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Index of the Suttas of the Saɱyutta Nikāya
Nidana Vagga
Nidana Saɱyutta

Key

Index of Sutta Indexes


 

II. Nidāna Vagga

PTS: Saɱyutta Nikāya Volume 2, Nidāna-Vagga ed. by M. Léon Feer, London: Pali Text Society 1888. The html formatted Pali Text Society edition of the Pali text.
BJT: Saɱyutta Nikāya Volume 2, Nidāna-Vagga The Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka Series Pali text.

The Pali text for individual suttas listed below is adapted from the Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka Series [BJT], not from the PTS version.
Each translation is linked to it's Pali version and to the PTS, Sister Upalavanna, Olds and where available to the ATI Bhk. Thanissaro translation, and each of these is in turn linked back to each of the others. Many, but not all have been checked against the Pali Text Society edition, and many have been reformatted to include the original Pali (and/or organizational) phrase and sentence breaks.

PTS: The Kindred Sayings on Cause, translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids assisted by F.L. Woodward,
WP: The Book of Causation, translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi
ATI: The translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro and others originally located on Access to Insight.
BD: The translations of M. Olds
MNL: The trnslations of Sister Upalavanna.

12. Nidana Saɱyutta, II.1

PTS: The Kindred Sayings on Cause, II.1
WP: Connected Discourses on Causation, I.505

I. Buddha Vagga, II.1

1. Desanā Suttaɱ, II.1

The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the Paticca Samuppada.

PTS: The teaching, Rhys Davids, C., trans., II.1
WP: Dependent Origination, I.533
BD: The Exposition
Paticcasamuppada X4(translations and discussion)

2. Vibhaŋga Suttaɱ, II.2

Analysis which gives Gotama Buddha's definitions of the terms used in the Paticca Samuppada. A very important sutta!

PTS: Analysis, II.2
WP: Analysis of Dependent Origination, I.534
ATI: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising

3. Paṭipadā Suttaɱ, II.4

The Way which presents the Paticca Samuppada as a Path or Course rather than the usual understanding of this doctrine as a description of how kamma works.

PTS: The Way (or Course), II.5
WP: The Two Ways, I.536

4. Vipassī Suttaɱ, II.5

Covering Suttas 4-10. Vipassi, Sikhi, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Konāgamaṇa, Kassapa, and Gotama the Great Seer of the Sakyas. All identical suttas wherein future Buddhas (bodhisattas) worked out the Paticca Samuppada with the result that new knowledge, vision, insight, wisdom and light arose in them.
What might appear to be a meaningless waste of space, these suttas reveal many secrets to the seer if lined up in a row in the mind's eye.

PTS: Vipassi, II.5
WP: Vipassi, I.536

5. Sikhī Suttaɱ, II.9

PTS: Sikhi,, II.5
WP: Sikhi, I.536

6. Vessabhu Suttaɱ, II.9

PTS: ptsVessabhu,, II.5
WP: Vessabhu, I.537

7. Kakusandho Suttaɱ, II.9

PTS: Kakusandho,, II.5
WP: Kakusandha, I.537

8. Koṇāgamano Suttaɱ, II.9

PTS: Konagamano,, II.5
WP: Konagamana, I.537

9. Kassapo Suttaɱ, II.9

PTS: Kassapo,, II.5
WP: Kassapa, 537

10. Mahā Sakyamuni Gotamo Suttaɱ, II.10

PTS: Gotama the Great Seer of the Sakyas, II.6
WP: Gotama the Great Sakyan Sage, I.537

II. Āhārā Vagga, II.11

11. Āhārā Suttaɱ, II.11

The Buddha enumerates the four foods which sustain living and shows their connection to the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada) that result in birth, old age, sickness, and death.
The Buddha enumerates the four foods which sustain living and shows their connection to the chain of interdependent factors (paṭicca samuppāda) that result in birth, old age, sickness, and death.
Bhk. Thanissaro points out that the foods occupy the position in the paṭicca samuppāda of Upadana, or 'support' (Mrs. Rhys davids 'grasping'; Bhk. Thanissaro's 'clinging/sustenance'). He also warns the reader not to fall into the trap of accepting just one of the several understandings of the mechanism of action of the paṭicca samuppāda: it is not just linear, and it is not just circular, and it is not just a description of the three-lives (past, future, present) involved in becoming an existing being: what it is is the most helpful description of the process of becoming an existing being from multiple perspectives simultaneously. As life itself, it needs to be 'seen' three-dimensionally. It applies to the millisecond-to-millisecond movement of an individual through life, it applies to the full extent of the single life, and it applies to the process of repeated rebirth of the individuality. It is equally helpful in the way it points out the places where the chain can be broken.
This sutta also shows how it can be said that by making the study of Food one's meditation theme, dukkha, or pain can be brought to an end, arahantship attained.

PTS: Sustenances, II.8
WP: Nutriment, 540
ATI: Nutriment

12. Phagguno Suttaɱ, II.12

After the Buddha has taught the four foods, Moliya Phagguna asks who it is that feeds on the consciousness food. Gotama responds correcting his thinking from 'who feeds?' to 'what results from feeding on?', which leads into the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada).

PTS: Phagguna, II.9
WP: Moḷiyaphagguna, I.541
ATI: To Phagguna, Bhk. Thanissaro trans,
BD: Top-knot-Phagguna, Olds trans.
Discussion

13. Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaɱ, II.14

The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any seeker or brahman who does not know and see the links in the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada) has not realized the benefits of being a seeker or brahmin.
Note that in this version 'avijja' or 'blindness' is not listed explicitly. It's place is taken by the statement concerning the seeker or brahman who does not see. The result is the definition of avijja.

