Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
2. Anupada Vagga

Sutta 112

Chabbisodhana Suttaɱ[1]

The Sixth Cleansing

Translated from the Pali by Michael M. Olds

 


 

Translator's Introduction

The questions to be asked when in doubt about some person's claim to be Arahant. I believe this is the first full translation of this sutta. The PTS and Bhks. Nanamoli and Bodi's translations have abbreviations and both re-use previous translations of the last section whereas it contains differences from the previously translated Pali. Sister Upalavana's translation is linked. She often mangles English, but her predisposition is to accurate translation independant of the other translators and consulting her choices is sometimes helpful.

 


 

[1][chlm][pts][ntbb][upal] 'ERE GOES ME 'EAR'N:

There come one time The Lucky Man's 'roun Savatthi revisit'n,
Jeta Woods, Anathapindika's Pleasure Grove
where to call the beggars,
"Beggars!" sais The Lucky Man.

"Broke-tooth!" sais the beggars to The Potter in response.

The Fortunate One then said this to them: —

Here, beggars, a beggar announces answer-knowledge:[2]

Birth: left behind,
carrying on as Brahma: finished,
duty's doing: done,
no further it'n-n-at'n[3] is to be known for me, say I.

Neither approve of nor belittle such a beggar's declaration, beggars.

Not approving or belittling, question, inquiring:

Four, my friend, are the modes of testifying proclaimed highest by The Lucky Man, knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

What four?

Saying as seen, the seen,
saying as heard, the heard,
saying as sensed, the sensed,
saying as known, the known.[4]

These are, friend, the four modes of testifying proclaimed highest by The Lucky man,
knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

So then, Ancient One,
in consideration of these four modes of testifying,
kowning what, seeing what,
do you say your heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions?

A being without corruptions, beggars —
a beggar who is finished,
duty's doing done,
laid down the load,
his own best interest brought forth,
the yokes to becoming[5] thoroughly destroyed,
by highest answer-knowledge liberated —
his answer would accord with such things if he were to say:

In the seen then, friend, I,
not-holding on,
not lost in,
not leaning on,
not reaction-bound to,
live released,
unyoked,
unrestrained in heart.

In the heard then, friend, I,
not-holding on,
not lost in,
not leaning on,
not reaction-bound to,
live released,
unyoked,
unrestrained in heart.

In the sensed then, friend, I,
not-holding on,
not lost in,
not leaning on,
not reaction-bound to,
live released,
unyoked,
unrestrained in heart.

In the known then, friend, I,
not-holding on,
not lost in,
not leaning on,
not reaction-bound to,
live released,
unyoked,
unrestrained in heart.

Even so, my friends,
thus knowing, seeing,
in terms of these four modes of testifying,
I say my heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions.

Such being so, beggars, express delight, speak out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words.

 

§

 

Having expressed delight, having spoken out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words, a deeper question should be put:

Five then my friend,
are the the piled up heaps[6]
proclaimed by The Lucky Man, knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

What five?

They are:
the piled up heap of shapes,
the piled up heap of sensations
the piled up heap of perceptions,
the piled up heap of own-makings,[7]
the piled up heap of consciousness's.

These then, friend,
are the the piled up heaps
proclaimed by The Lucky Man, knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

So then, Ancient One,
in terms of these five piled up heaps,
kowning what, seeing what,
do you say your heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions?

A being without corruptions, beggars —
a beggar who is finished,
duty's doing done,
laid down the load,
his own best interest brought forth,
the yokes to becoming thoroughly destroyed,
by highest answer-knowledge liberated —
his answer would accord with such things if he were to say:

Now then, friend, of shapes
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
disabling,
dissapating,
comfortless —
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of
such shapes,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Now then, friend, of sensations
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
disabling,
dissapating,
comfortless —
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of
such sensations,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Now then, friend, of perceptions
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
disabling,
dissapating,
comfortless —
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of
such perceptions,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Now then, friend, of own-makings
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
disabling,
dissapating,
comfortless —
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of
such own-makings,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Now then, friend, of consciousnesses
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
disabling,
dissapating,
comfortless —
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of
such consciousnesses,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Even so, my friends,
thus knowing, seeing,
in terms of these five piled up heaps,
I say my heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions.

