WARREN: BUDDHISM IN TRANSLATIONS

487

 

 


 

 

Appendix - Ī 103. The Five Groups

Although it has not been my plan to go deeply into technical matters, I have been obliged to give such prominence to the groups that constitute the human being, that it seems necessary to give a statement of how these groups are made up, in order that the reader may understand what they are like. Of the translations which follow, the final one entitled "Karma and the Consciousnesses" is made from the seventeenth chapter of the Visuddhi-Magga; the other translations and the materials for the lists are from the fourteenth chapter of that work.

1. THE FORM-GROUP

A. Elementary forms.

10. Femininity.

1. Earthy element.

11. Masculinity.

2. Watery element.

12. Vitality.

3. Fiery element.

13. Organ of the heart.

4. Windy element.

14. Bodily intimation.

B. Derivative forms.

15. Vocal intimation.

1. Eye.

16. Space.

2. Ear.

17. Buoyancy of form.

3. Nose.

18. Softness of form.

4. Tongue.

19. Suppleness of form.

5. Body.

20. Growth of form.

6. Form.

21. Continuation of form.

7. Sound.

22. Growing old of form.

8. Odor.

23. Transitoriness of form.

9. Taste.

24. Material food.

 

2. THE SENSATION-GROUP

Sensation conjoined with a meritorious consciousness is a meritorious sensation; conjoined with a demeritorious consciousness, [488] it is a demeritorious sensation; conjoined with an indeterminate consciousness, it is an indeterminate sensation. It has a fivefold division peculiar to itself; namely, happiness, misery, gladness, grief, and indifference.

 

3. THE PERCEPTION-GROUP.

Perception conjoined with a meritorious consciousness is a meritorious perception; conjoined with a demeritorious consciousness, it is a demertorious perception; conjoined with an indeterminate consciousness, it is an indeterminate perception. For there is no consciousness that is not conjoined with perception. Accordingly perception has the same number of divisions as consciousness.

 

4. THE PREDISPOSITION-GROUP.

1. Contact.

27. Erectness of mind.

2. Thinking.

27. Erectness of mind.

3. Reasoning.

28. Will

4. Reflection.

29. Determination.

5. Joy.

30. Attention.

6. Courage.

31. Neutrality.

7. Life.

32. Compassion.

8. Concentration.

33. Rejoicing.

9. Faith.

34. Abstinence from doing evil with the body.

10. Contemplation.

35. Abstinence from doing evil with the voice.

11. Shame.

36. Abstinence from wrong occupations.

12. Fear of sinning.

37. Shamelessness.

13. Freedom from covetousness.

38. Freedom from fear of sinning.

14. Freedom from hatred.

39. Covetousness.

15. Freedom from infatuation.

40. Infatuation.

16. Bodily tranquillity.

41. Heresy.

17. Mental tranquillity.

42. Haughtiness.

18. Buoyancy of body.

43, 44. Idleness and sloth.

19. Buoyancy of mind.

45. Pride.

20. Softness of body.

46. Hatred.

21. Softness of mind.

47. Envy.

22. Suppleness of body.

48. Miserliness.

23. Suppleness of mind.

49. Ill-behavior.

24. Skilfulness of body.

48. Miserliness.

25. Skilfulness of mind.

50. Steadiness of mind.

26. Erectness of body.

51. Doubt.

[489-491]

5. THE CONSCIOUSNESS-GROUP

Table Of The Eighty-Nine Consciousnesses

Meritorious Consciousnesses

[Good Karma]

Belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure.

1. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

2. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

3. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

4. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

5. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

6. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

7. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

8. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

Belonging to the realm of form.

9. Conjoined with reasoning, reflection, joy, happiness, and concentration.

10. Conjoined with reflection, joy, happiness, and concentration.

11. Conjoined with joy, happiness, and concentration.

12. Conjoined with happiness and concentration.

13. Conjoined with indifference and concentration.

Belonging to the realm of formlessness.

14. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of the infinity of space.

15. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of the infinity of cousciousness.

16. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of nothingness.

17. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of neither perception nor yet non-perception.

Transcendent.

18. Conjoined with the first path.

19. Conjoined with the second path.

20. Conjoined with the third path.

21. Conjoined with the fourth path.

 

Demeritorious Consciousnesses.

[Bad Karma]

Belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure.

Rooted in covetousness.

22. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with heresy, and uninstigated.

23. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with heresy, and instigated.

24. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with heresy, and uninstigated.

25. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with heresy, and instigated.

26. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with heresy, and uninstigated.

27. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with heresy, and instigated.

28. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with heresy, and uninstigated.

29. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with heresy, and instigated.

Rooted in hatred.

30. Coupled with grief, conjoined with anger, and uninstigated.

31. Coupled with grief, conjoined with anger, and instigated.

Rooted in infatuation.

32. Coupled with indifference and conjoined with doubt.

33. Coupled with indifference and conjoined with haughtiness.

 

Indeterminate Consciousnesses.

Fruition.

[Fruition of Karma.]

Belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure.

Meritorious fruitions.

Without a cause.

34. Eye-consciousness.

35-8. Ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-consciousness.

39. Mind in its noticing capacity.

40. Mind-consciousness in its cognitive and so forth capacity and joined with gladness.

a. Cognizing.
b. Identical object.

41. Mind-consciousness in its cognitive and so forth capacity and joined with indifference.

a. Cognizing.
b. Identical object.
c. Conception.
d. Existence-substratum.
e. Passing-away.

Having a cause.

42. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

43. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

44. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

45. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

46. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

47. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

48. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

49. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

Demeritorious fruitions.

Without a cause.

50. Eye-consciousness.

51-4. Ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-consciousness.

55. Mind in its noticing capacity.

56. Mind-consciousness in its cognizing capacity in five divisions.

 

 

Belonging to the realm of form.

57. Conjoined with reasoning, reflection, joy, happiness, and concentration.

58. Conjoined with reflection, joy, happiness, and concentration.

59. Conjoined with joy, happiness, and concentration.

60. Conjoined with happiness and concentration.

61. Conjoined with indifference and concentration.

Belonging to the realm of formlessness.

62. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of the infinity of space.

63. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of the infinity of consciousness.

64. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of nothingness.

65. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of neither perception nor yet non-perception.

Transcendent.

66. Conjoined with the first path.

67. Conjoined with the second path.

68. Conjoined with the third path.

69. Conjoined with the fourth path.

 

Action.

[Barren Karma.]

Belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure.

Without a cause.

70. Mind.

71. Mind-consciousness, general, and coupled with indifference.

72. Mind-consciousness, specific, and coupled with gladness.

Having a cause.

73. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

74. Coupled with gladness, conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

75. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

76. Coupled with gladness, not conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

77. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

78. Coupled with indifference, conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

79. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with knowledge, and uninstigated.

80. Coupled with indifference, not conjoined with knowledge, and instigated.

 

Belonging to the realm of form.

81. Conjoined with reasoning, reflection, joy, happiness, and concentration.

82. Conjoined with reflection, joy, happiness, and concentration.

83. Conjoined with joy, happiness, and concentration.

84. Conjoined with happiness and concentration.

85. Conjoined with indifference and concentration.

Belonging to the realm of formlessness.

86. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of the infinity of space.

87. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of the infinity of consciousness.

88. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of nothingness.

89. Conjoined with the trance of the realm of neither perception nor yet non-perception.

[492]

The Functions of the Consciousnesses.

The consciousnesses are in all eighty-nine in number and occur on fourteen different occasions; in conception, existence-substratum, attention, seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, noticing, cognizing, defining, the swiftnesses, identical object, and passing away. And how?

