Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima Paṇṇāsa
3. Paribbājaka Vagga

Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume VI
Dialogues of the Buddha
Part V

Further Dialogues of the Buddha
Volume II

Translated from the Pali
by Lord Chalmers
G.C.B.
Sometime Governor of Ceylon

London
Humphrey Milford
Oxford University Press
1927
Public Domain

Sutta 77

Mahā Sakuludāyi Suttaɱ

The Key To Pupils' Esteem

 


[1] [1]

[1][pts][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

Once when the Lord was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove where the squirrels were fed,
there were living in the Wanderers' Pleasaunce
where the peacocks were fed
a number of most eminent Wanderers,
- such as Anugāra, Varadhara and Sakuludāyi,
together with other very well-known Wanderers.

In the morning early,
duly robed and bowl in hand,
the Lord went into Rājagaha for alms;
but, deeming the hour too early as yet for this,
he bethought him of going to Sakuludāyi in Wanderers Pleasaunce;
and thither he repaired.

At the time, Sakuludāyi was sitting with his great company of Wanderers,
who were making a great noise
with their voices raised and loud
in all manner of low and beastly talk, -
about princes,
bandits,
great lords' armies,
terrors,
battles,
meats and drinks,
clothes,
beds,
garlands,
perfumes,
relations,
villages,
townships,
cities,
countries,
women,
warriors,
roads,
wells,
kinsfolk departed,
and all the rest of it,
with chatter about world and ocean,
and [2] about being and not-being.

When from some way off Sakuludāyi saw the Lord coming,
he hushed his company by saying:
Be quiet, sirs;
do not make a noise;
here comes the recluse Gotama,
who is a lover of silence and commends the silent;
if he observes silence reigning in this gathering,
he may decide to approach.

So they became silent and the Lord came up.

Said Sakuludāyi:

- I pray the Lord to join us;
he is truly welcome;
it is a long time since he last managed to come.

Pray,
be seated;
here is a seat for the Lord.

The Lord sat down accordingly,
asking Sakuludāyi,
who took a low seat to one side,
what had been their theme
and what was the discussion
which had been interrupted.

Let that pass for the moment,
answered Sakuludāyi;
you can easily gather that later on.

Of late, when recluses and brahmins of other creeds
were met together in the Discussion Hall,
the topic was mooted what a good thing,
what a very good thing,
[2] for the Magadha people in Anga
that such recluses and brahmins -
all at the head of confraternities or followings,
all well-known and famous teachers,
all founders of saving creeds,
held in high repute by many people -
should have come to spend the rainy season at Rājagaha.

-There was Pūraṇa Kassapa,
Makkhali Gosāla,
Ajita Kesa-Kambalī,
Pakudha Kaccayana,
Sañjaya Belaṭṭhi-putta, and
Nāta-putta the Nigaṇṭha, -
[3] all men of this distinction
and all of them here for the rains;
and among them there is also the recluse Gotama here,
at the head of his confraternity and following,
a well-known and famous teacher,
a founder of a saving creed,
who is held in high repute by many.

Now, which of these Lords,[1]
which of these recluses and brahmins
of such eminence as teachers,
is esteemed,
respected,
venerated
and adored by his disciples?

And on what terms of esteem and respect
do they live with him?

Said some: -
Pūraṇa Kassapa gets no esteem or respect,
no veneration or adoration,
from his disciples;
they live with him
on no terms of esteem and respect.

Time was when,
as he was preaching his doctrine to some hundreds of his following,
a disciple broke in with -
Don't question Pūraṇa Kassapa,
who does not know about it;
ask me who do;
I will explain everything to your reverences.

With arms outstretched Pūraṇa Kassapa tearfully remonstrated, saying -
Do be quiet, sirs;
do not make a noise;
the question is addressed not to those persons
but to me,
who will explain everything.

But many of his disciples went off
after riddling his argument.

You, said they,
know nothing of this Doctrine and Rule;
we do and you never can;
you are in error,
we in the right;
there is sense in what we say,
none in what you say;
you conclude where you should begin,
and begin with what you should conclude with;
your rigmarole is [3] exploded;
your argument is riddled;
you are refuted;
go away and learn better
or else disentangle yourself,
if you can.

Such was the lack of esteem,
respect,
veneration,
and adoration shown to Pūraṇa Kassapa by his disciples,
who lived with him on no terms of esteem and respect,
but scoffed at him and his teachings.

[4] Others said ... (precisely the same things about the five other sophists).

