Anguttara Nikaya


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Aŋguttara-Nikāya
I. Ekanipāta

The Book of the
Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

Part I
The Book of the Ones

Suttas 296-393

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


[27]

Chapter XVI. The one thing

[296][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind[132] the Buddha.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[297][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind the Dhamma.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[298][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind the Order.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[299][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind the moralities.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[300][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind giving up.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[301][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind the devas.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[302][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind in-breathing and out-breathing.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[303][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind death.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[304][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind the bodily constituents.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

[305][olds] 'Monks, there is one thing which,
if practised and made much of,
conduces to downright revulsion and disgust,
to ending, tranquillity, full comprehension,
to perfect enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.
What is that one thing?

It is calling to mind tranquillity.

This one thing conduces to Nibbāna.'

Chapter XVII The seed

[306][olds] 'Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt to cause the arising
of evil states not yet arisen,
or, if arisen,
to cause their more-becoming and increase,
as perverted view.

Monks, in one of perverted view
evil states not yet arisen do arise,
and, if arisen,
are apt to grow and grow.

[307][olds] 'Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt to cause the arising
of good states not yet arisen,
or, if arisen,
to cause their more-becoming and increase,
as right view.

Monks, in one of right view
good states not yet arisen do arise,
and, if arisen,
are apt to grow and grow.

[308][olds] Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt to cause the non-arising
of good states not yet arisen,
or, if arisen,
to cause their waning,
as perverted view.

Monks, in one of perverted view
good states not yet arisen arise not,
or, if arisen,
waste away.

[309][olds] Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt to cause the non-arising
of evil states not yet arisen,
or, if arisen,
to cause their waning,
as right view.

Monks, in one of right view
evil states not yet arisen arise not,
or, if arisen,
waste away.

[310][olds] Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt to cause [28] the arising
of perverted view,
if not yet arisen,
or the increase of perverted view,
if already arisen,
as unsystematic attention.

In him who gives not systematic attention
perverted view,
if not arisen,
does arise,
or, if already arisen,
does increase.

[311][olds] Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt to cause the arising
of right view,
if not yet arisen,
or the increase of right view,
if already arisen,
as systematic attention.

In him who gives systematic attention
right view,
if not arisen,
does arise,
or, if already arisen,
does increase.

[312][olds] Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt, when body breaks up after death,
to cause the rebirth of beings
in the Waste,
the Way of Woe,
the Downfall,
in Purgatory,
as perverted view.

Possessed of perverted view, monks,
beings are reborn
in the Waste,
the Way of Woe,
the Downfall,
in Purgatory.

[313][olds] Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so apt, when body breaks up after death,
to cause the rebirth of beings
in the Happy Lot,
in the Heaven World
as right view.

Possessed of right view, monks,
beings are reborn
in the Happy Lot,
in the Heaven World.

[314][olds] Monks, in a man of perverted view
all deeds whatsoever of body
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of speech
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of thought
done according to that view,
all intentions,[133] aspirations and resolves,
all activities whatsoever,
— all such things conduce to the unpleasant,
the distasteful, the repulsive, the unprofitable,
in short, to Ill.

What is the cause of that?

Monks, it is perverted view.

Suppose, monks, a nimb-seed[134]
or a seed of creeper[135] or, cucumber[136]
be planted in moist soil.

Whatsoever essence it derives
from earth or water,
all that conduces to its bitterness,
its acridity, its unpleasantness.

What is the cause of that?

The ill nature of the seed.

Just so, monks, in a man of perverted view
all deeds whatsoever of body
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of speech
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of thought
done according to that view,
all intentions, aspirations and resolves,
all activities whatsoever,
— all such things conduce to the unpleasant,
the distasteful, the repulsive, the unprofitable,
in short, to Ill.

[315][olds] Monks, in a man of right view all deeds whatsoever of body
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of speech
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of thought
done according to that view,
all intentions, aspirations and resolves,
— all [29] activities whatsoever,
all such things conduce to the pleasant,
the dear and delightful,
the profitable,
in short, to happiness.

What is the cause of that?

Monks, it is his happy[137] view.

Suppose, monks, a seed of sugar-cane
or paddy or grape[138]
be planted in moist soil.

Whatsoever essence it derives
from earth or water,
all that conduces to its sweetness,
pleasantness and delicious flavour.

What is the cause of that?

The happy nature of the seed.

Just so, monks, in a man of right view
all deeds whatsoever of body
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of speech
done according to that view,
all deeds whatsoever of thought
done according to that view,
all intentions, aspirations and resolves,
— all activities whatsoever,
all such things conduce to the pleasant,
the dear and delightful,
the profitable,
in short, to happiness.

Chapter XVIII Makkhali.

[316][olds] 'Monks, one person born into the world
is born to the loss of many folk,
to the discomfort of many folk,
to the loss, discomfort and sorrow
of devas and mankind.
What person?

One who has perverted view.

He of distorted view
leads many folk astray from righteousness
and plants them in unrighteousness.

