Digha Nikaya


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Digha Nikaya

Sutta 22

Maha Satipatthana[1] Sutta

The Great Discourse
on the
Foundations of Mindfulness

Ganges Sanga version, translator unlisted

NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMASAMBUDDHASSA

HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED ONE, THE WORTHY ONE
THE FULLY-ENLIGHTENED BUDDHA

Thus have I heard.

At one time, the Blessed One was living in Kurus, where there was a market town of the Kurus, named Kammasadamma. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus," and the bhikkhus replied to him, "Venerable Sir." And the Blessed One spoke as follows:

This is the only way[2], bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief[3], for reaching the Noble Path[4], for the realization of Nibbana, namely, the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.[5]

What are the four?

Herein [in this teaching], bhikkhus[6], a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body[7], ardently[8], clearly comprehending[9] and mindful[10], removing covetousness and grief in the world[11]; he dwells contemplating the feeling in the feelings, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world; he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world; he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world.

1. THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE BODY IN THE BODY

Mindfulness of Breathing

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the body in the body? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to a secluded place, sits down cross-legged, keeps his upper body erect, and directs mindfulness towards the object of meditation. Ever mindful, he breathes in, ever mindful he breathes out.

Breathing in a long breath, he knows, "I breathe in long"; breathing out a long breath, he knows, "I breathe out long."

Breathing in a short breath, he knows, "I breathe in short"; breathing out a short breath, he knows, "I breathe out short."[12]

"Making clear the entire in-breath body, I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort [literally, he trains himself]; "making clear the entire out-breath body, I shall breath out," thus he makes effort.[13]

"Calming the gross in-breath [literally, body-conditioned object], I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort; "calming the gross out-breath, I shall breathe out," thus he makes effort.[14]

As a skillful turner [of a lathe] or his apprentice, making a long turn, knows, "I make a long turn," or making a short turn, knows, "I make a short turn," just so the bhikkhu, breathing in a long breath, knows, "I breathe in long"; breathing out a long breath, he knows, "I breathe out long." Breathing in a short breath, he knows, "I breathe in short"; breathing out a short breath, he knows, "I breathe out short." "Making clear the entire in-breath body, I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort; "making clear the entire out-breath body, I shall breathe out," thus he makes effort. "Calming the gross in-breath, I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort; "calming the gross out-breath, I shall breathe out," thus he makes effort.

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.[15]

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the breath-body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the breath-body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the breath-body.[16]

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is breath-body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.[17]

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

The Postures of the Body[18]

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows, "I am going," when he is going; he knows, "I am standing," when he is standing; he knows, "I am sitting," when he is sitting; he knows, "I am lying down," when he is lying down, or just as his body is disposed so he knows it.[19]

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.[20]

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.[21]

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.[22]

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.[23]

Mindfulness with Clear Comprehension[24]

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu in going forward and in going back, [he] applies clear comprehension; in looking straight ahead and in looking away from the front, [he] applies clear comprehension; in wearing the three robes, and in carrying the bowl, [he] applies clear comprehension; in eating, drinking, chewing and savoring, [he] applies clear comprehension; in obeying the calls of nature, [he] applies clear comprehension; in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking, speaking, and in keeping silent, [he] applies clear comprehension.[25]

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.


Reflection on the Repulsiveness of the Body

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon this very body, upward from the soles of his feet, downward from the tips of his hair, enclosed by the skin and full of diverse impurities, thus, "There are in this body

head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin

flesh, sinews (nerves), bones, marrow, kidneys

heart, liver, intestines, spleen, lungs

bowels, stomach, undigested food, feces, brain[26]

bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat

tears, lymph, saliva, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, urine.[27]

As if there were a double-mouthed provision bag filled with various kinds of grain such as hill paddy, paddy, green gram, cowpea, sesame, husked rice, a man with sound eyes[28], having opened it, should examine it thus, "This is hill paddy, this is paddy, this is green gram, this is cowpea, this is sesame, this is husked rice." just so, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon his very body, upward from the soles of his feet, downward from the tips of his hair, enclosed by the skin and full of diverse impurities, thus, "There are in this body head hair, body hair [see above list] ... urine."[29]

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

Reflection on the Material Elements

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon this very body just as it is placed or disposed, with regard to its primary elements, "There are in this body the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element."

As a skillful butcher and his apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions, were sitting at the junction of four highways, just so, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon this very body just as it is placed or disposed, with regard to its primary elements, "There are in this body the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element."[30]

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.[31]

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

The Nine Cemetery Contemplations

i. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body one day dead, or two days dead, or three days dead, swollen, blue, and festering, discarded in the charnel ground, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.[32]

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.[33]

ii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, being devoured by crows, by hawks, by vultures, by herons, by dogs, by leopards, by tigers, by jackals, being devoured by various kinds of worms, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus, he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

iii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to a skeleton, held together by tendons, with some flesh adhering to it, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus, he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

iv. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to a skeleton, held together by tendons, blood-smeared, fleshless, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus, he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

v. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to a skeleton, held together by the tendons, without flesh and blood, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

vi. Again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to loose bones scattered in all directions - here bones of the hand, there bones of the foot, shin bones, thigh bones, pelvis, spine and skull - he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature.

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

vii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to bleached bones of shell-like color, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

viii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to bones more than a year, lying in a heap, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

ix. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to rotten bones, crumbling to dust, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

2. THE CONTEMPLATION OF FEELINGS

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the feelings in the feelings?

Here, bhikkhus, when experiencing a pleasant feeling, the bhikkhu knows, "I experience a pleasant feeling"; when experiencing a painful feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful feeling"; when experiencing a neutral feeling, he knows, "I experience a neutral feeling"; when experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a pleasant worldly feeling"; when experiencing a pleasant non-worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a pleasant non-worldly feeling"; when experiencing a painful worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful worldly feeling"; when experiencing a painful non-worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful non-worldly feeling"; when experiencing a neutral worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a neutral worldly feeling"; when experiencing a neutral non-worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a neutral non-worldly feeling."[34]

Thus he dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings internally, or he dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings externally, or he dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings both internally and externally.[35]

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the feelings.[36]

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is feeling only.." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.[37]

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings.


3. THE CONTEMPLATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS[38]

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows the consciousness with lust as consciousness with lust, the consciousness without lust as consciousness without lust, the consciousness with hate as consciousness with hate, the consciousness without hate as consciousness without hate, the consciousness with delusion as consciousness with delusion, the consciousness without delusion as consciousness without delusion, the constricted consciousness[39] as constricted consciousness, the scattered consciousness as scattered consciousness, the consciousness that has become great as consciousness that has become great[40], the consciousness that has not become great as consciousness that has not become great, the surpassable consciousness as surpassable consciousness, the unsurpassable consciousness as unsurpassable consciousness, the concentrated consciousness as concentrated consciousness, the unconcentrated consciousness as unconcentrated consciousness, the freed consciousness[41] as freed consciousness, the unfreed consciousness as unfreed consciousness.

Thus he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness internally, or he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness externally, or he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness both internally and externally.[42]

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the consciousness, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the consciousness, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the consciousness.[43]

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is consciousness only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness.


4. THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE DHAMMAS[44]

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas?


The Five Hindrances

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five hindrances. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five hindrances?

Here, bhikkhus, when sense-desire is present in him, the bhikkhu knows, "There is sense-desire in me," or when sense-desire is absent in him, he knows, "There is no sense-desire in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen sense-desire comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen sense-desire comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned sense-desire comes to be.[45]

When ill will is present in him, he knows, "There is ill will in me," or when ill will is absent in him, he knows, "There is no ill will in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen ill will comes to be; he also knows why the abandoning of arisen ill will comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned ill Will comes to be.[46]

When sloth and torpor are present in him, he knows, "There are sloth and torpor in me," or when sloth and torpor are absent in him, he knows, "There are no sloth and torpor in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned sloth and torpor comes to be.[47]

When restlessness and remorse are present in him, he knows, "There are restlessness and remorse in me," or when restlessness and remorse are absent in him, he knows, "There are no restlessness and remorse in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen restlessness and remorse comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen restlessness and remorse comes to be; he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned restlessness and remorse comes to be.[48]

When doubt is present in him, he knows, "There is doubt in me," or when doubt is absent in him, he knows, "There is no doubt in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen doubt comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen doubt comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be.[49]

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five hindrances.

Five Aggregates of Clinging[50]

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five aggregates of clinging. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five aggregates of clinging?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows, "This is material form, this is the arising or cause of material form, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of material form. This is feeling, this is arising or cause of feeling, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of feeling. This is perception, this is the arising or cause of perception, this is passing away or cause of passing away of perception. These are mental formations, this is the arising or cause of mental formations, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of mental formations. This is consciousness, this is the arising or cause of consciousness, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of consciousness."[51]

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.[52]

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.[53]

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas, in the five aggregates of clinging.

The Six Internal and the Six External Sense-Bases[54]

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the six internal and the six external sense-bases. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the six internal and the six external sense-bases?

Herein, bhikkhus a bhikkhu knows the eye, knows the visible forms and also knows the fetter[55] that arises dependent on both.

He also knows the reason why the arising of the nonarisen fetter comes to be, he also knows the reason why the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be, and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.[56]

He knows the ear, knows the sounds, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the nose, knows the smells, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the tongue, knows the flavors, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the body, knows the tactile objects, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the mind, knows the dhammas, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the six internal and in the six external sense-bases.


The Seven Factors of Enlightenment[57]

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the seven factors of enlightenment. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the seven factors of enlightenment.

