IV.11. - 2. that which hangs on (the body), clothing, garment, dress; adj. dressed or clothed in (*-); usually in cpd. uttarāsanga a loose (hanging) outer robe e. g. Vin I.289; S IV.290; PvA 73; VvA 33 (suddh-), 51 (id.).

Āsangin (adj.) [from āsanga] hanging on, attached to J IV.11.

Āsajja (indecl.) [ger. of āsādeti, Causative of āsīdati, ā + sad; Sanskrit āsādya] - 1. sitting on, going to, approaching; allocated, belonging to; sometimes merely as prep. acc. "near" (cp. āsanna) Sn 418 (āsajja naṃ upāvisi he came up near to him), 448 (kāko va selaṃ ā. nibbijjāpema Gotamaṃ); J II.95; VI.194; Miln 271. - 2. put on to (lit. sitting or sticking on), hitting, striking S I.127 (khaṇuṃ va urasā ā. nibbijjapetha Gotamā "ye've thrust as 't were your breast against a stake. Disgusted, come ye hence from Gotama" trsl. p. 159; C. expls. by paharitvā, which comes near the usual paraphrase ghaṭṭetvā) 3. knocking against or "giving one a setting-to", insulting, offending, assailing D I.107 (ā. ā. avocāsi = ghaṭṭetvā DA I.276); A III.373 (tādisaŋ bhikkhuṃ ā.); J V.267 (isiṃ ā. Gotamaṃ; C. p. 272 āsādetvā); Pv IV.710 (isiṃ ā. = āsādetva~ PvA 266). - 4. "sitting on", i. e. attending constantly to, persevering, energetically, with energy or emphasis, willingly, spontaneously M I.250; D III.258 = A IV.236 (dānaṃ deti); Vv 106 (dānaṃ adāsiṃ; cp. VvA 55 samāgantvā). See āsada, āsādeti, āsīdeti, āsajjana.

Āsajjana (nt.) [from āsajja in meaning of no. 3] "knocking against", setting on, insult, offence Vin II.203 (-ṃ Tathāgataṃ an insult to the T.; quoted as such at VvA 55, where two meanings of ā. are given, corresponding to āsajja 1 and 3, viz. samāgama and ghaṭṭana, the latter in this quot.) = It 86 (so to be read with v. l.; T. has āpajja naṃ); S I.114 (apuññaṃ pasavi Māro āsajjanaṃ Tathāgataṃ; trsl. "in seeking the T. to assail"); J V.208.

Āsati [from as] to sit DA I.208; h. sg. āsi S I.130. pp. āsīna (q. v.).

Āsatta1 [pp. of ā + sañj] (a) lit. hanging on, in phrase kaṇṭhe āsatto kuṇapo a corpse hanging round one's neck M I.120; J I.5. - (b) fig. attached to, clinging to J I. 377 (+ satta lagga); ThA 259 (an-).

Āsatta2 [pp. of ā + shap] accursed, cursed J V.446 (an-).

Āsatti (f.) [ā + sañj] attachment, hanging on (w. loc.), dependence, clinging Vin II.156 = A I.138; S I.212; Sn 777 (bhavesu); Nd1 51, 221; Nett 12, 128. - Cp. nirāsattin.

Āsada [ā + sad; cp. āsajja and āsādeti] - 1. approach, dealing with, business with (acc.), concern, affair, means of acting or getting Vin II.195 = J V.336 (mā kuñjara nāgam āsado); M I.326 (me taṃ āsado = mā etaṃ āsado do not meddle with this, lit., be not this any affair); J I 414 (cakkaṃ āsado you have to do with the wheel; interpreted as adj. in meaning patto = finding, getting); VI.528 (interpreted as ankusa a hook, i. e. means of getting something). - 2. (as adj.) in phrase durāsada hard to sit on, i. e. hard to get at, unapproachable, difficult to attack or manage or conquer Sn p. 107 (cp. SnA 451); J VI.272; Vv 5016 ( = anupagamanīyato kenaci pi anāsādanīyato ca durāsado VvA 213); Miln 21; Dpvs V.21; VI.38; Sdhp 384.

Āsana (nt.) [from āsati] sitting, sitting down; a seat, throne M I.469; Vin I.272 ( = pallankassa okāsa); S I.46 (ek- sitting alone, a solitary seat); A III.389 (an- without a seat); Sn 338, 718, 810, 981; Nd1 131; J IV.435 (āsān' ūdaka-dāyin giving seat and drink); V.403 (id.); VI.413; DhA II.31 (dhamm- the preacher's seat or throne); SnA 401; PvA 16, 23, 141. -¢bhihara gift or distinction of the seat J I.81. -ūpagata endowed with a seat, sitting down Sn 708 ( = nisinna SnA 495). -paññāpaka one who appoints seats Vin II.305. -paṭikkhitta one who rejects all seats, or objects to sitting down D I.167; A I.296; II.206; Pug 55. -sālā a hall with seating accommodation Vism 69; DhA II. 65; IV.46.

Āsana2 (*) eating Vism 116 (visam-, cp. visam-āsita Miln 302). See, however, māsana.

Āsanaka (nt.) [āsana + ka] a small seat Vv 15.

Āsanika (adj.) [from āsana] having a seat; in ek- sitting by oneself Vism 69.

Āsandi (f.) [from ā + sad] an extra long chair, a deck-chair Vin I.192; II.142, 163, 169, 170; D I.7 ( = pamāṇ¢tikkant' āsanaṃ DA I.86), 55 = M I.515 = S III.307 (used as a bier) A I.181; J I.108. See note at Dial. I.11.

Āsandikā (f.) from āsandi] a small chair or tabouret Vin II. 149; KhA 44.

Āsanna (adj.) [pp. of ā + sad, see āsīdati] near (cp. āsajja1), opp. dūra J II.154; DhA II 91; PvA 42, 243.

Āsappanā (from) [from + srp] lit. "creeping on to", doubt, mistrust, always combined. with parisappanā Nd3 1; Dhs 1004 (trsl. "evasion", cp. Dhs trsl. p 116), 1118, 1235; DA I.69.

Āsabha [the guṇa- and compounds. form of usabha, corresponding to Sanskrit ār.sabha > r.sabha, see usabha] (in compounds.) a bull, peculiar to a bull, bull-like, fig. a man of strong and eminent qualities, a hero or great man, a leader, thus in tār- Sn 687; nar- Sn 684, 696; āsabha-camma bull's hide J VI. 453 (v. l. usabha-). -ṭṭhāna (as āsabhaṇṭhāna) "bull's place", first place, distinguished position, leadership M I.69; S II.27; A II.8 (C. seṭṭha-ṭṭhāna uttama-ṭṭhāna); III.9; V.33 sq.; DA I. 31; KhA 104.

Āsabhin (adj?) [from āsabha] bull-like, becoming to a bull, lordly, majestic, imposing, bold; only in phrase -ṃ vācaṃ bhāsati "speak the lordly word" D II.15, 82; M III.123j J I.53; DA I.91; cp. Dāvs I.28 (nicchārayi vācaṃ āsabhiṃ).

Āsamāna (adj.) [ppr. of āsaŋsati or āsiṃsati, for the usual earlier āsasāna] wishing, desiring, hoping, expecting Vv 846 (kiṃ ā = kiṃ paccāsiṃ santo VvA 336); Pv IV.124 ( = āsiṃsamāna patthayamana PvA 226).

Āsaya [ā + shī, cp. in similar meaning and derivation anusaya. The semantically related Sanskrit āshraya from ā + shri is in Pāli represented by assaya. Cp. also BSanskrit āshayatah. intentionally, in earnest Divy 281; Av. SH II.161] - 1. abode, haunt, receptacle; dependence on, refuge, support, condition S I.38; Vin III.151; J II.99; Miln 257; VvA 60; PvA 210; jal- river VvA 47; Pgdp 80; adj. depending on, living in (*-) Miln 317; Nd1 362 (bil-, dak- etc.). See also āmāsaya, pakkāsaya. - 2. (fig.) inclination, intention, will, hope; often combined. and compared with anusaya (inclination, hankering, disposition), e. g. at Ps I. 133; II.158; Vbh 340; Vism 140 (-posana); PvA 197. SnA 182 (-vipatti), 314 (-suddhi), KhA 103 (-sampatti). Cp. nirāsaya. - 3. outflow, excretion Pv III.53 (gabbh- = gabbha-mala PvA 198); Vism 344.

Āsayati [ā + shī; lit. "lie on", cp. Ger. anliegen and Sanskrit āshaya = Ger. Angelegenheit] to wish, desire, hope, intend J IV.291 (grd. āsāyana, gloss esamāna). See āsaya.

Āsava [from ā + sru, would corresponds to a Sanskrit *āsrava, cp. Sanskrit āsrāva. The BSanskrit āshrava is a (wrong) sankritisation of the Pāli āsava, cp. Divy 391 and ks.īnāshrava] that which

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flows (out or on to) outflow and influx. 1. spirit, the intoxicating extract or secretion of a tree or flower, O. C. in Vin IV.110 (four kinds); B. on D III.182 (five kinds) DhsA 48; KhA 26; J IV.222; VI.9. - 2. discharge from a sore, A I.124, 127 = Pug 30. - 3. in psychologQ, t.t. for certain specified ideas which intoxicate the mind (bemuddle it, befoozle it, so that it cannot rise to higher things). Freedom from the "āsavas" constitutes Arahantship, and the fight for the extinction of these āsavas forms one of the main duties of man. On the difficulty of translating the term see Cpd.227. See also discussion of term āsava ( = āsavantī ti āsavā) at DhsA 48 (cp. Expositor pp. 63 sq). See also Cpd.227 sq., and especially Dhs trsl. 291 sq. - The 4 āsavas are kām-, bhav-, diṭṭh-, avijj-, i. e. sensuality, rebirth (lust of life), speculation and ignorance. - They are mentioned as such at D II.81, 84, 91, 94, 98, 123, 126; A I.165 sq., 196; II.211; III.93, 414; IV.79; Ps I.94, 117; Dhs 1099, 1448; Nd2 134; Nett 31, 114 sq. - The set of 3, which is probably older (kāma-, bhava-, avijjā-) occurs at M I. 55; A I.165; III.414; S IV.256; V.56, 189; It 49; Vbh 364. For other connections see Vin I.14 (anupādāya āsavehi cittani vimucciṃsu), 17, 20, 182; II.202; III.5 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.); D I.83, 167; III.78, 108, 130, 220, 223, 230, 240, 283; M I.7 sq., 23, 35, 76, 219, 279, 445 (-ṭhāniya); II.22; III.72, 277; S II.187 sq. (-ehi cittaṃ vimucci); III.45 (id.); IV.107 (id.), 20; V.8, 28, 410; A I.85 sq. (vaḍḍhanti), 98, 165 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.), 187; II.154 (-ehi cittaṃ vimuttaṃ), 196; III.21, 93 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.), 245, 387 sq., 410, 414; IV.13, 146 (-pariyādāna end of the ā.), 161 (-vighāta-pari'āha); V.70, 237; Th 2, 4, 99, 101 (pahāsi āsave sabbe); Sn 162, 374, 535 (pl. āsavāni), 546, 749, 915, 1100; Dh 93, 253, 292; Nd1 331 (pubb-); Vbh 42, 64, 426; Pug 11, 13, 27, 30 sq.; Miln 419; DhsA 48; ThA 94, 173; KhA 26; DA I 224; Sdhp 1; Pgdp 65 (piyāsava-surā, meaning*).

Referring specially to the extinction (khaya) of the āsavas and to Arahantship following as a result are the following passages: (1) āsavānaṃ khaya D I.156; S II.29, 214; III 57, 96 sq, 152 sq; IV.105, 175; V.92, 203, 220, 271, 284; A I.107 sq., 123 sq., 232 sq., 273, 291; II.6, 36, 44 sq., 149 sq., 214; III 69, 114, 131, 202, 306, 319 sq.; IV.83 sq., 119, 140 sq., 314 sq.; V.10 sq., 36, 69, 94 sq, 105, 132, 174 sq., 343 sq.; It 49; Pug 27, 62; Vbh 334, 344; Vism 9; DA I.224; cp. -parikkhaya A V 343 sq. See also arahatta formula C. - (2) khīṇāsava (adj.) one whose āsavas are destroyed (see khīṇa) S I.13, 48, 53, 146; II 83, 239; III.199, 128, 178; IV.217; A I 77, 109, 241, 266; IV.120, 224, 370 sq.; V 40, 253 sq.; Ps II 173; cp. parikkhīṇā āsavā A IV.418, 434, 451 sq.; āsavakhīṇa Sn 370. - (3) anāsava (adj.) one who is free from the āsavas, an Arahant Vin II.148 = 164; D III.112; S I 130; II.214, 222; III.83; IV.128; A I.81, 107 sqQ, 123 sq., 273, 291; II.6, 36, 87, 146; III.19, 29, 114, 166; IV.98, 140 sq., 314 sq., 400; A V.10 sqQ, 36, 242, 340; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Th I.100; It 75; Nd2 44; Pv II.615; Pug 27; Vbh 426; Dhs 1101, 1451; VvA 9Q Cp. nirāsava ThA 148. - Opp. sāsava S III 47; V.232; A I.81 V.242; Dhs 990; Nett 10; Vism 13, 438.

