Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
2. Sīhanāda Vagga

Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume V
Dialogues of the Buddha
Part IV

Further Dialogues of the Buddha
Volume I

Translated from the Pali
by Lord Chalmers, G.C.B.
Sometime Governor of Ceylon

London
Humphrey Milford
Oxford University Press
1926
Public Domain

Sutta 12

Mahā-Sīhanāda Suttaɱ

The Long Challenge

 


 

[1][pts][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

Once when the Lord was staying at Vesālī
outside the town
in the dense forest to the west,
Sunakkhatta the Licchavi,
who had recently left this creed and rule,
was telling people there was nothing superhuman
about the recluse Gotama's ennobling gifts of knowledge and insight,
that it was Gotama's own reasoning
which had hammered out a Doctrine of his own evolving
and of his personal invention,
such that whoso hears it preached for his good
has only to act up to it
to be guided to the utter ending of Ill.

Now in the morning early the reverend Sāriputta,
duly robed and bowl in hand,
went for alms into Vesālī,
where he heard Sunakkhatta saying this.

On his return after his meal,
Sāriputta came to the Lord
and with due obeisance took a seat aside,
telling the Lord what Sunakkhatta was saying.

'Sunakkhatta' -
was the Lord s reply -
is a man of wrath and folly;
wrath prompted his remarks;
yet, though dispraise is his object,
the foolish person is actually singing the Truth-finder's praises.

For, praise it is when a man:
'Whoso hears it preached for his good
has to act up to it
to be guided to the utter ending of Ill.

Never, Sāriputta, will this foolish person attain to the Doctrine's teaching about myself that -

'He is the Lord,
Arahat all-enlightened,
walking by knowledge,
blessed,
knowing all worlds,
the matchless tamer of the human heart,
teacher of gods and men,
the Lord of [46] enlightenment.'

Never will this foolish person attain to the Doctrine's teaching about myself that -

'He is the Lord in whom reside all psychic powers:

from being one to become manifold,
from being manifold to become one,

to be visible or invisible,

to pass at will through wall or fence or hill as if through air,

to pass in and out of the solid earth as if it were water,

to walk on the water's unbroken surface as if it were the solid earth,

to glide in state through the air like a bird on the wing,

to touch and to handle the moon and sun in their power and might,

and to extend the sovereignty of his body right up to the Brahma world.'

Never will this foolish person attain to the Doctrine's teaching about myself that -

'He is the Lord
who, with the Ear Celestial,
which is pure and far surpasses the human ear,
hears both heavenly and human sounds.'

Never will this foolish person attain to the Doctrines teaching about myself that -

'He is the Lord
who with his own heart
comprehends the heart of other creatures
and of other men
so as to know them for just what they are, -
filled with passion or free from passion, ...
focussed or wandering,
large-minded or small-minded,
inferior or superior,
stedfast or unstedfast,
Delivered or lacking Deliverance.'

Ten in number, Sāriputta,
are a Truth-finder's powers,
whereby he knows his precedence as leader of the herd,
issues his lion-like challenges in public assemblies[1]
and sets a-rolling the excellent Wheel of Truth.

And the ten powers are these:

(i) The Truth-finder knows precisely both what is
and what is not
a specific cause;

(ii) he knows the precise nature
of the consequences that must inevitably result
from everything done in the past, present and future;

[47] (iii) he knows the precise nature of the future
to which every course leads;

(iv) he knows the precise nature
of the manifold and diverse physical factors
which make up the world;

(v) he knows the precise nature
of each creature's particular bent;

(vi) he knows the precise nature
of all that is going on in the hearts of others;

(vii) he knows the precise nature
of the imperfections,
the specific stage,
or the uprising
of the several achievements of Ecstasy,
Deliverance,
and Rapt Concentration;

(viii) he recalls to mind his divers existences in the past, -
a single birth ... (etc. as in Sutta No. 4) right up to the time when he passed to his present life here;

(ix) he sees-with the Eye Celestial,
which is pure and far surpasses the human eye -
creatures in the act of passing hence
and re-appearing elsewhere,
creatures high and low ...
(etc. as in Sutta No. 4);

(x) [71] by eradicating the Cankers, he -
here and now,
of and by himself -
comprehends,
realizes,
enters on,
and abides in the Deliverance of heart and mind
which knows no Cankers.