Here, bhikkhus, when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness[58] is present in him, the bhikkhu knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of mindfulness in me."[59] He also knows the reason why the arising of the nonarisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be.[60]

When the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas[61] is present in him, he knows, "Here is the enlightenment-factor of investigation of dhammas in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas comes to be[62]; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of energy is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment factor of energy in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of energy is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of energy in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the enlightenment-factor of energy comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of rapture is present in him, he knows "There is the enlightenment-factor of rapture in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of rapture is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of rapture in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of rapture comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment-factor of rapture comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of tranquility is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of tranquility in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of tranquility is absent in him, he knows, 'Mere is no enlightenment-factor of tranquility in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of tranquility comes to be: he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment factor of tranquility comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of concentration is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of concentration in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of concentration is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of concentration in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of equanimity in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of equanimity in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be.

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the seven factors of enlightenment.


The Four Noble Truths

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the Four Noble Truths.

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the Four Noble Truths?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows, according to reality, "This is suffering"; he knows, according to reality, "This is the origin of suffering"[63]; he knows, according to reality, "This is the cessation of suffering"[64]; he knows, according to reality, "This is the path leading to the cessation of suffering."[65]

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of Suffering? Birth is suffering, aging is suffering, death is suffering, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive despair are suffering; association with the disliked is suffering; separation from the liked is suffering; not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering. In brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering.

What, now, is birth? The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born, their origination, their conception, their springing into existence, the manifestations of the aggregates, the acquisition of the sense-bases. This, bhikkhus, is called birth.

And what, bhikkhus, is aging? The aging of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their old age, decrepitude, breaking of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, the failing of their vital force, the wearing out of their sense faculties. This, bhikkhus, is called aging.

And what, bhikkhus, is death? The departing and vanishing of beings out of this or that order of beings, their destruction, disappearance, dying, death, the completion of their life period, dissolution of the aggregates, the discarding of the body, the destruction of the controlling faculty of the vital principle. This, bhikkhus, is called death.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? The sorrow of one afflicted by this or that loss, touched by this or that painful thing, the sorrowing, the sorrowful state of mind, the inner sorrow, the inner deep sorrow. This, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? The wailing of one afflicted by this or that loss, touched by this or that painful thing, lament, wailing and lamenting, the state of wailing and lamentation. This, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And what, bhikkhus, is pain? The bodily pain and bodily unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by bodily contact. This, bhikkhus, is called pain.

And what, bhikkhus, is grief? The mental pain and mental unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by mental contact. This, bhikkhus, is called grief.

And what, bhikkhus, is excessive distress? The distress of one afflicted by this or that loss, touched by this or that painful thing, excessive distress and the state of excessive distress, this, bhikkhus, is called excessive distress.

And what, bhikkhus, is suffering which is association with the disliked? Whatever undesirable, disagreeable, unpleasant objects there are visible, audible, odorous, tasteable, and tangible; or whoever those wishers of harm, wishers of discomfort and wishers of non-release from bonds are, it is that being together with them, coming together with them, fraternizing with them, and being mixed with them. This, bhikkhus, is called suffering which is association with the disliked.

And what, bhikkhus, is suffering that is separation from the liked? Whatever desirable, agreeable, pleasant objects there are visible, audible, odorous, tasteable, and tangible; or whoever those wishers of welfare, wishers of benefit, wishers of comfort, and wishers of release from bonds are -- mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, friends, colleagues, relatives, or blood relations, it is that not being together with them, not coming together with them, not fraternizing with them, and not being mixed with them. This, bhikkhus, is called suffering that is separation from the liked.

And what, bhikkhus, is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering?" In being subject to birth such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to birth! Oh, that no birth would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to aging such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to aging! Oh, that no aging would come to us!" But this, indeed cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to sickness such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to sickness! Oh, that no sickness would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to death such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to death! Oh, that no death would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive distress such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive distress! Oh, that no sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive distress would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

And what, bhikkhus, is "in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering?" They are the aggregate of clinging to material form, the aggregate of clinging to feeling, the aggregate of clinging to perception, the aggregate of clinging to mental formations, and the aggregate of clinging to consciousness. This, bhikkhus, is called, "in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering."

This, bhikkhus, is called the Noble Truth of Suffering.

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to further rebirth and, bound up with pleasure and lust, finds ever fresh delight, now here' now there -- to wit, the sensual craving, the craving for existence, and the craving for non-existence.

And where, bhikkhus, does this craving, when arising, arise, and, when settling, settle? Whatever in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing, therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

What in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing? Eye in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Ear in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Nose in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tongue in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Body in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Mind in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Visible forms in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Sounds in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Smells in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tastes in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tangible objects in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Dhammas in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Eye-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Ear-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Nose-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tongue-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Body-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Mind-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Eye-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Ear-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Nose-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Body-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of eye-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of ear-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of nose-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of body-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning the dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for visual forms in the world is a delightful things, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for sounds in the world is a delightful things, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for the dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

This, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering.

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering? It is the total extinction by removing of, forsaking of, discarding of, freedom from, and non-attachment to that same craving.

And where, bhikkhus, is this craving, when being abandoned, abandoned, and when does this craving, when ceasing, cease? Whatever in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing, therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

What in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing? Eye in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Ear in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Nose in the world is a delightful thing, a, pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Tongue in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Body in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Mind in the world is a delightful tiring, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Visual forms in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Sounds in the world are. delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Smells in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when, ceasing, ceases.

Tastes in the world, are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Tangible objects in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Dhammas in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Eye-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Ear-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Nose-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Tongue-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Body-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Mind-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Eye-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Ear contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Nose-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Body-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of eye-contact in the world is a delightful, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of ear-contact in the world is a delightful, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of nose-contact in the world is a delightful, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of smells in the world is a delightful thing a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning the dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The discursive thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The discursive thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The discursive thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

This, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering? It is simply the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Understanding? Understanding of suffering, understanding of the origin of suffering, understanding of the cessation of suffering, understanding of the path leading to the cessation of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Understanding.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Thought? Thought associated with renunciation, thought associated with absence of ill will, thought associated with absence of cruelty. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Thought.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Speech? Abstaining from false speech, abstaining from slanderous speech, abstaining from harsh speech, abstaining from frivolous speech. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Speech.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Action? Abstaining from killing beings, abstaining from taking what is not given, abstaining from sexual misconduct. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Action.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Livelihood? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple having abandoned wrong livelihood, makes a living by means of Right Livelihood. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Livelihood.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Effort? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the non-arising of evil, unwholesome states that have not arisen; engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the abandoning of evil, unwholesome states that have arisen; engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the arising of wholesome states that have not arisen; engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the stabilizing, for the collation, for the increase, for the maturity, for the development, for the perfection through cultivation of wholesome states that have arisen. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Effort.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Mindfulness? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. He dwells contemplating the feeling in the feelings, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. He dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. He dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Mindfulness.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Concentration? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, attains and dwells in the first jhana accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application, with rapture and happiness born of seclusion; with the non-appearance of initial application and sustained application, he attains and dwells in the second jhana, which is internal, accompanied by confidence, which causes singleness of mind to grow, which is without initial application and sustained application, which is born of concentration and which is with rapture and happiness; with the overcoming of rapture as well as of initial application and sustained application, he dwells in equanimity, is mindful and clearly comprehending, experiences happiness with his body and mind. He attains and dwells in the third jhana, on account of which the noble ones announce, "With equanimity and mindfulness, he dwells in happiness." With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, he attains and dwells in the fourth jhana, which has neither pain nor pleasure and has purity of mindfulness caused by equanimity. This, monks, is called Right Concentration.

This, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the Four Noble Truths.


Assurance of Attainment

Verily, bhikkhus, whoever is practicing these Four Foundation of Mindfulness for seven years, he can expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus, should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness for six years .... five years .... four years .... three years .... two years .... for one year, then he may expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus, should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness for seven months .... six months .... five months .... four months .... three months .... two months .... a month .... half-a-month, then he may expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Let alone half-a-month, bhikkhus, should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for seven days, he may expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Because of this, it has been said: "This is the only way, bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for reaching the Noble Path, for the realization of nibbana, namely, the Four Foundations of Mindfulness."

This the Blessed One said. Glad in their hearts, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Blessed One.

 


Ganga Sangha Editor's Note: The following notes were taken upon listening to a 14-tape series of lectures by Bhikkhu Bodhi on the Satipatthana Sutta. While I have made every effort to correctly reflect what was presented, I apologize in advance for any errors that may have occurred in my transmission of his thoughts to this writing. THIS IS NOT A TRANSCRIPTION OF THE ACTUAL LECTURES, IT IS ONLY MY NOTES BASED ON THOSE LECTURES. The tapes may be ordered from Dharma Seed Tape Library by calling 1-800-969-SEED.  As stated at Note [63] below, a portion of Bhikkhu Bodhi's lectures is not included in the tape set.

[1]Satipatthana is a compound word: Sati (Mindfulness) Upatthana (Setting Up or Establishment). Or as Sati Patthana (Foundation or Basis). To establish mindfulness, one must have a basis for establishing it.

[2]The only way: a path going in one direction. It's not the only path, but rather is the most direct path which leads only in one direction: leading to the purification of beings.

[3]Purification of beings, etc. means the eradication of defilements, such as hatred, ignorance, greed, conceit, laziness, selfishness, pride, etc., i.e. suffering, which can be purified through the practice of Satipatthana.

[4]The Noble Path is the supramundane path, i.e., of stream entry, once returner, non-returner, and arahantship, which lead indelibly to liberation.

[5]Mindfulness is being aware of what is happening within oneself or to oneself at any given moment of experience. One's mind is usually focused outward in the various projects and undertakings with which one is engaged. From time to time such awareness may arise just momentarily, but it quickly gets lost because we don't see any special value or purpose in developing that quality of awareness. But according to the Buddha, that quality of awareness is the essential foundation or quality of mind that is needed for both concentration and wisdom. To develop that one-pointedness of mind, one must go on attending to a single object with mindfulness again and again. And to see them as they really are, one must examine them with mindfulness.
Mindfulness is that essential mental quality by which we use the beam of awareness to illuminate and to understand our own experience - the bodily and the mental experience. This mindfulness must build up momentum through continuous practice. When appropriate strength of mindfulness is developed, it is capable of uncovering the deepest secrets of existence.