PTS: Recluses and Brahmins 1, II.11
WP: Ascetics and Brahmins (1), I.542

14. Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaɱ, II.15

The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any seeker or brahman who does not know and see the links in the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada) has not realized the benefits of being a seeker or brahmin.
This is a variation of the previous sutta. It is very awkwardly done in the translation (and that was not helped by the abridgment), but it would not be easy to find a way to do it that was not awkward in the written word. It is constructed using a retorical device where one begins with a statement that is unclear and unfinished which is only finished and made clear by a statement at the end. It works to hold the mind of the listener, but in writing just seems to have been badly constructed.

PTS: Recluses and Brahmins 2, II.11
WP: Ascetics and Brahmins (2), I.543

15. Kaccāyanagotto Suttaɱ, II.16

The Buddha explains the reasoning behind the consummate view of things and the result in the attitude of one of such views.
An important sutta for understanding why the Four Truths are constructed the way they are. Also in this sutta the 'Middle Way' is defined as the Paticca Samuppada, not, as in the First Sutta, the Eightfold Way. This is not a contradiction: the two are equivalants. "He who sees the Four Truths, sees the Paticca Samuppada; He who sees the Paticca Samuppada sees the Four Truths."

PTS: The Kaccayana, II.12
WP: Kaccānagotta, I.544
ATI: To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View)

16. Dhammakathiko Suttaɱ, II.18

The Buddha describes how if one teaches even only one link in the Paticca Samuppada one may be called a Dhamma Teacher; if one practices only one link one may be called one who lives the Dhamma of the Dhamma; if one experiences freedom as a consequence of the experience of only one link one may be said to have won Nibbana in this life. He repeats this three-fold formula for each of the links.
There is a strong hint in this sutta that each of the links in the Paticca Samuppada, if fully understood, encompass each of the other links.

PTS: Norm-teacher, II.14
WP: A Speaker on the Dhamma, I.545
BD: Dhamma Teacher, Olds trans.
Discussion

17. Acela Suttaɱ, II.18

Kassapa, a naked ascetic, asks the Buddha a series of questions about the source of pain and to each of his questions receives the response, 'it is not such as that.' When Kassapa asks for an explanation, The Buddha teaches him the 'Doctrine of the Middle': that is, the Paticca Samuppada, the chain of interdependent factors giving rise to the experience of individualized existence and the resulting pain.
An excellent sutta for sharpening your understanding of the Paṭicca Samuppāda,, the idea of 'not-self, and the theories or views of eternalism and annihiliationism.'

PTS: The Unclothed (Ascetic), II.14
WP: The Naked Ascetic Kassapa, I.545
ATI: To the Clothless Ascetic
Discussion

18. Timbaruka Suttaɱ, II.22

Timbaruka asks the Buddha a series of questions about the source of pain and pleasure and to each of his questions receives the response, 'it is not such as that.' When Timbaruka asks for an explanation, The Buddha teaches him the 'Doctrine Going Down the Middle': that is, the Paticca Samuppada, the chain of interdependent factors giving rise to the experience of individualized existence and the resulting pain.

PTS: Timbaruka, II.17
WP: Timbaruka, I.548

19. Bālana Pandito Suttaɱ, II.23

The Buddha draws the distinction between the fool born identifying with body and pulled around by desires and the wise man born identifying with body and pulled around by desires: the wise man takes on the burden of the holy life and gives up his blindness and thirsts for pleasures of the senses where the fool does not.
I did a translation because Mrs. Rhys Davids construction does not make it clear that what is being talked about is how, though the wise man and the fool begin at the same point it is how they deal with the situation that makes the difference. Bhk. Thanissaro's translation is good enough. I have introduced some readings that are a little different, hopefully clearer.

PTS: The Wise Man [Compared] with the Fool, II.19
ATI: The Fool and the Wise Person, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
BD: The Foolish — the Wise, Olds trans.,
WP: The Wise Man and the Fool, I.549

20. Paccayo Suttaɱ, II.25

The Buddha teaches that whether a Buddha arises or not, existence arises as a consequence of a chain of interdependent factors, that each of the factors is impermanent, and that one who sees coming into existence and existence in this way will not have ideas of self with regard to the past, future or present.

PTS: (untitled), II.20
WP: Conditions, I.550
ATI: Requisite Conditions
Discussion

III. Dasabalā Vagga, II.27

21. Paṭhama Dasabalā Suttaɱ, II.27

The Buddha states that it is because he has ten powers and is confident in four ways that he is able to teach about the components of existence, their arising and their ending.
The Buddha does not explain the ten powers or the four confidences in this sutta, but I have listed them in a discussion thread on the forum: The Ten Powers and the Four Confidences of the Tathāgata,
Mrs. Rhys Davids references MN 12: The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar for the details. See also: AN 10.21.

PTS: The Ten Powers (1), II.23
WP: The Ten Powers, I.552

22. Dutiya Dasabala Suttaɱ, II.28

The Buddha states that it is because he has ten powers and is confident in four ways that he is able to teach about the components of existence, their arising and their ending and then adds an inspiring admonition to give up lazy ways and take on energy to accomplish the goal.

PTS: The Ten Powers 2, II.23
WP: The Ten Powers 2, I.553

23. Upanisā Suttaɱ, II.29

The Buddha teaches a variation of the Paticca Samuppada which works back from the elimination of the corrupting influences (asavas) and he states that there is no destroying the corrupting influences without knowing and seeing this progression.
The key word to understand here, aside from the terms for the links themselves, is 'Upanisa' = up-sitting ('Set ya'sef down!') that which gives rise to the setting up of something. Bhk. Thanissaro: 'prerequisites'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'Supporting Conditions' A very important sutta! Sometimes called the positive version of the Paticca Samuppada.