Such being so, beggars, express delight, speak out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words.

 

§

 

Having expressed delight, having spoken out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words, a deeper question should be put:

Six, friend, are the data[8]
proclaimed by The Lucky Man, knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

What six?

Earth-data,
water-data,
fire/light-data,
wind-data,
space-data,
consciousness-data.

These are the six data, friend,
proclaimed by The Lucky Man, knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

So then, Ancient One,
in terms of these six data,
kowning what, seeing what,
do you say your heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions?

A being without corruptions, beggars —
a beggar who is finished,
duty's doing done,
laid down the load,
his own best interest brought forth,
the yokes to becoming thoroughly destroyed,
by highest answer-knowledge liberated —
his answer would accord with such things if he were to say:

Earth data, friend,
does not amount to self,
and self does not depend on earth data.

Now then, friend,
of that which depends on earth data,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Water data, friend,
does not amount to self,
and self does not depend on water data.

Now then, friend,
of that which depends on water data,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Fire/light data, friend,
does not amount to self,
and self does not depend on fire/light data.

Now then, friend,
of that which depends on fire/light data,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Wind data, friend,
does not amount to self,
and self does not depend on wind data.

Now then, friend,
of that which depends on wind data,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Space data, friend,
does not amount to self,
and self does not depend on space data.

Now then, friend,
of that which depends on space data,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Consciousness data, friend,
does not amount to self,
and self does not depend on consciousness data.

Now then, friend,
of that which depends on consciousness data,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Even so, my friends,
thus knowing, seeing,
in terms of these six data,
I say my heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions.

Such being so, beggars, express delight, speak out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words.

 

§

 

Having expressed delight, having spoken out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words, a deeper question should be put:

Six, friend, are the internal/external spheres[9]
proclaimed by The Lucky Man, knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

What six?

Eye and shapes
ear and sounds,
nose and scents,
tongue and tastes,
body and tangibles,
mind and things.

These, friend are the six internal/external spheres proclaimed by The Lucky Man, knower, seer, arahata, Highest-Own-Self-Awakened One.

So then, Ancient One,
in terms of these six internal/external spheres,
kowning what, seeing what,
do you say your heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions?

A being without corruptions, beggars —
a beggar who is finished,
duty's doing done,
laid down the load,
his own best interest brought forth,
the yokes to becoming thoroughly destroyed,
by highest answer-knowledge liberated —
his answer would accord with such things if he were to say:

With regard the eye, friend —
shapes and eye consciousness
knowledge of things through eye-consciousness —
whatever wishing,
whatever passion,
whatever delight,
whatever thirst,
that depends on the eye,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

With regard the ear, friend —
sounds and ear consciousness
knowledge of things through ear-consciousness —
whatever wishing,
whatever passion,
whatever delight,
whatever thirst,
that depends on the ear,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

With regard the nose, friend —
scents and nose consciousness
knowledge of things through nose-consciousness —
whatever wishing,
whatever passion,
whatever delight,
whatever thirst,
that depends on the nose,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

With regard the tongue, friend —
tastes and tongue consciousness
knowledge of things through tongue-consciousness —
whatever wishing,
whatever passion,
whatever delight,
whatever thirst,
that depends on the tongue,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

With regard the body, friend —
tangibles and body consciousness
knowledge of things through body-consciousness —
whatever wishing,
whatever passion,
whatever delight,
whatever thirst,
that depends on the body,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

With regard the mind, friend —
things and mind consciousness
knowledge of things through mind-consciousness —
whatever wishing,
whatever passion,
whatever delight,
whatever thirst,
that depends on the mind,
piled up by means of
intentions, resolves and predispositions of the heart,
I, having seen
the withering away of,
dispassion for,
the ending of,
the abandoning of,
the renouncing of such,
know, 'free is my heart'.

Even so, my friends,
thus knowing, seeing,
in terms of these six internal/external spheres,
I say my heart is released
with no further rebound of the corruptions.

Such being so, beggars, express delight, speak out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words.