[6]A Bhikkhu (monk) is anyone who undertakes this practice to arrive at true understanding of the nature of things and at liberation.

[7]"Body in the body" - When one practices mindfulness, one has to separate the object of attention from anything else with which it could be confused or compounded (distorted). It allows isolation of the various components of experience into one of the foundations (body, feelings, consciousness, or mental objects). Also, it allows the view that the object of mindfulness is simply a foundation of awareness, not "my" body, feelings, etc., but mere body, feelings, etc.

[8]Ardent - the mental quality of mental energy or effort. One must make an effort to arose mindfulness, and then to maintain mindfulness.

[9]Clearly comprehending what practices are helpful to one's practice and what practices are not helpful. Also, one has to be comprehending one's state of mind to see if the appropriate amount of energy is being applied - underexertion or overexertion. Also, to distinguish the qualities of the object of attention (impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and selflessness).

[10]See Note 5 above. The combination of ardent, clear comprehension, and mindfulness lead to concentration. To see how these three work together, consider an archer. He pulls back on the bow with the arrow in hand (energy); he has to see where the target is and how he must aim to hit the target (clear comprehension); as he releases the arrow, he must to so with attention (mindfulness) or it will go in a different direction.

[11]States of covetousness and grief are states which must be overcome. Covetousness is greed or craving. Grief is aversion or displeasure. These states usually dominate the untrained mind.

[12]The initial practice is simply to note the length of the breath, when breathing in and breathing out. As the mind becomes more quiet, the breath becomes slower and longer. But the rate of breath may change, with a quick breath following a long breath. The key is just to note the breath without controlling it.

[13]The breath body is the entire act of in-breath and out-breath. When concentration improves and one can follow the breath quite consistently, without the mind wandering and becoming distracted, then the meditator notes each act of in and out breathing in its entirety - the beginning, the middle, and the end. The beginning is the first impact of air. Everything that follows that is the middle up to its cessation. The little final pull at the cessation of the breath is the end. Then there's a little momentary pause, and then the out-breath with the same three phases. All of this takes place at the touch sensation at the tip of the nose or upper lip, wherever one notices the impact of the air.

[14]One should attempt to maintain mindfulness of the in and out breathing, but not attempt to calm the breathing. Often it will calm down and become very subtle so that is it may seem as if it is not occurring. But in such case, one maintains mindfulness at the place where the touch sensation usually occurs until one becomes aware of the breath again. Then the meditator notes the calming of the body when he breathes in and when he breathes out.

[15]The way one develops anapanasati (mindfulness of breathing) is through one's own body, i.e., internally. It cannot be done by being aware of someone else. But after the meditator becomes skilled in anapanasati, he might briefly turn his attention to consider that all other living beings are breathing, or being aware that others are also breathing - the universality of the breath process for all living things, including plants.
Then he might consider, very quickly in succession, that others are breathing in and out, externally; then he considers, "Now I am breathing in and out." Then following that, moving his attention back and forth - others are breathing in and out; I'm breathing in and out. This is to be done for very short periods or the mind will become distracted. Soon the meditator brings his attention gently back to the primary object of his awareness.

[16]Contemplating the origination factors in the body means the factors which are necessary for the breathing to take place: physical body, nasal passage, life or vitality in the body and some degree of consciousness. In and out breathing is something that is dependently arisen. It depends on the body, the nasal passage, and mind or consciousness. Also, to consider the origination factors is to observe the arising of each different phase in the breathing process. To contemplate the dissolution factors is to observe the cessation of that phase in the breathing. To contemplate them together is to observe in each breath the constant arising and passing away of each bodily phenomena connected with the breath. For example, when one is directing attention to the entire breath body one is aware of three phases: beginning, middle, and end. Then, as one goes on attending, one notices even in the middle phase many, many little steps making up the breath, like a film where apparent motion is really separate frames, with each such phase having a beginning (origination factor) and an end (dissolution factor). Sometime, one will see both together.
The contemplation of the origination and dissolution factors will heighten the perception of impermanence (anicca). And from that, one can go to the perception of non-self (anatta). Or else the contemplation of just the body existing, breathing (the knowledge that the body exists), will give understanding of non-self. One sees the body as just something existing by itself and breathing in dependence on conditions. There is not an "I" that sits there saying, "breathe in, breathe out", but that it's just a self regulating process.

[17]At this stage, one is not focused on any particular object. One is just aware of the body (here, the entire physical body, not just the breath body) as a body - not "my body" or "mine" or "I" behind the process, but rather that this is just a body breathing on its own. In other words, it's the entire physical body observed in the act of breathing.

[18]Also known as The Modes of Deportment: the ways in which one carries the body around. This is usually practiced by walking.

[19]What's meant by "knowing" is not the general knowledge that any ordinary person has while moving. It is a well-developed mindful awareness of the action in which one is engaged: the position of the body. Usually a meditator will chose a passage for walking, generally 20-25 paces in length. Then he will begin walking, being aware of each step as he is taking it. When he reaches the end, he stops, becoming aware of stopping. As he is standing there, he knows he is standing (second posture). Then, in 2-3 turns, he is aware of turning and standing; then he begins walking in the other direction, aware of each step, until he comes to the end of the walkway. The turning around is an exposition of the last mode: "just as his body is disposed so he knows it." This phrase can be taken to include any position of the body which is different from the four main positions, e.g., turning around, stretching, bending, kneeling, preparing to lie down or sit down - any intermediate juncture between the four main postures - are included in this last phrase.
After mindfulness is developed, one should begin dividing each step in the walking into three stages. In each step, one will note the picking (picking) up of the foot, the bringing of the foot forward (pulling), and the placing of the foot on the ground (putting). Not to put labels on the process, but merely being aware of each step of the process. The last step can be further divided into putting down and pushing against the ground (pushing).
When sitting, just be aware of sitting: the panoramic sensation of the body in the sitting posture. This is a difficult method to practice until one has developed a strong degree of concentration. The same for lying down: being aware of lying down.

[20]When one is walking, standing, sitting or lying down one can consider that others are also walking, , standing, sitting or lying down.

[21]According to the formula of dependent origination, the body originates from previous ignorance, craving, and karma, and it is maintained in the present by nutriment (food). When one considers that if ignorance, craving, and karma are stopped, or if the body is deprived of food, then the body dissolves or stops.
Also note in the present the arising and passing away of physical phenomena in the modes of deportment. For example, when one is walking, one is aware that one is walking. When one come to the end and stops, when becomes aware of the dissolution factor that the walking posture has stopped and now a new posture, standing, has originated. Then when one begins to turn, one notices that the standing posture has ended and that the turning has started. Turning itself has several stages, with each one with its own separate and distinct stage. Then when one stops turning, again one is standing. One notes that the turning has stopped and that standing has arisen. Then one decides to walk, and one is aware that standing has stopped and that walking has started.
Awareness is further directed to each stop, and then to the components of each step, at more and more subtle levels, until one comes to see the role of mind, or intention, in controlling the postures. One sees the mind give the command: "walk", then the body starts walking. Here the intention is seen as the origination factor for the walking. When one comes to the end of the walkway, the mind says "stop", and the body stops. So the mind is the origination factor for standing to take place. The same occurs for turning, stopping, remain standing, walk, throughout the entire walking activity. One sees how the mind is originating each posture of the body.

[22]After one's mindfulness has become very strong, one can draw the mindfulness back and get an overall or comprehensive awareness of the body as "just the body", walking, standing, turning, etc. With this one gets an understanding of the body as just a physical object engaged in the different postures. One sees that the awareness of the posture depends upon the position of the body itself.

[23]As a result of the foregoing, the meditator lives detached and clings to nothing in the world. And in this way also, one lives contemplating the body in the body.

[24]Mindfulness with Clear Comprehension is generally connected with the performance of various activities. It's not a single type of meditation subject on which the mind is fully concentrated, like breathing, the postures, and those to follow. Rather it deals with the question of how to apply mindfulness and understanding in connection with the various activities of one's day to day life, especially by those engaged in intensive meditation practice.

[25]Clear comprehension has several meanings. First, it means knowing or understanding correctly, rightly, accurately. Second, it means understanding comprehensively, from different angles, the way the object or activity really is from many points of view so that a clear picture of it is possible. Third, it means understanding evenly, in a balanced way, with the mind in a balanced state.
There are five mental faculties: faith, wisdom, mindfulness, energy and concentration. Of these five, faith and wisdom must be balanced with each other. One cannot put too much faith in anything; yet one cannot be overly critical without taking action either. They must be in balance in order to understand things in an equal way. The other two faculties of energy and concentration must also be balanced. When all is in balance, one has clear comprehension.
The commentators explain four types of clear comprehension, i.e., four ways that clear comprehension is to be practiced:
Clear Comprehension of Purpose
When one is engaging in any activity, one should have a clear comprehension of the purpose of that activity, the purpose for which one is engaging in that activity. Clear comprehension works hand in hand with Mindfulness, which is bare attention or awareness of the object or activity. This is done by stopping and not rushing into an activity, but arousing awareness or mindfulness of oneself as one is about to engage in an activity. That brief pause in which mindfulness steps in gives an open space in which one can inquire into the purpose of the activity.
Clear Comprehension of Suitability
When one has decided to enter upon a certain course of action, one inquires whether one has chosen suitable means of accomplishing one's goals, i.e., whether it's suitable by reference to time, place, and so on, to embark on that activity on this occasion.
Clear Comprehension of the Domain
Constantly keeping one's mind engaged with the meditation subject whenever one is involved in any activity. If one becomes involved in something else, one drops the meditation subject and picks up the other subject as the object of one's attention and continues on. This is generally applied when one is in intensive meditation, where a subject of meditation is always in mind. In more general application, one is aware when one is engaged in any activity of every moment in every phase of that activity. For example, when one goes to the bathroom to brush one's teeth: walking, stopping, turning, looking, opening, looking, reaching, grasping tooth brush, etc. The same method can be applied to eating and every other activity.
Clear Comprehension of Reality
When engaged in or considering any activity, one comprehends it from the standpoint of non-self (anatta). For example, when one walks someplace, one thinks "I am going." But when one is practicing by clear comprehension, one contemplates these actions as merely empty phenomena, phenomena occurring without any self or ego controlling them. As when walking, one notices an intention (volition), the thought "let me walk", and that thought sets in motion a neurological process by which the mind acts on what is called the internal air element of the body (neurological energy) which sets in motion the muscles of the leg, so that one leg comes up and letting down, so the act of walking taking place. It's just a series of mental commands (intentions) and physical action.