Others again said: -

There is the recluse Gotama at the head of his Confraternity and following,
a well-known and famous teacher,
a founder of a saving creed,
who is held in high repute by many.

Him his disciples esteem,
respect,
venerate
and adore;
and with him they live
on terms of esteem and respect.

Time was when,
as the recluse Gotama was preaching his Doctrine
to some hundreds of his following,
a disciple coughed.

One of his fellows in the higher life
jogged him with his knee,
saying: -
Keep quiet, [5] your reverence;
do not make a noise;
our master, the Lord,
is preaching the Doctrine!

When the recluse Gotama is preaching to hundreds at once,
no hawking or spitting is heard among them;
the whole assemblage is on the tip-toe of expectancy,
intent only to hear what he shall say.

It is just like a man at cross-roads
pressing out pure, clear honey
from a small honey-comb
amid the hopeful expectancy of an encircling crowd, -
even so, when the recluse Gotama is preaching to hundreds at once,
no hawking or spitting is heard among them;
the whole assemblage is on the tip-toe of expectancy,
intent only to hear what he shall say.

So also when, after a corporate life with their fellows,
disciples of his throw up their course of training
and revert to the lower state of the layman, -
even they laud the Master,
his Doctrine
and his Confraternity;
they blame not others
but simply themselves,
saying they are failures of little worth,
in that, though they started to be Pilgrims in the Doctrine and Rule so well preached,
they are incapable of life-long persistence
in the perfection and purity of the higher life;
and so these frequent the precincts
or become lay-disciples
under vow to observe the Five Precepts. -

This is how the recluse Gotama
is esteemed and respected, [4] venerated and adored by his disciples,
and how they live with him
on terms of esteem and respect.

How many qualities, Udāyi,
do you observe in me
to bring this about?

Five, sir; -

(i) The Lord eats but sparingly
and advocates a spare diet;
[6] (ii) the Lord is content to wear any raiment,
and commends the like contentment to others;
(iii) the Lord is content to accept any alms,
and commends the like contentment to others;
(iv) the Lord puts up with any lodging,
and commends the like contentment to others; and
(v) the Lord lives in seclusion himself
and advises others to be secluded. -

These are the five qualities
which inspire the esteem of his disciples
for the recluse Gotama.

If their esteem, Udāyi,
turned on my being reputed to eat but sparingly
and to advocate a spare diet for others,
why, there are some of my disciples
who live on a pipkin of food a day,
others on half a pipkin,
others who take only the quantity of a vilva-fruit or just half that;
[7] whereas I myself sometimes eat a whole bowlful or more.

So that, if it turned on my eating sparingly
and advocating a spare diet,
my abstemious disciples would not esteem me
or hold me in veneration.

If again it turned on clothing,
I have some disciples
who go rudely clad in rags from the dustheaps,
who piece themselves together a cloak
from what tatters they can scavenge from charnel-grounds
or refuse-heaps
or mercers' sweepings;
whereas I myself sometimes wear lay-clothes,
so fine in web
that the down on the gourd
is coarse in comparison.

So that, if it turned on clothing,
my disciples whose clothes are got by scavenging
would not esteem or venerate me.

If again it turned on taking what alms come along,
some of my disciples
punctiliously go to each house in its turn
and delight in the practice
of gleaning as they go[2]
and will not,
though they have gone indoors,
[5] accept an invitation to take a seat;-
whereas I myself, on invitation,
sometimes fare on the choicest picked rice [8] with several sauces and curries.

So that, if it turned on alms from door to door,
these punctilious disciples of mine
would not esteem and venerate me.

Or, if it turned on lodging,
I have disciples who lodge under trees in the open
and are never under a roof for eight months at a stretch; -
whereas I myself am sometimes housed in storied mansions,
stuccoed all over,
which keep out the wind
with barred doors
and closed shutters.

So that, if it turned on lodging,
these open-air disciples of mine
would not esteem or venerate me.

Lastly, if it turned on seclusion,
1 have disciples who dwell in the wilds
and afar off in the distant depths of the forest,
with only a fortnightly meeting in Confraternity
to recite the Confession (pāṭimokkha); -
whereas I myself am at times beset by Almsmen,
Almswomen,
lay disciples of both sexes,
princes and lords,
sectaries and the disciples of sectaries.

So that, if it turned on seclusion,
[9] these anchorite disciples of mine
would not esteem or venerate me.

No, Udāyi;
these five qualities
would not make me esteemed and respected,
venerated and adored by my disciples,
nor would these five qualities
make them live with me
on terms of esteem and respect.