PTS: Causal Association, II.25
WP: Proximate Cause, 553
ATI: Prerequisites, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
Discourse on Supporting Conditions Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans.
BPS: Transcendental Dependent Arising Translation & Exposition of the Upanisa Sutta, Bhk. Bodhi, trans.
Discussion.

24. Aññatitthiyā Suttaɱ, II.32

Sariputta teaches Wanderers that ask about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences. This is repeated to the Buddha by Ananda, and confirmed by Gotama and then Ananda remarking on how interesting it is that the whole doctrine could be stated with one word like this, when asked to do so, gives a version of the sequence in detail.
It is very interesting! Although it is stated in a different way by Ānanda, what is being said is that it is because of deliberate intention resulting from ignorance that 'self' is projected into the contact of consciousness with named forms that is then experienced as "I am experiencing". Consequently it is a matter of eliminating the ignorance that propells this projecting of self into such contact that brings pain to an end. So it is here that personalization is taking place, that is, taking the literal meaning of the syllables of the word saŋkhāra, 'con' + 'make' = 'own-making'.

PTS: Sectarian Teachers, II.27
WP: Wanderers of Other Sects, 556

25. Bhūmija Suttaɱ, II.37

Sariputta teaches Venerable Bumija who asks about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences. This is repeated to the Buddha by Ananda, and confirmed by Gotama and then Gotama goes on to explain that pleasure and pain corespond to the intent with which deeds of body, speech and mind are done. He further explains that intent can originate with the self or with another and can be done by the self either knowingly or without reflection.
The Pali text in some versions ends the first part of Gotama's expansion of this sutta with 'avijjāpaccayā va' and in some versions has this phrase as beginning the next section. Woodward, in AN 4.171 has opted to use it both at the end of this section and the beginning of the next. Mrs. Rhys Davids has put it at the beginning of the next section per the PTS text.
Put at the beginning of the second section, it should also be at the beginning of the next two sections which is how I have reconstructed it here. Bhk. Thanissaro abridges, but appears to indicate that he would follow this plan. Bhk. Bodhi has it only at the end of the first section. It makes bad sense in this position. The idea described there is that it is intent (Bhk. Bodhi's 'volition') that is the basis for the arising of pleasant or painful consequences of deeds. Intent can be ignorant or not, ignorance is not an alternative to intent. The BJT Pali was a complete mess which I have straightened up for the version here.

PTS: Bhūmija, II.30
WP: Bhūmija, 559
ATI: To Bhumija
Discussion.

26. Upavāṇa Suttaɱ, II.41

The Buddha teaches Venerable Upavana who asks about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences.

PTS: Upavāna, II.32
WP: Upavāṇa, I.562

27. Paccaya Suttaɱ, II.42

The Buddha gives the chain of interdependent links leading from blindness to pain and then gives definitions of the individual links.
This one should be on everyone's 'Must Read' list. Having the definitions for the individual terms allows one to work out the meaning for one's self. I have given a translation with my best understanding. My suggested main point to consider would be to avoid the idea of causation. This is a chain of interdependent associations. See also, for an almost identical sutta, SN 2.12.2 where Bhk. Thanissaro has a translation.

PTS: The Causal Relation, II.32
BD: Results, Olds, trans.
WP: Conditions, I. 563
Discussion.

28. Bhikkhū Suttaɱ, II.43

The Buddha gives an exposition of the chain of interdependent links leading from blindness to pain and then gives definitions of the individual links.

PTS: The Brother, II.34
WP: Bhikkhu, I.564

29. Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaɱ, II.45

The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any recluse or brahmin who does not understand the chain of interdependent factors that result in Pain has not realized the goal of being a recluse or brahmin, but any one who does understand has realized that goal.

PTS: Recluses and Brahmins (1), II.34
WP: Ascetics and Brahmins 1, I.565

30. Dutiya Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaɱ, II.46

The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any recluse or brahmin who does not understand the chain of interdependent factors that result in Pain will be able to stand up to passing beyond Pain is something that cannot happen, but any one who does understand will be able to do so.

PTS: Recluses and Brahmins 2, II.35
WP: Ascetics and Brahmins 2, I.565

IV. Kaḷarakhattiyo Vagga, II.47

31. Bhūta Suttaɱ, II.47

Prompted by a question from the Buddha which at first perplexes him, Sariputta explains in detail the meaning of what is is that is practiced by the bhikkhu in training and what it is that is different in the practice of the adept.

PTS: Become, II.35
WP: What Has Come to Be, I.566
ATI: This Has Come Into Being

32. Kaḷāra Suttaɱ, II.50

Kalara in bringing Sariputta the news that Moliya Phagguna has left the order discovers by Sariputta's responses that Sariputta has become Arahant. He reports this to the Buddha and the Buddha summons Sariputta to question him about the manner of his declaration and questions him further asking him about the paticca samuppada.
The secondary value of this sutta is as an interesting window on the manners and modes of dialogue of the times, and the flexibility of analysis of the paticca samuppada. In the case of this sutta the chain was considered sufficiently developed to lead to arahantship, at 'sense-experience' to be interrupted at that point.