[26]The Sutta originally only contained 31 parts of the body. Another, the brain, was added by the commentaries.

[27]The first 20 parts are solid parts, which pertain to the earth element. The last twelve are liquid parts, which pertain to the water element. This same list of body parts can be used when meditating on the material elements, as explained in the next section.

[28]"Man with sound eyes" emphasizes that one contemplates on these body parts with mindfulness and clear comprehension.

[29]This meditation is to be practiced by becoming thoroughly familiar with the listed body parts, both in forward order and reverse order. It is recommended that these be grouped into sets, where one masters one set, then incorporates then next set, and so on, until the entire list is memorized and contemplated. It is first done out loud, then when it is mastered in full, it is done mentally. After that, one learns the color of the part, its shape, the direction of body where it's found, the exact location where it's found, and to know which parts are surrounding it. This is done to get an impression of the foulness, lack of beauty, or repulsiveness of the part.
According to the commentaries, one first sees the color of the part as repulsive. Then, one should attend to its shape as repulsive. Then, one should attend to the foulness of the odor of the part. Then, one should attend to the foulness of the habitat (where it is located relative to other body parts, as well as "in this body as a whole", which is made up of many other repulsive parts). Eventually one will find that some parts stand out and others are unclear or vague. Generally, one would leave out the vague parts and attend to those which stand out until one determines one which stands out from all the rest. At this point, one attends to this part until one reaches absorption (jhana). Later one can go back and pick up those which have been less clear and develop one's awareness of those parts until one reaches absorption.
This method is most effective for one seeking jhana, but in the Satipatthana Sutta practice it can be taken up much more loosely. It can be practiced as a shorter, daily practice, until one gets a general sense of the repulsiveness or impurity of the body.
Why is this included in Satipatthana? There are two major defilements in the human mind which are tied up with the physical body. One is sensual desire or craving. It is usually based on attending to the bodies of others, especially those of the opposite sex. The other is conceit, which is usually tied up with one's own body, i.e., comparing oneself with others concerning beauty. These two are obstacles on the path of deliverance. These are not obstacles that have to be eliminated in the earlier stages of the path, so the Buddha usually taught this portion of the practice to monks and nuns, who are striving to reach the final goal. For anyone is really earnest, while they don't have to immediately be concerned about sensual desire and conceit, it is beneficial to contemplate on the repulsiveness of the body earlier in one's practice. This particular practice may not be suitable for one in a marital relationship if that relationship is grounded significantly on sexual union. It would be more suitable at a later date when the relationship has matured, if the meditator feels that it would be appropriate.
Even if one only focuses on the outside of the body, one finds that the phrase "beauty is only skin deep" is not true. What we see on the outside - the five parts (head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin) is all dead, is not very beautiful. One realizes that there is no ground for conceit about one's body.
The Buddha taught the opportunity for progress to enlightenment is best in the human realm, where there are great pleasures and great displeasures and where the life span is long enough to realize such progress but short enough to realize the impermanence of all phenomena. In the animal and hell realms, there is too much displeasure to motivate one to practice the Dhamma. Fortunately, the life spans in such realms is relatively short. In the deva realms, there is too much pleasure and life spans are so long that one is not motivated to practice the Dhamma.
In order to reach the final goal, one has to become utterly disenchanted with the prospect of any future rebirth, either as a human being or in a deva world. When one contemplates the repulsiveness of the body, then sensual desire diminishes and will eventually become eliminated, and conceit and pride based upon the body diminishes and will eventually become eliminated. Also, by this contemplation, one will not want to take on bodies in the future, resulting in one's motivation for reaching Nibbana being strengthened.

[30]As the cow is raised, cared for and fed, it is a cow. Also when farmer takes it to the slaughter house and is slaughtering it, he still thinks it's a cow. But once it's divided into meat in the marketplace, he views it as just pieces of meat. In the same way, one should cut the body up into four great elements and see it as a compound of these elements.

[31]External elements become part of internal elements and vice versa. Food, an external element, become part of the internal element when consumed, then as it is excreted it again becomes part of the external element. Same for water, fire and air. There is a constant interaction or exchange going on between the external elements and the internal elements.
The result is that this perception of a being, or person, or I disappears and we see just a compound of the four great elements.

[32]Realizing that everyone else will come to the same end. Then alternating from contemplating one's own body then the bodies of others.

[33]After viewing the corpse, one applies that consideration to one's own body. It breaks or shatters that complacent thought: "I'm going to live forever." "This body will continue on for all eternity." When that happens, irritation or anxiety arises. Then, a sense of detachment arises. A realization that the body is based on causes and conditions and it will be gone when those causes and conditions are no longer present. The end result of this meditation is sense of lightness or happiness; that one is not bound up forever with this body.

[34]With this section, the sutra turns from the material (physical) side to the mental side of experience.
Feeling is the mental factor that experiences the affective quality of an object - a tone or quality of being pleasant, painful, or neutral.
Sometimes it's experienced passively based largely on the input from the object, such as a sunset giving rise to a pleasant feeling. Likewise, stubbing your toe gives rise to a painful feeling, and seeing the same tree you see every day gives rise to a neutral feeling. All these are in keeping with the nature of the object.
Sometimes the feeling is determined by the mental dispositions that mix with the object, and in some cases can overpower the affective quality of the object. For example, if the tree you see everyday is the one you meet your future spouse under, and that relationship is pleasant, pleasant feelings will arise because of that association.
Usually, we let ourselves get carried away by the feeling that arises. That is, the feeling becomes a stimulus or trigger which sets off a mental process by which we react to that feeling. And by reacting to that feeling out of ignorance and delusion we set in motion a train of mental processes which keep us in bondage to suffering.
 
If a pleasant feeling arises, we usually allow that feeling to remain in the mind. And usually that pleasant object will set in motion either (1) greed to acquire the object that stimulates that feeling, or (2) clinging, which makes us become attached to that object and to try to hold on to it.
If a painful feeling arises, we respond passively. It then sets off aversion (anger, hatred, ill will) against that object, and fear that we will be conquered by that object in the future. So we become frightened or anxious, or angry and upset.
With a neutral feeling, again delusion comes in and we remain in a state of false equanimity which arises from lack of understanding. Not a state of true equanimity that comes from wisdom, but a state of dull indifference.
 
People often tend toward one type of feeling based on the defilements that are strongest in their mind. Those who dwell on pleasant feelings (very pleasant to be around as long as things go their way), those who dwell on painful feelings (filled with ill will, anger, and hatred), and those who dwell in neutral feelings (blind conformity to everyday routine)
The input of feelings sets in motion these defilements, and it's these defilements which keep us in bondage to suffering and the round of rebirths. Under the influence of ignorance or delusion, we form the notion of a self, a truly existent person who experiences the feeling. So the view of self gets constructed on top of the feeling. And that becomes an especially strong bond.
The contemplation of feelings is the critical juncture in the process to break the round. We can create a certain open space between the feelings that flow into our mind from contact with objects and the reaction that takes place in mind in response to that feeling. By setting up mindfulness to recognize a pleasant, painful or neutral feeling as simply as a pleasant, painful or neutral feeling, we weaken and eventually eliminate that built in tendency to respond to the pleasant feeling with grasping and clinging, to the painful feeling with aversion, displeasure, fear and worry, and to the neutral feeling with dull indifference. All of which arise, to persist for a little while, and then to pass away - impermanence. And what appears as one feeling will show itself as a succession of short, quick feelings just arising and passing away. We then begin to break down the association of feelings with a separate self. That feelings are just separate events that occur based on certain causes and conditions.
 
Types of feeling:
Pleasant worldly feeling — pleasure or enjoyment with some worldly object as it's basis, e.g., an enjoyable discussion, reflection on success of your children, thinking of a delicious meal, or beautiful music.
Pleasant spiritual feeling — pleasure or enjoyment with some spiritual object as it's basis, e.g., something connected to the meditation experience, such as thinking of one's perceived attainments.
Painful worldly feelings — displeasure, sorrow, grief, dissatisfaction which arises because of some worldly matter, e.g., didn't get job applied for, achieve goal set for oneself, or relationship with children or spouse is not satisfactory.
Painful spiritual feelings — disappointment or discontent with one's practice, especially after some success where there is not a firm foundation, e.g., discouragement that one is not progressing satisfactorily.
Neutral worldly feeling - distracting thoughts that arise in the mind.
Neutral spiritual feeling - equanimity established.
 
Generally it is possible to have feelings from six sources: eyes, ear, nose, tongue, body (touch), and mind, but in meditation it generally comes from ear, body (touch), and mind.
 
Specific technique: painful worldly feeling
Note the painful sensation as painful worldly feeling, then return to the primary meditation object (breath).
If pain is too intense to return to the breath, then make the pain the primary meditation object. Observe the painful sensations, as merely as a feeling, at finer and finer levels until you get to the quickly arising and falling away of a succession of brief painful feelings. Observing all of the qualities of the pain that come to ones' attention. Maintaining a lack of identity with the pain as not being "my pain". Eventually, the pain will subside.

[35]One doesn't seek to feel as others feel, but rather the idea may come that others may also be experiencing such feelings. Therefore, one does not consider one's experience unique; that others have experienced this, whether pleasant or painful. This will help to discourage feelings of conceit or depression.

