Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
2. Sīhanāda Vagga

Sutta 13

Mahā-Dukkhakkhandha Suttaɱ

The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Stress

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Provenance, terms and conditons

 


 

[1][chlm][pts][ntbb][upal] I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi at Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery.

Then, early in the morning,
several monks put on their robes and,
carrying their bowls and outer robes,
went into Savatthi for alms.

The thought occurred to them,
"It's still too early
to go into Savatthi for alms.
What if we were to visit the park
of the wanderers of other persuasions?"

So they headed to the park
of the wanderers of other persuasions.
On arrival, they exchanged courteous greetings
with the wanderers of other persuasions.
After an exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies,
they sat to one side.
As they were sitting there,
the wanderers of other persuasions said to them,

"Friends, Gotama the contemplative
describes the comprehension of sensuality.
We, too, describe the comprehension of sensuality.
He describes the comprehension of forms.
We, too, describe the comprehension of forms.
He describes the comprehension of feelings.
We, too, describe the comprehension of feelings.
So what is the difference,
what the distinction,
what the distinguishing factor
between him and us
in terms of his teaching and ours,
his message and ours?"

The monks, neither delighting nor disapproving
of the words of the wanderers of other persuasions,
got up from their seats, [thinking,]
"We will learn the meaning of these words
in the Blessed One's presence."

Then, having gone for alms in Savatthi,
after their meal,
returning from their alms round,
the monks went to the Blessed One
and, on arrival,
having bowed down to him,
sat to one side.
As they were sitting there,
they [told him what had happened].

"Monks, when the wanderers of other persuasions say this,
they are to be told,
'What, friends, with regard to sensuality,
is the allure,
what the drawback,
what the escape?

What, with regard to forms,
is the allure,
what the drawback,
what the escape?

What, with regard to feelings,
is the allure,
what the drawback,
what the escape?'

When asked this,
they will not manage an answer
and, what is more,
will get themselves into trouble.
Why is that?

Because it lies outside their range.
Monks, in this world
with its devas, maras, and brahmas,
in this people with its contemplatives and priests,
its royalty and commonfolk,
I do not see anyone
who can satisfy the mind
with an answer to these questions,
aside from a Tathagata,
a Tathagata's disciples,
or someone who has heard it from them.

Sensuality

"Now what, monks,
is the allure of sensuality?

These five strings of sensuality.
Which five?

Forms cognizable via the eye
— agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, fostering desire, enticing.
Sounds cognizable via the ear...
Aromas cognizable via the nose...
Flavors cognizable via the tongue...
Tactile sensations cognizable via the body
— agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, fostering desire, enticing.

Now whatever pleasure or joy arises
in dependence on these five strands of sensuality,
that is the allure of sensuality.

"And what is the drawback of sensuality?

There is the case where,
on account of the occupation
by which a clansman makes a living
— whether checking or accounting or calculating
or plowing or trading or cattle-tending
or archery or as a king's man,
or whatever the occupation may be —
he faces cold,
he faces heat,
being harassed by mosquitoes and flies,
wind and sun and creeping things,
dying from hunger and thirst.

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"If the clansman gains no wealth
while thus working and striving and making effort,
he sorrows, grieves, and laments,
beats his breast,
becomes distraught:
'My work is in vain,
my efforts are fruitless!'

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"If the clansman gains wealth
while thus working and striving and making effort,
he experiences pain and distress in protecting it:
'How will neither kings nor thieves
make off with my property,
nor fire burn it,
nor water sweep it away,
nor hateful heirs make off with it?'

And as he thus guards and watches over his property,
kings or thieves make off with it,
or fire burns it,
or water sweeps it away,
or hateful heirs make off with it.
And he sorrows, grieves, and laments,
beats his breast, becomes distraught:
'What was mine is no more!'

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"Again, it is with sensuality for the reason,
sensuality for the source,
sensuality for the cause,
the reason being simply sensuality,
that kings quarrel with kings,
nobles with nobles,
priests with priests,
householders with householders,
mother with child,
child with mother,
father with child,
child with father,
brother with brother,
sister with sister,
brother with sister,
sister with brother,
friend with friend.

And then in their quarrels, brawls, and disputes,
they attack one another with fists
or with clods
or with sticks
or with knives,
so that they incur death or deadly pain.