 

§

 

Having expressed delight, having spoken out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words, a deeper question should be put:

But knowing what, Ancient One, seeing what,
with regard to this body with consciousness
and all external signs,
say you that 'Bias towards me- my-making is uprooted'?

A being without corruptions, beggars —
a beggar who is finished,
duty's doing done,
laid down the load,
his own best interest brought forth,
the yokes to becoming thoroughly destroyed,
by highest answer-knowledge liberated —
his answer would accord with such things if he were to say:

Before, friend, as a householder, I say I was without wisdom.

Then the Tathāgata or the Tathāgata's disciple spoke to me of Dhamma.

As a result of having heard the Tathāgata's Dhamma I gained faith.

As a result of, possessed of the faith I had gained I reflected thus:

"Crowded, the household life,
a place of dust
of the open air is going forth
it is not easy living in a house
to reach fulfilment
to reach a purity of polish
like mother-of-pearl
in the carrying on of Brahma's carrying on.

Howz about I cuts off me hair and beard,
don ocher rags, and
from home go forth
to homelessness!"

(He then, friends,
after a time
having let go of his small pile of wealth, or
having let go of his large pile of wealth;
having let go of his small circle of relations, or
having let go of his large circle of relations,
cuts off his hair and beard,
dons ocher rags, and
from home goes forth
to homelessness.)[10]

 


 

So thus being one gone forth,
taking on the training of the beggar's life,
having shame,
I let go of the destruction of life,
abstained from the destruction of life,
put down the stick,
put down the sword,
and lived friendly and compassionate,
intent on empathy with all breathing beings.

 


 

Having let go of taking the ungiven,
I abstained from taking the ungiven.
Taking the given, awaiting gifts, without theivery,
I lived with self become pure.

 


 

Having let go of un-Brahma-like ways,
I lived in ways far from sexuality and household things.

 


 

Having let go of untrue speech,
truth-speeking,
truth-bearing,
steadfast,
reliable,
no poisoner of the world,
I abstained from untrue speech.

Having let go of hateful speech,
I abstained from hateful speech;
that which was a disturbing thing heard there,
I told not here,
a disturbing thing heard here,
I told not there;
having enjoyment of peace,
loving peace,
delighting in peace
I spoke peace-making words,
thus reconciling the disunited,
and supporting unity.

Having let go of harsh speech,
I abstained from harsh speech;
whatever speech is gentle,
sweet to the ear,
affectionate,
at home in the heart,
urbane,
popular with the people,
pleasant to the people,
I spoke such words as those.

Having let go of idle lip-flapping,
I abstained from idle lip-flapping;
having speach worth treasuring,
spoken at the right time,
well-reasoned,
well-defined,
on the goal,
I was a timely-speaker,
a speaker on reality,
a speaker on the goal,
a speaker on Dhamma,
a speaker on the Discipline.

 


 

I abstained from destruction of seed-life and plant-life.

I abstained from watching dancing, singing, music and shows.

I abstained from using garlands, perfumes, cosmetics, jewelry and accessories.

I abstained from using high and wide beds.

I abstained from accepting gold and silver.

I abstained from accepting raw grain or raw meat.

I abstained from accepting gifts of women and young girls,
male or female slaves,
sheep and goats,
foul and pigs,
elephants,
cattle,
horses and donkeys,
fields and plots.

I abstained from acting as a messenger.

I abstained from buying and selling.

I abstained from cheating with false weights and measures.

I abstained from bribery and corruption,
deception and insincerity.

I abstained from wounding, killing, imprisoning, highway robbery, and taking food by force.

 


 

Having but one meal,
abstaining at night,
I abstained from eating at improper times.[11]

 


I was content with enough clothing for the body to carry on,
with enough food clumps doled in the bowl for the belly to carry on.

Whithersoever I went
I went taking but such as this.

Just like a bird
whithersoever it flies,
takes with it only the weight of it's wings,
even so, friend,
I was content with enough clothing for the body to carry on,
with enough food clumps doled in the bowl for the belly to carry on,
and whithersoever I went,
I went taking but such as this.