But there are five other qualities
which do achieve this
and they are the following: -

(1) First, my disciples value the higher virtue
and believe that I am virtuous
and endowed with virtue in its perfection.

This is the first conviction
which makes me esteemed and respected,
venerated and adored by my disciples,
who live with me
on terms of esteem and respect

Ken. (Chalmers translation of (ñāṇa)) 1. range of sight or vision; power or exercise of vision, look, gaze; mental perception or recognition; v. causative: to make known, declare, to impart the knowledge of a thing; to direct, teach or instruct; non-causative: to descry, see, catch sight of; discover by sight; to see, recognize, identify, distinguish, know. —O.E.D.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

(2) Secondly, my disciples value outstanding ken and vision,
and believe that I say I know and see
just because I do know and see;
they believe that I preach my Doctrine
- not without, but with - transcendent knowledge,
with origins,
and with assignable [6] conditions.

[10] This is the second conviction
which makes me esteemed and respected,
venerated and adored by my disciples,
who live with me
on terms of esteem and respect

(3) My disciples value supereminent intellect
and believe that I have intellect
and am endowed with all intellect
in its perfection,
and that it is unthinkable
I should either not see in advance
the future trend of an argument
or fail to refute the unsound arguments of opponents.

Knowing and seeing this,
would my disciples interrupt discussion?

No, sir.

Nor, Udāyi, do I seek instruction from my disciples;
it is they who seek instruction from me.

All this breeds the third conviction
which makes me esteemed and respected,
venerated and adored by my disciples,
who live with me
on terms of esteem and respect

(4) Fourthly, when my disciples are beset by I11
and spent with I11 in any particular shape,
they come to question me
on the Noble Truth of I11; -
I tell them
and win their hearts by my answers.

The same takes place
with the Noble Truths concerning the origin of I11,
the cessation of I11,
and the way leading to that cessation.

This breeds the fourth conviction
[11] which makes me esteemed and respected,
venerated and adored by my disciples,
who live with me
on terms of esteem and respect

(5) Fifthly, I have shown my disciples the way
whereby they develop the four starting-points
for mustering up mindfulness.

Herein, an Almsman dwells -
as regards the body -
in the realization of what the body is,
in ardour, in self-awareness and in mindfulness,
quit of all worldly distress of mind and body.

He does the same with feelings,
and with his heart,
and with states of consciousness. -

In this way
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the four Right Struggles. -

They resolve,
they strive,
they persevere,
they exert and strain their heart
for the fourfold purposes of
(a) checking the rise of evil and wrong states of consciousness
which have not yet arisen,
(b) shedding evil and wrong states
which have already arisen,
[7] (c) encouraging the rise of right states
which have not yet arisen,
and (d) ensuring that right states
which are there already
shall be stablished and ordered aright,
multiplied,
and developed,
shall wax apace
and grow to perfection. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Four Bases of Psychic Power, -
resolve,
exertion,
heart,
and investigation,
each informed by the plastic forces
of concentration and struggle. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Five Faculties, -
[12] faith,
exertion,
mindfulness,
concentration,
intellect,
each leading on to tranquillity
and to full enlightenment. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Five Strengths, -
the strengths of faith,
of exertion,
of mindfulness,
of concentration,
and of intellect,
each leading on to tranquillity
and to full enlightenment. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Seven Factors of Enlightenment, -
mindfulness,
research into the Doctrine,
perseverance,
zest,
serenity,
concentration,
and the poise of indifference,
each based on seclusion,
passionlessness and cessation,
and merging into Renunciation.

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Noble Eightfold Path, -
right outlook,
right intention,
right speech,
right action,
right mode of livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Eight Deliverances.

Conscious of his own bodily form,
a man sees external forms; -
this is the first Deliverance.

Inwardly un- [8] conscious of his own bodily form,
he sees external forms
this is the second Deliverance.

Appreciation of its goodliness
is the third Deliverance.

By passage wholly beyond [13] all perception of form,
by extinction of perceptions of sensory reactions,
by the ignoring of perceptions of multiplicity,
the thought of space as infinite
leads him to enter on,
and abide in,
the sphere of Infinite Space; -
and this is the fourth Deliverance.

By passage wholly beyond the sphere of infinite space,
the thought of consciousness as infinite
leads him to enter on,
and abide in,
the sphere of Infinite Consciousness; -
and this is the fifth Deliverance.