Such are the Truth-finder's ten powers,
whereby he knows his precedence as leader of the herd,
issues his lion-like challenge in public assemblies
and sets a-rolling the excellent Wheel of Truth.

Now, if of me who know and see all this
anyone were to say
that there is nothing superhuman
about the recluse Gotama's ennobling gifts
or his knowledge and insight,
and that it is Gotama's own reasoning
which has hammered out a Doctrine
of his own evolving and personal invention, -
if such a one does not recant these words of his,
change his heart,
and renounce his view,
he will find himself hauled off to purgatory.

Just as an Almsman [48] who is equipped with virtue,
concentration,
and insight
will here and now
come to (the Arahat's) plenitude of knowledge,
so this other equipment -
if the man does not recant his words,
change his heart,
and renounce his view -
will end in his being hauled off to purgatory.

Four in number are a Truth-finder's assurances
whereby he knows his precedence as leader of the herd,
issues his lion-like challenge in public assemblies,
and sets a-rolling the Excellent Wheel of Truth;
and the four are these:

(i) I see nothing to indicate that anyone -
be he recluse
or brahmin
or god
or Māra
or Brahmā
or anyone else in the wide world -
will, with justice,
charge me with lacking enlightenment
on those states of mind
on which I profess to be all-enlightened.

And, as I see nothing to indicate this,
my state is one of tranquillity,
fearlessness,
and assurance.

(ii) I see nothing to indicate that anyone ...
will, with justice,
charge me with not having extirpated the Cankers as I profess.

And, as I see nothing to indicate this,
my state is one of tranquillity,
fearlessness,
and assurance.

(iii) I see nothing to indicate that anyone ...
will, with justice,
charge it against me
that the states of mind which I have declared to be stumbling-blocks,
are not such at all,
to him who indulges in them.

And, as I see nothing to indicate this,
my state is one of tranquillity,
fearlessness,
and assurance.

(iv) I see nothing to indicate that anyone ...
will, with justice,
charge it against me
that the Doctrine I have preached
for the profit of whomsoever it be,
fails, if he acts up to it,
to guide him to the utter ending of Ill.

And, as I see nothing to indicate this,
my state is one of tranquillity,
fearlessness,
and assurance.

Such are the Truth-finder's four assurances
whereby he knows his precedence as leader of the herd,
issues his lion-like challenge in public assemblies,
and sets a-rolling the excellent Wheel of Truth.

Now, if of me who know and see all this
anyone were to say
there is [49] nothing superhuman about the recluse Gotama ...
will end in his being hauled off to purgatory.

Eight in number are the assemblies,
namely the assemblies of nobles,
brahmins,
heads of houses,
recluses,
the four Great Regents,
the Thirty-three gods,
Māra
and Brahma.

Strong in the aforesaid four assurances,
I have experience of going to some hundreds
of each of these eight assemblies,
sitting and talking with them and holding converse.

Yet never did I see anything to indicate
that fear or nervousness would come upon me.

And, as I saw nothing to indicate this,
my state is one of tranquillity,
fearlessness,
and assurance.

Now, if of me who know and see all this
anyone were to say
that there is nothing superhuman about the recluse Gotama ...
will end in his being hauled off to purgatory.

Four in number
are the modes in which life is engendered, -
from the egg,
from the womb,
from moisture,
and by translation.

From the egg
are those creatures said to be born
who at birth break the shell that contains them.

From the womb
are those creatures said to be born
who at birth break the womb.

From moisture
are those creatures said to be born
who are born in putrid fish,
corpses,
or rice,
or in refuse-pools
or rubbish-shoots.

By translation
come gods,
denizens of purgatory,
some human beings
and some dwellers in the four states of woe.

Now, if of me who know and see all this
anyone were to say
that there is nothing superhuman about the recluse Gotama ...
will end in his being hauled off to purgatory.

Five in number are the destinies after life, -
in purgatory,
as an animal,
as a ghost,
as a human being,
and as a god.

Purgatory I know,
the road thereto,
the courses that lead to it,
and what courses a man pursues
to pass, at the body's dissolution after death,
to rebirth in some unhappy state
of misery
or woe
or purgatory.

The animal world I know,
and the worlds of ghosts and men,
together with the roads to each,
the courses that lead to each
and what courses a man pursues
to pass to each, at the body's dissolution after [50] death.