 


 

Possessed of this aristocratic body of ethical conduct,
I personally experienced the happiness of blamelessness.

 


 

Having seen a shape with the eye,
there was no seizing upon it's characteristics,
no seizing upon it's implications.

Because living with the eye-faculty unguarded
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
I therefore set up restraint,
guarded the eye-faculty
placed restraint over the eye-faculty.

Having heard a sound with the ear,
there was no seizing upon it's characteristics,
no seizing upon it's implications.

Because living with the ear-faculty unguarded
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
I therefore set up restraint,
guarded the ear-faculty
placed restraint over the ear-faculty.

Having smelled a scent with the nose,
there was no seizing upon it's characteristics,
no seizing upon it's implications.

Because living with the nose-faculty unguarded
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
I therefore set up restraint,
guarded the nose-faculty
placed restraint over the nose-faculty.

Having tasted a taste with the tongue,
there was no seizing upon it's characteristics,
no seizing upon it's implications.

Because living with the tongue-faculty unguarded
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
I therefore set up restraint,
guarded the tongue-faculty
placed restraint over the tongue-faculty.

Having felt a touch with the body,
there was no seizing upon it's characteristics,
no seizing upon it's implications.

Because living with the body-faculty unguarded
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
I therefore set up restraint,
guarded the body-faculty
placed restraint over the body-faculty.

Having become conscious of a thing with the mind,
there was no seizing upon it's characteristics,
no seizing upon it's implications.

Because living with the mind-faculty unguarded
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
I therefore set up restraint,
guarded the mind-faculty
placed restraint over the mind-faculty.

 


 

Possessed of this aristocratic restraint of the faculties,
I personally experienced the happiness of disassociation.

 


 

Whether departing or returning I did it with self-awareness.

Whether looking at or looking the other way I did it with self-awareness.

Whether stretching or flexing I did it with self-awareness.

Wearing cloak, bowl and upper-robe I did it with self-awareness.

Whether eating, drinking, biting, or tasting I did it with self-awareness.

Whether passing matter or passing water I did it with self-awareness.

On the go, standing, sitting, asleep or awake, speaking or becoming silent I did it with self-awareness.

Having got this aristocratic body of ethical conduct,
this aristocratic restraint of the faculties,
this aristocratic self-awareness of mind,
I resorted to a secluded forest sleep-and-sitting place
at the root of a tree,
in a cave in rugged mountains,
in a cemetary,
by a forest trail,
in the open air,
on a heap of straw.[12]

Then, after having returned from my beggars rounds,
I sat down,
sitting up straight,
legs bent across lapwise,
and put the mind on the area around the face.

With desire for the world let go,
I lived eliminating desire from my heart,
cleansing my heart of desire.

With anger and hate let go,
I lived with kindly feelings and affection for all living beings,
cleansing my heart of anger and hate.

With lazy ways and stupidity let go,
I lived eliminating lazy ways and stupidity,
perceiving the light, recollected and self-aware,
cleansing my heart of lazy ways and stupidity.

With haughty pride and fear let go,
I lived with humility, inwardly calm at heart,
cleansing my heart of boastful bragging and fear.

With doubt and backsliding let go,
I lived overcoming doubt and backsliding,
eliminating confusion as to skillful things
cleansing my heart of doubt and backsliding.

 


 

Then, by letting go these five bindups,
afflictions of the heart,
crippling to wisdom,
separating myself from sense pleasures,
separating myself from unskillful things,
with rethinking, with reminiscing,[13]
there came the pleasurable Enthusiasm born of solitude
inhabiting the first burning.

Then, rethinking and reminiscing calmed,
inwardly impassive,
become unified in heart,
without rethinking, without reminiscing,
there came the pleasurable Enthusiasm born of serinity
inhabiting the second burning.

Then, Enthusiasm fading,
living detached,
recollected and self-aware,
there came the experiencing of the bodily pleasure
inhabiting the third burning
of which the Aristocrats delcare:

'Detached, recollected, he lives happily.'

Then, letting go of pleasure,
letting go of pain,
their precursers in mental ease and discomfort
having found their own way home,
without pain or pleasure,
there came the utter purity of the detached mind
inhabiting the fourth burning.