Āsavati [ā + sru, cp. Sanskrit āsravati; its doublet is assavati] to flow towards, come to, occur, happen Nett 116.

Āsasāna [either grd. for *āsaŋsāna or contracted form of ppr. med. of āsaŋsati ( = āsiṃsati) for *asaŋsamāna] hoping, wishing, desiring, longing for Sn 369 (an-; SnA 365 however reads āsayāna), 1090; Th 1, 528; J IV.18 ( = āsiṃsanto C.), 381; V.391 ( = āsiṃsanto C.). See anāsasāna, āsaŋsati, āsamāna and āsayāna.

Āsā (f.) [cp. Sanskrit āshah. f.] expectation, hope, wish, longing, desire; adj. āsa (*-) longing for, anticipating, desirous of Vin I.255 (-avacchedika hope-destroying), 259; D II. 206; III.88; M III.138 (āsaŋ karoti); A I.86 (dve āsā), 107 (vigat-āso one whose longings have gone); Sn 474, 634, 794, 864; J I.267, 285; V.401; VI.452 (-chinna = chinnāsa C.); Nd1 99, 261, 213 sq; Vv 3713 (perhaps better to be read with v. l. SS ahaṃ, cp. VvA 172); Pug 27 (vigat- = arahattāsāya vigatattā vigatāso Pug A 208); Dhs 1059 (+ āsiṃsanā etc.), 1136; PvA 22 (chinn- disappointed), 29 (-¢bhibhūta), 105; Dāvs V.13; Sdhp 78, 111, 498, 609.

Āsāṭikā (f.) [cp. Mārāṭhi āsāḍī] a fly's egg, a nit M I.220 sq.; A V.347 sq., 351, 359; Nett 59; J III.176.

Āsādeti [Causative of āsīdati, ā + sad; cp. āsajja and āsanna] 1. to lay hand on, to touch, strike; fig. to offend, assail, insult M I.371; J I.481; V.197; aor. āsādesi Th 1, 280 (mā ā. Tathāgate); ger. āsādetvā J V.272; Miln 100, 205 (-ayitvā); PvA 266 (isiṃ), āsādiya J V.154 (āsādiya metri causa; isiṃ, cp. āsajja3), and āsajja (q. v.); infin. āsāduṃ J V.154 and āsādituṃ ibid.; grd. āsādanīya Miln 205; VvA 213 (an-). - 2. to come near to (c. acc.), approach, get J III.206 (khuracakkaṃ).

Āsā'hā and āsā'hī (f.) [Sanskrit ās.āḍha] N. of a month (JuneJuly) and of a Nakkhatta; only in compounds. as āsa'ha- and āsa'hi-, viz. -nakkhatta J I.50; SnA 208; -puṇṇamā J I.63; DhA I.87; SnA 199; VvA 66; PvA 137; -māsa SnA 378 ( = vassūpanāyikāya purimabhāge A.); VvA 307 ( = gimhānaṃ pacchimo māso).

Āsāvati (f.) N. of a creeper (growing at the celestial grove Cittalatā) J III.250, 251.

Āsāsati [cp. Sanskrit āshāsati and āshāsti, ā + shās] to pray for, expect, hope; confounded with shaṃs in āsaŋsati and āsiṃsati (q. v.) and their derivations. -pp. āsiṭṭha (q. v.).

Āsi and āsiṃ 3rd and 1st sg. aor. of atthi (q. v.).

Āsiṃsaka (adj.) [from ā + siṃsati, cp. āsaŋsā] wishing, aspiring after, praying for Miln 342.

Āsiṃsati [Sanskrit āshaṃsati, ā + shaṃs, cp. also shās and āsāsati, further abhisaŋsati, abhisiṃsati and āsaŋsati] to hope for, wish, pray for (lit. praise for the sake of gain), desire, (w. acc.) S I.34, 62; Sn 779, 1044, 1046 (see Nd2 135); J I.267; III.251; IV.18; V.435; VI.43; Nd1 60; Mhvs 30, 100; VvA 337; PvA 226 (ppr. āsiṃsamāna for āsamāna, q. v.).

Āsiṃsanaka (adj.) [from āsiṃsanā] hoping for something, lit. praising somebody for the sake of gain, cadging ThA 217 (for āsaŋsuka Th 2, 273).

Āsiṃsanā (f.) [abstr. from ā + shaṃs, cp. āsiṃsati] desire, wish, craving J V.28; Dhs 1059, 1136 (+ āsiṃsitatta). As āsīsanā at Nett 53.

Āsiṃsaniya (adj.) [grd. of āsiṃsati] to be wished for, desirable Miln 2 (-ratana).

Āsikkhita [pp. of ā + shiks., Sanskrit āshiks.ita] sohooled, instructed PvA 67, 68.

Āsiñcati [ā + sic, cp. abhisiñcati and avasiñcati] to sprinkle, besprinkle Vin I.44; II.208; J IV.376; Vv 796 ( = siñcati VvA 307); PvA 41 (udakena), 104, 213 (ger. -itvā). pp. āsitta (q. v.). Cp. vy-.

Āsiṭṭha [pp. of āsāsati, Sanskrit āshis.ṭa] wished or longed for PvA 104.

Āsita1 [ = asita1*] "having eaten", but probably māsita (pp. of mrsh to touch, cp. Sanskrit mrshita, which is ordinarily in massita), since it only occurs in combinations. where m precedes, viz. J II.446 (dumapakkani-m-asita, where C. reading is māsita and explination. khāditvā asita (v. l. āsita) dhāta); Miln 302 (visam-āsita affected with poison = visamāsita).

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Cp. also the form māsi(n) touching, eating at J VI.354 (tiṇa-, explained. by C. as khādaka). - āsita at J V.70 is very doubtful, v. l. āsina and asita; C. expls. by dhāta suhita p. 73.

Āsita2 [registereotyped as such with meaning "performed" by Hardy in Index] at VvA 276 is better read with v. l. SS bhāsita (-vādana etc.).

Āsitta [pp. of āsiñcati, Sanskrit āsikta] sprinkled, poured out, anointed J V.87; Pug 31; Miln 286; DhsA 307; DhA I.10; VvA 69.

Āsittaka (adj.) [āsitta + ka] mixed, mingled, adulterated Vin II.123 (-ūpadhāna "decorated divan"*); ThA 61, 168 (an- for asecanaka, q. v.).

Āsītika (adj.) [from asīta] 80 years old M II.124; J III.395; SnA 172.

Āsītika (m.) [etymology* Cp. BSanskrit āsītakī Lal. V. 319] a certain plant M I 80 = 245 (-pabba).

Āsīdati [cp. Sanskrit āsīdati, ā + sad] - 1. to come together, lit. to sit by D I.248 (v. l. BB ādisitvā for āsīditvā, to be preferred*). - 2. to come or go near, to approach (w. acc.), to get (to) A III.69 (āsīvisaŋ), 373 (na sādhurūpaṃ āsīde, should perhaps be read without the na); J IV.56. - 3. to knock against, insult, offend attack J V. 267 (Pot. āsīde = pharusa-vacanehe kāyakammena vā gbaṭṭento upagaccheyya C.). -pp. āsanna (q. v.). See also āsajja, āsajjana, āsada and Causative āsādeti.

Āsīna (adj.) [pp. of ās, see āsati] sitting S I.195 = Nd2 136; Sn 1105, 1136; Dh 227, 386; J I.390; III.95; V. 340; VI.297; Dāvs II.17.

Āsīyati [etymology doubtful; Trenckner Miln p. 422 = ā + shyā to freeze or dry up, but taken by him in meaning to thaw, to warm oneself; Muller, Pāli Gr. 40 same with meaning "cool oneself"; Morris' J.Pāli T. S. 1884, 72 as ā + shrā or shrī to become ripe, come to perfection, evidently at fault because of shrā etc. not found in Sanskrit More likely as a Pass. formation to be referred to ā + shī as in āsaya, i. e. to abide etc.] to have one's home, one's abode or support in (loc.), to live in, thrive by means of, to depend on Miln 75 (kaddame jāyati udake āsīyati i. e. the lotus is born in the mud and is supported or thrives by means of the water).

Āsīvisa Derivation uncertain. The BSanskrit āsī (e. g. Jtm 3161) is a Sanskritisation of the Pāli. To suppose this to come from ahi + visa (snake's poison) would give a wrong meaning, and leave unexplained the change from ahi to āsi] a snake Vin IV.108; S IV.172; A II.110; III. 69; J I.245; II.274; IV.30, 496; V.82, 267; Pug 48; Vism 470 (in comp.); DhA I.139; II.8, 38; SnA 334, 458, 465; VvA 308.

Āsīsanā see āsiṃsanā.

Āsu expletive particle = assu3 J V.241 (v. l. assu; nipātamattaṃ C. p.243).

Āsuṃ 3rd pl. aor. of atthi.

Āsumbhati (and āsumhati) [ā + shumbh to glide] to bring to fall, throw down or round, sling round Vin IV.263, 265; Vv 5011 (-itvāna); J III.435 (aor. āsumhi, gloss khipi).

Āsevati [ā + sev] to frequent, visit; to practise, pursue, indulge, enjoy A I.10; Sn 73 (cp. Nd2 94); Ps II.93 (maggaṃ). -pp. āsevita.

Āsevana (nt.) and āsevanā (f.) [from āsevati] - 1. practice, pursuit, indulgence in Vin II.117; PvA 45. - 2. succession, repetition Dhs 1367; Kvu 510 (cp. trsl. 294, 362); Vism 538.

Āsevita [pp. of āsevati] frequented, indulged, practised, enjoyed J I.21 (V.141; āsevita-nisevita); II.60; Sdhp 93, 237.

Āha [Vedic āha, orig. perfect of ah to speak, meaning "he began to speak", thus in meaning of pres. "he says"] a perfect in meaning of pret. and pres. "he says or he said", he spoke, also spoke to somebody (w. acc.), as at J I.197 (cullalohitaṃ āha). Usually in 3rd person, very rarely used of 2nd person, as at Sn 839, 840 ( = kathesi bhaṇasi Nd 188, 191). - 3rd sg. āha Vin II.191; Sn 790 ( = bhaṇati Nd1 87), 888; J I.280; III.53 and frequent passim; 3rd pl. āhu Sn 87, 181; Dh 345; J I.59; SnA 377, and āhaṃsu J I.222; III.278 and frequent

Āhacca1 ger. of āhanati.

Āhacca2 (adj.) [grd. of āharati, corresponding to a Sanskrit *āhrtya] 1. (cp. āharati1) to be removed, removable, in -pādaka-pīṭha and -mañca a collapsible bed or chair, i e. whose legs or feet can be put on and taken away at pleasure (by drawing out a pin) Vin II.149 (cp. Vin Texts III.164 n. 5); IV.40, 46 (def. as "ange vijjhitvā ṭhito hoti" it stands by means of a perforated limb), 168, 169. - 2. (cp. āharati2) reciting, repeating, or to be quoted, recitation (of the Scriptures); by authority or by tradition M III.139; DhsA 9, and in compounds -pada a text quoted from Scripture), tradition Miln 148 (-ena by reference to the text of the Scriptures); -vacana a saying of the Scriptures, a traditional or proverbial saying Nett 21 (in def. of suttaṃ).

Āhaṭa [pp. of āharati] brought, carried, obtained Vin I.121; III.53; D II.180 (spelt āhata); J III.512 (gloss ānīta); Dāvs I.58.

Āhata [pp. of āhanati] struck, beaten, stamped; afflicted, affected with (*-) Vin IV.236 = D III.238 (kupito anattamano āhata-citto); Vin I.75, 76; S I.170 (tilak-, so read for tilakā-hata, affected with freckles, C. kā'a-setādi vaṇṇehi tilakehi āhatagatta, K. S. p. 318); J III 456; Sdhp 187, 401.

Āhataka [from āhata] "one who is beaten", a slave, a worker (of low grade) Vin IV.224 (in def. of kammakāra, as bhaṭaka + ā).

Āhanati [ā + han] to beat, strike, press against, touch ppr. āhananto Miln 21 (dhamma-bheriṃ); Dāvs IV.50. ger. āhacca touching M I.493; J I.330; VI 2, 200; Sn 716 = uppī'etva SnA 498; Vism 420. -pp. āhata (q. v.). 1st sg. fut. āhañhi Vin I.8; D II.72, where probably to be read as āhañh' ( = āhañhaṃ). See Geiger, Pāli Gr. * 153, 2.

Āhanana (nt.) [from ā + han] beating, striking, coming into touch, "impinging" Vism 142 (+ pariyāhanana, in def. of vitakka) = DhsA 114 (cp. Expos. 151); Vism 515 (id.).

Āharaṇa (adj.-n.) [from āharati] to be taken; taking away; only in phrase acorāharaṇo nidhi a treasure not to be taken by thieves Miln 320; Kh VIII.9; KhA 224; Sdhp 589.

Āharaṇaka [āharaṇa + ka] one who has to take or bring, a messenger J II.199; III.328.