By passage wholly beyond the sphere of infinite consciousness,
tne thought of nothingness leads him to enter on,
and abide in,
the sphere of Naught; -
and this is the sixth Deliverance.

By passage wholly beyond the sphere of Naught,
he enters on,
and abides in,
the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception; -
and this is the seventh Deliverance.

Lastly, by passage wholly beyond the sphere of neither perception nor nonperception,
he enters on,
and abides in,
the cessation of the feeling of perceptions,
which is the eighth Deliverance, -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the eight Spheres of Mastery.

Inwardly conscious of possessing bodily form,
one individual sees outside himself forms,
fair or foul,
which are small;
these he masters
so that he perceives he knows and sees them. -

This is the first Sphere of Mastery.

The second is when a man can say the like
about external forms which are infinite.

The third is when,
being himself unconscious of his own bodily form,
a man can say the like
about small external objects;
and the fourth is when
these external objects are infinite.

Lost to all bodily form of his own,
an individual sees external objects which are blue,
blue in colour,
blue to behold,
blue of sheen. -

Just as the flax-flower is blue,
blue in colour,
blue to behold,
blue of sheen;
or just as Benares muslin,
with a finish on both front and back,
is blue ... in sheen
so blue [9] are the external objects he sees;
these he masters
so that he perceives that he knows and sees them. -

This is the fifth [14] Sphere of Mastery.

The sixth is when,
lost to consciousness of any bodily form of his own,
an individual sees external objects which are yellow,
yellow in colour,
yellow to behold,
yellow of sheen,
yellow as the Kaṇṇikāra flower
or the muslin of Benares is yellow.

The seventh is when he sees red things,
red as the bandhu-jīvaka blossom
or Benares muslin are red.

Lastly,
being inwardly unconscious of possessing bodily form,
an individual sees things which are white,
white in colour,
white to behold,
white in sheen, -
white as the morning star
or Benares muslin is white;
these he masters
so that he perceives he knows and sees them. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Ten Hypnotics.

One individual perceives a plot of earth
from above,
from below,
across,
in unity,
and infinite.

Others do the same with water,
fire,
air,
blue,
yellow,
red,
and white,
space and
[15] consciousness. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop
the Four Ecstasies.

Herein, an Almsman,
divested of pleasures of sense
and of wrong states of mind
enters on,
and abides in,
the First Ecstasy
with all its zest and satisfaction,
a state bred of inward aloofness
but not divorced from observation and reflection.

His very body does he so sluice
and drench
and permeate
and suffuse
with the zest and satisfaction bred of aloofness,
that there is no part of his body
which is not suffused thereby.

Just as an expert bath-attendant
or his apprentice
will sprinkle soap-powder on a metal slab
and knead it up
with the water which he keeps on sprinkling over it,
until the whole of the soap-powder is one mass of lather,
permeated by the lather
both in and out,
with not a trickle of moisture left; -
in just the same way
does the Almsman so sluice
and drench
and permeate
and suffuse
his very body
with the zest and satisfaction bred of aloofness,
that there is no part of his body
which is not suffused thereby.

Further, rising above observation and reflection,
he enters on,
and abides in,
the Second Ecstasy
with all its zest and satisfaction -
a state bred of rapt concentration,
above all observation and reflection,
a state whereby the heart is focussed
and tranquillity reigns within.

His very body does he so sluice
and drench
and permeate
and suffuse
with the zest and satisfaction
bred of rapt concentration,
that there is no part of his body
which is not suffused thereby.

It is like a lake
fed from below by a spring,
with no other influx of water from east
or west
or north
or south,
a lake on which the heavens should send no showers from time to time;
yet from the spring below
there would well up cool waters into the lake,
so sluicing
and drenching
and permeating
and suffusing that lake
that there is no part of that lake
which is not suffused thereby; -
in just the same way does this Almsman so sluice
and drench
and permeate
and suffuse
his very body with the zest and satisfaction
bred of rapt concentration,
that there is no part of his body
which js not suffused thereby.

Further, by shedding the emotion of zest,
he enters on,
and abides in,
the Third Ecstasy,
with its poised equanimity,
mindful and self-possessed,
feeling in his frame
that satisfaction of which the Noble say
that poise and mindfulness
bring abiding satisfaction.

His very body does he so sluice
and drench
and permeate
and suffuse
with satisfaction,
without zest,
that there is no part of his body
which is not suffused
by this satisfaction without zest.