Gods I know,
the road thereto,
and the courses that lead to their world,
and what courses a man pursues
to pass, at the body's dissolution after death,
to a state of blessedness in heaven.

I know too Nirvana,
the road leading thereto,
the courses that lead to it,
and what courses a man pursues to dwell -
here and now -
by the extirpation of the Cankers,
in that Deliverance of heart and mind
which knows no Cankers,
a Deliverance which he has,
for and by himself,
thought out and realized,
so as to enter and to abide therein.

Suppose that my heart's knowledge
of the heart of a given man
tells me that his courses
and behaviour
and the road he has taken
are such as will bring him
at the body's dissolution after death
to a state of suffering and woe or purgatory.

Later on, with the Eye Celestial
which is pure and far surpasses the human eye,
I duly see him,
at the body's dissolution after death,
in some state of suffering and woe or purgatory,
there experiencing violent,
acute
and racking pain.

It is just as if there were a pit,
over a man's height deep,
filled with embers
showing neither flame nor smoke;
and if there drew near a man
overcome and overpowered by the midsummer heat,
exhausted
and beside himself with thirst,
making straight for the ember-pit ahead of him;
and if a man with eyes to discern
were to observe him
and say his course
and behaviour
and the road he was taking
would surely bring him to that very pit of embers;
and if later that observer were to see the wayfarer
fallen into the pit of embers,
there experiencing violent,
acute
and racking pain; -
even so does my heart's knowledge
of the heart of a given man
tell me that his courses and behaviour ...
and racking pain.

Suppose, again, that my heart's knowledge
of the heart of a given man
tells me that his courses
and behaviour
and the road he has taken
are such as will bring him
at the body's dissolution after death
to rebirth as an animal.

Later on, with the Eye Celestial
which is pure and far surpasses the human eye,
I duly [51] see him,
at the body's dissolution after death,
reborn as an animal
and experiencing, as such,
violent,
acute
and racking pain.

It is just as if there were a jakes,
a man's height deep,
full up with ordure,
and if there drew near a man
overcome and overpowered by the midsummer heat ...
(etc. as in previous paragraph, substituting ordure for embers)
... racking pain.

Or, suppose that my heart's knowledge of ...
reborn as a ghost,
there experiencing, as such,
violent,
acute
and racking pain.

It is just as if on rugged ground
there grew a tree
with but the tiniest leaves and foliage
and with but meagre strips of shade beneath;
and if there drew near a man
overcome and overpowered by the midsummer heat,
exhausted and beside himself with thirst,
making straight for the tree ahead of him;
and if a man with eyes to discern
were to observe him
and to say that his course
and behaviour
and the road he was taking
would surely bring him to that very tree;
and if later that observer were to see the wayfarer
seated or lying under that tree's shade,
experiencing violent,
acute
and racking pain; -
even so does my heart's knowledge
of the heart of a given man
tell me that his courses
and behaviour
and the road he has taken
are such as to bring him,
at the body's dissolution after death,
to rebirth as a ghost,
there to experience violent,
acute
and racking pain.

Or, suppose that my heart's knowledge of
... reborn as a man,
there experiencing much felicity.

It is just as if on level ground
there grew a tree
with thick luxuriant foliage
and with dense shade beneath;
and if there drew near a man overcome
and overpowered by the midsummer heat,
exhausted and beside himself with thirst,
making straight for the tree ahead of him;
and if a man with eyes to discern
were to observe him
and to say that his course
and behaviour
and the road he was taking
would surely bring him to that very tree;
and if later that observer were to see the wayfarer
seated or lying in the shade of the tree,
there experiencing much felicity; -
even so does my heart's knowledge
of the heart of a given man
tell me that his courses
and behaviour
and the road he has taken
are such as to bring him,
at the body's dissolution after death,
to rebirth among mankind,
there to experience much felicity.

[52] Or, fourthly, suppose that my heart's knowledge of
... reborn in bliss in heaven,
there experiencing exceedingly great felicity.

It is just as if there were a palace
and in it a gabled pavilion,
plastered within and without,
sheltered from winds,
complete with well-barred doors,
and windows that fasten;
and if within this pavilion
there were a divan,
spread with white coverlets
of fleecy wool
embroidered with flowers,
strewn over with rare antelope-skins as rugs,
and furnished with counterpanes
and a red cushion at either end;
and if there drew near
a man overcome ...
see the wayfarer seated or lying on that divan
in exceedingly great felicity; -
even so does my heart's knowledge ...
there to experience exceedingly great felicity.