Āharati [ā + hr] - 1. to take, take up, take hold of, take out, take away M I.429 (sallaṃ); S I 121; III.123; J I.40 (ger. āharitvā "with"), 293 (te hattaṃ); Nd2 540c (puttamaṃsaŋ, read āhāreyya*); Pv II.310; DA I.186, 188 2. to bring, bring down, fetch D II.245; J IV 159 (nāvaṃ; v. l. āhāhitvā); V.466; VvA 63 (bhattaṃ); PvA 75. 3. to get, acquire, bring upon oneself J V.433 (padosaŋ); DhA II.89. - 4. to bring on to, put into (w. loc.); fig. and intrs. to hold on to, put oneself to, touch, resort to M I.395 (kaṭhalaṃ mukhe ā.; also inf. āhattuṃ); Th 1, 1156 (pāpacitte ā.; Mrs. Rh. D. Brethren ver. 1156, not as "accost" p. 419, n.). - 5. to assault, strike, offend (for pāhari*) Th 1, 1173. - 6. (fig.) to take up, fall or go back on

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(w. acc.), recite, quote, repeat (usually with desanaṃ and dasseti of an instructive story or sermon or homily) J III.383 (desanaṃ), 401; V.462 (vatthuṃ āharitvā dassesi told a story for example); SnA 376; PvA 38, 39 (atītaṃ), 42, 66, 99 (dhamma-desanaṃ). See also payirudāharati. pp. āhaṭa (q. v.). - Causative II. āhārapeti to cause to be brought or fetched; to wish to take, to call or ask for J III.88, 342; V.466; PvA 215.

Āharima (adj.) [from āharati] "fetching", fascinating, captivating, charming Vin IV.299; Th 2, 299; ThA 227; VvA 14, 15, 77.

Āhariya [grd. of āharati] one who is to bring something J III.328.

Āhavana and āhavanīya see under āhuneyya.

Āhāra [from ā + hr, lit. taking up or on to oneself] feeding, support, food, nutriment (lit and fig.). The term is used comprehensively and the usual enumn. comprises four kinds of nutriment, viz. (1) kaba'inkāra āhāro (bodily nutriment, either o'āriko gross, solid, or sukhumo fine), (2) phassāhāro n. of contact, (3) manosañcetanā- n. of volition ( = cetanā S. A. on II.11 f.), (4) viññāṇ- of consciousness. Thus at M I.261; D III.228, 276; Dhs 71-73; Vism 341. Another definition of Dhammapāla's refers it to the fourfold tasting as asita (eaten), pīta (drunk), khāyita (chewed), sāyita (tasted) food PvA 25. A synonym with mūla, hetu, etc. for cause, Yamaka, I.3; Yam. A (J.Pāli Text Society, 1910-12) 54. See on term also Dhs trsl. 30. - Vin I.84; D I.166; S I.172; II.11, 13, 98 sq. (the 4 kinds, in detail); III.54 (sa-); V.64, 391; A III.51 (sukhass-), 79, 142 sq., 192 sq.; IV.49, 108; V.52 (the four), 108, 113 (avijjāya etc.), 116 (bhavataṇhāya), 269 sq. (nerayikānaṃ etc.); Sn 78, 165, 707, 747; Nd1 25; Ps I.22 (the four) 122 (id.), 55, 76 sq; Kvu 508; Pug 21, 55; Vbh 2, 13, 72, 89, 320, 383, 401 sq. (the four); Dhs 58, 121, 358, 646; Nett 31, 114, 124; DhsA 153, 401; DhA I.183 (-ṃ pacchindati to bring up food, to vomit); II.87; VvA 118; PvA 14, 35, 112, 148 (utu- physical nutriment); Sdhp 100, 395, 406; A V.136 gives ten āhāra opposed to ten paripanthā. -an- without food, unfed M I.487 (aggi); S III.126; V.105; Sn 985. -ūpahāra consumption of food, feeding, eating Vin III. 136. -ṭhitika subsisting or living on food D III.211, 273; A V.50, 55; Ps I.5, 122. -pariggaha taking up or acquirement of food Miln 244 or is it "restraint or abstinence in food"* Same combination. at Miln 313. -maya "food-like", feeding stuff, food J III.523. -lolatā greed after food SnA 35. -samudaya origin of nutriment S III.59.

Āhāratthaṃ [āhāra + tta] the state of being food. In the idiom āhārattaṇ pharati; Vin I.199, of medicine, "to penetrate into food-ness" , to come under the category of food; Miln 152, of poison, to turn into food. [According to Oldenberg (Vin I.381) his MSS read about equally -attaṃ and -atthaṃ. Trenckner prints -atthaṃ, and records no variant (see p. 425)].

Āhāreti [Denominitive from āhāra] to take food, eat, feed on S II.13; III.240; IV.104; A I.114, 295; II.40, 145, 206; IV. 167; Nd2 540c (āhāraṃ and puttamaṃsaŋ cp. S II.98).

Āhika (*-) (adj.) [der. from aha2] only in pañcāhika every five days (cp. pañcāhaṃ and sattāhaṃ) M III.157.

Āhiṇḍati [ā + hiṇḍ, cp. BSanskrit āhiṇḍate Divy 165 etc.] to wander about, to roam, to be on an errand, to be engaged in (w. acc.) Vin I.203 (senāsana-cārikaṃ), 217; II. 132 (na Sakkoti vinā daṇḍena āhiṇḍituṃ); IV.62; J I.48, 108, 239; Nd2 540B; Pv III.229 ( = vicarati PvA 185); Vism 38, 284 (aṭaviṃ); VvA 238 (tattha tattha); PvA 143.

Āhita [pp. of ā + dhā] put up, heaped; provided with fuel (of a fire), blazing Sn 18 (gini = ābhato jalito vā SnA 28). See sam-.

Āhu 3rd pl. of āha (q. v.).

Āhuti (f.) [Vedic āhuti, ā + hu] oblation, sacrifice; veneration, adoration M III 167; S I.141; Th 1, 566 (-īnaṃ paṭiggaho recipient of sacrificial gifts); J I.15; V.70 (id.); Vv 6433 (param¢hutiṃ gato deserving the highest adoration); Sn 249, 458; Kvu 530; SnA 175; VvA 285.

Āhuna = āhuti, in āhuna-pāhuna giving oblations and sacrificing VvA 155; by itself at Vism 219.

Āhuneyya (adj.) [a grd. form. from ā + hu, cp. āhuti] sacrificial, worthy of offerings or of sacrifice, venerable, adorable, worshipful D III.5, 217 (aggi); A II.56, 70 (sāhuneyyaka), 145 sq. (id.); IV.13, 41 (aggi); It 88 (+ pāhuneyya); Vv 6433 (cp. VvA 285). See def. at Vism 219 where explained. by "āhavanīya" and "āhavanaṃ arahati" deserving of offerings.

Āhundarika (adj.) [doubtful or āhuṇḍ-*] according to Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1884, 73 "crowded up, blocked up, impassable" Vin I.79; IV.297; Vism 413 (-ṃ and ha-tamaṃ).


I in i-kāra the letter or sound i SnA 12 (-lopa), 508 (id.).

Ikka [Sanskrit, of which the regular representation is Pāli accha2] a bear J VI.538 [ = accha C.).

Ikkāsa (*) [uncertain as regard meaning and etymology] at Vin II.151 (+ kasāva) is trsl. by "slime of trees", according to Bdhgh's explination. on p. 321 (to C. V. VI.3, 1), who however reads nikkāsa.

Ikkhaṇa (nt.) [from īks.] seeing Vism 16.

Ikkhaṇika [from īks. to look or see, cp. akkhi] a fortuneteller Vin III.107; S II.260; J I.456, 457; VI.504.

Ikkhati [from īks.] to look J V.153; ThA 147; DhsA 172.

Ingita (nt.) [pp. of ingati = iñjati] movement, gesture, sign J II.195, 408; VI.368, 459.

Ingha (indecl.) [Sanskrit anga prob. after Pāli ingha (or añja, q. v.); from iñjati, cp. J.Pāli Text Society 1883, 84] part. of exhortation, lit. "get a move on", come on, go on, look here, Sn 83, 189, 862, 875 = 1052; J V.148; Pv IV.57; Vv 539 ( = codan'atthe nipāto VvA 237); VvA 47; DhA IV.62.

Inghā'a [according to Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1884, 74 = angāra, cp. Marāthī ingala live coal] coal, embers, in inghā'akhu Th 2, 386 a pit of glowing embers ( = angāra-kāsu ThA 256). The whole cpd. is doubtful.

Icc' see iti.

Iccha (*-) (adj.) [the adj. form of icchā] wishing, longing, having desires, only in pāp- having evil desires S I.50; II.156; an- without desires S I.61, 204; Sn 707; app- id. Sn 628, 707.

Icchaka (*-) (adj.) [from iccha] wishing, desirous, only in nt. adv. yad-icchikaṃ (and yen-) after one's wish or liking M III.97; A III.28.

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Icchati1 [Sanskrit icchati, is., cp. Av. isaiti, Obulg. iskati, Ohg. eiscon, Ags. āscian = E. ask; all of same meaning "seek, wish"] to wish, desire, ask for (c. acc.), expect S I.210 (dhammaṃ sotuṃ i.); Sn 127, 345, 512, 813, 836; Dh 162, 291; Nd1 3, 138, 164; Nd2 s. v.; Pv II.63; Pug 19; Miln 269, 327; SnA 16, 23, 321; KhA 17; PvA 20, 71, 74; Pot. icche Dh 84; Sn 835 Pv II.66 and iccheyya D II.2, 10; Sn 35; Dh 73, 88; ppr. icchaṃ Sn 826, 831, 937; Dh 334 (phalaṃ) aor. icchi PvA 31. - grd. icchitabba PvA 8. -pp. iṭṭha and icchita (q. v.). Note. In prep.-compounds the root is.2 (icchati) is confused with root is.1 (i.sati, e.sati) with pp. both -iṭṭha and -is.ita. Thus ajjhesati, pp. ajjhiṭṭha and ajjhesita; anvesati (Sanskrit anvicehati); pariyesati (Sanskrit parīcchati), pp. pariyiṭṭha and pariyesita.

Icchati2 [Sanskrit rcchati of r, concerning which see appeti] see aticchati and cp. icchatā.

Icchatā (*-) (f.) [abstr. from icchā] wishfulness, wishing: only in aticchatā too great wish for, covetousness, greed Vbh 350 (cp. aticchati, which is probably the primary basis of the word); mah- and pāp- Vbh 351, 370.

Icchana (nt.) [from is.2, cp. Sanskrit īpsana] desiring, wish J IV. 5; VI.244.

Icchā (f.) [from icchati, is.2] wish, longing, desire D II.243; III.75; S I.40 (-dhūpāyito loko), 44 (naraṃ parikassati); A II.143; IV.293 sq.; 325 sq.; V.40, 42 sq.; Sn 773, 872; Dh 74, 264 (-lobha-samāpanna); Nd1 29, 30; Pug 19; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 101, 357, 361, 370; Nett 18, 23, 24; Asl. 363; DhsA 250 (read icchā for issā* See Dhs trsl. 100); SnA 108; PvA 65, 155; Sdhp 242, 320. -¢vacara moving in desires M I.27 (pāpaka); Nett 27. -¢vatiṇṇa affected with desire, overcome by covetousness Sn 306. -pakata same Vin I.97; A III.119, 191, 219 sq.; Pug 69; Miln 357; Vism 24 (where Bdhgh however takes it as "icchāya apakata" and puts apakata = upadduta). -vinaya discipline of one's wishes D III.252, A IV.15; V.165 sq.

Icchita [pp. of icchati] wished, desired, longed for J I.208; DhsA 364; PvA 3, 53, 64 (read anicchita for anijjhiṭṭha, which may be a contamination of icchita and iṭṭha), 113, 127 (twice).

Ijjhati [Vedic rdhyate and rdhnoti; Gr. a)/lqomai to thrive, Latin alo to nourish, also Vedic iḍā refreshment and Pāli iddhi power] to have a good result, turn out a blessing. succeed, prosper, be successful S I.175 ("work effectively" trsl.; = samijjhati mahapphalaṃ hoti C.); IV.303; Sn 461, 485; J V.393; Pv II.111; II.913 ( = samijjhati PvA 120); Pot. ijjhe Sn 458, 459; pret. ijjhittha ( = Sanskrit rdhyis.ṭha) Vv 206 ( = nippajjittha mahapphalo ahuvattha VvA 103). pp. iddha. See also aḍḍha2 and aḍḍhaka. Cp. sam-.

Ijjhana (nt.) and -ā (f.) [from ijjhati] success, carrying out successfully Ps I.17 sq., 74, 181; II.125, 143 sq., 161, 174; Vbh 217 sq.; Vism 266, 383 (-aṭṭhena iddhi); DhsA 91, 118, 237.

Iñjati [Vedic rñjati (cp. Pāli ajjati). Also found as ingati (so Veda), and as ang in Sanskrit anga = Pāli añja and ingha and Vedic pali-angati to turn about. See also ānejja and añjati1] to shake, move, turn about, stir D I.56; S I.107, 132, 181 (aniñjamāna ppr. med. "impassive"); III.211; Th 1, 42; 2, 231; Nd2 s. v. (+ calati vedhati); Vism 377; DA I.167. -pp. iñjita (q. v.).