When, through the power of the eight meritorious consciousnesses belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure, living beings are born in the world of gods and men, then, at the moment of conception, occur nine fruition-consciousnesses; namely, eight fruition-consciousnesses belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure and possessing a cause, having as their object any karma, karma-reflex, or destiny-reflex, that might have been present at the time of death, and also, in the case of those who in the world of men become eunuchs and the like, a meritorious fruition-mind-consciousness, coupled with indifference, which, as having its two causes weak, is called without a cause. When, through the power of the meritorious consciousuesses belonging to the realms of form and formlessness, these beings are born in the realms of form and formlessness, then, at the moment of conception occur nine fruition-consciousnesses of the realms of form and formlessness, having as their object any karma-reflex that might have been present at the time of death. When, however, through the power of the demeritorious consciousnesses, they are born in hell, then, at the moment of conception, there occurs only a demeritorious fruition-mind-consciousness without a cause, having as its object any karma, karma-reflex, or destiny-reflex, that might have been present at the time of death. Accordingly, therefore, it is to be understood that nineteen fruition-consciousnesses occur in conception.

But when conception-consciousness ceases, then, close on its heels, occurs the precisely similar existence-subtratum-consciousness, being the fruition of the same karma and having the same object. This repeats itself, as does the stream of a river, as long as no other thought arises to interrupt the series, and this process continues indefinitely during dreamless sleep and like occasions. Accordingly, therefore, it is to be understood that the same nineteen consciousnesses occur in existence-substratum.

[493]

But when in the course of the existence-substratum series the sense-apertures of a living being have grown to be competent to grasp their objects, then, when form comes within the visual field, the irritability of the eye for form is stimulated, and through the force of this stimulus existence-substratum is interrupted. When existence-substratum ceases, action-mind arises to take its place, with that form as its object, and accomplishing the function of attention. Similarly in respect of the ear-aperture etc. In the case of the mind-aperture, however, when the six objects of sense come within range and existence-substratum has been interrupted, then arises action-mind-consciousness to take its place, being without a cause and coupled with indifference and accomplishing the function of attention. Accordingly it is to be understood that two action-consciousnesses occur in attention.

But after attention there occurs the eye-consciousness, having for its instrument the irritability of the eye and accomplishing the function of sight in the eye-aperture, and there occur the ear-consciousnees, nose-consciousnees, tongue-consciousnees, and body-consciousness, accomplishing the functions of hearing etc. in the ear-aperture etc. These are meritorious fruitions when their objects are desirable or desirable-neutral, and demeritorious fruitions when their objects are undesirable or undesirable-neutral. Accordingly it is to be understood that ten fruition-consciousnesses occur during seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching.

But when it is said that after eye-consciousness has sprung up and ceased there arises the thought, mentality, mind due to it, this is fruition-mind which springs up after the sense-consciousnesses, and notices their objects. When it succeeds a meritorious sense-consciousness, it is a meritorious fruition; when it succeeds a demeritorious sense-consciousness, it is a demeritorious fruition. Accordingly it is to be understood that two fruition-consciousnesses occur in noticing.

But when it is said that after mind has sprung up and ceased there arises the thought, mentality, mind-consciousness due to it, this is fruition-mind-consciousnees without a cause springing up and cognizing what has been noticed by the mind. When it succeeds the demeritorious fruition-mind in an undesirable-neutral object, it is a demeritorious fruition. When it succeeds the meritorious fruition-mind, it is a meritorious fruition, being coupled with gladness in the case of a desirable object, and coupled with indifference in the case of a desirable-neutral one. Accordingly [494] it is to be understood that three fruition-consciousnesses occur in the case of cognizing.

After cognizing there arises action-mind-consciousness without a cause and coupled with indifference. This defines the object. Accordingly it is to be understood that one solitary action-consciousness occurs in defining.

After defining, in case the object, form or the like, is large, then in respect of the defined object there hasten six or seven swiftnesses. These are made up either from the eight meritorious consciousnesses belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure, or from the twelve demeritorious ones, or from the nine action-consciousnesses belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure. This is how the case stands in respect to the five apertures; but in the case of the mind-aperture, only after attention in the mind-aperture. Beyond gotrabhū there occur five meritorious consciousnesses and five action-consciousnesses belonging to the realm of form, four meritorious consciousnesses and four action-consciousnesses belouging to the realm of formlessness, and four path-thoughts and four fruition-thoughts transcending the world,--all according as they may have obtained a dependence. Accordingly it is to be understood that the meritorious consciousnesses, demeritorious consciousnesses, action-consciousnesses, and fruition-consciousnesses amount to fifty-five in number in the swiftnesses.