Or, lastly, suppose that my heart's knowledge
of the heart of a given man
tells me that his courses
and behaviour
and the road he has taken
are such as will,
by the extirpation of the Cankers,
ensure his dwelling -
here and now -
in that Deliverance of heart and mind
which knows no Cankers,
a Deliverance which he has,
for and by hjmself,
thought out and realized,
so as to enter and abide therein.

Later on, with the Eye Celestial
which is pure and far surpasses the human eye,
I duly see him with his Deliverance achieved,
experiencing exceedingly great felicity.

It is just as if there were a lotus-pond
of clear pleasant cool gleaming water
with firm banks
and in every way delightful,
with a dense wood hard by;
and if there drew near a man overcome ...
see the wayfarer -
after going down to the pond
and there bathing
and drinking
and easing his weary frame
of all its fatigue and distress -
come out of the water
and sit or lie down
in the dense wood
in exceedingly great felicity; -
even so does my heart's knowledge ...
with his Deliverance achieved,
experiencing exceedingly great felicity.

Such are the five destinies hereafter.

Now, if of me who know and see all this
anyone were to say
that there is nothing superhuman
about the recluse Gotama's ennobling gifts
or his knowledge and insight,
and that [53] it is Gotama's own reasoning
which has hammered out a Doctrine of his own evolving
and personal invention, -
if such a one does not recant these words of his,
change his heart,
and renounce his view,
he will find himself hauled off to purgatory.

Just as a Brother
who is equipped with virtue,
concentration,
and insight will -
here and now -
come to the (Arahat's) plenitude of knowledge,
so this other equipment -
if the man does not recant his words,
change his heart,
and renounce his view -
will end in his being hauled off to purgatory.

Aye, Sāriputta,
I have lived the fourfold higher life; -
I have been an ascetic of ascetics;
loathly have I been,
foremost in loathliness;
scrupulous have I been,
foremost in scrupulosity;
solitary have I been,
foremost in solitude.

(i.) To such a pitch of asceticism have I gone
that[2] naked was I,
flouting life's decencies,
licking my hands after meals,
never heeding when folk called to me to come or to stop,
never accepting food brought to me before my rounds
or cooked expressly for me,
never accepting an invitation,
never receiving food direct from pot or pan
or within the threshold
or among the faggots or pestles,
never from (one only of) two people messing together,
never from a pregnant woman
or a nursing mother
or a woman in coitu,
never from gleanings (in time of famine)
nor from where a dog is ready at hand
or where (hungry) flies congregate,
never touching flesh
or fish
or spirits
or strong drink
or brews of grain.

I have visited only one house a day
and there taken only one morsel;
or I have visited but two
or (up to not more than) seven houses a day
and taken at each only two
or (up to not more than) seven morsels;
I have lived on a single saucer of food a day,
or on two,
or (up to) seven saucers;
I have had but one meal a day,
or one every two days,
or (so on, up to) every seven days,
or only once a fort- [54] night,
on a rigid scale of rationing.

My sole diet has been herbs gathered green,
or the grain of wild millets and paddy,
or snippets of hide,
or water-plants,
or the red powder round rice-grains within the husk,
or the discarded scum of rice on the boil,
or the flour of oilseeds,
or grass,
or cow-dung.

I have lived on wild roots and fruit,
or on windfalls only.

My raiment has been of hemp
or of hempen mixture,
of cerements,
of rags from the dust-heap,
of bark,
of the black antelope's pelt
either whole or split down the middle,
of grass,
of strips of bark or wood,
of hair of men or animals woven into a blanket,
or of owls' wings.

In fulfilment of my vows,
I have plucked out the hair of my head
and the hair of my beard,
have never quitted the upright for the sitting posture,[3]
have squatted and never risen up,
moving only a-squat,
have couched on thorns,
have gone down to the water punctually
thrice before nightfall
to wash (away the evil within).

After this wise,
in divers fashions,
have I lived to torment and to torture my body; -
to such a length in asceticism have I gone.

(ii.) To such a length have I gone in loathliness
that on my body I have accumulated the dirt and filth of years
till it dropped off of itself, -
even as the rank growths of years
fall away from the stump of a Tinduka-tree.

