Anguttara Nikaya


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Aŋguttaranikāyo
Catukkanipāto
XVII: Paṭipadā Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Fours
Chapter XVII: Footpaths

Sutta 169

Kilesa-Parinibbāna Suttaṃ

Afflicted Extinguishment

Translated from the Pali by Michael Olds

 


 

[1][pts] I HEAR TELL:

On a certain occasion the Lucky Man addressed the beggars, saying:

'Beggars!'

'Bhadante!' replied those beggars to the Lucky Man.

Bhagava said:

2. Four, beggars, are those persons to be discovered in this world.

What four?

Here, beggars, one person
in this seen thing
has with-own-making[1]-thorough-extinguishment.

Here, again, beggars, one person
upon the breakup of the body[2]
has with-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

Here, again, beggars, one person
in this seen thing
has without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

Here, again, beggars, one person
upon the breakup of the body
has without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

 


 

And what person, beggars,
has, in this seen thing,
with-own-making-thorough-extinguishment?

Here, beggars, a beggar lives
viewing bodily-uglyness,
perceiving food contra-inclination,[3]
perceiving whole-world-non-delight,
viewing transience in everything own-made[1].

Then furthermore his perception of death is internally well-established.

He sets up and lives by these five seeker's powers:

The power of faith
the power of shame
the power of fear of blame
the power of energy
the power of wisdom.

Also in him, five forces are manifest in great measure:

The force of faith,
the force of energy,
the force of serenity,
the force of wisdom.

He, in him five forces being manifest in great measure,
in this seen thing
gets with-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

This is then, beggars, the person
who in this seen thing
has with-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

 


 

And what person, beggars,
upon the breakup of the body
has with-own-making-thorough-extinguishment?

Here, beggars, a beggar lives
viewing bodily-uglyness,
perceiving food contra-inclination,
perceiving whole-world-non-delight,
viewing transience in everything own-made.

Then furthermore his perception of death is internally well-established.

He sets up and lives by these five seeker's powers:

The power of faith
the power of shame
the power of fear of blame
the power of energy
the power of wisdom.

Also in him, five forces are manifest mildly[4]:

The force of faith,
the force of energy,
the force of serenity,
the force of wisdom.

He, in him five forces being manifest mildly,
in this seen thing
gets with-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

This is then, beggars, the person
who in this seen thing
has with-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

 


 

And what person, beggars,
in this seen thing
has without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment?

Here, beggars, a beggar,
separated from sense-pleasures,
separated from unskilled things,
with thinking,
with pondering,
lives the pleasureable enthusiasm born of separation
arising in the first jhāna.

Desolving thinking and pondering,
internally impassive
become whole-heartedly single-minded[5]
without thinking,
without pondering,
he lives the pleasureable enthusiasm born of serenity
arising in the second jhāna.

Detached from etheusiasm and dispassionate
and living mindful and pleasantly self-aware
he lives bodily experiencing
that which the Aristocrats call:

"The detached, mindful, pleasant living,"|| ||

arising in the third jhāna.

Letting go of pleasure,
letting go of pain,
with the preceding mental ease and misery in retreat,
without pain, without pleasure,
he lives in the surpassing purity of mental detachment
arising in the fourth jhāna.

He sets up and lives by these five seeker's powers:

The power of faith
the power of shame
the power of fear of blame
the power of energy
the power of wisdom.

Also in him, five forces are in great measure:

The force of faith,
the force of energy,
the force of serenity,
the force of wisdom.

He, in him five forces being manifest in great measure,
in this seen thing
gets without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

This is then, beggars, the person
who in this seen thing
has without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment.

 


 

And what person, beggars,
upon the breakup of the body
has without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment?

Here, beggars, a beggar,
separated from sense-pleasures,
separated from unskilled things,
with thinking,
with pondering,
lives the pleasureable enthusiasm born of separation
arising in the first jhāna.

Desolving thinking and pondering,
internally impassive
become whole-heartedly single-minded
without thinking,
without pondering,
he lives the pleasureable enthusiasm born of serenity
arising in the second jhāna.

Detached from etheusiasm and dispassionate
and living mindful and pleasantly self-aware
he lives bodily experiencing
that which the Aristocrats call:

"The detached, mindful, pleasant living,"|| ||

arising in the third jhāna.

Letting go of pleasure,
letting go of pain,
with the preceding mental ease and misery in retreat,
without pain, without pleasure,
he lives in the surpassing purity of mental detachment
arising in the fourth jhāna.

He sets up and lives by these five seeker's powers:

The power of faith
the power of shame
the power of fear of blame
the power of energy
the power of wisdom.

Also in him, five forces are manifest mildly:

The force of faith,
the force of energy,
the force of serenity,
the force of wisdom.

He, in him five forces being manifest mildly,
upon the breakup of the body
has without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment?

This is then, beggars, the person
upon the breakup of the body
has without-own-making-thorough-extinguishment?

These are the four persons, beggars, to be discovered in this world.

 


[1] (sā- and a-) saŋkhāra In the description of the type of person Woodward translates 'saŋkhāra' as 'with- and without effort'; but in the list of contemplations, he translates it 'activities'. Bhk. Bodhi does a similar thing using 'exertion' and 'conditioned phenomena'. 'Saŋkhāra' does have the dual meaning of the activity used to create personal existence and the identified-with existing thing, but the translation should make it more obvious that it is the two sides of this one idea that are being spoken of. 'Confounding' and 'the confounded' or 'fabricating' and 'the fabricated'. And it is not 'conditioned'! (see the discussion: Is Nibbana Conditioned) And the idea is not just 'activity' but 'identification with the intent to create the experience of pleasure through action of thought, speech, and body; and the identified with result. It is essential to grasp this idea in order to understand how the Buddha is distinguishing the two sets of individuals. The contimplation of the unpleasant involves saŋkhāra (it involves personal, identified-with perceptions and thoughts and intentions and behavior), where the jhānas do not (or, at least they evolve towards and culminate in detachment precluding own-making).

[2] Note not the usual kāyassa bhedā parama maranā 'upon the break-up of the body after death'.

[3] Āhāre paṭikkūlasaññī. Usually tranlated 'repulsiveness of food' (as Woodward, Bhk. Bodhi). But the literal meaning of paṭikkūlasaññī is 'against- (contra- anti- retro- re-) the-slope-perception' where, I believe the real idea is that eating food is contradictory behavior relative to the goal. So 'repellant' or 'repulsive' if heard literally are not incorrect, but do not bring out the reason food is repellant. There is this experience for the one bent on serenity: even one bite beyond what is absolutely necessary to maintain the body fogs up the mind and brings discomvort to the body for a very long time, and with sharp perception disinclination to eat or to eat more can be perceived and if followed brings great benefit. This may be the meaning and it is to indicate this idea that I have made this translation.

[4] Muduttā. Softly, tenderly, mildly. The word needs to have some positive connotation, for it is necessary that the forces be somewhat developed, if not strongly manifest as in the previous case.

[5] Cetaso ekodī-bhāvaṃ. 'Single-become at heart.' My latest attempt at a good translation of this much disputed phrase.

 


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