Just as in a pond of lotuses,
blue
or red
or white,
some lotuses of each kind
are born and grow in the water,
never rising above the surface
but flourishing beneath it;
and these from root to tip
are so sluiced
and drenched
and permeated
and suffused
by the cool waters
that there is not a lotus,
blue
or red
or white,
which is not suffused
from root to tip
by the cool waters: -
in just the same way
does the Almsman so sluice
and drench
and permeate
and suffuse
his very body
with satisfaction without zest,
that there is no part of his body
which is not suffused thereby.

Further, by putting from him
both satisfaction and dissatisfaction
and by shedding the joys and sorrows he used to feel,
he enters on,
and abides in,
the Fourth Ecstasy, -
the state that,
knowing neither satisfaction nor dissatisfaction,
is the consummate purity
of poised equanimity and mindfulness.

His very body does he so suffuse
with a heart made pure and clean
that, as he sits,
there is no single part of his body
which is not suffused
by his pure and clean heart.

Just as if a man were sitting
wrapped head and all
in a garment of white,
with not a single part of his body
not wrapped in it, -
in just the same way
does the Almsman so suffuse his very body
with a heart made pure and clean
that, as he sits,
there is no single part of his body
[16-17] not wrapped in pure and clean thoughts.

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they comprehend that -

This corporeal frame of mine
is made up of the four Elements,
starts from parents,
is sustained by rice and other foods,
is impermanent and subject to attrition,
abrasion,
erasion,
dissolution and
disruption;
and this consciousness of mine
is tied and bound up therewith.

It is just like a beautiful sparkling gem
of the purest water
and of eight facets,
excellently cut,
clear,
translucent,
flawless
and excellent in every way, -
through which there passes a blue,
yellow,
red,
white,
or yellowish thread.

[10] Even as a man with eyes wherewith to see
has only to take it in his hand
to mark that it is such a gem
and is on such a thread, -
so have I shown my disciples the way
whereby to have this comprehension of body
and of consciousness. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they call into being
out of this body
another body
of the mind's creation,
complete in all its limbs and members,
and with transcendental faculties.

It is just like a man
who should draw a reed from its sheath -
or a snake from its slough -
or a sword from its scabbard, -
recognizing that the reed,
the snake,
or the sword
was one thing
and the sheath,
slough,
or scabbard
was another;
the one being drawn out of the other.

[18] Just in the same way
have I shown my disciples
the way whereby they call into being
... faculties.

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop divers psychic powers, -
from being one to become manifold,
from being manifold to become one;
to become visible or invisible;
to pass at will through wall or fence or hill as if through air;
to pass in and out of the solid earth as if it were water;
to walk on the water's unbroken surface as if it were the solid earth;
to elide,
as they sit serene,
through the air like a winged bird;
to touch and to handle the sun and moon in their power and might;
and to extend the sovereignty of their bodies
right up to the heavens of Brahma.

Just as a skilful potter
or his apprentice
can make and fashion any shape he will
out of prepared clay,
or an ivory-worker out of ivory,
or a goldsmith out of gold; -
even so have I shown my disciples
the way whereby they develop divers psychic powers
... [19] heavens of Brahma. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby,
with the Celestial Ear,
which is pure and far surpasses the human ear,
they hear twofold sounds,
both the celestial and the human,
whether far or near.

Just as a mighty conch-blower
can with ease
make his [11] blast heard
in all the four directions,-
so have I shown my disciples
the way whereby
... far and near. -

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby their hearts read the hearts of others, -
knowing the heart where passion dwells as passionate,
and the passionless heart as passionless,
the unkind heart as unkind,
and the kind heart as kind,
the deluded heart as deluded,
and the undeluded heart as undeluded,
the focussed heart as focussed,
and the unfocussed heart as unfocussed,
the great heart as great,
and the little heart as little,
the inferior heart as inferior,
and the superior heart as superior,
the stedfast heart as stedfast,
and the un-stedfast heart as unstedfast,
the heart Delivered as Delivered,
and the heart undelivered as undelivered.

Just as a woman or man
or lad young and dressy, -
on surveying the reflection of their features
in a bright, clean mirror
or in a bowl of clean water,
and on seeing reflected there
a smut or a pimple -
would know from the reflection
either that there was a smut or a pimple there
[20] or that there was none at all; -
just in the same way
I have shown my disciples the way
whereby their hearts read the hearts of others, -
knowing the heart where passion dwells as passionate,
and the passionless heart as passionless,
the unkind heart as unkind,
and the kind heart as kind,
the deluded heart as deluded,
and the undeluded heart as undeluded,
the focussed heart as focussed,
and the unfocussed heart as unfocussed,
the great heart as great,
and the little heart as little,
the inferior heart as inferior,
and the superior heart as superior,
the stedfast heart as stedfast,
and the un-stedfast heart as unstedfast,
the heart Delivered as Delivered,
and the heart undelivered as undelivered.