Iñjanā (f.) and -aṃ (nt.) [from iñj, see iñjati] shaking, movement, motion Sn 193 ( = calanā phandanā SnA 245); Nett 88 ( = phandanā C.). an- immobility, steadfastness Ps I.15; II.118.

Iñjita [pp. of iñjati] shaken, moved Th 1, 386 (an-). Usually as nt. iñjitaṃ shaking, turning about, movement, vacillation M I.454; S I.109; IV.202; A II.45; Sn 750, 1040 (pl. iñjitā), 1048 (see Nd2 140); Dh 255; Vbh 390. On the 7 iñjitas see J.Pāli Text Society 1884, 58.

Iñjitatta (nt.) [abstr. from iñjita nt.] state of vacillation, wavering, motion S V.315 (kāyassa).

Iṭṭha (adj.) [pp. of icchati] pleasing, welcome, agreeable, pleasant, often in the idiomatic group iṭṭha kanta manāpa (of objects pleasing to the senses) D I.245; II.192; M I.85; S IV.60, 158, 235 sq.; V.22, 60, 147; A II.66 sq.; V.135 (dasa, dhammā etc., ten objects affording pleasure); Sn 759; It. 15; Vbh 2, 100, 337. - Alone as nt. meaning welfare, good state, pleasure, happiness at Sn 154 (+ aniṭṭha); Nett 28 (+ aniṭṭha); Vism 167 (id.); PvA 116 ( = bhadraṃ), 140. -aniṭṭha unpleasant, disagreeable PvA 32, 52, 60, 116. - See also pariy-, in which iṭṭha stands for eṭṭha.

Iṭṭhakā (Itthakā) (f.) [BSanskrit is.ṭakā, e. g. Divy 221; from the Idg. root *idh > *aidh to burn, cp. Sanskrit idhma firewood, inddhe to kindle (idh or indh), edhah. fuel; Gr. a)i/qw burn, ai(_qos fire-brand; Latin aedes, aestas and aestus; more especially Av. i.stya tile, brick] - 1. a burnt brick, a tile Vin II 121 (-pākara a brick wall, distinguished from silāpakāra and dāru-); J III.435, 446 (pākār iṭṭhikā read -aṭṭhakā); V.213 (rattiṭṭhikā); Vism 355 (-dārugomaya); PvA 4 (-cuṇṇa-makkhita-sīsa the head rubbed with brickpowder, i. e. plastereotype a ceremony performed on one to be executed, cp. Mrcchakaṭika X.5 pis.ṭa-cūrn-¢vakīrṇashca -haṃ pashūkrtah. with striking equation is.ṭaka > pis.ṭa). 2. pl. (as suvaṇṇa-) gold or gilt tiles used for covering a cetiya or tope DhA III.29, 61; VvA 157.

Iṭṭhi- in -khagga-dhāra at J VI.223 should be read iddha.

Iṇa (nt.) [Sanskrit rṇa, see also Pāli an-aṇa] debt D I.71, 73; A III.352; V.324 (enumerated with baddha, jāni and kali); Sn 120; J I.307; II.388, 423; III.66; IV.184 (iṇagga for nagga*); 256; V.253 (where enumerated as one of the 4 paribhogas, viz. theyya-, iṇa-, dāya-, sāmi-); VI.69, 193; Miln 375; PvA 273, 276, iṇaṃ gaṇhāti to borrow money or take up a loan Vism 556; SnA 289; PvA 3. - iṇaṃ muñcati to discharge a debt J IV.280; V.238; -ṃ sodheti same PvA 276; labhati same PvA 3. -apagama absence of debt ThA 245. -gāhaka a borrower Miln 364. -ghāta stricken by debt Sn 246 ( = iṇaṃ gahetva tassa appadānena iṇaghāta). -ṭṭha (with iṇaṭṭa as v. l. at all passages, see aṭṭa) fallen into or being in debt M I.463 = S III.93 = It 89 = Miln 279. -paṇṇa promissory note J I.230; IV.256. -mokkha release from debt J IV.280; V.239. -sādhaka negotiator of a loan Miln 365.

Iṇāyika [from iṇa] one connected with a debt, viz. (1) a creditor S I.170; J IV.159, 256; VI.178; ThA 271 see also dhanika); PvA 3. - (2) a debtor Vin I.76; Nd1 160.

Ita [pp. of eti, i] gone, only in cpd. dur-ita gone badly, as nt. evil, wrong Davs I.61; otherwise in compounds. with prep., as peta, vīta etc.

Itara1 (adj.) [Ved. itara = Latin iterum a second time; compar. of pronoun. base *i, as in ayaŋ, etaṃ, iti etc.] other, second, next; different Dh 85, 104, 222; J II.3; III.26; IV.4; PvA 13, 14, 42, 83, 117. In repetition cpd. itarītara one or the other, whatsoever, any Sn 42; J V.425; Nd2 141; Miln 395; KhA 145, 147; acc. itarītaraṃ and instr. itarītarena used as adv. of one kind or another, in every way, anyhow [cp. BSanskrit itaretara M Vastu III. 348 and see Wackernagel Altind. Gram. II. SH 121 c.] J VI 448 (-ṃ); Dh 331 (-ena); Vv 841 (text reads itritarena, v. l. itaritarena, explained. by itaritaraṃ VvA 333).

Itara2 (adj.) frequent spelling for ittara (q. v.).

Iti (ti) (indecl.) [Vedic iti, of pronoun. base *i, cp. Sanskrit itthaṃ thus, itthā here, there; Av. ipa so; Latin ita and item thus. Cp. also Pāli ettha; lit. "here, there (now), then"] emphatic

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deictic particle "thus". Occurs in both forms iti and ti, the former in higher style (poetry), the latter more familiar in conversational prose. The function of "Iti" is explained. by the old Pāli C. in a conventional phrase, looking upon it more as a "filling" particle than trying to define its meaning viz. -itī ti padas and hi padasaŋsaggo padapāripurī akkharasamavāyo etc." Nd1 123 = Nd2 137. The same explination. also for i' ti.haṃ (see below IV.) - I. As deictic adv. "thus, in this way" (Vism 423 iti = evaṃ) pointing to something either just mentioned or about to be mentioned: (a) referring to what precedes Sn 253 (n'eso maman ti iti naṃ vijaññā), 805; It 123 (ito devā. . . taṃ namassanti); Dh 74 (iti bālassa sankappo thus think the foolish), 286 (iti bālo vicinteti); Vv 7910 ( = evaṃ VvA 307); VvA 5. - (b) referring to what follows D I.63 (iti paṭisañcikkhati); A I.205 (id.) - II. As emphatic part. pointing out or marking off a statement either as not one's own (reported) or as the definite contents of (one's own or other's) thoughts. On the whole untranslatable (unless written as quotation marks), often only setting off a statement as emphatic, where we would either underline the word or phrase in question, or print it in italics, or put it in quot. marks (e. g. bālo ti vuccati Dh 63 = bālo vuccati). - 1. in direct speech (as given by writer or narrator), e. g. sādhu bhante Kassapa lābhataṃ esā janatā dassanāyā ti. Tena hi Sīha tvaṃ yeva Bhagavato ārocehī ti. Evaṃ bhante ti kho Sīho . . . . D I.151. - 2. in indirect speech: (a) as statement of a fact "so it is that" (cp. E. "viz.", Ger. "und zwar"), mostly untranslated Kh IV. (arahā ti pavuccati); J I.253 (tasmā pesanaka-corā t' eva vuccanti); III.51 (tayo sahāyā ahesuṃ makkato sigālo uddo ti); PvA 112 (ankuro pañca-sakaṭasatehi . . . aññataro pi brāhmaṇo pañca-sakaṭasatehī ti dve janā sakata-sahassehi . . . patipannā). - (b) as statement of a thought "like this", "I think", so, thus Sn 61 ("sango eso" iti ñatvā knowing "this is defilement"), 253 ("neso maman" ti iti naṃ vijaññā), 783 ("I' ti.han" ti), 1094 (etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ Nibbānaṃ iti naṃ brūmi I call this N.), 1130 (aparā pāraṃ gaccheyya tasmā "Parāyanaṃ" iti). - III. Peculiarities of spelling. (1) in combination. with other part. iti is elided and contracted as follows: icc' eva, t' eva, etc. - (2) final a, i, u preceding ti are lengthened to ā, ī, ū, e. g. mā evaṃ akatthā ti DhA I.7; kati dhurānī ti ibid; dve yeva dhurāni bhikkhū ti ibid. IV. Combinations with other emphatic particles: + eva thus indeed, in truth, really; as icc' eva Pv I.119 ( = evam eva PvA 59); t' eva J I.253; Miin 114; tv' eva J I.203; II.2. -iti kira thus now, perhaps, I should say D I.228, 229, 240. -iti kho thus, therefore D I.98, 103; III.135. iti vā and so on (*), thus and such (similar cases) Nd1 13 = Nd2 420 A1. -iti ha thus surely, indeed Sn 934, 1084 (see below under ītihītihaṃ; cp. SnA Index 669: itiha* and itikirā); It 76; DA I.247, as iti haṃ at Sn 783 (same explination. at Nd1 71 as for iti). -kin ti how J II.159. -kirā (f.) [a substantivised iti kira] hearsay, lit. "so I guess" or "I have heard" A I.189 = II.191 sq. = Nd2 151. Cp. itiha. -bhava becoming so and so (opp. abhava not becoming) Vin II.184 (-abhava); D I.8 (ip = iti bhavo iti abhavo DA I.91); A II.248; It 109 (id.); syn. with itthabhava (q. v.). -vāda "speaking so and so", talk, gossip M I.133; S V.73; A II.26; It III.35. -vuttaka (nt.) [a noun formation from iti vuttaṃ] "so it has been said", (book of) quotations, "Logia", N. of the fourth book of the Khuddaka-nikāya, named thus because every sutta begins with vuttaṃ h'etaṃ Bhagavatā "thus has the Buddha said" (see khuddaka and navanga) Vin III.8; M I.133; A II.7, 103; III.86, 177, 361 sq.; Pug 43, 62; KhA 12. Kern, Toev. s. v. compares the interesting BSanskrit distortion itivrttaṃ. -hāsa [ = iti ha āsa, preserving the Vedic form āsa, 3rd sg. perf. of atthi] "thus indeed it has been", legendary lore, oral tradition, history; usually mentioned as a branch of brahmanic learning, in phrase itihāsa-pañca-mānaṃ padako veyyākaraṇo etc. D I.88 = (see DA I.247); A I.163; III.223; Sn 447, 1020. Cp. also M Vastu I.556. -hītiha [itiha + itiha] "so and so" talk, gossip, oral tradition, belief by hearsay etc. (cp. itikirā and anītiha. Nd2 spells ītihītiha) M I.520; S I.154; Sn 1084; Nd2 151.

Ito (indecl.) [Vedic itah., abl.-adv. formation from pronoun. base *i, cp. iti, ayaŋ etc.] adv. of succession or motion in space and time "from here". "from now". (1) with reference to space: (a) from here, from this, often implying the present existence (in opp. to the "other" world) It 77; Sn 271 (-ja. -nidāna caused or founded in or by this existence = attabhāvaṃ sandhāy' āha SnA 303), 774 (cutāse), 870 (-nidāna), 1062 (from this source, i. e. from me), 1101; Pv I.57 (ito dinnaṃ what is given in this world); I.62 (i. e. manussalokato PvA 33); I.123 ( = idhalokato PvA 64); Nett 93 (ito bahiddhā); PvA 46 (ito dukkhato mutti). - (b) here (with implication of movement), in phrases ito c' ito here and there PvA 4, 6; and ito vā etto vā here and there DhA II.80. - (2) with reference to time: from here, from now, hence (in chronological records with num. ord. or card., with reference either to past or future). (a) referring to the past, since D II.2 (ito so ekanavuto kappo 91 kappas ago); Sn 570 (ito aṭṭhame, scil. divase 8 days ago SnA 457; T. reads atthami); VvA 319 (ito kira tiṃsa-kappa-sahasse); PvA 19 (dvā navuti kappe 92 kappas ago), 21 (id.), 78 (pañcamāya jātiyā in the fifth previous re-birth). - (b) referring to the future, i. e. henceforth, in future, from now e. g. ito sattame divase in a week VvA 138; ito paraṃ further, after this SnA 160, 178, 412, 549; PvA 83; ito paṭthāya from now on, henceforward J I.63 (ito dāni p.); PvA 41.

Ittara (sometimes spelt itara) (adj.) [Vedic itvara in meaning "going", going along, hence developed meaning "passing"; from i] - 1. passing, changeable, short, temporary, brief, unstable M I.318 (opp. dīgha-rattaṃ); A II.187; J I.393; III.83 (-dassana = khaṇika- C.), IV.112 (-vāsa temporary abode); Pv I.1111 ( = na cira-kāla-ṭṭhāyin anicca vipariṇāma-dhamma PvA 60); DA I.195; PvA 60 ( = paritta khaṇika). - 2. small, inferior, poor, unreliable, mean M II.47 (-jacca of inferior birth); A II.34; Sn 757 ( = paritta paccupaṭṭhāna SnA 509); Miln 93, 114 (-pañña of small wisdom). This meaning (2) also in BSanskrit itvara, e. g. Divy 317 (dāna).

Ittaratā (f.) [from ittara] changeableness Miln 93 (of a woman).