But at the end of the swiftnesses, in case the object in the five apertures is excessively large, or that in the mind-aperture is vivid, then any dependence possessed by beings in the realm of sensual pleasure at the termination of the swiftnesses belonging to that realm, such dependence, namely, as desirable objects etc., and previous karma, swiftnesses, thoughts, etc., will have as its result some one of the eight fruition-consciousnesses belonging to the realm of sensual pleasure and possessing a cause, or else some one of the three fruition-minds without a cause. And, as water pursues, though only at an interval, the stern of a vessel that is proceeding up stream, so this fruition-consciousness, once or twice repeated, pursues the swiftness that has spent itself on some object other than an object of existence-substratum. As this fruition-consciousness, at the same time with being able at the end of the swiftnesses to exist in an existence-substratum-object, exists also in an object of a swiftness, it is called identical object. Accordingly it is to be understood that eleven fruition-consciousnesses occur in identical object.

[495]

But at the end of identical object, existence-substratum occurs again, and when existence-substratum is interrupted, then attention and the rest occur again. A series of thoughts which has thus obtained a dependence always recurs in the regular round of attention following existence-substratum, and of seeing etc. following attention, until in any given existence existence-substratum perishes. The passing away in the last existence of existence-substratum-thought is called passing away [death]. Accordingly the passing-away-consciousness, like existence-substratum, has nineteen sub-divisions. Accordingly it is to be understood that nineteen fruition-consciousnesses occur in passing-away.

But after passing-away comes conception, and after conception existence-substratum again. Accordingly the series of thoughts of beings in their rounds of rebirth through modes of existence, destinies, halting-places, and abodes, is without interruption. But in the case of one who has attained saintship it ceases as soon as passing-away-consciousness ceases.

 

Karma and the Consciousnesses.

Karma is so called because it makes whatever is made. Moreover, there are two kinds of karma; karma depending on ignorance, and other karmas.

There are six karmas depending on ignorance; namely, the triplet consisting of meritorious karma, demeritorious karma, and karma leading to immovability; and the triplet consisting of bodily karma, vocal karma, aud mental karma. All these are nothing but worldly meritorious and demeritorious thoughts.[1]

The other karmas are four in number; namely, static karma, constituent karma, active karma, and strenuous karma.

In such phrases as "All the constituents of being are transitory," static karma is meant; namely, all the elements of being possessing a dependence.

In the commentaries, all the elements of being, both those with form and those without, which have sprung from karma,[1] and are comprised in the three modes of being, are called constituent karmas.[2] They are included in the phrase, "All the constituents of [496] being are transitory;" but there is no passage quotable for them separately.

Meritorious and demeritorious thoughts belonging to the three modes of being are, moreover, active karma. For them is quotable the passage, "This ignorant individual, O priest, performs meritorious karma etc."[3]

Bodily and mental heroism is called strenuous karma. This is quotable in the passage, "It went as far as there was room for karma, and then it stopped, as if struck in the axle."[4]

But there are not merely these, there are also others. In such quotations as, "Brother Visākha, when any priest enters upon the trance of the cessation of perception and sensation, first vocal karma ceases, then bodily karma, and then mental karma," several karmas are mentioned, but there is no one of these that is not included under static karma.


[1]That is, consciousnesses 1-17 and 22-33 in the list above.

[2]That is, the four lower groups in so far as they are sprung from karma, and the fruition-consciousnesses of the consciousness-group.

[3]Compare page 182, line 8 {last paragraph of Ī 27}.

[4]This quotation probably refers to the wheel of empire (see 64 and 101), and symbolically expresses the victorious progress of a Universal Monarch in subduing the world. (Compare Wheel of Doctrine, s.v. Doctrine, in Index.)

 


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