 


 

Then, thus with calm heart, pure, clean, debtless, without afflictions, become soft, capable, steadfast, unshakable,
the heart bent down to knowledge of the eradication of the corruptions.

Then the knowledge: 'This is pain' emerged as though a splendid light from a dark cloud,
the knowledge: 'This is the source of pain' emerged as though a splendid light from a dark cloud,
the knowledge: 'This is the end to pain' emerged as though a splendid light from a dark cloud,
the knowledge: 'This is the way to walk to the end of pain' emerged as though a splended light from a dark cloud.

Then the knowledge: 'This is corruption' emerged as though a splended light from a dark cloud,
the knowledge: 'This is the source of corruption' emerged as though a splended light from a dark cloud,
the knowledge: 'This is the end to corruption' emerged as though a splended light from a dark cloud,
the knowledge: 'This is the way to walk to the end of corruption' emerged as though a splended light from a dark cloud.

When I knew thus, saw thus, I was freed in heart from the corruption of sense pleasures,
freed in heart from the corruption of living,
freed in heart from the corruption of blindness.

In freedom I thought: "I am free' and had the knowledge:

'Birth: left behind,
carrying on as Brahma: finished,
duty's doing: done,
no further it'n-n-at'n is to be known for me'.

Even so, my friends,
thus knowing, seeing,
with regard to this body with consciousness
and all external signs,
I say that 'Bias towards me- my-making is uprooted.'

Such being so, beggars, express delight, speak out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words.

Having expressed delight, having spoken out with a 'Well said', for this beggar's words, say:

'It is a gain for us, friend
it is well-gained for us, friend,
that we see such a one as the Ancient One in this Brahma life.

This is what the Lucky Man said and the beggars were pleased thereat.

 


 

Pali Olds Horner Bhks. Ñāṇamoli and Bodhi Sister Upalavana
añña answer-knowledge profound knowledge final knowledge perfection
Brahmacariya carrying on as Brahma Brahma-faring the holy life the holy life
itthattāyā it'n-n-at'n being such or so coming to any state of being nothing more to wish
upādānakkhandhā the piled up heaps, shitpiles groups of grasping aggregates affected by clinging holding masses
dhātu data element element element
saɱyojana yokes to becoming the fetters of becoming the fetters of being the desire 'to be'
saŋkhāra own-making, con-struction, con-juration the habitual tendencies formations deteminations
vitakka and vicāra thinking and reminising, the internal dialogue initial thought and discursive thought applied and sustained thought thoughts and thought processes

 


[1] There is a mystery in connection with this sutta. There are only five questions put to the bhikkhu. From what, then, does the title derive? I am thinking: "Hum. This is a nice neat way to fake everyone out claiming I am arahat. I just memorize the responses here. Get them down good so it seems resonable I actually understand what I am saying." I am thinking: "How do we prevent the faker from just coming along and memorizing the responses here ... etc?" I am thinking I see how to do that. There is something the Arahant should know that I will ask him that I will not put into this sutta." What thing? The meaning of the title of this sutta. (Just a joke. Mostly the suttas did not originally have titles.)

[2] Añña. Answer Knowledge. However translated it means a declaration of Arahantship. It is the ability to know whatever one wants to know whenever one wants to know it. It differs from omniscience as we understand it in the sense that there is no claim to know everything at all times.

[3] Itthatta being any sort of 'it' in any place of 'atness'.
PED: being here (in this world), in the present state of becoming, this (earthly) state (not "thusness" or "life as we conceive it", as Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. I.177...
Well that is what PED says, but the Dhamma is not for this world only.

[4] Is this an admonition to speak the truth? Remember it is Gotama that is speaking, here in the voice of questioning bhikkhus, next in the voice of the responder. If the question is an admonition as well as a question, the response is a generic way of responding to the admonition with knowing humor.

[5] Saɱyojana. See: Glossology: Saɱyojana. (1) sakkāyadiṭṭhi, one-truth view, own-self view; (2) vicikicchā, doubt; (3) sīlabbataparāmāso, belief in the effacacy of ethics for the destruction of pain; (4) kāmacchando, pleasure-wishing; (5) vyāpādo, anger; (6) rūparāgo, desire for things with form; (7) arūparāgo, desire for immaterial things; (8) māno, pride; (9) uddhaccaɱ, fear; (10) avijjā, blindness.