[36]Explained in terms of dependant origination and karma. Also in terms of the arising and passing away of each feeling. One observes that as soon as one feeling arises and falls, it is immediately replaced by another feeling and another feeling in quick succession until feelings are occurring, it seems, 100 or 1,000 per second.

[37]Here, one has withdrawn the mind from the particular qualify of the feeling - pleasant, painful, or neutral - and whatever feeling arises, it is observed as bare feeling.

[38]What we call mind or consciousness is not a single, persisting entity which maintains it's identity through the changes of experience. Rather, consciousness is a succession; a continuum of momentary acts of consciousness. Each act is a single event which endures very, very briefly. During that event, consciousness performs a function of knowing an object.
A single moment of consciousness (citta) may have associated with it any number of mental objects, all of which may be categorized by the ethical qualities of wholesome or unwholesome. Citta is just the pure act of experiencing an object - like a clear light which illuminates an object. It takes on the ethical quality which is given to it by the cetasikas in connection with it arises. Those cetasikas which make the citta unwholesome are called the defilements (kilesa). The primary defilements are the three unwholesome roots: greed or lust, hatred or aversion, and delusion or ignorance.
The three wholesome roots are: non-greed (manifesting as generosity or nonattachment), non-hatred (manifesting as lovingkindness, sympathy, and compassion), and non-delusion (manifesting as wisdom or understanding). Connected with these three roots are many other purifying mental factors (some 25 are mentioned in the Abhidhamma).
Since a citta is just the knowing of an object, every citta (in that respect) is the same. But because of the associated mental factors, some cittas - if we allow them to go through the mind, and to gather momentum by repetition - then they build up an unwholesome force, which causes a deterioration of our character, which leads to unwholesome karma - that will bring unwholesome results. These states of consciousness will become obstructions to the attainment of liberation. On the other hand, those cittas which are of a good wholesome character will, if they are repeatedly developed and built up will gather a momentum - a force of purification - which will purify the mind and lead to the development of good wholesome karmas, which will bring beneficial results in the future. These cittas, when their force is combined, will enable us to reach the path to liberation.
The first task in Satipatthana meditation is to identify the type of consciousness that has arisen. When unwholesome states are not seen and identified, they'll just go running through the mind, one after the other, invoking all sorts of unwholesome thoughts - and in that way they will accumulate strength. Example: thief in the night vs. well lit street adequately patrolled by the police. Mindfulness acts as an obstruction to the unwholesome states - as soon as they are identified, it passes away.
Since a physical object is easier to observe than a mental object, usually best to begin with anapanasati (breathing) meditation - touch sensation of the breath, noting "in, out". As one is undergoing this physical meditation, one notes the mental object and then gently brings is back to the primary object. Then as one becomes more centered, one can follow the rising, sustaining, and falling of the mental object, noting its qualities and what may have caused it to arise - often rooted in lust (desire), i.e. what one would like to happen in the future. Thought builds upon thought, upon thought, upon thought, until one constructs a huge mental world of the future (imagining, planning, or hoping). Sometimes it's rooted in lust (desire) concerning the past - a pleasant memory arises and clinging takes place. Sometimes going back in the past is rooted in hatred (anger, resentment). Also in regret, where one can see both desire and aversion at work. Fantasies about what one would do in the future to retaliate would be based on aversion.
A state of mind with mindfulness is a wholesome state, while a state mind caught in defilement is an unwholesome state. One cannot be both mindful and caught in a defilement, since they cannot co-exist. When the mindfulness is present, the actual defilement disappears, but it's force still impinges on the consciousness (like the wake of a wave) so that it can be observed. But it is not actually present at that moment. If the defilement has great force, it may come back again until mindfulness is brought back. This is done again and again until the mind becomes clear. One can then note that the mind is without defilement.

[39]Constricted consciousness is a state overcome by dullness, drowsiness, or unworkability. Scattered consciousness is a state overcome by restlessness or agitation. When the mind is running in different directions - first one thought, then another thought - and the mind becomes scattered.

[40]The consciousness that has become great is one which has obtained a high level of absorption, of clarity, of precision, of depth, and the consciousness that has not become great is any other consciousness which has not yet reached that level of power and concentration.

[41]Freed consciousness is a state of mind that is temporarily freed from an influx of defilements. A state of mind that is overrun by defilements is unfreed consciousness.

[42]A second way to take up consciousness is to make the mind itself the primary object of attention. Just watching whatever state of mind that arises. It becomes more and more difficult to use mental labels since the mind observing and the mind being observed come so close together that they almost coincide. This is done internally, externally (not really focusing on others, but it may occur to one that this may also be occurring in the minds of others), or both internally and externally (alternating back and forth).

[43]As one goes on contemplating the states of minds, then one sees - in quite rapid succession - states of mind arising and passing away. Even what one seems initially to be a somewhat stable, persistent state of mind, as one observes it very closely, one sees it's really a sequence of very, very brief, leading states of mind, just arising and passing away. As one contemplates this sequence of consciousness, the origination of states will be more manifest. Sometimes one sees the dissolution of state and sometimes one sees both the origination and passing away of states.

[44]The term Dhamma has several meanings:

a. used in the singular, it can mean

- the teachings of the Buddha
- the principal of rightness, virtue or goodness

b. used in the plural, it can mean

- qualities, as in certain personal qualities like faith, virtue, learning, wisdom;
lazy, greedy, etc.
- specific objects of mind or thought (as opposed to the objects of the other five senses)
- all phenomena in general, in the most general sense.

Contemplation of the Dhammas is the contemplation of all phenomena which is structured in such a way that they will bring insight into the fundamental principles of the Buddha's teachings.
In this section, there are five groupings for contemplation. First, to focus on the five hindrances that must be overcome. Once these are overcome, the mind becomes clear enough to examine the next two groupings: the five aggregates and the six internal and external sense bases. As contemplation of these gets strong and clear, the seven factors of enlightenment arise — seven mental factors which are progressing with a great deal of strength and power towards realization. The last contemplation results in the penetration or realization of the heart and core of the Buddha's teaching, which is the Four Noble Truths. These are in sequence, yet they are not necessarily linear, e.g., a hindrance can arise during the contemplation of the seven factors of enlightenment.

[45]The main cause for the arising of sense-desire is unwise attention to the pleasurable or beautiful aspect of things. The mind can tend to things in two ways: (a) wisely, carefully, in a way that is guided by the Dhamma, or (b) unwisely, carelessly, in a superficial way. Each of the senses generally look for things that are beautiful and enjoyable. And when it finds it, the sense becomes riveted upon that object and through it's giving unwise attention to that beautiful and charming appearance of things, the sense-desire arises.
The method or cause for the abandoning of the arisen sense-desire lies in giving wise attention to the object. It uncovers the repugnant aspect of the object. This is necessary because the mind, due to it's own conditioning, doesn't dwell on the unpleasant side of things. It is driven by craving, to look for and fasten upon the beautiful aspect of things.
One merely notes the state of mind and just considers it a state of mind, a mental factor which has arisen through its conditions. And by doing that, one separates oneself from that sensual desire. It just turns it into an object of attention - put out in front of the mind so one can observe: it's just a mental state - arising and passing.

[46]Ill will is all negative states of mind, evaluation, or responses to situations or to persons, such as anger, hatred, resentment, and antagonism. The pattern of analysis is the same as with sense-desire:
- He knows how the arising of the non-arisen anger or ill will comes to be. The general cause of the arising of ill will and anger is unwise attention to the disagreeable aspect of things, while the specific cause is the dwelling on such disagreeable aspect. Thus, to overcome ill will, one must change one's attitude towards things, i.e., by changing the way the mind turns to these situations or considers them.
- He knows how the abandoning of the arisen anger comes to be. He knows what kind of methods that can overcome anger. In Satipatthana practice, the recommended method is simply  to note it when it arises and observing it with mindfulness, which creates a barrier between oneself, the mind and ill will. By making it an object of meditation, it fades away. If this fails, the most effective method is metta mediation, particularly when another person engenders ill will. First starting with oneself, then those closest to one, and then to those neutral, and finally to those who are the cause of one's anger. If even this fails, in the face of one who repeatedly cruel and malicious, then reflect that everyone reaps his own Karma: that the troublesome person will eventually reap what is being sown, or that this may be because of my own past Karma, or to be grateful for the opportunity to deal with this Karmic result. And if that fails, consider giving that troublesome person a gift.
- He knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned anger comes to be. This is the obtainment of the third of the four stages of enlightenment: the non-returner.

[47]Sloth (dullness) and Torpor (drowsiness) arise particularly in meditation. The special cause of the arising of Sloth and Torpor is the unwise attention to states of boredom, lethargy and sluggishness of the mind. What is meant by this is simply not being aware of them when they arise. This seems to arise naturally, particularly when one is using a repetitive object of concentration. But if one is alert and notices it when it first arises, it will dissipate by just noting it. If not, it will gain momentum. If it persists, then use it as the object of attention. If this doesn't work, Buddha recommends: stirring up of energy (e.g., increase the objects of attention within the process of attention by adding another object - just between the rise and fall of the breath, such as being aware of the body sitting, or the touching sensation, etc.), or doing walking meditation, or if all else fails, take a short nap.

[48]Restlessness and Remorse arise due to unwise attention to something that causes stress or agitation in the mind. The way to bring about the abandoning of the disturbing phenomena is to make it the object of attention. Or by watching the mind react to that object, watching one thought after another pass by. In that way each thought weakens and spaces appear between them as the mind become concentrated again. Where they arise repeatedly, one should attend to the breath through the whole body. Or one could turn the attention to an object that will bring about peacefulness, such as bringing an image of the Buddha to mind.