PTS: Kaḷāra, II.38
WP: The Kaḷāra, I.567

33. Paṭhama Ñāṇassa Vatthuatthūṇi Suttaɱ, II.56

The Buddha casts the Paticca Samuppand in terms of Fourty-four basis of knowledge, explains of what that knowledge consists, and applies that knowledge to the future and the past.
Mrs. Rhys Davids calls the application of the knowledge to the future and the past 'retrospective knowledge'; Bhk. Bodhi calls it 'knowledge of entailment'. What it is is the drawing of inference. "I see that it is this way now, seeing that it is this way now and can be no other way, I understand (in retrospect) that it will have been such in the past and I understand that in future it will entail a similar process.'
This sutta is virtually incomprehensible in abridged form and magical when unabridged. What we have here is the key to the three knowledges of the Arahant, the 'tivijja.' Seeing the application of the Paticca Samuppada to the past is the key to seeing past lives; seeing how it applies to the future is the key to seeing the passing away and rising up again of beings according to their deeds, and seeing it as it is in the present is the way to ending the corrupting influences āsavas.
Purification of each knowledge-base is done by way of seeing, in the mind's eye, actual cases in one's self and in others in terms of each of the bases, past, future, present. 'What is it that keeps me 'being?' What is it that supports that inability to let it go? Is it the desire for sense pleasures? Is it some viewpoint? Is it the belief in ethics and rituals? Is it some experience of self? Does this apply only to me or does it apply to all beings? Does this apply in all cases in the past? In the future?
This sutta gives us the tools to work through the Paticca Samuppada in detail step-by-step. But it should not be done 'intellectually'! You need to 'see' in pictures exemplifying each step. That takes effort but will prove convincing knowledge.

PTS: The Bases of Knowledge (1), II.41
WP: Cases of Knowledge 1, I.571

34. Dutiya Ñāṇassa Vatthuatthūṇi Suttaɱ, II.59

The Buddha casts the Paticca Samuppada in terms of seventy-seven aspects: The relatedness of this to that put positively and negatively; positively and negatively with regard to the past; positively and negatively with regard to the future; and the implication when cast in general terms.
A good companion piece to the previous as is indicated by it's title. It emphasizes the issue of the timelessness of the law.

PTS: Bases of Knowledge 2, II.42
WP: Cases of Knowledge 2, I.572

35. Paṭhama Avijjādipaccayā Desanā Suttaɱ, II.60

In response to a series of questions concerning 'who' experiences the various stages of the Paticca Samuppada, The Buddha explains that these questions assume the idea of an individual or experiencer, and a differentiation between the experience and the experiencer and that such an assumption falls into the trap of postulating an eternal self or a self that is annihilated and that with either of those two extreme views it is not possible to end pain and reach the goal of Arahantship and that this amounts to blindness, but by bringing this blindness to an end and seeing that the process is impersonal the end of pain is attainable and the goal of Arahantship can be reached.
This is a different set of questions than those which are referred to as 'not answered' by Gotama. Here he suggests the questions themselves are mis-phrased.

PTS: Conditioned by Ignorance (1), II.43
WP: With Ignorance as Condition 1, I.573
Buddhism in Translations, SN NV 12.35. Warren, trans.
ATI: From Ignorance as Requisite Condition, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
Discussion

36. Dutiya Avijjā-paccayā Suttaɱ, II.63

The Buddha explains that questions concerning 'what and who' experiences the various stages of the Paticca Samuppada assume the idea of an individual or experiencer, and a differentiation between the experience and the experiencer and that such an assumption falls into the trap of postulating an eternal self or a self that is annihilated and that with either of those two extreme views it is not possible to end pain and reach the goal of Arahantship and that this amounts to blindness, but by bringing this blindness to an end and seeing that the process is impersonal the end of pain is attainable and the goal of Arahantship can be reached.
Almost identical to the previous but without the questioner. Mrs. Rhys Davids abridges completely. Here the BJT is in conformity with the PTS and CSCD in having the question posed as a single compound question. I suspect the first BJT was made to conform to the Rhys Davids translation.

PTS: Conditioned by Ignorance 2, II.44
WP: With Ignorance as Condition 2, I.575

37. Na Tumhā Suttaɱ, II.64

The Buddha explains that body belongs neither to the self nor to another and arises as a result of action and it's repeated reappearance is brought to a halt by the ending of that action.
By 'belonging to another' is meant such things as having been the creation of a creator god or under the ultimate control of any other being.

PTS: Not Yours, II.44
WP: Not Yours, I.575

38. Paṭhama Cetanā Suttaɱ, II.65

The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness of self, or re-birth, in the future.
If there are any that still doubt my translation of saŋkhāra as 'own-making', (or, at least that it should be translated using some term which implies the same thing) reading this sutta should resolve that doubt. This is the description of saŋkhāra using other terms. In other words, the other words are saying that it is by intending to act (without renouncing or abandoning that intention) consciousness is projected into the future becoming of individuality.

PTS: Will (1), II.45
WP: Volition, I.576
ATI: Intention, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.

39. Dutiya Cetanā Suttaɱ, II.66

The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness and the rest of the links in the chain of dependent factors leading to birth and old age, sickness and death.
An even more convincing argument for the case of translating saŋkhāra as 'own-making'. Here intent, etc. leading to consciousness takes the place of saŋkhāra 'own-making', in an otherwise conventional listing of the links in the Paṭicca Samuppada.

PTS: Will 2, II.46
WP: Volition 2, I.576
Discussion

40. Tatiya Cetanā Suttaɱ, II.66

The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness and there follows a bending down to a going to a coming into rebirth, aging and death in the future.
A third variation on the previous two, briefly encapsulating the idea of the Paṭicca Samuppada into 'a basis for consciousness having been established there is going on to rebirth and all that follows.
A very important set of suttas!