Ittha (indecl.) [the regular representative of Vedic ittha here, there, but preserved only in compounds while the Pāli form is ettha] here, in this world (or "thus, in such a way"), only in cpd. -bhāv' aññathā-bhāva such an (i. e. earthly) existence and one of another kind, or existence here (in this life) and in another form" (cp. itibhāva and itthatta) Sn 729, 740 = 752; It 9 (v. l. itthi- for iti-) = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; It 94 (v. l. ittha-). There is likely to have been a confusion between ittha = Sanskrit itthā and itthaṃ = Sanskrit itthaṃ (see next).

Itthaṃ (indecl.) [adv. from pronoun. base -i, as also iti in same meaning] thus, in this way D I.53, 213; Dāvs IV.35; V.18. -nāma (itthan-) having such as name, called thus, socalled Vin I.56; IV.136; J I.297; Miln 115; DhA II.98. -bhūta being thus, of this kind, modal, only in cpd. -lakkhaṇa or -ākhyāna the sign or case of modality, i. e. the ablative case SnA 441; VvA 162, 174; PvA 150.

Itthatta1 (nt.) [ittha + *tvaṃ, abstr. from ittha. The curious BSanskrit distortion of this word is icchatta M Vastu 417] being here (in this world), in the present state of becoming, this (earthly) state (not "thusness" or "life as we conceive it", as Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. I.177; although a confusion between ittha and itthaṃ seems to exist, see ittha); "life in these conditions" K. S. II.17; explained. by itthabhāva C. on S I.140 (see K. S. 318). - See also frequent formula A of arahatta. - D I.18, 84; A I.63; II.82, 159, 203; Sn 158; Dhs 633; Pug 70, 71; DA I.112.

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Itthatta2 (nt.) [itthi + *tvaṃ abstr. from itthi] state or condition of femininity, womanhood, muliebrity Dhs 633 ( = itthi-sabhāva DhsA 321).

Itthi and Itthī (f.) [Vedic stri, Av. strī woman, perhaps with Sanskrit sātuh. uterus from Idg. -sī to sow or produce, Latin sero, Goth. saian, Ohg. sāen, Ags. sāwan etc., cp. also Cymr. hīl progeny, Oir. sīl seed; see J. Schmidt, K. Z. XXV.29. The regular representative of Vedic strī is Pāli thī, which only occurs rarely (in poetry and compounds.) see thī] woman, female; also (usually as --) wife. Opp. purisa man (see e. g. for contrast of itthi and purisa J V.72, 398; Nett 93; DhA I.390; PvA 153). - S I.33 (nibbānass' eva santike), 42, 125 (majjhim-, mah-), 185; A I.28, 138; II.115, 209; III.68, 90, 156; IV.196 (purisaŋ bandhati); Sn 112, 769 (nom. pl. thiyo = itthi-saññikā thiyo SnA 513); J I.286 (itthi doso), 300 (gen. pl. itthinaṃ); II.415 (nom. pl. thiyo); V.397 (thi-ghātaka), 398 (gen. dat. itthiyā), V.425 (nom pl. itthiyo); Vbh 336, 337; DA I.147; PvA 5, 44, 46, 67, 154 (amanuss- of petīs); Sdhp 64, 79. - anitthi a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, an unfaithful wife J II.126 ( = ucchiṭṭh- C.); kul'-itthi a wife of good descent Vin II.10; A III.76; IV.16, 19; dahar- a young wife J I.291; dur- a poor woman J IV.38. Some general characterisations of womanhood: 10 kinds of women enumerated at Vin III.139 = A V.264 = VvA 72, viz. mātu-rakkhitā, pitu-, mātāpitu- bhātu-, bhaginī-, ñāti-, gotta-, dhamma-, sarakkhā, saparidaṇḍā; see Vin III.139 for explination. - S I.38 (malaṃ brahmacariyassa), 43 (id.); J I.287 (itthiyo nāma āsa lāmikā pacchimikā); IV. 222 (itthiyo papāto akkhāto; pamattaṃ pamathenti); V. 425 (sīho yathā . . . tath' itthiyo); women as goods for sale S I.43 (bhaṇḍānaṃ uttamaṃ); DhA I.390 (itthiyo vikkiṇiya bhaṇḍaṃ). -agāra (-āgāra) as ittha**gāra women's apartment, seraglio Vin I.72; IV.158; S I.58, 89; J I.90; also coll. for womenfolk, women (cp. Ger. frauenzimmer) D II.249; J V.188. -indriya the female principle or sex, femininity (opp. puris' indriya) S V.204; A IV.57 sq.; Vism 447, 492; Dhs 585, 633, 653 et passim. -kathā talk about women D I.7 (cp. DA I.90). -kāma the craving for a woman S IV.343. -kutta a woman's behaviour, woman's wiles, charming behaviour, coquetry A IV.57 = Dhs 633; J I.296, 433; II.127, 329; IV.219, 472; DhA IV.197. -ghātaka a woman-killer J V. 398. -dhana wife's treasure, dowry Vin III.16. -dhutta a rogue in the matter of women, one who indulges in women Sn 106; J III.260; PvA 5. -nimitta characteristic of a woman Dhs 633, 713, 836. -pariggaha a woman's company, a woman Nd1 11. -bhāva existence as woman, womanhood S I.129; Th 2, 216 (referring to a yakkhinī, cp. ThA 178; Dhs 633; PvA 168. -rūpa womanly beauty A I.1; III.68; Th 2, 294. -lakkhaṇa fortune-telling regarding a woman D I.9 (cp. DhA I.94, + purisa-); J VI. 135. -linga "sign of a woman", feminine quality, female sex Vism 184; Dhs 633, 713, 836; DhsA 321 sq. -sadda the sound (or word) "woman" DhA I.15. -soṇḍī a woman addicted to drink Sn 112.

Itthikā (f.) [from itthi] a woman Vin III.16; D II.14; J I. 336; Vv 187; Sdhp 79. As adj. itthika in bahutthika having many women, plentiful in women Vin II.256 (kulāni bahuttikāni appapurisakāni rich in women and lacking in men); S II.264 (id. and appitthikāni).

Ida and Idaŋ (indecl.) [nt. of ayaŋ (idaŋ) in function of a deictic part.] emphatic demonstr. adv. in local, temporal and modal function, as (1) in this, here: idappaccayatā having its foundation in this, i. e. causally connected, by way of cause Vin I.5 = S I.136; D I.185; Dhs 1004, 1061; Vbh 340, 362, 365; Vism 518; etc. - (2) now, then which idha is more frequent) D II.267, 270, almost syn. (for with kira. - (3) just (this), even so, only: idam-atthika just sufficient, proper, right Th 1, 984 (cīvara); Pug 69 (read so for -maṭṭhika, see Pug A 250); as idam-atthitā "being satisfied with what is sufficient" at Vism 81: explained. as atthika-bhāva at Pug A 250. idaŋsacc¢bhinivesa inclination to say: only this is the truth, i. e. inclination to dogmatise, one of the four kāya-ganthā, viz. abhijjhā, byāpāda, sīlabbata-parāmāsa, idaŋ- (see Dhs 1135 and Dhs trsl. 304); D III.230; S V.59; Nd1 98; Nett 115 sq.

Idāni (indecl.) [Vedic idānīṃ] now Dh 235, 237; KhA 247.

Iddha1 [pp. of iddhe to idh or indh, cp. indhana and idhuma] in flames, burning, flaming bright, clear J VI.223 (-khaggadharā balī; so read for T. iṭṭhi-khagga-); Dpvs VI.42.

Iddha2 [pp. of ijjhati; cp. Sanskrit rddha] (a) prosperous, opulent, wealthy D I.211 (in idiomatic phrase iddha phīta bahujana, of a prosperous town); A III.215 (id.); J VI.227, 361 ( = issara C.), 517; Dāvs I.11. - (b) successful, satisfactory, sufficient Vin I.212 (bhattaṃ); IV.313 (ovādo).

Iddhi [Vedic rddhi from ardh, to prosper; Pāli ijjhati]. There is no single word in English for Iddhi, as the idea is unknown in Europe. The main sense seems to be "potency" . - 1. Pre-Buddhistic; the Iddhi of a layman. The four Iddhis of a king are personal beauty, long life, good health, and popularity (D II.177; M III.176, cp. J III.454 for a later set). The Iddhi of a rich young noble is 1. The use of a beautiful garden, 2. of soft and pleasant clothing, 3. of different houses for the different seasons, 4. of good food, A I.145. At M I.152 the Iddhi of a hunter, is the craft and skill with which he captures game; but at p. 155 other game have an Iddhi of their own by which they outwit the hunter. The Iddhi, the power of a confederation of clans, is referred to at D II.72. It is by the Iddhi they possess that birds are able to fly (Dhp 175). - 2. Psychic powers. including most of those claimed for modern mediums (see under Abhiññā). Ten such are given in a stock paragraph. They are the power to project mind-made images of oneself; to become invisible; to pass through solid things, such as a wall; to penetrate solid ground as if it were water; to walk on water; to fly through the air; to touch sun and moon; to ascend into the highest heavens (D I.77, 212; II.87, 213; III.112, 281; S II.121; V.264, 303; A I.170, 255; III.17, 28, 82, 425; V.199; Ps I.111; II.207; Vism 378 sq., 384; DA I.122). For other such powers see S I.144; IV.290; V.263; A III.340. - 3. The Buddhist theory of Iddhi. At D I.213 the Buddha is represented as saying: "It is because I see danger in the practice of these mystic wonders that I loathe and abhor and am ashamed thereof" . The mystic wonder that he himself believed in and advocated (p. 214) was the wonder of education. What education was meant in the case of Iddhi, we learn from M I.34; A III.425, and from the four bases of Iddhi, the Iddhipādā. They are the making determination in respect of concentration on purpose, on will, on thoughts and on investigation (D II.213; M I.103; A I.39, 297; II.256; III. 82; Ps I.111; II 154, 164, 205; Vbh 216). It was an offence against the regulations of the Sangha for a Bhikkhu to display before the laity these psychic powers beyond the capacity of ordinary men (Vin II.112). And falsely to claim the possession of such powers involved expulsion from the Order (Vin III.91). The psychic powers of Iddhi were looked upon as inferior (as the Iddhi of an unconverted man seeking his own profit), compared to the higher Iddhi, the Ariyan Iddhi (D III.112; A I.93; Vin II.183). There is no valid evidence that any one of the ten Iddhis in the above list actually took place. A few instances are given, but all are in texts more than a century later than the recorded wonder. And now for nearly two thousand years we have no further instances. Various points on Iddhi discussed at Dial. I.272, 3; Cpd.60 ff.; Expositor 121. Also at Kvu 55; Ps II.150; Vism XII; DhA I.91; J I.47, 360. -¢nubhāva (iddhīnu-) power or majesty of thaumaturgy Vin 31, 209, 240; III.67; S I 147; IV.290; PvA 53. -¢bhisankhāra (iddhībhi-) exercise of any of the psychic powers Vin I.16, 17, 25; D I.106; S III.92; IV.289; V.270;

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Sn p. 107; PvA 57, 172 212. -pāṭihāriya a wonder of psychic power Vin I.25, 28, 180, 209; II.76, 112, 200; D I.211, 212; III.3, 4, 9, 12 sq., 27; S IV.290; A I.170, 292; Ps II.227. -pāda constituent or basis of psychic power Vin II.240; D II.103, 115 sq., 120; III.77, 102, 127, 221; M II.11; III.296; S I.116, 132; III.96, 153; IV.360; V.254, 255, 259 sq., 264 sq., 269 sq., 275, 285; A IV.128 sq., 203, 463; V.175; Nd1 14, 45 (-dhīra), 340 (-pucchā); Nd1 s. v.; Ps I.17, 21, 84; II.56, 85 sq., 120, 166, 174; Ud 62; Dhs 358, 528, 552; Nett 16, 31, 83; DhsA 237; DhA III.177; IV.32. -bala the power of working wonders VvA 4; PvA 171. -yāna the carriage (fig.) of psychic faculties Miln 276. -vikubbanā the practice of psychic powers Vism 373 sq. -vidhā kinds of iddhi D I.77, 212; II.213; III.112, 281; S II.121; v.264 sq., 303; A I.170 sq., 255; III.17, 28, 82 sq., 425 sq.; V.199; Ps I.111; II.207; Vism 384; DA I.222. -visaya range or extent of psychic power Vin III.67; Nett 23.

Iddhika1 (*-) (adj.) the compounds. form of addhika in cpd. kapaṇ-iddhika tramps and wayfarers (see kapaṇa), e. g. at J I.6; IV.15; PvA 78.

Iddhika2 (*-) (adj.) [iddhi + ka] possessed of power, only in cpd. mah-iddhika of great power, always combined. with mah-¢nubhāva, e. g. at Vin I.31; II.193; III.101; S II. 155; M I.34; Th 1, 429. As mahiddhiya at J V.149. See mahiddhika.

Iddhimant (adj.) [from iddhi] - 1. (lit.) successful, proficient, only in negative an- unfortunate, miserable, poor J VI.361. 2. (fig.) possessing psychic powers Vin III.67; IV.108; A I.23, 25; II.185; III.340; IV.312; Sn 179; Nett 23; Sdhp 32, 472.