[49]"Doubt" is doubt regarding the Triple Gem, doubt about the Buddha, doubt about one's practice, etc. Sometimes coarse doubt and sometimes subtle doubt. Doubt arises due to unwise attention to things that cause doubt. The way to bring about the abandoning of doubt is to note when it arises and not giving attention to those matters which cause the doubt to arise. To resolve one's doubts, one should investigate and inquire - by consulting the scriptures or by seeking counsel.
Doubt is completely eradicated with Stream Entry, where one has seen for oneself the truth of the Dhamma with direct insight. He knows that the Buddha is the Enlightened One, he knows that the Dhamma is the true teaching and the real nature of things, he knows that there have been those who have reached the planes of the Enlightened Ones and that this path will lead to the final goal, though he may have a long way to go, he has no doubt about any of these matters.

[50]The Five Aggregates of Clinging are those things we cling to with desire and attachment, and with the wrong view of self. They are:
Material Form - comprises all matter, both internal and external, in the universe. The most important of these to us individually is our body.
Four Great or Primary Elements:
Earth Element - solid aspects of the body
Water Element - blood, pus, etc.
Fire Element - heat
Air Element - wind, motion
Derived or Secondary Matter - most important types:
Matter making up the five sense organs
Matter making up the sense objects - sight, sounds, smells, and tastes
(Tangible object is not considered to be a secondary type of matter, but what we touch is actually a combination of the primary elements.)
Feeling - a Cetasika, or mental factor, which has the function of experiencing the affective tone or quality of the object. If it's an enjoyable object, there usually arises a pleasant feeling. If it's an disagreeable object, there usually arises a painful feeling. If it's an indifferent object, there usually arises a neutral feeling. It's "usually" because it depends on many factors that may be present at the time the feeling is experienced, such as mood or state of mind.
Perception - that mental factor that has the characteristic of noting the object or noting the qualities of the object. Perception identifies, discriminates, distinguishes, classifies, categorizes - it distinguishes the features of the object in some way. It is particularly important in serving as a basis for memory and recognition. There are six classes of perception according to the object that is perceived: forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangible sensations, and purely mental objects.
Mental Formations - all the different volitional, emotional and intellective aspects of experience. The Buddha explains it in terms of the six types of volition (chetana). According to the Abhidhamma, it includes more than volition - all the different mental factors mentioned by the Buddha in the suttas, except for feeling, perceptions and consciousness. The most important, practically speaking, are the unwholesome states (the defilements) and the virtuous (purifying) factors, such as the seven factors of enlightenment and the factors of the noble eightfold path.
This aggregate is "the battlefield of the mind". This is where the struggle is waged between the defilements, headed by greed, hatred and ignorance, and the virtuous purifying factors, headed by, say, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom, or by non-greed, non-hatred, non-delusion, or by generosity, loving-kindness, and wisdom.
Consciousness - the general awareness that operates through a particular sense base, making possible experience of an object through that sense base. There are six types of consciousness, classified by the sense through which it arises: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind consciousness. Compare with Perception, the particular mental factor which is an associate or companion of Consciousness, which has the function simply of distinguishing the qualities or features of the object.
All five are operating together and are mutual conditions for each other: an organic unity. For example, when one hears a bus driving by, there is physical hearing with the ear. That belongs to the aggregate of Material Form. If it's a very loud, rumbling sound which disrupts concentration, there will come a particular feeling, perhaps a painful feeling. One may then struggle to overcome the painful feeling and develop an equanimous feeling. Then one distinguishes: that is a bus or that sound is too loud. That's Perception. Then there's some volition: "I wish that bus would go by already!" or "I wish that driver would get a better muffler." This is a mental formation. Then there is being aware of all of this, which is Consciousness. Thus, one can account completely for the nature of experience without bringing in any kind of permanent self or ego entity that is somehow standing behind all of these five aggregates and governing them from within. And from Insight comes the knowledge that they can't be perfectly controlled, but they have their own laws which they obey which are often contrary to our wishes.
But who is the observer? The use of personal pronouns is a shorthand device for referring to what is actually a composite of the five aggregates themselves. Each set of aggregates are unique from one living being to another. For example, when Person A is examining the five aggregates, then this set of mental factors that are part of his unique composite of the five aggregates are focused on the elements of the personality. In this case there is a succession of acts of mind consciousness going on, and connected with that is a particular set of mental formations - mindfulness, energy, concentration, volition, discernment (wisdom), along with perception, feelings, consciousness and form, which are all occurring in this particular body and its all examining (or being examined as part of) the constituents of that set of five aggregates. The five aggregates are actually observing themselves. So the "observer" is also dependent on causes and conditions, and is subject to arising and falling, along with its component parts. Yet at a particular moment, a state of consciousness cannot observe itself - when it's observing, it can't be observed. It's like a boat leaving a wake of waves. What ever is being observed leaves its reverberation, and that is what is actually being observed by the "observer".
Volition creates karma for everyone but an Arahant (one who has destroyed all defilements). What gives volition the capacity to function as karma is the tendencies of ignorance and craving which are lying within the mental continuum. As long as there is ignorance and craving within the depths of the mind, then the volitional actions that one performs - bad and good actions - acquire this karmic potency: this ability to produce results in the future that correspond to their own ethical quality. But when ignorance and craving are eliminated, the enlightened person can engage in any worldly activities and not generate karma, not even wholesome karma. It's compared to birds in the sky: no tracks are left in the sky.

[51]There is a difference emphasis in this part of the sutta, as compared with the specific portions dealing directly with specific aggregates, such as body, feelings, consciousness and mental formations. In the latter, the aggregate is the object of meditation, the primary focus of the meditation to develop a particular way of observing or contemplating the body, etc. It is used as a method of developing a strong base of mindfulness and concentration, like anapanasati. Or to understand the body, etc. from different points of view. Or to understand the different types of feeling, consciousness, or mental formations which arise. These are generally preparatory (although following any of them deeply can lead to liberation). But contemplation of the Five Aggregates of Clinging takes place once the yogi develops a strong base of mindfulness. On this base, one can examine the body, then the mental: feelings, perceptions, consciousness, and mental formations or volitions, realizing that they belong to the respective aggregates. Further, one can observe all five aggregates while using one aggregate as the object of meditation. For example, when focusing on the breath, there is material form, there is perception, there is feeling, there is consciousness, there is volition - they are all there together.

[52]This contemplation leads one to investigate and penetrate the conditional nature of things . In the case of material form, one considers the arising of material form: that it comes into being due to past craving and Karma.  When the mind is very subtle, one can apply the knowledge one has gained from the suttas to see that this body comes into being from causes that have been set in motion in the past, in earlier lives, especially because of the ignorance and craving for existence in the past, which has given rise to various karmas, and through that ignorance, craving and karma, this particular body has come into being. In the present life, this body is sustained by food. It repeatedly originates and reoriginates through food. If there is no food, then the body disintegrates and dies.
The arising and disappearance of form can be understood in terms of moment-to-moment experience: observing the repeated arising and passing away of the material phenomena of the body. So when the yogi focuses on the body and observes physical phenomena with finely tuned mindfulness, then one sees the body as "a string of beads" that looks like a solid piece of rope from the distance. These material phenomena are just momentary existence, arising and perishing - but they arise and perish in a sequence, so it appears to be solid and lasting.
The same is true with Feeling. In the immediate present, Feeling arises through Contact, i.e., the coming together of consciousness and object through a sense faculty. Simultaneously with Contact, a Feeling arises. So Feeling comes into being depending on conditions. It also is subject to constant arising and disappearance, each one occurring in rapid succession.
Perception, Metal Formations, and Consciousness also have their respective arising through conditions, and moment-to-moment arising and passing away.

[53]One contemplates that phenomena just exists, that the five aggregates are just instances of bare phenomena. They are not something to be attached to as I, Mine, or Myself, but just phenomena that occur through their causes and conditions. And by so contemplating, it brings a deepening of knowledge and mindfulness.

[54]The six internal sense bases are the six sense faculties and the six external bases are the objects which are apprehended through the six internal sense bases.
The first five internal sense bases are part of rupa (material form). The eye, for example, is not the gross organ, but that particular part of the eye that enables the object to be seen, its color, shape, etc. The ear is not the outer skin flap, but that particular substance inside that is sensitive to vibration that is transferred into sound. The nose is not the protruding mass, but that particular type of material phenomena somewhere near the base of the nostrils that is able to transfer certain chemical substances impinging upon it into smells. Same with the tongue(taste) and the body (touch). They each form the base, or support, for the arising of the corresponding type of consciousness.
The sixth internal sense base is the mind. All six classes of consciousness are part of the mind (mano). Dhammas does not just mean the objects of the mind, but also included the other three aspects of mind, feeling, perception and mental formations, which arise with consciousness. Dhammas also includes other subtle types of phenomena which are not experienced through the other senses.
Mind is also understood to be what is called the Bhavanga, the stream of consciousness, the life continuum, that flows on until it is stimulated by the impact of an object. In this case, out of that passive flow of mind there arises some active consciousness cognizing an object. When the Buddha speaks of mind as the condition for the arising of mental consciousness, then mind is the passive stream of subconsciousness - the Bhavanga. When one sleeps deeply, the Bhavanga is flowing. Even during waking life, countless times between our ordinary sense perceptions, the mind is dropping into the Bhavanga, from moment to moment, and immediately coming out again. But it happens so quickly that we're not aware of it - like the black bars on a movie film. The Bhavanga is the mind door, because it from this that mind consciousness arises, thinking of some object. In this case, we have each type of consciousness arising based on its corresponding internal base, which is called the door for the arising of consciousness. The external base is called the object of the consciousness.
In the suttas, the Buddha says that these six internal and external objects are the World, the totality of reality. No matter where one is -whether on earth or on mars, the experience of what is present only occurs with respect to the six sense bases.

[55]A fetter is an obstacle that arises through the senses, such as greed (or desire), aversion (or irritation), or delusion (or ignorance). They keep us tied to the round of becoming.