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby they recall their divers existences in the past
a single birth,
then two ... [and so on to] ... a hundred thousand births,
many an aeon of disintegration of the world,
many an aeon of its redintegration,
and again many an aeon both of its disintegration
and of its redintegration.

In this or that former existence,
they remember,
such and such was my name,
my sept,
my class,
my diet,
my joys and sorrows,
and my term of life.

When I passed thence,
I came by such and such subsequent existence,
wherein such and such was my name and so forth.

Thence I passed to my life here.

Thus do they call to mind their divers existences of the past
in all their details and features.

Just as if a man were to go from his own
to a second village
and thence to a third,
returning thence to his own village,
and were to bethink him on his return
how, in the second and the third villages,
he stood and sat,
talked and was silent
ere he came back home again; -
even so have I shown my disciples
the way whereby they recall
their divers existences in the past
a single birth,
then two ... [and so on to] ... a hundred thousand births,
many an aeon of disintegration of the world,
many an aeon of its redintegration,
and again many an aeon both of its disintegration
and of its redintegration.

In this or that former existence,
they remember,
such and such was my name,
my sept,
my class,
my diet,
my joys and sorrows,
and my term of life.

When I passed thence,
I came by such and such subsequent existence,
wherein such and such was my name and so forth.

Thence I passed to my life here.

Thus do they call to mind their divers existences of the past
in all their details and features.

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby,
with the Eye Celestial,
which is pure and far surpasses the human eye,
they see creatures in act to pass hence
and in act to re-appear elsewhere
beings high and low,
fair or foul to view,
in bliss or woe;
they see them all faring according to their past.

Here were beings given over to evil
in act, word and thought,
who decried the Noble
and had a wrong outlook
and became what results from such wrong outlook -
these, at the body's dissolution after death,
made their appearance in states of suffering,
misery
and tribulation
and in purgatory.

Here again were beings given to good
in act, word and thought,
who did not decry the Noble,
who had the right outlook
and became what results from right outlook; -
these, at the body's dissolution after death,
made their appearance in states of bliss in heaven.

Thus do they with the Eye Celestial
see creatures in act to pass hence
and in act to re-appear elsewhere, -
creatures lowly or debonair,
fair or foul to view,
happy and unhappy,
all seen to be faring according to their deserts.

It is just as if there were two houses with doors to them,
and as if,
from midway between them,
a man with eyes to see
were to behold people going in and coming out,
and passing to and fro.

[12] Just in the same way have I shown my disciples
the way whereby,
with the Eye Celestial,
which is pure and far surpasses the human eye,
to see creatures in act to pass hence
and in act to re-appear elsewhere
beings high and low,
fair or foul to view,
in bliss or woe;
they see them all faring according to their deserts.

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

[22] Moreover, I have shown my disciples
the way whereby,
by the eradication of the Cankers,
they - here and now,
of and by themselves -
know,
realize,
enter on,
and abide in that Deliverance of heart and mind
in which Cankers are no more.

Just as if on a mountain
there were a lake
with clear pellucid waters as of crystal,
and a man with eyes to see
were to observe,
from the bank where he was standing,
oysters and other shells,
with gravel and pebbles
and shoals of fish swimming about
or lying up; -
just as such a man would recognize all he saw before him,
even so have I shown my disciples
the way whereby,
by the eradication of the Cankers,
they - here and now,
of and by themselves -
know,
realize,
enter on,
and abide in that Deliverance of heart and mind
in which Cankers are no more.

In this way, too,
many of my disciples
have come to dwell in the attainment
of intellect's consummate perfection.

And this is the fifth
of the five convictions
which make me esteemed and respected,
venerated and adored by my disciples,
who live with me
on terms of esteem and respect.

Thus spoke the Lord.

Glad at heart,
the Wanderer Sakuludāyi rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

 


[1] It will be noted that here the style of 'Lord' (Bhagavā) - commonly appropriated by Gotama's disciples for their master - is conferred upon all 'recluses and brahmins' who were masters of the great schools of current thought.

[2] Reading uñchepake vate ratā with Bu. (in Dhammā-rāma's edition),- vate ratā being explained as pakativate ratā. The conjecture of va te ratā is wrong.


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