Idha (indecl.) [Sanskrit iha, adv. of space from pronoun. base *i (cp. ayaŋ, iti etc.), cp. Latin ihi, Gr. i)qa-genh/s, Av. ida] here, in this place, in this connection, now; esp. in this world or present existence Sn 1038, 1056, 1065; It 99 (idh' ūpapanna reborn in this existence); Dh 5, 15, 267, 343, 392; Nd1 40, 109, 156; Nd2 145, 146; SnA 147; PvA 45, 60, 71. -idhaloka this world, the world of men Sn 1043 ( = manussaloka Nd2 552c); PvA 64; in this religion, Vbh 245. On different meanings of idha see DhsA 348.

Idhuma [Sanskrit idhma, see etymology under iṭṭhakā] fire-wood Tela-kaṭāha-gāthā, p. 53, J.Pāli Text Society 1884.

Inda [Vedic indra, most likely to same root as indu moon, viz. *Idg. *eid to shine, cp. Latin īdūs middle of month (after the full moon), Oir. esce moon. Jacobi in K. Z. XXXI.316 sq. connects Indra with Latin neriosus strong and Nero). - 1. The Vedic god Indra D I.244; II.261, 274; Sn 310, 316, 679, 1024; Nd1 177. - 2. lord, chief, king. Sakko devānaṃ indo D I.216, 217; II.221, 275; S I.219. Vep-citti asurindo S I.221 ff. manussinda, S I.69, manujinda, Sn 553, narinda, Sn 863, all of the Buddha, "chief of men" ; cp. Vism 491. [Europeans have found a strange difficulty in understanding the real relation of Sakka to Indra. The few references to Indra in the Nikāyas should be classed with the other fragments of Vedic mythology to be found in them. Sakka belongs only to the Buddhist mythology then being built up. He is not only quite different from Indra, but is the direct contrary of that blustereotypeng, drunken, god of war. See the passages collected in Dial. II.294 298. The idiom sa-Indā devā, D II.261, 274; A V.325, means "the gods about Indra, Indra's retinue" , this being a Vedic story. But Devā Tāvatiṃsā sahindakā means the T. gods together with their leader (D II.208-212; S III.90; cp. Vv 301) this being a Buddhist story]. -aggi (ind' aggi) Indra's fire, i. e. lightning PvA 56. -gajjita (nt.) Indra's thunder Miln 22. -jāla deception DA I.85. -jālika a juggler, conjurer Miln 331. -dhanu the rainbow DA I.40. -bhavana the realm of Indra Nd1 448 (cp. Tāvatiṃsa-bhavana). -linga the characteristic of Indra Vism 491. -sāla N. of tree J IV.92.

Indaka [dimin. from inda] - 1. Np. (see Dict. of names), e. g. at Pv II.9Q; PvA 136 sq. - 2. (*-) see inda 2.

Indakhīla [inda + khīla, cp. BSanskrit indrakīla Divy 250, 365, 544; Av. SH I.109, 223]. "Indra's post"; the post, stake or column of Indra, at or before the city gate; also a large slab of stone let into the ground at the entrance of a house D II.254 (-ṃ ūhacca, cp. DhA II.181); Vin IV.160 (explained. ibid. as sayani-gharassa ummāro, i. e. threshold); S V.444 (ayokhīlo +); Dh 95 (-ūpama, cp. DhA II.181); Th 1, 663; J I.89; Miln 364; Vism 72, 466; SnA 201; DA I.209 (nikkhamitvā bahi -ā); DhA II.180 (-sadisaŋ Sāriputtassa cittaṃ), 181 (nagara-dvāre nikhataṃ -ṃ).

Indagū see hindagū.

Indagopaka [inda + gopaka, cp. Vedic indragopā having Indra as protector] a sort of insect ("cochineal, a red beetle", Bohtlingk), observed to come out of the ground after rain Th 1, 13; Vin III.42; J IV.258; V.168; DhA I.20; Brethren p. 18, n.

Indanīla [inda + nīla "Indra's blue"] a sapphire J I.80; Miln 118; VvA 111 (+ mahānīla).

Indavāruṇī (f.) [inda + vāruṇa] the Coloquintida plant J IV.8 (-ka-rukkha).

Indīvara (nt.) [etymology*] the blue water lily, Nymphaea Stellata or Cassia Fistula J V.92 (-ī-samā ratti); VI.536; Vv 451 ( = uddālaka-puppha VvA 197).

Indriya (nt.) [Vedic indriya adj. only in meaning "belonging to Indra"; nt. strength, might (cp. inda), but in specific pāli sense "belonging to the ruler", i. e. governing, ruling nt. governing, ruling or controlling principle] A. On term: Indriya is one of the most comprehensive and important categories of Buddhist psychological philosophy and ethics, meaning "controlling principle, directive force, elan, du/namis", in the following applications: (a) with reference to sense-perceptibility "faculty, function", often wrongly interpreted as "organ"; (b) w. reference to objective aspects of form and matter "kind, characteristic, determinating principle, sign, mark" (cp. woman-hood, hood = Goth. haidus "kind, form"); (c) w. reference to moods of sensation and (d) to moral powers or motives controlling action, "principle, controlling" force; (e) w. reference to cognition and insight "category". Definitions of indriya among others at DhsA 119; cp. Expositor 157; Dhs trsl. LVII; Cpd.228, 229. B. Classifications and groups of indriyāni. An exhaustive list comprises the indriyāni enumd under A a-e, thus establishing a canonical scheme of 22 Controlling Powers (bāvīsati indriyāni), running thus at Vbh 122 sq. (see trsl. at Cpd.175, 176); and discussed in detail at Vism 491 sq. (a. sensorial) (1) cakkh-undriya ("the eye which is a power", Cpd.228) the eye or (personal potentiality of) vision, (2) sot-indriya the ear or hearing, (3) ghān- nose or smell, (4) jivh- tongue or taste, (5) kāy- body-sensibility, (6) man-) mind; (b. material) (7) itth- female sex or femininity, (8) puris- male sex or masculinity, (9) jīvit- life or vitality; (c. sensational) (10) sukh- pleasure, (11) dukkh- pain, (12) somanasa- joy, (13) domanass- grief, (14) upekh- hedonic indifference (d. moral) (15) saddh- faith, (16) viriy- energy, (17) sat- mindfulness, (18) samādh- concentration, (19) paññ- reason; (e. cognitional) (20) anaññāta-ñassāmīt- the thought "I shall come to know the unknown", (21) aññ- ( = aññā) gnosis, (22) aññātā-v- one who knows. - Jīvitindriya (no. 9) is in some redactions placed before itth- (no. 7), e. g. at Ps I.7, 137. - From this list are detached several groups, mentioned frequently and in various connections, no. 6 manas (mano, man-indriya) wavering in its function, being either included under (a) or (more frequently) omitted, so that the first set (a) is marked off as pañc' indriyāni, the 6th being silently included (see below). This uncertainty regarding manas deserves to be noted. The following groups may be mentioned here viz 19 (nos. 1-19) at Ps I.137; 10 (pañca rūpīni and

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pañca arūpīni) at Nett 69; three groups of five (nos. 1-5, 10-14, 15-19) at D III.239, cp. 278; four (group d without paññā, i. e. nos. 15-18) at A II.141; three (saddh-, samādh-, paññ-, i. e. nos. 15, 18, 19) at A I. 118 sq. Under aṭṭhavidhaṃ indriya-rūpaṃ (Cpd. 159) or rūpaṃ as indriyaṃ "form which is faculty" Dhs 661 (cp. trsl. p. 204) are understood the 5 sensitives (nos. 1-5), the 2 sex-states (nos. 7, 8) and the vital force (no. 9), i. e. groups a and b of enumn.; discussed and defined in detail at Dhs 709-717, 971-973. - It is often to be guessed from the context only, which of the sets of 5 indriyāni (usually either group a or d) is meant. These detached groups are classed as below under C. f. - Note. This system of 22 indriyāni reflects a revised and more elaborate form of the 25 (or 23) categories of the Sānkhya philosophy, with its 10 elements, 10 indri, īni and the isolated position of manas. C. Material in detail (grouped according to A a-e) (a) sensorial: (mentioned or referred to as set of 5 viz B. nos. 1-5): M I.295: S III.46 (pañcannaṃ -ānaṃ avak kanti), 225; IV.168; A II.151 (as set of 6, viz. B. nos. 1-6): M I.9; S IV.176; V.74, 205, 230; A I.113; II.16, 39, 152; III.99, 163, 387 sq.; V.348. Specially referring to restraint and control of the senses in following phrases: in driyāni saŋvutāni S II.231, 271; IV.112; pañcasu -esu saŋvuto Sn 340 ( = lakkhaṇato pana chaṭṭhaṃ pi vuttaṃ yeva hoti, i. e. the 6th as manas included, SnA 343); -esu susaŋvuta Th 2, 196 ( = mana-chaṭṭhesu i- suṭṭhu saŋvutā ThA 168) indriyesu guttadvāra and guttadvāratā D III.107; S II.218; IV.103, 112, 175; A I.25, 94, 113; II.39; III.70, 138, 173, 199, 449 sq.; IV.25, 166; V.134; It 23, 24; Nd1 14; Vbh 248, 360; DA I.182 ( = manachaṭṭesu indriyesu pihita-dvāro hoti), i. vippasannāni S II. 275; III.2, 235; IV.294; V.301; A I.181; III.380. -ānaṃ samatā (v. l. samatha) A III.375 sq. (see also f. below) -āni bhāvitāni Sn 516 ( = cakkh' ādīni cha i. SnA 426); Nd2 475 B8. - Various: S I.26 (rakkhati), 48 (-ūpasame rato); IV.40, 140 (-sampanna); V.216, 217 sq. (independent in function, mano as referee); Ps. I.190 (man-); Vbh 13 (rūpa), 341 (mud- and tikkh-) 384 (ahīn-). - (b) physical: (above B 7-9) all three: S V.204; Vism 447; itthi- and purisa- A IV.57; Vbh 122, 415 sq.; puris- A III.404; jīvit- Vbh 123, 137; Vism 230 (-upaccheda = maraṇa). See also under itthi, jīvita and purisa. - (c) sensational (above B 10-14): S V.207 sq. (see Cpd.111 and cp. p. 15), 211 sq.; Vbh 15, 71; Nett 88. - (d) moral (above B 15 19): S III.96, 153; IV.36, 365 sq.; V.193 sq., 202, 219 (corresponding to pañcabalāni), 220 sq. (and amata), 223 sq. (their culture brings assurance of no rebirth), 227 sq. (paññā the chief one), 235, 237 (sevenfold fruit of), A IV.125 sq., 203, 225; V.56, 175; Ps II.49, 51 sq., 86; Nd1 14; Nd2 628 (sat- + satibala); Kvu 589; Vbh 341; Nett 15, 28, 47, 54. Often in standard combination. with satipaṭṭhāna, sammappadhāna. iddhipāda, indriya, bala, bojjhanga, magga (see Nd2 s. v. p. 263) D II.120; Vin III. 93, Ps II.166 and passim. As set of 4 indriyāni (nos. 16 19) at Nett 83. - (e) cognitional (above B 20-22) D III.219 = S v.204 (as peculiar to Arahantship); It 53; Ps I.115; II.30. - (f) collectively, either two or more of groups a-e, also var. peculiar uses: personal; esp. physical faculties. S I.61 (pākat-), 204 (id.); III.207 (ākāsaŋ -āni sankamanti); IV.294 (vipari-bhinnāni); A III.441 (-ānaṃ avekallatā). magic power A IV.264 sq. (okkhipati -āni). indriyānaṃ paripāko (moral or physical) over-ripeness of faculties S II.2, 42; A V.203; Nd2 252 (in def. of jarā); Vbh 137. moral forces Vin I.183 (-ānaṃ samatā, + viriyānaṃ s. as sign of Arahant); II.240 (pañc-). principle of life ekindriyaṃ jīvaṃ Vin III.156; Miln 259. heart or seat of feeling in phrase -āni paricāreti to satisfy one's heart PvA 16, 58, 77. obligation, duty, vow in phrase -āni bhinditvā breaking one's vow J II.274; IV.190. D. Unclassified material D I 77 (ahīn-); III 239 (domanass- and somanass-) M I.437 (vemattatā), 453 (id.); II. 11, 106; III.296; S III.225; V.209 (dukkh-, domanass-); A I.39, 42 sq., 297; II.38 (sant-), 149 sq.; III.277, 282; Ps I.16, 21, 88, 180; II.1 sq, 13, 84, 119, 132, 143, 145, 110, 223; Nd1 45 (-dhīra), 171 (-kusala), 341 (pucchā); Dhs 58, 121, 528, 556 (dukkh-), 560, 644. 736; Nett 18 (sotāpannassa), 28 (-vavaṭṭhāna), 162 (lok'uttara); Vism 350 (-vekallatā); Sdhp 280, 342, 364, 371, 449, 473. E. As adj. (*-) having one's senses, mind or heart as such and such S I.138 (tikkh- and mud-); III.93 (pākat-); V.269 (id.); A I.70 (id) and passim (id.); A I.70 (saŋvut-) 266 (id.), 236 (gutt-); II.6 (samāhit-); 8n 214 (susamāhit- his senses well-composed); PvA 70 (pīṇit- joyful or gladdened of heart). F. Some compounds: -gutta one who restrains and watches his senses S I.154; Dh 375. -gutti keeping watch over the senses, self-restraint DhA IV.111. a paropariya, b paropariyatta and c paropariyatti (-ñāṇa) (knowledge of) what goes on in the senses and intentions of others a J I.78; b A V.34, 38; b Ps I.121 sq., 133 sq.; II.158, 175; b Vbh 340, 342; c S V.205; c Nett 101. See remark under paropariya. -bhāvanā cultivation of the (five, see above Cd) moral qualities Vin I.294 (+ balabhāvanā); M III.298. -saŋvara restraint or subjugation of the senses D II.281; M I.269, 346; S I.54; A III.360; IV.99; V.113 sq., 136, 206; Nd1 483; Nett 27, 121 sq; Vism 20 sq.