PTS: Will 3, II.46
WP: Volition 3, I.577

V. Gahapati Vagga, II.68

41. Paṭhavi Pañca-Vera-Bhagayā Suttaɱ, II.68

The Buddha tells Anathapindika that when a layman is able to identify in himself that he is free from the five sources of guilty dread in poor ethical behavior, when he has solid faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and when he has wised up to the aristocratic method, he may call himself a Streamwinner and assure himself that rebirth below human states is finished.
Faith in the Buddha is faith that Gotama did in fact achieve the end of pain, faith in the Dhamma is faith that that is the way to do it, faith in the Sangha is faith that those in the various stages of awakening are following the path pointed out by Gotama, and that, as such, they are worthy of honor. Understanding the Aristocratic method is understanding the mechanism. It is not just knowledge of the links, but it is actually seeing how this leads to that.
Mrs. Rhys Davids has translated 'ariyo ñāyo' (Aristocratic Method or Noble Method) 'Ariyan truth', which could lead to confusion of this with the 'Ariyan Truths', which would be confusing translation but correct Dhamma and that is actually the basis for her translation. She quotes commentary: 'Buddhaghosa quotes a text which says that the Causal Law and the Eightfold Path are both ñāyo. I would go farther and say that they are two different ways of saying the same thing.

PTS: The Fivefold Guilty Dread (1), II.47
WP: Five Fearful Animosities 1, I.578

42. Dutiya Pañca-Vera-Bhagayā Suttaɱ, II.70

The Buddha tells a group of bhikkhus that when a disciple is able to identify in himself that he is free from the five sources of guilty dread in poor ethical behavior, when he has solid faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and when he has wised up to the aristocratic method, he may call himself a Streamwinner and assure himself that rebirth below human states is finished.

PTS: The Fivefold Guilty Dread, 2, II.50
WP: Five Fearful Animosities 2, I.580

43. Dukkha Suttaɱ, II.71

The Buddha explains a version of the Paticca Samuppada that begins with the six realms of the senses.
Another good possible translation for paṭicca! 'Turns into'. Blindness turns into own-making, own-making turns into consciousness; consciousness turns into named-forms; named forms turns into the six relms of the senses ...

PTS: Ill, II.50
WP: Suffering, I.580
Discussion

44. Loka Suttaɱ, II.73

The Buddha explains a version of the Paticca Samuppada that wherein the origin of the world begins with the six realms of the senses.
Note that as well as being another version of the Paticca Samuppada, this is an answer to the question "What is the origin of the world?" which is often said to be one of the questions that the Buddha did not answer. Those who say that he never explained the origin of the world did not read carefully those passages where he is asked about the origin of the world. In those passages he is not asked: what is the origin of the world? He is asked: 'Does the world exist?" and his response is either 'this is not explained by me' or 'it is not such as that'.

PTS: The World, II.51
WP: The World, 581
ATI: The World

45. Ñātika Suttaɱ, II.74

The Buddha utters to himself a version of the Paticca Samuppada that begins with the six realms of the senses.

PTS: Ñātika, II.51
WP: At Ñātika, I.582

46. Aññatara Suttaɱ, II.75

A question about who experiences the consequence of deeds leads to an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.

PTS: A Certain [brahmin], II.51
WP: A Certain Brahmin, 583
ATI: A Certain Brahman

47. Jāṇussoṇi Suttaɱ, II.76

A question about the existence or non-existence of the all leads to an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.

PTS: Jāṇussoṇi, II.52
WP: Jāṇussoṇi, I.584

48. Lokāyatika Suttaɱ, II.77

Questions about the existence and nature of the all lead to an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.

PTS: The Brahmin Wise in World-lore, II.53
WP: A Cosmologist, I.584
ATI: The Cosmologist

49. Paṭhama Ariyasāvaka Suttaɱ, II.77

The Buddha describes how the student of the Aristocrats is free from doubts concerning the origin and ending of pain (dukkha).

PTS: The Ariyan Disciple, II.54
WP: The Noble Disciple 1, I. 585

50. Dutiya Ariyasāvaka Suttaɱ, II.79

The Buddha describes how the student of the Aristocrats is free from doubts concerning the origin and ending of pain (dukkha).
This and the previous sutta are identical with the exception that in the first, in all editions but the Burmese, the Paticca Samuppada sequence begins with nama/rupa. This 'omition' has been added in in brackets by Bhk. Bodhi and Rhys Davids, but I suggest that this is really two different suttas and that the idea of it beginning with nama/rupa is itself instructive. Blindness yielding up own-making is done by an existing nama/rupa with consciousness. The beginning point of the S.P. is not iron-bound to one of it's links. This sort of 'clarification' is frequent in the Burmese edition of the Pali.

PTS: The Ariyan Disciple 2, II.55
WP: The Noble Disciple 2, I.586

VI. Rukkha Vagga, II.80

51. Parivimaɱsana Suttaɱ, II.80

An outline of the practice to be used by the person interested in comprehending the Paticca Samuppada.
An important sutta for understanding the method of investigation. The word used here is Parivīmaɱsa. Pari = pass-around; vīmaɱsa: re-member, in the sense of pondering over bringing to mind the various aspects of a thing. This is translated by Bhk. Bodhi as 'thorough investigation' which is also used for the translation of yoniso-manisikara (tracing back in memory the origin of a thing). The distinction is that Parivīmaɱsa encompasses yoniso-manisikara and then projects it forward into those insights which should arise from the determination of the origin of a thing. Generally, however, yoniso-manisikara is more frequently encountered and apparently is assumed to result in these insights.
Vīmaɱsa: should not be confused with vicara, also translated 'pondering,' although vimaɱsa is probably vicara,.
Also included in this sutta is a test that measures one's understanding. If one is still making plans, one has not yet got a thorough understanding. This means that although one may understand in theory, intellectually, the real job here is 'seeing' or 'knowing': seeing the inevitable progression from own-making to death in the mind's eye in the real world in absolutely every plan-making without exception.