But never once came the thought to me
to clean it off with my own hands
or to get others to clean it off for me; -
to such a length in loathliness have I gone.

(iii.) To such a length in scrupulosity have I gone
that my footsteps out and in
were always attended by a mindfulness
so vigilant as to awake compassion within me
over even a drop of water
lest I might harm tiny creatures in crevices; -
to such a length have I gone in scrupulosity.

Neatherd. Cow-herd. > OE nēat > ME netherde < net: herd of cattle. From pre-historic origin meaning 'to enjoy the use of'.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

(iv.) To such a length have I gone
as a solitary that,
when my abode was in the depths of the forest,
the mere glimpse of a cowherd
or neatherd
or grass- [55] cutter,
or of a man gathering firewood or edible roots in the forest,
was enough to make me dart from wood to wood,
from thicket to thicket,
from dale to dale,
and from hill to hill, -
in order that they might not see me
or I them.

As a deer at the sight of man
darts away over hill and dale,
even so did I dart away
at the mere glimpse of cowherd,
neatherd,
or what not,
in order that they might not see me
or I them; -
to such a length have I gone as a solitary.

Byre. A stable for cows.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

When the cowherds had driven their herds forth from the byres,
up I came on all fours
to find a subsistence on the droppings of the young milch-cows.

So long as my own dung and urine held out,
on that I have subsisted.

So foul a filth-eater was I.[4]

I took up my abode in the awesome depths of the forest,
depths so awesome that it was reputed
that none but the passion-less could venture in
without his hair standing on end.

When the cold season
brought chill wintry nights,
then it was that,
in the dark half of the months
when snow was falling,
I dwelt by night in the open air
and in the dank thicket by day.

But when there came
the last broiling month of summer
before the rains,
I made my dwelling
under the baking sun by day
and in the stifling thicket by night.

Then there flashed on me these verses,
never till then uttered by any:

Now scorched, now frore, in forest dread, alone,
naked and fireless, set upon his quest,
the hermit battles purity to win.

In a charnel ground
I lay me down
with charred bones for pillow.

When the cowherds' boys came along,
they spat and staled upon me,
pelted me with dirt,
and stuck bits of wood into my ears.

Yet I declare that
never did I let an evil mood against them
arise within me.

So poised in equanimity was I.[5]

[56] Some recluses and brahmins there are
who say and hold
that purity cometh by way of food,
and accordingly proclaim
that they live exclusively on jujube-fruits,
which, in one form or other,
constitute their sole meat and drink.

Now I can claim to have lived on a single jujube-fruit a day.

If this leads you to think
that this fruit was larger in those days,
you would err;
for, it was precisely the same size then
that it is to-day.

When I was living on a single fruit a day,
my body grew emaciated in the extreme;
because I ate so little,
my members,
great and small,
grew like the knotted joints of withered creepers;
like a buffalo's hoof
were my shrunken buttocks;
like the twists in a rope
were my spinal vertebrae;
like the crazy rafters
of a tumbledown roof,
that start askew and aslant,
were my gaunt ribs;
like the starry gleams on water
deep down and afar
in the depths of a well,
shone my gleaming eyes
deep down and afar
in the depths of their sockets;
and as the rind of a cut gourd
shrinks and shrivels in the heat,
so shrank and shrivelled
the scalp of my head, -
and all because I ate so little.

If I sought to feel my belly,
it was my backbone
which I found in my grasp;
if I sought to feel my backbone,
I found myself grasping my belly,
so closely did my belly cleave to my backbone; -
and all because I ate so little.

When I wanted to retire
for the calls of nature,
down I fell on my face; -
and all because I ate so little.

If for ease of body
I chafed my limbs,
the hairs of my body
fell away under my hand,
rotted at their roots; -
and all because I ate so little.

Other recluses and brahmins there are
who, saying and holding
that purity cometh by way of food,
proclaim that they live exclusively on beans -
or sesamum -
or rice -
as their sole meat and drink.

Now I can claim to have lived
on a single bean a day -
on a single sesamum seed a day -
or a single grain of rice a day;
and [the result was still the same].

Never did this practice
or these courses
or these dire austerities
bring me to the ennobling gifts of super- [57] human knowledge and insight.

And why?

Because none of them lead to that noble understanding
which, when won,
leads on to Deliverance
and guides him who lives up to it
onward to the utter extinction of all Ill.