Indhana (nt.) [Vedic indhana, of idh or indh to kindle, cp. iddha1] firewood, fuel J IV.27 (adj. an- without fuel, aggi); V.447; ThA 256; VvA 335; Sdhp 608. Cp. idhuma.

Ibbha (adj.) [Ved. ibhya belonging to the servants] menial; a retainer, in the phrase muṇḍakā samaṇakā ibbhā kaṇhā (kiṇhā) bandhupād¢paccā D I.90 (v. l. SS imbha; T. kiṇhā, v. l. kaṇhā), 91, 103; M I.334 (kiṇhā, v. l. kaṇhā). Also at J VI.214. Expld. by Bdhgh. as gahapatika at DA I.254, (also at J VI.215).

Iriṇa (nt.) [Vedic iriṇa, on etymology see Walde, Latin Wtb. under rarus] barren soil, desert J VI.560 ( = niroja C.). Cp. īriṇa.

Iriyati [from īr to set in motion, to stir, Sanskrit īrte, but pres. formation influenced by iriyā and also by Sanskrit iyarti of r (see acchati and icchati2); cp. Causative īrayati ( = Pāli īreti), pp. īrṇa and īrita. See also issā] to move, to wander about, stir; fig. to move, behave, show a certain way of deportment M I.74, 75; S I.53 (dukkhaṃ aticca iriyati); IV.71; A III.451; V.41; Sn 947, 1063, 1097; Th 1,276; J III.498 ( = viharati); Nd1 431; Nd2 147 ( = carati etc.); Vism 16; DA I.70.

Iriyanā (f.) [from iriyati] way of moving on, progress, Dhs 19, 82, 295, 380, 441, 716.

Iriyā (f.) [cp. from iriyati, BSanskrit īryā Divy 485] movement, posture, deportment M I.81; Sn 1038 ( = cariyā vatti vihāro Nd2 148); It 31; Vism 145 (+ vutti pālana yapana). -patha way of deportment; mode of movement; good behaviour. There are 4 iriyāpathas or postures, viz. walking, standing, sitting, lying down (see Ps II.225 and DA I.183). Cp. BSanskrit īryāpatha Divy 37. - Vin I.39; II.146 (-sampanna); Vin I.91 (chinn- a cripple); S V.78 (cattāro i.); Sn 385; Nd1 225, 226; Nd2 s. v.; J I.22 (of a lion), 66, 506; Miln 17; Vism 104, 128, 290, 396; DhA I.9; IV.17; VvA 6; PvA 141; Sdhp 604.

Irubbeda the Rig-veda Dpvs V.62 (iruveda); Miln 178; DA I.247; SnA 447.

Illiyā (f.) [from illī, cp. Sanskrit *īlikā] = illī J V.259; VI.50.

Illī (f.) [cp. Vedic ilībisha Np. of a demon] a sort of weapon, a short one-edged sword J V.259.

Illīyituṃ v. l. for allīyituṃ at J V.154.

Iva (indecl.) [Vedic iva and va] part. of comparison: like, as Dh 1, 2, 7, 8, 287, 334; J I.295; SnA 12 ( = opamma-vacanaṃ). Elided to 'va, diaeretic-metathetic form viya (q. v.).

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Isi [Vedic from rs.. - Voc. ise Sn 1025; pl. npm. isayo, gen. isinaṃ S II.280 and isīnaṃ S I.192; etc. inst. isibhi Th 1, 1065] - 1. a holy man, one gifted with special powers of insight and inspiration, an anchoret, a Seer, Sage, Saint, "Mastereotype D I.96 (kaṇho isi ahosi); S I.33, 35, 65, 128, 191, 192, 226 sq., 236 (ācāro isīnaṃ); II.280 (dhammo isinaṃ dhajo); A II.24, 51; Vin IV.15 = 22 (-bhāsito dhammo); It 123; Sn 284, 458, 979, 689, 691, 1008, 1025, 1043, 1044, 1116 (dev- divine Seer), 1126, Nd2 149 (isi-nāmakā ye keci isi-pabbajjaṃ pabbajitā ājīvikā nigaṇṭhā jaṭilā tāpasā); Dh 281; J I.17 (v.90: isayo n' atthi me samā of Buddha); J V.140 (-gaṇa), 266, 267 (isi Gotamo); Pv II.614 ( = yama-niyam' ādīnaṃ esanatthena isayo PvA 98); II.133 ( = jhān' ādīnaṃ guṇānaṃ esanatthena isi PvA 163); IV.73 ( = asekkhānaṃ sīlakkhandh' ādīnaṃ esanatthena isiṃ PvA 265); Miln 19 (-vāta) 248 (-bhattika); DA I.266 (gen. isino); Sdhp 200, 384. See also mahesi. - 2. (in brahmanic tradition) the ten (divinely) inspired singers or composers of the Vedic hymns (brāhmaṇānaṃ pubbakā isayo mantānaṃ kattāro pavattāro), whose names are given at Vin I. 245; D I.104, 238; A III.224, IV.61 as follows: Aṭṭhaka, Vāmaka, Vāmadeva, Vessāmitta, Yamataggi (Yamadaggi), Angirasa, Bhāradvāja, Vāseṭṭha, Kassapa, Bhagu. -nisabha the first (lit. "bull") among Saints, Ep. of the Buddha Sn 698; Vv 167 (cp. VvA 82). -pabbajjā the (holy) life of an anchoret Vism 123; DhA I.105; IV.55; PvA 162. -vāta the wind of a Saint Miln 19; Vism 18. -sattama the 7th of the great Sages (i. e. Gotama Buddha, as 7th in the sequence of Vipassin, Sikhin, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Koṇāgamana and Kassapa Buddhas) M I.386; S I.192; Sn 356; Th 1, 1240 ( = Bhagavā isi ca sattamo ca uttamaṭṭhena SnA 351); Vv 211 ( = Buddha-isinaṃ Vipassi-ādīnaṃ sattamo VvA 105).

Isikā (isīkā) (f.) [Sanskrit is.īkā] a reed D I.77, cp. DA I.222; J VI.67 (isikā).

Isitta (nt.) [abstr. from isi] rishi-ship D I.104 ( = isi-bhāva DA I.274).

Issati [denom. from issā. Av. ares.yeiti to be jealous, Gr. e)/ratai to desire; connected also with Sanskrit ar.sati from rs. to flow, Latin erro; and Sanskrit irasyati to be angry = Gr. *)/arhs God of war, a)rh\; Ags. eorsian to be angry] to bear illwill, to be angry, to envy J III.7; ppr. med. issamānaka Sdhp 89, f. -ikā A II.203. -pp. issita (q. v.).

Issattha (nt. m.) [cp. Sanskrit is.vastra nt. bow, from ( = Pāli usu) an arrow + as to throw. Cp. Pāli issāsa. - Bdhgh. in a strange way dissects it as "usuñ ca satthañ cā ti vuttaṃ hoti" (i. e. usu arrow + sattha sword, knife) SnA 466] - 1. (nt.) archery (as means of livelihood and occupation) M I.85; III.1; S I.100 (so read with v. l.; T. has issatta, C. explinations. by usu-sippaṃ K. S. p. 318); Sn 617 (-ṃ upajīvati = āvudha jīvikaṃ SnA 466); J VI.81; Sdhp 390. - 2. (m.) an archer Miln 250, 305, 352, 418.

Issatthaka [issattha + ka] an archer Miln 419.

Issara [Vedic īshvara, from īsh to have power, cp. also Pāli īsa] lord, ruler, mastereotype chief A IV.90; Sn 552; J I.89 (-jana), 100, 283 (-bheri); IV.132 (-jana); Pv IV.67 (-mada); Miln 253 (an- without a ruler); DhsA 141; DA I.111; PvA 31 (gehassa issarā); Sdhp 348, 431. - 2. creative deity, Brahmā, D III.28; M II.222 = A I.173; Vism 598.

Issariya [from issara] rulership, mastereotypehip, supremacy, dominion (Syn. ādhipacca) D III.190; S I.43, 100 (-mada); V.342 (issariy-¢dhipacca); A I.62 (-ādhipacca); II.205, 249; III.38; IV.263; Sn 112; Dh 73; Ud 18; Ps II.171, 176; J I.156; V.443; DhA II.73; VvA 126 (for ādhipacca) PvA 42, 117, 137 (for ādhipacca); Sdhp 418, 583.

Issariyatā (f.) [from issariya] mastereotypehip, lordship Sdhp 422.

Issā1 (f.) [Sanskrit īrs.yā to Sanskrit irin forceful, irasyati to be angry, Latin īra anger, Gr. *)/arhs God of war; Ags. eorsian to be angry. See also issati] jealousy, anger, envy, ill-will D II.277 (-macchariya); III.44 (id.); M I.15; S II.260; A I.95, 105 (-mala), 299; II.203; IV.8 (-saññojana), 148, 349, 465; V.42 sq., 156, 310; Sn 110; J V.90 (-¢vatiṇṇa); Pv II.37; Vv 155; Pug 19, 23; Vbh 380, 391; Dhs 1121, 1131, 1460; Vism 470 (def.); PvA 24, 46, 87; DhA II.76; Miln 155; Sdhp 313, 510. -pakata overcome by envy, of an envious nature S II.260; Miln 155; PvA 31. See remarks under apakata and pakata.

Issā2 (f.) [cp. Sanskrit rshya-mrga] in issammiga ( = issāmiga) J V.410, and issāmiga J V.431, a species of antelope, cp. J V.425 issāsinga the antlers of this antelope.

Issāyanā (and Issāyitatta) [abstr. formations from issā] = issā Pug 19, 23; Dhs 1121; Vism 470.

Issāsa [Sanskrit is.vāsa, see issattha] an archer Vin IV.124; M III.1; A IV.423 (issāso vā issās' antevāsī vā); J II.87; IV.494; Miln 232; DA I.156.

Issāsin [Sanskrit is.vāsa in meaning "bow" + in] an archer, lit. one having a bow J IV.494 ( = issāsa C.).

Issita [pp. of īrs. (see issati); Sanskrit īrs.ita] being envied or scolded, giving offence or causing anger J V.44.

Issukin (adj.) [from issā, Sanskrit īrs.yu + ka + in] envious, jealous Vin II.89 (+ maccharin); D III.45, 246; M I.43, 96; S IV.241; A III.140, 335; IV.2; Dh 262; J III.259; Pv. II.34; Pug 19, 23; DhA III.389; PvA 174. See also an-.

Iha (indecl.) [Sanskrit iha; form iha is rare in Pāli, the usual form is idha (q. v.)] adv. of place "here" Sn 460.

-----[ Ī ]-----

Īgha (*) [doubtful as to origin and etymology since only found in cpd. anīgha and abs. only in exegetical literature. If genuine, it should belong to rgh Sanskrit rghāyati to tremble, rage etc. See discussed under nigha1] confusion, rage, badness SnA 590 (in explination of anigha). Usually as an- (or anigha), e. g. J III.343 ( = niddukkha C.); V.343.

Īti and ītī (f.) [Sanskrit īti, of doubtful origin] ill, calamity, plague, distress, often combb. with and substituted for upaddava, cp. BSanskrit ītay' opadrava (attack of plague) Divy 119. Sn 51; J I.27 (V.189); V.401 = upaddava; Nd1 381; Nd2 48, 636 (+ upaddava = santāpa); Miln 152, 274, 418. -anīti sound condition, health, safety A IV.238; Miln 323.

Ītika (adj.) [from īti] connected or affected with ill or harm, only in negative an-.

Ītiha a doublet of itiha, only found in negative an-.

Īdisa (adj.) [Sanskrit īdrs, ī + drsh, lit. so-looking] such like, such DhsA 400 (f. -ī); PvA 50, (id.) 51.

Īriṇa (nt.) [ = iriṇa, q. v. and cp. Sanskrit īriṇa] barren soil, desert D I.248; A V.156 sq.; J V.70 ( = sukkha-kantāra C.); VI.560; VvA 334.

Īrita [pp. of īreti, Causative of īr, see iriyati] - 1. set in motion, stirred, moved, shaken Vv 394 (vāt'erita moved by

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the wind); J I.32 (id.); Vv 6420 (haday'erita); Pv II.123 (malut'erita); PvA 156 (has erita for ī-); VvA 177 ( = calita). - 2. uttered, proclaimed, said Dāvs V.12.