[56]To overcome fetters, we must know how they arise, what are the antidotes to eliminate them, and what is the radical remedy that totally eradicates them.
Greed or desire — arises from unwise attention to the pleasant quality of the object
- methods for abandoning it:
- wise attention to the object
- noting the object as what it is
- recognizing it as impermanent, unsatisfactory, and selfless
Greed or desire is totally eradicated with the fourth stage of enlightenment, that of a arahant.
Aversion or irritation - same re the unpleasant quality of the object. It is totally eradicated with the third stage of enlightenment, that of a non-returner.
Delusion or ignorance - arises simply from unwise attention in general: unwise attention to the true nature of an object, but taking it to be truly pleasant, lasting or stable, or identifying with them as "myself", "what I am". It is overcome using the same methods as greed and aversion above. It is totally eradicated with the fourth stage of enlightenment, that of a arahant.

[57]These are seven mental factors which are especially conducive to the attainment of enlightenment and are present when enlightenment takes place. As each on arises, the earlier ones are still preserved. When they all seven come together, they become an invincible force which will lead directly to the awakening to the Four Noble Truths.
These factors also appear in earlier stages of meditation practice, but they don't become enlightenment factors until a special stage of insight is reached: the knowledge of the rise and fall of phenomena. When the meditator is examining phenomena as they are arising and passing away, then all seven factors become linked together and gather momentum, which will lead to deeper and deeper insights, and eventually to the awakening or realization of the ultimate Truth.

[58]Mindfulness is the essential foundation of vipassana meditation. Mindfulness means the bare attention to the phenomena of mind and matter that present themselves to awareness. It's a way of attending to phenomena simply as they present themselves, without embellishing them, without commenting on them, without elaborating on them with thoughts and ideas, but just simple observation of the phenomena of mind and matter.
Usually, in our ordinary way of thinking, we don't attend to phenomena as they are presenting themselves. Some object awakens our attention. And as soon as we turn our attention to it and perceive it, that perception triggers off a series of thoughts by which we start elaborating on the object. We build around it a network of thoughts and mental constructions, most of which are governed by desire, greed or attachment, what we like about the object, imagining how we can derive more enjoyment from it. Also, thoughts of fear and anxiety of losing that object arise. As to things we dislike, we build a web of thoughts concerned with the disagreeable aspects of that object. We perceive that object in terms of negative qualities and then reinforce our aversion, our dislike, our anxieties about the object. In this way, we do not perceive and know the object as it truly is, but rather we see things through an elaborate net of thought constructions that inevitably distorts the object.
The first step in the process of breaking through is to cut away all of these mental elaborations, all of this mental commentary, simply by attending to the bare object that presents itself. The mental tool which is able to cut through all of these thought constructions and bring the object to the mind in its immediate simplicity, its true actuality, is mindfulness (sati).
Mindfulness penetrates deeply into the nature of the object. It attends to the object just as it is and not building any mental construct upon it or making any commentary. Our ordinary way of thinking about objects is like the shell of a pumpkin that is placed on the water - it floats on the water. The mind just floats superficially on the outside of the object. But if one takes a heavy stone and puts in on the water, it sinks to the bottom of the pond. Like the stone, mindfulness has that quality that it sinks deeply into the nature of the object.
The basic task of mindfulness is to keep the object in view. In Satipatthana meditation, whatever object presents itself to the mind can be taken as an object of mindfulness. As one goes on contemplating an object with mindfulness, then on successive occasions, the mind comes repeatedly face-to-face with its object. And the mindfulness develops strength through the repeated efforts to develop mindfulness. When one begins practicing mindfulness, the mind is constantly slipping away - always running away and becoming lost in the labyrinths of thoughts and ideas. But by repeatedly making the effort, simply to attend to whatever is presenting itself, one moment of mindfulness conditions the next moment of mindfulness, so that mindfulness develops a momentum until it can continue unbroken for long periods of time.

[59]When mindfulness develops strength, so that it is an enlightenment factor, then one is aware and one knows that the factor of enlightenment is present in oneself. But when the mind is straying, wandering, lost in thoughts, then it goes on from one thought to another. So at that time, one doesn't know that mindfulness is absent. Then there comes a moment when, suddenly, one recognizes that the mind is wandering, the mind is strained. Then, one realizes that up to that moment the factor of mindfulness has been absent. But just by making that recognition, by realizing that mindfulness has been absent, that is itself a moment of mindfulness. And that moment has the potentiality of setting off a new current of mental processes in which mindfulness will be present. So every time the mind wanders and strays, when one makes a note of it, that noting is itself a moment of mindfulness. That mindfulness that recognizes that the mind is wandering, that will lend its power to the mental continuum to assure that mindfulness will be gathering strength in the future. Like an Olympic athlete, regular and methodical training will result in attaining the goal. For it's not the practice before the athlete enters the Olympics that makes the difference in whether the race is won, it is all of the practice that he's gradually done throughout the days, weeks, months and years that has allowed him to pick up the speed that will win the gold medal in the end. Each moment of noting will form a condition for the building up of mindfulness later on.

[60]The Commentaries give explanations of various factors which are helpful in arousing the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, allowing it to mature, and bringing it gradually to perfection:
1. Doing things in daily life with mindfulness and clear comprehension: understanding what one is doing, why one is doing it, attending to the different activities while one is engaged in a particular project, then the mindfulness and clear comprehension in one's day-to-day activities will reinforce the factor of mindfulness within the mind, so that when one sits in meditation, the mindfulness will have greater strength and will be able to persist without being overrun by mental distractions.
2. Avoid contact with ones with confused minds and one should associate with other people who are intent on developing mindfulness.
3. One should have a strong resolution or inclination of the mind towards developing mindfulness.
As mindfulness becomes firmly established in the mind, it forms the basis or foundation for the arising and functioning of the next factor of enlightenment, "the investigation of dhammas (phenomena)". Also, wise attention is a basis for the arising and functioning of the investigation of dhammas.

[61]The term "the investigation of dhammas" is a synonym for wisdom or insight. Here, the term dhammas means material as well as mental phenomena. This is the investigation by which one looks at the phenomena that are presenting themselves to the mind in order to seek out and perceive what are their distinguishing qualities. One want to see their individual and particular qualifies, then branching further, one want to investigate and perceive what are their general or universal qualities. This is done through mindfulness.
For example, as one as attending to the breathing. One is attending "In ... Out, In ... Out", one will notice that the breath will be occurring in different stages of steps, instead of all coming in as one stream, that it's coming in as discontinuous steps. One will notice certain sensations in the act of breathing: the feeling of the air coming in, which one can identify as the air element; one will notice the solidity of the body, which one can identify as the earth element; the impact of the air as it comes in as the air element; one will notice degrees of heat or coolness as the heat element; so one is able to investigate this act of breathing in terms of the four great elements.
As one investigates the various phenomena, and perceiving their distinctive characteristics. One is starting to pinpoint and isolate and discriminate these different phenomena that present themselves through the process of developing mindfulness. This is the functioning of the enlightenment factor of the investigation of dhammas.
First, one investigates the individual characteristics, but then the general characteristics become evident:
1. Impermanence: whatever phenomena one notes, it doesn't last forever.
As one's attention becomes more precise, one discovers that it doesn't even last for even two consecutive moments. One sees that the phenomena that's being observed is just arising and passing away.
Sometimes it passes away and then the same type of phenomena arises again. For example, separate points of pain may arise, then pass away, only to be replaced by another point of pain, perhaps from the same location, or the same area, or possibly from another area altogether. Like beads on a string, each one arising and passing away.
Sometimes the phenomena itself will change. For example, there might be a pain, then that pain will break off, then there will be a feeling of pleasure. Sometimes there will be a state of restlessness, which breaks off and is followed by a period of concentration. Sometimes at state of worry, that breaks off and is followed by a state of tranquility.
2. Undependableness (dukkha): not able to provide any lasting happiness.
3. Selflessness: whatever it is that one usually identifies with, simply by turning it into an object of observation, then it becomes remote from the observer (which itself becomes an object of observation).

[62]In addition to mindfulness and wise attention, the Commentaries mention additional factors which give rise to the investigation of dhammas:
1. Inquiring about the teachings. To know what one has to discern with wisdom, one should have some acquaintance with the fundamental teachings of the Buddha: the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, the Five Aggregates, the Twelve Sense Bases (six inner and six outer sense bases), Dependent Origination, Kamma, etc. This will give strengthening to the seed of wisdom in the mind, which will enable wisdom to function more effectively when one is investigating phenomena in the practice of Satipatthana.
2. Keeping the bases clean. One's living quarters, clothes, and body are clean and orderly. The mind will tend to be of like character as those manifestations of one's immediate surroundings which are in one's control, since they reflect one's state of mind with respect to orderliness, cleanliness, and the like.
3. Keeping the spiritual faculties balanced. Not to be too energetic or enthusiastic, where one may overshoot the mark. And not to be too laid back. A balance must be struck between one's faith and confidence, and one's understanding. Without such balance, it's not possible for wisdom to emerge.
4. Avoid the company of foolish people, who are always trying to drag one into foolish activities. Also, keep company with wise people, who will encourage one in the study and investigation of the Dhamma, so that wisdom can arise.
5. Have the inclination or resolution towards wisdom, towards understanding the dhamma. Even if one's mind is no so sharply trained as to penetrate with insight into the Dhamma, but if one has a strong desire and inclination to develop wisdom, that inclination will become a seed, which if it's properly nurtured, will eventually blossom into insight and wisdom.