PTS: Pondering, II.55
WP: Thorough Investigation, I. 586

52. Upādāna Suttaɱ, II.84

The Buddha likens contimplation of delight in sense pleasures to throwing fuel on a fire. This is a great example of how early translations influence later translations to the exclusion of reasoned reflection. We must credit Bhk. Thanissaro for a break from 'grasping' and 'clinging' even though he has used 'clinging' in his translation of this sutta. He was first to note that what Upādāna really stood for was 'fuel' that which supports coming into existence. It is not just 'grasping' but must encompass a much broader spectrum of ideas. The literal meaning of the word is 'Up-giving' or 'up-binding'. We say 'fuel-up'. I have used 'bind-up' and 'support' in an effort to stick closer to the etymology and have used 'fuel' or 'fueling' occasionally. In any case this sutta should have openened everyone's eyes, but the early translator's understanding of the Paticca Samuppada as a progressive series of causes made them seek out a word which more closely fit their idea of what would result in the coming to be of an individual and blinded everyone to the idea that what this was was the work of mind, pondering, wishing and intending that fueled the fire of existence.

PTS: Grasping, II.59
WP: Clinging, I.589
ATI: Clinging

53. Saññojana Suttaɱ, II.86

The Buddha likens the yokes to rebirth to the maintenance necessary to keep an oil lamp burning.
Very similar to the previous sutta, the distinction to be drawn from the similes is that while upādāna is strictly 'fueling', the saññojana involves other maintenance tasks. One does not just add more oil, one must also trim the wick. That's the wiki-wacki-wiki.

The Andrews Sisters – The Carioca

"The Carioca" as written by Edward Eliscu, Gus Kahn and Vincent Youmans:

Say, have you seen a Carioca?
It's not a foxtrot or a polka
It has a little bit of new rhythm, a blue rhythm that sighs

It has a meter that is tricky
A bit of wicked wacky-wicky
But when you dance it with a new love, there's a true love in her eye ...

Now you'll dream of a new Carioca
Its theme is a kiss and a sigh
You'll dream of a new Carioca
When music and lights are gone and we're saying goodbye
Goodbye

Lyrics Ō Warner/Chappell Music, Inc., THE SONGWRITERS GUILD OF AMERICA

 

The contimplation of the pleasures to be found in sense experience is the fuel or underlying motivation, the yokes to rebirth (viewpoints concerning self, doubts, trust in good works and ethical conduct, wanting pleasure, deviance, lust for material things, lust for immaterial things, pride, fear and blindness) are the mechanisms, the means of maintenance, the actions of fueling, that are used by the individual to keep the flame burning. One needs to eliminate both, but the elimination of one eliminates the other. An important distinction that is the explanation I was looking for to point out why ideas such as 'grasping' are not a good translation for 'upādāna'. And if you will permit I will suggest also that this is the real meaning of Dhamma Research. Bear down on what is actually being said by Gotama, and even the sequences of the suttas, and it will be seen that the questions that arise in one's mind have been anticipated and answered by The Buddha. The Dhamma teaches the translator how to translate.

PTS: Fetters, II.60
WP: Fetters, 590

54. Dutiya Saññojana Suttaɱ, II.87

The Buddha likens the yokes to rebirth to the maintenance necessary to keep an oil lamp burning.
This sutta is included in Bhk. Bodhi's book only by reference to the previous sutta which is nearly identical, omitting only the repetition of the explanation of the origin and ending of pain.

PTS: Fetters 2, II.61
WP: Fetters 2, I.590

55. Mahā Rukkha Suttaɱ, II.87

The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
Of course he recommends chopping the tree down and destroying it's every trace. It is interesting to note that there is a great variation in the use made of the same image in similes throughout the suttas. The Great Stable and Pithy Tree is often made to be the simile for the Buddha's Dhamma, where here it is made to be all that stands for the world of Pain.

PTS: The Great Tree, II.61
WP: The Great Tree, I.591

56. Dutiya Mahā Rukkha Suttaɱ, II.88

The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
This sutta is included in Bhk. Bodhi's book only by reference to the previous sutta which is nearly identical, omitting only the repetition of the explanation of the origin and ending of pain.

PTS: The Great Tree 2, II.62
WP: The Great Tree 2, I.591

57. Taruṇa-rukkha Suttaɱ, II.89

The Buddha likens the contimplation of that which yokes one to rebirth to the prospects of a young tree that is well tended and recommends in stead chopping that young tree down and destroying it completely.
Here Mrs. Rhys Davids confronts the clear indication that upādāna means fuel by stating that it means fuel and grasping equally. PED has 'grasping' and such as meaning #2. It looks to me as though in all cases 'fueled' would do and would be more clear. Does a fire 'cling' to the wood? (Well, there was this belief at one point, and it is interesting to think that the fire by that consumes/desroys the wood.) I think the whole idea of grasping is encompassed earlier in the sequence by the idea of taṇhā, or thirst.
Why repeat the previous sutta for a young tree? Possibly because some young trees might not recognize themselves in the image of a great tree. Possibly some teaching Dhamma might think the idea applied only to great trees.

PTS: The Sapling, 62
WP: The Sapling, I.591

58. Nāma-rūpa Suttaɱ, II.90

The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
A variation of #55 above, but in this case in stead of saying that such contimplations lead to fueling rebirth, he states that they lead to a 'descent' of named-shapes. In other words he has placed this thinking about such things in the position of blindness resulting in own-making resulting in consciousness resulting in named-shapes. Again note that the idea is not 'cause' but 'a descent of' as though named-shapes were a previously existing phenomena that attached themselves to own-making. I am not suggesting that there is any actual pre-existing nameed-shape, but only that it is 'like that'. We are talking about the arising (or descent) of an illusion which does not require any 'substance,' pre- or post.

PTS: Name-and-Shape, II.63
WP: Name-and-Form, 592

59. Viññāṇa Suttaɱ, II.91

The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
A variation of the previous, this time the result being said to be the descent of consciousness. One step back from the previous. So the three previous suttas are being shown to be equivalents with different elaboration of the details.