Īsa [from ish to have power, perf. īshe = Goth. aih; cp. Sanskrit īshvara = Pāli issara, and BSanskrit īsha, e. g. Jtm 3181] lord, owner, ruler J IV.209 (of a black lion = kā'a-sīha C.); VvA 168. f. īsī see mahesī a chief queen. Cp. also mahesakkha.

Īsaka [dimin. of īsā] a pole J II.152; VI.456 (-agga the top of a pole).

Īsakaṃ (adv.) [nt. of īsaka] a little, slightly, easily M I. 450; J I.77; VI.456; DA I.252, 310; VvA 36; Vism 136, 137, 231, īsakam pi even a little Vism 106; Sdhp 586.

Īsā (f.) [Vedic īs.ā] the pole of a plough or of a carriage S I.104 (nangal' īsā read with v. l. for nangala-sīsā T.), 172, 224 (-mukha): A IV.191 (rath-); Sn 77; J I.203 (-mukha); IV.209; Ud 42; Miln 27; SnA 146; VvA 269 (-mūlaṃ = rathassa uro). -danta having teeth (tusks) as long as a plough-pole (of an elephant) Vin I.352; M I.414; Vv 209 = 439 ( = ratha-īsā-sadisa-danto); J VI.490 = 515.

Īsāka (adj.) [from īsā] having a pole (said of a carriage) J VI.252.

Īhati [Vedic īh, cp. Av. īžā ardour, eagerness, āzi.s greed] to endeavour, attempt, strive after Vin III.268 (Bdhgh.) J VI.518 (cp. Kern, Toev. p. 112); DA I.139; VvA 35.

Īhā (f.) [from īh] exertion, endeavour, activity, only in adj. nir-īha void of activity Miln 413.

-----[ U ]-----

U the sound or syllable u, explained. by Bdhgh at Vism 495 as expressing origin ( = ud).

Ukkaṃsa [from ud + krs. see ukkassati] exaltation, excellence, superiority (opp. avakkaṃsa) D I.54 (ukkaṃs-¢vakkaṃsa = hāyana-vaḍḍhana DA I.165); M I.518; Vism 563 (id.); VvA 146 (-gata excellent), 335 (instr. ukkaṃsena par excellence, exceedingly); PvA 228 (-vasena, with reference to devatās; v. l. SS okk-).

Ukkaṃsaka (adj.) [from ukkaṃsa] raising, exalting (oneself), extolling M I.19 (att-; opp. para-vambhin); J II.152. Cp. sāmukkaṃsika.

Ukkaṃsati [ud + krs., kar.sati, lit. draw or up, raise] to exalt, praise M I.498; J IV.108. -pp. Ukkaṭṭha. - ukkaṃseti in same meaning M I.402 sq. (attānaṃ u. paraṃ vambheti); A II.27; Nd2 141.

Ukkaṃsanā (f.) [abstr. of ukkaṃsati] raising, extolling, exaltation, in att- self-exaltation, self-praise M I.402 (opp. para-vambhanā); Nd2 505 (id.).

Ukkaṭṭha (adj.) [pp. of ukkaṃsati] - 1. exalted, high, prominent, glorious, excellent, most frequent opp. to hīna, in phrase hīna-m-Ukkaṭṭha-majjhime Vin IV.7; J I.20 (v.129), 22 (v.143); III.218 ( = uttama C.). In other combination. at Vism 64 (u. majjhima mudu referring to the 3 grades of the Dhutangas); SnA 160 (dvipadā sabbasattānaṃ ukkaṭṭhā); VvA 105 (superl. Ukkaṭṭhatama with reference to Gotama as the most exalted of the 7 Rishis); Sdhp 506 (opp. lāmaka). - 2. large, comprehensive, great, in ukkaṭṭho patto a bowl of great capacity (as different from majjhima and omaka p.) Vin III.243 ( = uk. nāma patto aḍḍhālhak' odanaṃ gaṇhāti catu-bhāgaṃ khādanaṃ vā tadūpiyaṃ vā byañjanaṃ). - 3. detailed, exhaustive, specialised Vism 37 (ati-Ukkaṭṭha-desanā); also in phrase -vasena in detail SnA 181. - 4. arrogant, insolent J V. 16. - 5. used as nom at J I.387 in meaning "battle, conflict". - an- Vism 64 (-cīvara). -niddesa exhaustive exposition, special designation, term par excellence DhsA 70; VvA 231; PvA 7. -pariccheda comprehensive connotation SnA 229, 231, 376.

Ukkaṭṭhatā (f.) [abstr. from Ukkaṭṭha] superiority, eminence, exalted state J IV.303 (opp. hīnatā).

Ukkaṭṭhita [for ukkaṭhita, ud + pp. of kvath, see kaṭhati and kuthati] boiled up, boiling, seething A III.231 and 234 (udapatto agginā santatto ukkaṭṭhito, v. l. ukkuṭṭhito); J IV.118 (v. l. pakkudhita = pakkuṭhita, as gloss).

Ukkaṇṭhati [from ud + kaṇṭh in secondary meaning of kaṇṭha neck, lit. to stretch one's neck for anything; i. e. long for, be hungry after, etc.] to long for, to be dissatisfied, to fret J I.386 (-māna); III.143 (-itvā); IV.3, 160; V.10 (anukkhaṇṭhanto); DhsA 407; PvA 162 (mā ukkaṇṭhi, v. l. ukkaṇhi, so read for T. mā khuṇḍali). -pp. ukkaṇṭhita (q. v.). Cp. pari-.

Ukkaṇṭhanā (f.) [from ukkaṇṭhati] emotion, commotion D II.239.

Ukkaṇṭhā (f.) [from ukkanṭh.-] longing, desire; distress, regret Nett 88; PvA 55 (spelt kkh), 60, 145, 152.

Ukkaṇṭhi (f.) [from ukkanṭh.-] longing, dissatisfaction ThA 239 ( = arati).

Ukkaṇṭhikā (f.) [abstr. from ukkaṇṭhita] = ukkaṇṭhi, i. e. longing, state of distress, pain J III.643.

Ukkaṇṭhita [pp. of ukkaṇṭhati] dissatisfied, regretting, longing, fretting J I.196; II.92, 115; III.185; Miln 281; DhA IV.66, 225; PvA 13 (an-), 55, 187.

Ukkaṇṇa (adj.) [ud + kaṇṇa] having the ears erect (*) J VI.559.

Ukkaṇṇaka (ad.) [ut + kaṇṇa + ka lit. "with ears out" or is it ukkandaka*] a certain disease (* mange) of jackals, S II.230, 271; S. A. "the fur falls off from the whole body".

Ukkantati [ud + kantati] to cut out, tear out, skin Vin I.217 (-itva); J I.164; IV.210 (v. l. for okk-); V.10 (ger. ukkacca); Pv III.94 (ukkantvā, v. l. BB ukkacca); PvA 210 (v. l. SS ni-), 211 ( = chinditvā).

Ukkapiṇḍaka [etymology unknown] only in pl.; vermin, Vin I.211 = 239. See comment at Vin. Texts II.70.

Ukkantikaṃ (nt. adv.), in jhān- and kasiṇ-, after the method of stepping away from or skipping Vism 374.

Ukkamati (or okk- which is v. l. at all passages quoted) [ud + kamati from kram] to step aside, step out from (w. abl.), depart from A III.301 (maggā); J III.531; IV. 101 (maggā); Ud 13 (id.); DA I.185 (id.). Causative ukkāmeti; Causative II. ukkamāpeti J II.3.

Ukkamana (nt.) [from ukkamati] stepping away from Vism 374.

Ukkala in phrase ukkala-vassa-bhañña S III.73 = A II.31 = Kvu 141 is translated. as "the folk of Ukkala, Lenten speakers of old" (see Kvu trsl. 95 with n. 2). Another interpretation is ukkalāvassa-, i. e. ukkalā + avassa- [*avashya-], one who speaks of, or like, a porter (ukkala = Sk utkala porter, one who carries a load) and bondsman M III.78 reads Okkalā (v. l. Ukkalā)-Vassa-Bhaññā, all as N. pr.

Ukkalāpa see uklāpa.

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Ukkalissati [ = ukkilissati* ud + kilissati] to become depraved, to revoke(*) Miln 143.

Ukkā (f.) [Vedic ulkā and ulkus.ī, cp. Gr. a)/flac ( = lamprw_s torch Hesychius), velxa/nos ( = Volcanus); Latin Volcanus, Oir. Olcān, Idg. **I*q to be fiery] 1. firebr and , glow of fire, torch D I.49, 108; S II.264; Th 2, 488 (-ūpama); J I.34 (dhamm-okkā); II.401; IV.291; V.322; Vism 428; ThA 287; DA I.148; DhA I.42, 205; PvA 154. Esp. as tiṇ- firebr and of dry grass M I.128, 365; Nd2 40Ie; DhA I.126; Sdhp 573. - 2. a furnace or forge of a smith A I.210, 257; J VI.437; see also below -mukha. 3. a meteor: see below -pāta. -dhāra a torch-bearer Sn 335; It 108; Miln 1. -pāta "falling of a firebrand ", a meteor D I.10 ( = ākāsato ukkānaṃ patanaṃ DA I.95); J I.374; VI.476; Miln 178. -mukha the opening or receiver of a furnace, a goldsmith's smelting pot A I.257; J VI.217 ( = kammār-uddhana C.), 574; Sn 686; DhA II.250.

Ukkācanā (f.) [from ukkāceti, ud + *kāc, see ukkācita] enlightening, clearing up, instruction Vbh 352 (in def. of lapanā, v. l. -kāpanā). Note Kern, Toev. s. v. compares Vism p. 115 and Sanskrit uddīpana in same sense. Def. at Vism 27 ( = uddīpanā).

Ukkācita [pp. either to *kāc to shine or to kāceti denom. from kāca1] enlightened, made bright (fig.) or cleaned, cleared up A I.72, 286 (-vinīta parisā enlightened and trained).

Ukkāceti [according to Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1884, 112 a denom. from kāca2 a carrying pole, although the idea of a bucket is somewhat removed from that of a pole] to bale out water, to empty by means of buckets J II.70 (v. l. ussiñcati).

Ukkāmeti [Causative of ukkamati] to cause to step aside J VI.11.

Ukkāra [from ud + kr "do out"] dung, excrement J IV.485, otherwise only in cpd. ukkāra-bhūmi dung-hill J I.5, 146 (so read for ukkar-), II.40; III.16, 75, 377; IV.72, 305; Vism 196 (-ūpama kuṇapa); DhA III.208. Cp. uccāra.

Ukkāsati [ud + kāsati of kas to cough] to "ahem"! to cough, to clear one's throat Vin II.222; IV.16; M II.4; A V.65; aor. ukkāsi J I.161, 217. -pp. ukkāsita.

Ukkāsikā (f.*) [doubtful] at Vin II.106 is not clear. Vin Texts III.68 leave it untranslated. Bdhgh's explination. is vattavaṭṭi (patta-* a leaf* Cp. S III.141), prob. = vaṭṭi (Sanskrit varti a kind of pad). See details given by Morris J.Pāli Text Society 1887, 113, who translations. "rubber, a kind of pad or roll of cotton with which the delicate bather could rub himself without too much friction".

Ukkāsita [pp. of ukkāsati] coughed, clearing one's throat, coughed out, hawking D I.89; Bu I.52 (+ khipita) -sadda the noise of clearing the throat D I.50; J I.119; DhA I.250 (+ khipita-).

Ukkiṇṇa [pp. of ud + kr dig2] dug up or out D I.105; J IV.106; Miln 330; DA I.274 ( = khāta).

Ukkiledeti [Causative of ud + klid, see kilijjati] to take the dirt out, to clean out DA I.255 (dosaŋ); SnA 274 (rāgaṃ; v. l. BB. uggileti).

Ukkujja (adj.) [ud + kujja] set up, upright, opp. either nikkujja or avakujja A I.131; S V.89 (ukkujjQ¢vakujja); Pug 32 ( = uparimukho ṭhapito C. 214).

Ukkujjati (-eti) [Denominitive from ukkujja] to bend up, turn up, set upright Vin I.181; II.126 (pattaṃ), 269 (bhikkhuṃ); mostly in phrase nikkujjitaṃ ukkujjeyya "(like) one might raise up one who has fallen" D I.85, 110; II.132, 152; Sn p. 15 ( = uparimukhaṃ karoti DA I.228 = SnA 155).

Ukkujjana (nt.) [from ukkujjati] raising up, setting up again Vin II.126 (patt-).

Ukkuṭika [from ud + *kuṭ = *kuñc, as in kuṭila and kuñcita; lit. "bending up". The BSanskrit form is ukkuṭuka, e. g. Av. S I.315] a special manner of squatting. The soles of the feet are firmly on the ground, the man sinks down, the heels slightly rising as he does so, until the thighs rest on the calves, and the hams are about six inches or more from the ground. Then with elbows on knees he balances himself. Few Europeans can adopt this posture, and none (save miners) can maintain it with comfort, as the calf muscles upset the balance. Indians find it easy, and when the palms of the hands are also held together upwards, it indicates submission. See Dial. I.231 n. 4. - Vin I.45 (-ṃ nisīdati); III.228; A I.296; II.206; Pug 55; Vism 62, 104, 105 (quot. fro