[63][NOTE: HERE THE TAPES SKIP TO DISCUSSION OF THE SECOND OF THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS - (A TAPE IS MISSING FROM THE SET)]
The primary source of suffering is craving (tanha). Through craving, one always wants what is pleasant and enjoyable. So when we are thrown in contact with what is unpleasant and disagreeable, because of the tanha for what is pleasant, then there comes suffering. There is also craving to always remain with what is pleasant and agreeable. But since we become separated from what is pleasant and agreeable, due to the nature of life (impermanence) there comes the suffering of separation from what is loved. We always want to avoid what is unpleasant and disagreeable - that is a craving, too. This causes sorrow, misery, even despair to arise.
Through craving, we seek to get what we want. Even at the most general level, we want always to remain young; we want always to remain healthy; we want ultimately to live forever, without dying, without having to experience the death of others who are beloved by us. But we do not succeed in getting what we want: we grow old, we get sick, we die, and everyone whom we are attached to has to die. Not to get what one wants is suffering. And that suffering also arises from craving.
The foregoing can be observed in everyday life. But there is a deeper aspects of this relationship between craving and suffering, something that we generally cannot see simply by examining our ordinary experience. But this is something which has been disclosed to us by the Buddha on the occasion of his enlightenment. It is something that can be confirmed, but only through the deeper stages of tanha (wisdom or insight): craving is the driving force which underlies the process of repeated existence. As long as there is craving for anything still remaining, even in a subtle form in our mind, that craving becomes the seed or driving power which will bring a new birth and will bring into existence all the suffering of life again and again.
Craving belongs to the aggregate of mental formations. It is the same as greed. As one of the unwholesome roots, the Buddha used the word "greed", but in the Four Noble Truths, he used the word "craving". It means the same thing, just different words are used. It is the force within the five aggregates of this life that brings into being the five aggregates of the next life, which will have craving as one of the mental formations in that new life. And if not eliminated, then that craving will bring still a new life. Thus it goes on and on.
It is the nature of the mind with craving to always to be seeking some new, sometimes more intense, sometimes just different means of enjoyment, now in one object, now in another object. For example, assume that you are locked in a room and this beautiful music is playing. The first time you listen to it, it is very beautiful. Then it's played a second time. Again you enjoy it. The third time, it gets a little bit familiar. The fourth time, it's getting boring. The fifth time, a little more boring. Then, if you continue listening to it, the ninth or ninetieth time, that beautiful music is agonizing. The mind won't remain satisfied with what gives regular enjoyment. Always it seeks some fresh enjoyment: now here, now there.
There are three aspects of craving:
1. Sense craving. Craving from pleasant forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangible sensations. Also, craving for the objects that provide these sense pleasures, such as possessions or wealth.
2. Existence. The desire to go on existing. The urge for life preservation. It's the same craving for existence that becomes the real powerful force that maintains the process of repeated existence and keeps the round of rebirth going. This aspect of craving may also include the wish that things would stay as they are.
3. Non-existence. Often understood as the desire for self-extinction. It is a desire based on the view of self or the sense that I am a real self, but since I am meeting a lot of suffering in this life, I want to escape from this life by extinguishing myself. It often leads persons to suicide, which never solves the problem. This aspect of craving may also include the wish that things would be different than they are.
 
Wherever in the world there is anything agreeable and pleasurable, there craving arises and establishes itself. The eye in the world is agreeable and pleasurable, the ear... etc. Sights, sounds ... etc. are agreeable and pleasurable. Eye-consciousness, ear- consciousness ... etc. Eye-contact, ear-contact ... etc. Feeling born of eye-contact ... etc. Perceptions of sights ... etc. Volition born of eye-contact ... etc. - all are agreeable and pleasurable, and there craving arises and establishes itself.
Craving can also arise and settle upon craving itself. If one deprives oneself of an object which one especially enjoys, then the deprivation will make the craving part arise more strongly. And when this happens and the craving is satisfied, one gets more enjoyment out of it. In this way, craving arises and establishes itself upon the craving for the six sense objects.
Thinking about sights, sounds ... etc. is also an object of craving. Pondering on sights, sounds ... etc. are also agreeable and pleasurable, and become objects of craving.
Contemplation of the above detailed explanation in Satipatthana meditation, one can realize the origination of suffering. One can determine what the craving is settling upon as part of the mediation process.

[64]Suffering is eliminated by the total extinction by removing of, forsaking of, discarding of, freedom from, and non-attachment to craving. The effect (suffering) is eliminated by eliminating the cause (craving).
We can explain how craving is the cause of suffering in two ways:
1. The manifest psychological level of craving. As long as their is craving in the mind, there will be unhappiness always trailing that craving. When we don't have what we desire, there is the misery of not getting what we want, of yearning, dreaming, hoping, wishing, and struggling to get what we desire. When we have what we want, then there's the worry, anxiety, fear that we're going to lose what we are holding on to with attachment. When we are separated from the object of our desires, then there comes sorrow, grief, misery, pain, etc. Thus, we can see how craving brings all of these different types of suffering. Yet, when craving has been uprooted, there is no experienced suffering - no sorrow, grief, etc. Without craving, there is no anxiety about losing what is the object of our attention, since there has been no attachment, no clinging to that object.
2. The craving which gives rise to rebirth. Craving is bringing about dukkha, the unsatisfactoriness that is inherent in the five aggregates. As long as these five aggregates continue, these five aggregates that we cling to as "myself", "me", "I", then there is some dukkha. Even if it's not experienced as suffering, misery, or grief, and there's just the constant arising and passing away of feelings, perceptions, volitions, consciousness, all just continuing from moment to moment, sometimes happy, sometimes sad, sometimes experiencing pleasure, sometime pain, but always there is this oppression by rising and passing away. That is the deep meaning of dukkha, which is present whenever the five aggregates are present. Craving and ignorance that remain in the mind at the end of the previous life bring the five aggregates into being in the next lifetime. When craving is completely uprooted and eliminated, with the passing away of an enlightened one there is no re-manifestation of the five aggregates. The process of rebirth comes to an end. This complete cessation of suffering (dukkha) is obtained through the realization of the Third Noble Truth.
The meditator who is practicing Satipatthana constantly must always be diligently watchful, first to see how craving arises with regard to the six sense bases, the six sense objects, the six forms of consciousness, the six forms of contact, the six forms of feeling born of the six forms of contact, the six forms of perception of the six sense objects, the six forms of volition concerning the six sense objects, the six forms of craving for the six sense objects, the six forms of thought of the six sense objects, the six forms of discursive thought (pondering) of the six sense objects, as pleasurable things; seeing how craving is latching on to all of this. Through very intense mindfulness, one has to be watching the mind to see how it grasps on to all of these objects. And using the power of mindfulness, one has to gradually wear away the craving that holds on to these different bases.

[65]The path to cessation of suffering is the Noble Eightfold Path:
Right View - the mental factor of wisdom or understanding of suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the way of practice leading to the cessation of suffering. One has to know that suffering originates from craving. One has to know that to eliminate suffering, one has to uproot craving. And one has to know that the Noble Eightfold Path is in fact the means to overcome suffering.
Right Thought involves purpose or intention. It is the directive aspect of thought. It is the thought or intention of (a) renunciation, (b) non-ill will or loving-kindness, and (c) harmlessness or compassion. These are three directions that one has to give to the mind on the basis of Right View.
Instead of making it one's objective in life to gain as much as possible, instead one tries to live as simply as possible, to remain content with just the basic necessities of life and to get along in as simple a manner as possible. This is renunciation.
Through understanding that other beings are also subject to suffering, then one develops the thoughts of harmlessness and good will, wishing that they will be well and happy, and free from suffering.
When the mind takes this direction (harmlessness and goodwill towards others), then these thoughts have to become embodied in our conduct. In that way, Right Thought gives right to the next three factors of the path.
There are three mental factors (abstinances or restraints) which have the special roles:
Restraining Wrong Speech
Restraining Wrong Bodily Actions
Restraining the Pursuit of a Wrong Means of Livelihood
Right Speech — refraining from the four types of unwholesome speech: lying, slander, harsh speech, and idle speech (frivolous speech or gossip).
Right Action — refraining from killing (taking life), stealing (taking what is not given), sexual misconduct.
Right Livelihood — one gives up any type of wrong livelihood and one supports oneself by a right means of livelihood. Wrong livelihood is any form of livelihood that inflicts harm or suffering on others, such as dealing in weapons, intoxicants, slaves, animal trade, etc.
These three factors form the group called Sila (mortality or virtue). On the basis of these three factors, in the next stage one comes to the development of the mind through Right Effort, right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.
There is mental factor which empowers the mind, which is mental energy. When this mental energy is directed towards the shaping of one's own mind, then it becomes a special type of effort, Right Effort of the Eightfold Path. There are four types of such effort, which is an effort to cultivate the mind:
1. There is the effort to prevent the arising of unarisen unwholesome mental states. Unwholesome mental states are the defilements: greed, anger, ignorance and all of their offshoots.
2. There is the effort to eliminate unwholesome mental states that have arisen and to cultivate in their place some type of wholesome mental state, which will push them out and eliminate them.
3. There is the repeated effort to arise wholesome states.
4. There is the repeated effort to cultivate, strengthen, stabilize, and bring to perfection wholesome states that have arisen.
The factor of awareness or attentiveness is called Mindfulness. When this factor of awareness or attentiveness is applied to the contemplation of the four bases of mindfulness, it becomes the Right Mindfulness of the Eightfold Path.
The is a mental factor called one-pointedness, or concentration. To accomplish anything well, it must be done with a great deal of concentration. When this concentration is turned to focusing upon a particular object, to collect together the powers of the mind and to deepen the level of awareness, then that mental factor of one-pointedness becomes Right Concentration of the Eightfold Path.
These last three factors are grouped together as the concentration sector of the Noble Eightfold Path. Then, through the power that they accumulate, they bring the arising of insight or wisdom, which turns Right View into direct insight or realization of the Four Noble Truths. With this, Right View becomes not just the intellectual understanding of the Four Noble Truths, but it becomes the intuitive, direct, absolutely certain, with personal knowledge and realization of the Four Noble Truths. And with that direct insight into the Four Noble Truths, then all clinging and craving, all ill will and anger, all harmfulness and cruelty, are eliminated and replaced by perfect renunciation, perfect good will, perfect compassion. And with this, Right Thought is elevated to a higher status. So the Right View and Right Thought that arise from concentration, those two constitute the wisdom section of the Eightfold Path.

The foregoing notes are from a 14-tape series of talks by Bhikkhu Bodhi on the Satipatthana Sutta. The tapes may be ordered from Dharma Seed Tape Library by calling 1-800-969-SEED. As noted above, a portion of Bhikkhu Bodhi's talk was not recorded.


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