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"Again, it is with sensuality for the reason,
sensuality for the source,
sensuality for the cause,
the reason being simply sensuality,
that (men), taking swords and shields
and buckling on bows and quivers,
charge into battle massed in double array
while arrows and spears are flying
and swords are flashing;
and there they are wounded by arrows and spears,
and their heads are cut off by swords,
so that they incur death
or deadly pain.

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"Again, it is with sensuality for the reason,
sensuality for the source,
sensuality for the cause,
the reason being simply sensuality,
that (men), taking swords and shields
and buckling on bows and quivers,
charge slippery bastions
while arrows and spears are flying
and swords are flashing;
and there they are splashed
with boiling cow dung
and crushed under heavy weights,
and their heads are cut off by swords,
so that they incur death
or deadly pain.

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"Again, it is with sensuality for the reason,
sensuality for the source,
sensuality for the cause,
the reason being simply sensuality,
that (men) break into windows,
seize plunder,
commit burglary,
ambush highways,
commit adultery,
and when they are captured,
kings have them tortured in many ways.

They flog them with whips,
beat them with canes,
beat them with clubs.
They cut off their hands,
cut off their feet,
cut off their hands and feet.
They cut off their ears,
cut off their noses,
cut off their ears and noses.
They subject them to the 'porridge pot,'
the 'polished-shell shave,'
the 'Rahu's mouth,'
the 'flaming garland,'
the 'blazing hand,'
the 'grass-duty (ascetic),'
the 'bark-dress (ascetic),'
the 'burning antelope,'
the 'meat hooks,'
the 'coin-gouging,'
the 'lye pickling,'
the 'pivot on a stake,'
the 'rolled-up bed.'
They have them splashed with boiling oil,
devoured by dogs,
impaled alive on stakes.
They have their heads cut off with swords,
so that they incur death
or deadly pain.

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"Again, it is with sensuality for the reason,
sensuality for the source,
sensuality for the cause,
the reason being simply sensuality,
that (people) engage in bodily misconduct,
verbal misconduct,
mental misconduct.

Having engaged in bodily, verbal, and mental misconduct, they
— on the break-up of the body, after death —
re-appear in the plane of deprivation,
the bad destination,
the lower realms,
in hell.

"Now this drawback in the case of sensuality,
this mass of stress visible here and now,
has sensuality for its reason,
sensuality for its source,
sensuality for its cause,
the reason being simply sensuality.

"And what, monks,
is the escape from sensuality?

The subduing of desire-passion for sensuality,
the abandoning of desire-passion for sensuality:
That is the escape from sensuality.

"That any priests or contemplatives
who do not discern,
as it actually is,
the allure of sensuality as allure,
the drawback of sensuality as drawback,
the escape from sensuality as escape,
would themselves comprehend sensuality
or would rouse another with the truth
so that, in line with what he has practiced,
he would comprehend sensuality:
That is impossible.

But that any priests or contemplatives
who discern,
as it actually is,
the allure of sensuality as allure,
the drawback of sensuality as drawback,
the escape from sensuality as escape,
would themselves comprehend sensuality
or would rouse another with the truth
so that, in line with what he has practiced,
he would comprehend sensuality:
That is possible.

Form

"Now what, monks, is the allure of forms?

Suppose there were a maiden
of the noble caste, the brahman caste, or the householder class,
fifteen or sixteen years old,
neither too tall nor too short,
neither too thin nor too plump,
neither too dark nor too pale.
Is her beauty and charm at that time
at its height?"

"Yes, lord."

"Whatever pleasure and joy
arise in dependence on that beauty and charm:
That is the allure of forms."

"And what is the drawback of form?

There is the case
where one might see that very same woman
at a later time,
when she's eighty, ninety, one hundred years old:
aged, roof-rafter crooked, bent-over,
supported by a cane,
palsied, miserable, broken-toothed,
gray-haired, scanty-haired, bald, wrinkled,
her body all blotchy.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"This, monks, is the drawback of forms.

"Again, one might see that very same woman
sick, in pain, and seriously ill,
lying soiled with her own urine and excrement,
lifted up by others,
laid down by others.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"This too, monks, is the drawback of forms.