[6]Upādānakkhandhā. UPA=up; DANA=given, bound; KKHA= a heap of.
'Khandha' is one of several classifications intended to encompass all that comrises what has come into existence. The implication here by the use of the term 'upadana' is that they are what is stocked up, piled up, kept up, heaped up ... or as Bhk. Thanissaro, used for fueling ... the individuality ... this is the term between thirst and living in the Paticca Samuppada that implies having taken some action motivated by thirst to obtain the experience of living, hence 'grasping' used by Ms. Horner and some other translators.
PED: Khandha [Sanskrit skandha] - I. Crude meaning: bulk, massiveness (gross) substance. A. esp. used (a) of an elephant: the bulk of the body, i. e. its back ... (b) of a person: the shoulder or back ... (c) of a tree: the trunk ... mūlaɱ atikkamma kh- ɱ sāraɱ pariyesitabbaɱ "one must go beyond the root and search the trunk for sweetness" S IV.94. - (d) as t.t. in exegetical literature: section, chapter, lit. material as collected into uniform bulk; frequent in postscripts to Texts and Commentaries. ... B. More general as denoting bulk (*-); e. g. aggi- a great mass of fire ... II. Applied meaning.-A. (*-) the body of, a collection of, mass, or parts of; in collective sense "all that is comprised under"; forming the substance of. ... (a) dukkha- all that is comprised under "dukkha," all that goes to make up or forms the substance, the idea of "ill." Most prominent in phrase kevalassa dukkhakhandhassa samudaya and nirodha (the origin and destruction of all that is suffering) with reference to the paṭiccasamuppāda, the chain of causal existence ...

EDIT: Saturday, January 14, 2017 3:31 AM: With time, a clearer understanding: Upadana is the thinking, pondering, planning, scheming that goes on in one desirous of obtaining some sort of pleasure in some form of existence.

[7] Saŋkhāra. The identification with an act of body, speach or mind intended to create identified with experience of existence and the subsequent identified-with experience.

[8] Dhātu Data. The basic information we are given about the world. What we can know through identification of characteristics. 'Element', used by almost all the other translators, has the disadvantage of pointing to an actual thing when what this means is something that can be known about a thing.

[9] Ajjhattikāni bāhirāni. Internal external. Subjective objective. Personal external. Relating to the individual and external to the individual. What should be avoided here is thinking in terms of self. Not: mine and external, or 'belonging to the self' and external.

[10] There is a difficulty here for sticklers for detail. This is Gotama speaking in the voice of the beggar supposedly speaking of himself, but he speaks about a large or small pile of wealth and a large or small circle of friends as though he did not know. I have made this into an 'aside' from Gotama.

[11] I moved the position of this one. The groups here and also in the Digha seem to be a gathering-together from other places in the suttas. The usual progression in the Gradual Training is: Giving, Ethical Culture, Self-control, Mental development. Here they are a little mixed up.

[12] This could be another case of the character being portrayed by Gotama here voicing the usual alternatives rather than the one he himself chose. However Gotama, as reported in the Suttas, at various times used all of these.

[13] Vitakka and vicāra. A lot of back and forth about these terms which are both essentially simply 'thinking'. Early use pointed to no distinction. The commentaries would have these as two advanced states with the first being the beginning of a higher level of thinking and the second being thinking that had momentum of its own. Since these states are present in the first burning and no mention is made of the need for them to be acquired, it seems necessary to think that they are present in the ordinary mind. Especially as these terms are used for 'thinking' in non-jhana states. The interesting thing is the use of 'vi' or 're' in both terms, indicating what a close look will tell one, that is, that these things are re-hashings. The first 're' is 're-talking', the second one is 're-wandering around', 're-meandering'. What these are, skipping over precise terms, becomes clear when attempting the entry into the second burning where they are to be eliminated. At this point perhaps a better term is Don Juan's 'inner dialogue'.


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