Again, there are other recluses and brahmins
who say and hold
that purity cometh by way of successive transmigrations, -
or of a particular rebirth -
or particular abode.

Now, it would not be easy to find the transmigration
or rebirth
or abode
that has not been mine in all this long past of mine, -
save and except the heaven of the pure abode.[6]

And even if I were to transmigrate to -
or be reborn in -
or abide among the gods of that particular heaven,
I could never more return to earth.

Again, there are recluses and brahmins
who say and hold
that purity cometh by sacrificing
or by fire-ritual.

Now it would not be easy to find
either the sacrifice which I have not offered
or the fire-ritual which I have not performed, -
whether as a king
anointed as such from among the nobles,
or as a brahmin magnate.

Lastly, there are recluses and brahmins
who say and hold that,
as long as a man is in the prime of his youth and early manhood,
with a wealth of coal-black hair untouched by grey,
and in all the beauty of his prime, -
so long only are the powers of his mind at their best;
but that when he has grown broken and old,
aged and stricken in years,
and draws to his life's close,
then the powers of his mind are in decay.

This is not so.

I myself am now broken and old,
aged and stricken in years
and at the close of my life,
being now round about eighty.

Imagine now that I had four disciples -
each living to be a full hundred,
each of perfect alertness,
resolve,
and power to reproduce and expound, -
four disciples as perfect in their [58] scope
as a mighty archer of renown,
so skilled and dexterous with his bow
and so schooled in its use
that he can with ease
shoot even a feather-weight shaft
right over a towering palm.

Imagine further that these four gifted disciples
ply me with questions (say)
about mustering-up mindfulness,
receive my answers,
take in my exposition as expounded to them,
never put to me a single subsidiary question,
and never pause in their questioning
except for meals,
for the calls of nature,
and for necessary repose. -
Still uncompleted withal
would be the Truth-finder's teaching,
still uncompleted would be
his exposition of the Sayings,
still uncompleted would be
his answers to their questions;
but meantime my four disciples
would have lived out their allotted century
and would have expired.

If you have to carry me about on a litter, Sāriputta,
yet will my mind still retain its powers.

Of me, if of anyone,
it may truly be said
that in me a being without delusions
has appeared in the world
for the welfare and good of many,
out of compassion towards the world,
for the profit,
welfare
and good of gods and men.

At the time the venerable Nāgasamāla was standing behind the Lord,
fanning him;
and he said to the Lord:

Wonderful, sir;
marvellous!

As I listened to this discourse,
the hairs of my body stood on end.

What is the title of this discourse?

Well, then, Nāgasamāla,
treasure it up in your memory as
'the Grisly discourse.'[7]

Thus spoke the Lord.

Glad at heart, the reverend Nāgasamāla rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

 


[1] From D. I, 175, it will be seen that Gotama had been unjustly criticized for roaring like a lion only in safe privacy, where he could not be answered.

[2] Cf. infra Suttas No. 36, 45, 51, etc.; and see Dialogues I, 227, for these - and one or two more-ascetic practices (of Ājivakas) and their interpretation (by Buddhists).

[3] Jain practices, see Sutta No. 14.

[4] Less detail is given at Dialogues I, 232 (note 1), and the 94th Jātaka (which contains the verses following, with a commentary which is fuller and - I think-later than Buddhaghosa's commentary on them in this Sutta).

[5] This bojjhanga addition (see Sutta No. 2) does not appear in the Dīgha catalogue of asceticisms.

[6] This heaven is deliberately ignored in Sutta No. 1. At Dīgha II, 50 (v. Dialogues II, 39, note 2), Gotama paid a visit of curiosity to this heaven, which is only dragged in here per contumeliam, to pour contempt on all the pride of brahmins in their purity and its apotheosis.

[7] As this Mahā-Sihanāda-Sutta is also thus styled the Lomahaɱsa-pariyāya, so the Sigālovāda-Sutta of the Dīgha was also (Dialogues III, 171) known as the layman's Vinaya. So the Anumāna-Sutta (infra, No. 15) was known as the Bhikkhu-pātimokkha; and the Ariya-Pariyesana-Sutta (infra, No. 26) is alternatively styled by Bu. Pāsarāsi-Sutta. See also the penultimate paragraph of Sutta No. 115 for five alternative titles, all attributed to Gotama himself.


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