PTS: Consciousness, II.64
WP: Consciousness, I.593

60. Nidāna (Paṭicca-Samuppāda) Suttaɱ, II.92

After Ananda praises the exposition of the Paticca Samuppada to him, The Buddha cautions him that this is no easy thing to see and he goes on to liken the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.

PTS: The Base, II.64
WP: Causation, I.593

VII. Mahā Vagga, II.94

61. Paṭhama Assutavato Suttaɱ, II.94

The Buddha points out that because it is easier to become repelled by body than by mind, that it would be better for most people if they thought of the body as the self that way they would not be attached to it and might more easily become free from it. Then he compairs the mind to a monkey traveling from branch to branch.
An interesting point to be noted in this sutta is the way the Buddha speaks of 'this very heart' (citta) or 'this very mind' (mano) or 'this very consciousness' (viññāṇa) as being synonyms for each other in essentially the same way we think about these things.

PTS: The Untaught, II.65
WP: Uninstructed 1, I.595
ATI: Uninstructed Bhk. Thanissaro trans.
The Spiritually-Unlearned (1) Nizamis trans.

62. Dutiya Assutava Suttaɱ, II.95

The Buddha points out that because it is easier to become repelled by body than by mind, that it would be better for most people if they thought of the body as the self that way they would not be attached to it and might more easily become free from it. Then he describes how it is that consciousness arises through contact, sense-experience and perception and that it is by perceiving that that detachment leads to freedom and the knowledge of freedom.
This sutta begins as the previous, omits the simile of the monkey, and finishes with what is essentially a condensation of the Paṭicca Samuppāda into four steps: contact, sense-experience, perception and consciousness.

PTS: The Untaught 2, II.67
WP: Uninstructed 2, I.596
Buddhism in Translations, SN NV 12.62 Warren, trans.

63. Puttamaɱsa Suttaɱ, II.97

In an exposition on the four foods the Buddha gives a vivid simile for the real nature of food.

PTS: Child's flesh, II.67
WP: Son's Flesh, 597
ATI: A Son's Flesh
BD: Son's Flesh

64. Atthirāgo Suttaɱ, II.101

The Buddha explains how where there is desire concerning any of the four foods that provides the basis for future re-birth.

PTS: There is passion, II.70
WP: If There is Lust, I.599
ATI: Where There Is Passion, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
BD: Where There Is Lust, Olds, trans.

65. Nagara Suttaɱ, II.104

The Buddha describes his method of thinking prior to becoming awakened.

PTS: The City, II.72
WP: The City, I.601
ATI: The City
BD: The Lost Citadel, mo trans

66. Sammasam Suttaɱ, II.107

The Buddha teaches a method for self-mastery based on conceptualizing the world and it's pleasures and delights as inherantly painful.

PTS: Handling, II.75
WP: Exploration, I.604

67. Nalakalapiyaɱ Suttaɱ, II.112

Maha-Kotthita puts questions about the Paticca Samuppada to Sariputta. He frames his questions in the form of the four basic propositions about existence put into questions about whether or not the links in the Paticca Samuppada are created by the self or other or both or neither.
Sāriputta's responses are followed by the 36 statements made in SN 2.16.
Rather than dispute with the other translations item by item, I have taken Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation and completely reworked it closely following the Pali. It amounts to almost a completely new translation but taking less than half the time of doing a complete new translation.
The interesting and important thing in this sutta is the simile, which if given careful thought clears up any doubt as to what it is that the Paticca Samuppada is really saying. It is important to understand that this is not a simile about the coming into existence of the sheaves of reeds. In the simile the sheaves of reeds already exist. The simile is about the ability of the two sheaves of reeds to stand upright only insofar as they are supported by one another. We are here given insight into the meaning of the term 'paccaya', that is, that it means to lean on, support, or to be depended on. (Also, Bhk. Thanissaro's 'requisite condition') Here: 'supported by birth is aging and death' or 'depending on birth is aging and death'. This pretty much fundamentally changes all previous translations of the Paticca Samuppada that ... um ... support the idea of creation or cause. I have used dependence, but also 'result' which is not quite correct and which I will as time and opportunity allows alter throughout this site to conform with this more precise understanding. Some persons are brought to understanding through similes.

PTS: The Sheaf of Reeds, II.79
WP: The Sheaves of Reeds, I.607
ATI: Sheaves of Reeds
BD: Sheaves of Reeds, Olds, trans.

68. Kosambī Suttaɱ, II.115

Venerable Savittha questions the Venerable Musila about whether or not apart from belief, inclination, hearsay, argument as to method, reflection on and approval of an opinion, he has, as his very own, the knowledge of the various steps of the Paticca Samuppada and of the knowledge that the ending of becoming is Nibbana. In all cases he states that he has such knowldge. And when the Venerable Savittha declares him an arahant he remains silent. Then the Venerable Narada, who has overheard this dialogue asks that the same questions be asked of him and when asked he responds in the same way. But when Savittha pronounces him too an arahant, Narada explains that while he has personal knowledge of these things, he has not attained them. And he gives the simile of the thirsty man who comes across a well with no means to retrieve the water.
It is an interesting mystery here as to what exactly Narada has accomplished. Has he just made the fact known that it is possible to know and see the goal without having achieved it, or is he making some statement concerning Musila's attainment and Savittha's understanding of what constitutes arahantship? Ananda, who is present during this dialogue makes a statement which seems to point to the latter case.
Mrs. Rhys Davids translates 'bhava' as 'becoming' which is not incorrect, but in it's place in the Paticca Samuppada it has more to do with the potential for being such and such a sort of so and so in some place of being, rather than the process of becoming such. Elsewhere she objects strenuously to the statement that the ending of becoming is Nibbāna as her whole position is that the Buddha's doctrine is the teaching of an on-going becoming. But this misses the point of the Paticca Samuppada which defines being as a matter of blindness to the fact that personal identification with acts intended to create the experience of becoming result in Pain.