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as a corpse cast away in a charnel ground
— one day,
two days,
three days dead,
bloated, livid, and oozing.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"This too, monks, is the drawback of forms.

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as a corpse cast away in a charnel ground
picked at by crows, vultures, and hawks,
by dogs, hyenas, and various other creatures.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as a skeleton
smeared with flesh and blood,
connected with tendons.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as a fleshless skeleton
smeared with blood,
connected with tendons.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as a skeleton
without flesh or blood,
connected with tendons

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as bones
detached from their tendons,
scattered in all directions
— here a hand bone,
there a foot bone,
here a shin bone,
there a thigh bone,
here a hip bone,
there a back bone,
here a rib,
there a breast bone,
here a shoulder bone,
there a neck bone,
here a jaw bone,
there a tooth,
here a skull.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as bones whitened,
somewhat like the color of shells

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as bones piled up,
more than a year old

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"Again, one might see that very same woman
as bones decomposed into a powder.

What do you think:
Has her earlier beauty and charm vanished,
and the drawback appeared?"

"Yes, lord."

"This too, monks, is the drawback of forms.

"And what, monks, is the escape from forms?

The subduing of desire-passion for forms,
the abandoning of desire-passion for forms:
That is the escape from form.

"That any priests or contemplatives
who do not discern,
as it actually is,
the allure of forms as allure,
the drawback of forms as drawback,
the escape from forms as escape,
would themselves comprehend form
or would rouse another with the truth
so that, in line with what he has practiced,
he would comprehend form:
That is impossible.

But that any priests or contemplatives
who discern, as it actually is,
the allure of forms as allure,
the drawback of forms as drawback,
the escape from forms as escape,
would themselves comprehend form
or would rouse another with the truth
so that, in line with what he has practiced,
he would comprehend form:
That is possible.

Feeling

"Now what, monks,
is the allure of feelings?

There is the case where a monk
— quite withdrawn from sensuality,
withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities
— enters and remains in the first jhana:
rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal,
accompanied by directed thought and evaluation.

At that time he does not intend his own affliction,
the affliction of others,
or the affliction of both.

He feels a feeling totally unafflicted.
The unafflicted, I tell you,
is the highest allure of feelings.

"Again the monk,
with the stilling of directed thought and evaluation,
enters and remains in the second jhana:
rapture and pleasure born of composure,
unification of awareness
free from directed thought and evaluation
— internal assurance

At that time he does not intend his own affliction,
the affliction of others,
or the affliction of both.

He feels a feeling totally unafflicted.
The unafflicted, I tell you,
is the highest allure of feelings.

With the fading of rapture
he remains in equanimity,
mindful and alert,
physically sensitive of pleasure.
He enters and remains in the third jhana,
of which the Noble Ones declare,
'Equanimous and mindful,
he has a pleasurable abiding.'

At that time he does not intend his own affliction,
the affliction of others,
or the affliction of both.

He feels a feeling totally unafflicted.
The unafflicted, I tell you,
is the highest allure of feelings.

With the abandoning of pleasure and pain
— as with the earlier disappearance
of elation and distress —
he enters and remains in the fourth jhana:
purity of equanimity and mindfulness,
neither pleasure nor pain.

At that time he does not intend his own affliction,
the affliction of others,
or the affliction of both.

He feels a feeling totally unafflicted.
The unafflicted, I tell you,
is the highest allure of feelings.

"And what is the drawback of feelings?

The fact that feeling is inconstant,
stressful,
subject to change:
This is the drawback of feelings.

"And what is the escape from feelings?

The subduing of desire-passion for feelings,
the abandoning of desire-passion for feelings:
That is the escape from feelings.

"That any priests or contemplatives
who do not discern,
as it actually is,
the allure of feelings as allure,
the drawback of feelings as drawback,
the escape from feelings as escape,
would themselves comprehend feeling
or would rouse another with the truth
so that, in line with what he has practiced,
he would comprehend feeling:
That is impossible.

But that any priests or contemplatives
who discern,
as it actually is,
the allure of feelings as allure,
the drawback of feelings as drawback,
the escape from feelings as escape,
would themselves comprehend feeling
or would rouse another with the truth
so that, in line with what he has practiced,
he would comprehend feeling:
That is possible."

That is what the Blessed One said.
Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.


 

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