PTS: Kosambī, II.81
WP: Kosambī, I. 609
ATI: At Kosambi (On Knowing Dependent Co-arising)

69. Upayanti Suttaɱ, II.118

The Buddha likens the momentum of ignorance to the way the rise and fall of the sea-level influences the momentum of the flow of water in the great rivers, streams, lakes, and feeder streams.
This sutta poses some difficulties with regard to making the simile comport with the message. The words to understand here are upaya (PED: approach, undertaking, taking up; clinging to, attachment ... in an- (anūpaya metri causa) not going near, aloof, unattached) from upa-upāya, and apaya from an-upāya (I say), which would have the meaning here not of rise or fall, but of flow or impeded momentum.
There is a phenomena seen in rivers emptying into the ocean of a reverse of flow at flood-tide; but it effects the flow of the river for only a short distance back into the land and it's hard to think that there is any effect at all on the feeder streams or further back. It may happen at a certain very subtle level. I would read the Pali: 'A rise in the ocean impeeds access to it by the river, etc.'

PTS: The Swelling [Tide], II.83
WP: The Surge, I.611

70. Susīma Suttaɱ, II.119

Susima enters the order to learn the secret of Gotama's ability to generate respect and donatives. There he hears about bhikkhus gaining Arahantship and quesions them about super-normal powers. These bhikkhus tell him they have no super-normal powers and have been awakened through wisdom. Questioning the Buddha about this he learns to appreciate the Dhamma and confesses his earlier bad intentions.
Apart from the controversy as to whether or not this sutta is evidence that Arahantship can be gained without experience of jhana this sutta has another difficult issue to deal with. The bhikkhus that have declared Arahantship (Aññā) have said they did so by way of Wisdom. The thing to note is that in response to being questioned by Susima about this, the Buddha asks him a series of questions which when complete imply the definition of the method of attaining arahantship by way of wisdom (knowing and seeing the Paticca Samuppada) along with the idea that knowledge and vision have arisen without attaining magic powers. We can see that that Susima knows and sees, but he has not declared Arahantship. Knowing and seeing are not the same thing as Arahantship. But Susima (and the reader) can, on knowing and seeing according to this method see that it does not necessarily involve these attainments.

PTS: Susīma, II.84
WP: Susīma, I.612
ATI: About Susima
Discussion

VIII. Ssmaṇa-brāhmaṇa Vagga, II.129

Covering Suttas 71-81. Any shaman or brahman who does not understand the Paticca Samuppada in all it's details has not realized the benefits of being a shaman or brahman.

71-81: II.129 (all on one file)
71. Jarā-Māraṇa Suttaɱ,
72. Jāti Suttaɱ,
73. Bhava Suttaɱ,
74. Upādāna Suttaɱ,
75. Taṇhā Suttaɱ,
76. Vedanā Suttaɱ,
77. Phassa Suttaɱ,
78. Saḷāyatana Suttaɱ,
79. Nāma-Rūpa Suttaɱ,
80. Viññāṇa Suttaɱ,
81. Saŋkhāra Suttaɱ,

PTS: 71-81: (all on one file; pages 92-93)
71. Decay-and-Death,
72. Birth,
73. Becoming,
74. Grasping,
75. Craving,
76. Feeling,
77. Contact,
78. Sense,
79. Name-and-Shape,
80. Consciousness,
81. Activities.

WP: 71. Aging-and-Death, I.619
WP: 72-81: Birth, etc., I.619

IX. Antara Peyyālaɱ, II.130

82. Satthā Vagga, II.130

The person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications should find a teacher to instruct him.

PTS: The Teacher, II.93
WP: A Teacher, I.620

83. Sikkhā Vagga, II.131

The person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications should train himself in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Training, II.93
WP: Training, I.620

84. Yogo Vagga, II.131

The person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications should put into practice the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Practice, II.93
WP: 84 - 93: Exertion, etc., I.620

85. Chando Vagga, II.132

The person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications should exert will to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Will, II.94

86. Ussoḷhī Vagga, II.132

The person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications should exert energy to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Exertion, II.94

87. Appaṭivāni Vagga, II.132

For the person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications there must be no turning back in his efforts to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: No Turning Back, II.94

88. Atappam Vagga, II.132

For the person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications there must be ardour in his efforts to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Ardour, II.94

89. Viriyam Vagga, II.132

For the person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications there must be energy in his efforts to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Energy, II.94

90. Sātaccam Vagga, II.132

For the person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications there must be perseverance in his efforts to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Perseverance, II.94

91. Sati Vagga, II.132

For the person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications there must be mindfulness in his efforts to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Mindfulness, II.94

92. Sampajaññaɱ Vagga, II.132

For the person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications there must be understanding in his efforts to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Understanding, II.94

93. Appamādo Vagga, II.132

For the person who understands that he does not understand pain in all its ramifications there must be carefulness in his efforts to understand the teachings found in this Dhamma and Discipline.

PTS: Earnestness, II.94

 


 

 [I. Sagathavagga]  [II. Nidanavagga]  [III. Khandhavagga]  [IV. Salayatanavagga]  [V. Mahavagga]

 [Nidanasamyutta]  [Abhisamayasamyutta]  [Dhatusamyutta]  [Anamataggasamyutta]  [Kassapasamyutta]  [Labhasakkarasamyutta]  [Rahulasamyutta]  [Lakkhanasamyutta]  [Opammasamyutta]  [Bhikkhusamyutta]

 


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