This is the one.

[317][olds] Monks, one person born into the world
is born for the profit of many folk,
for the happiness of many folk,
for the profit, comfort and happiness
of devas and mankind.
What person?

One who has right view.

He of correct view
leads many folk from unrighteousness
and plants them in righteousness.

This is the one.

[318][olds] Monks, I know not of any other single thing
so greatly to be blamed
as perverted view.

Perverted views, monks,
at their worst[139]
are greatly to be blamed.

[319][olds] 'Monks, I know not of any other single person
fraught with such loss to many folk,
such discomfort to many folk,
with such loss, discomfort and sorrow
to devas and mankind,
as Makkhali,[140] that infatuated man.

[30] Just as, monks, at a river-mouth
one sets a fish-trap,[141]
to the discomfort, suffering, distress and destruction of many fish:
even so Makkhali, that infatuated man,
was born into the world, methinks,
to be a man-trap,
for the discomfort, suffering, distress and destruction of many beings.

[320][olds] Monks, both he who urges adherence[142]
to a doctrine and discipline that are wrongly expounded,
and he whom he thus urges,
and he who, thus urged, walks accordantly therein,
— all alike beget much demerit.

What is the cause of that?

It is the wrong exposition of doctrine.

[321][olds] Monks, both he who urges adherence
to a doctrine and discipline rightly expounded,
and he whom he thus urges,
and he who, thus urged, walks accordantly therein,
— all alike beget much merit.

What is the cause of that?

It is the right exposition of doctrine.

[322][olds] Monks, when doctrine and discipline
are wrongly expounded,
the measure[143] of a gift
is to be known by the giver,
not by the receiver.[144]

What is the cause of that?

The wrong exposition of doctrine.

[323][olds] Monks, when doctrine and discipline
are rightly expounded,
the measure of a gift
is to be known by the receiver,
not by the giver.

[324][olds] Monks, when doctrine and discipline
are wrongly expounded,
he who strives energetically
lives a miserable life.[145]
Why so?

Because of wrong exposition of doctrine.

[325][olds] Monks, when doctrine and discipline
are rightly expounded,
it is the sluggard who lives a miserable life.
Why so?

Because of the right exposition of doctrine.

[326][olds] Monks, when doctrine and discipline
are wrongly expounded
[31] it is the sluggard who lives happily.
Why so?

Because of the wrong exposition of doctrine.

[327][olds] Monks, when doctrine and discipline
are rightly expounded,
he who strives energetically lives happily.
Why so?

Because of the right exposition of doctrine.

[328][olds] Monks, just as even a trifling bit of dung
has an ill smell,
so likewise do I not favour becoming
even for a trifling time,
not even for the lasting of a finger-snap.

[329][olds][than] Just as even a mere drop of urine
has an ill smell,
so likewise do I not favour becoming
even for a trifling time,
not even for the lasting of a finger-snap.

[330][olds] Just as even a mere drop of spittle
has an ill smell,
so likewise do I not favour becoming
even for a trifling time,
not even for the lasting of a finger-snap.

[331][olds] Just as even a mere drop of pus
has an ill smell,
so likewise do I not favour becoming
even for a trifling time,
not even for the lasting of a finger-snap.

[332][olds] Just as even a mere drop of blood
has an ill smell,
so do I not favour becoming
even for a trifling time,
not even for the lasting of a finger-snap.'

Chapter XIX (a) Trifling

[333][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land[146]
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number
are those beings
that are born on land:
more numerous are the beings
that are born in water.

[334][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are the beings
that are reborn among men:
more numerous are the beings
that are born among others than men.[147]

[335][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that are reborn in the middle districts:
more numerous are those reborn
in the outlying districts,
among the undiscerning barbarians.[148]

[336][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that are wise, quick-witted,[149] not deaf or dumb,
competent to judge the meaning
of what is spoken well or ill:
more numerous are those beings
[32] that are foolish, slow-witted, deaf or dumb,[150]
incompetent to judge the meaning
of what is spoken well or ill.

[337][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that are possessed
of the Ariyan eye[151] of wisdom:
more numerous are those
sunk in ignorance and bewilderment.

[338][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that get the chance
of seeing a Tathāgata:
more numerous are they that do not.

[339][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that welcome, when they hear it,
the Dhamma-Discipline
set forth by a Tathāgata:
more numerous are they that do not.

[340][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that, on hearing Dhamma,
learn it by heart:
more numerous are they that do not.

[341][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that examine the meaning
of the doctrines they have learned by heart.

[342][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that, understanding the meaning
and understanding the doctrine,
live in accordance therewith[152].

[343][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that are stirred by stirring topics[153].

[344][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that, being stirred,
strive systematically.

[345][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that, making resolution their object,
win concentration,
win one-pointedness of mind.

[346][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that gain the best of food and condiments:
more numerous are they that do not,
but just exist on gathered scraps
and food collected in a bowl.

[347][olds] 'Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains,
— just so few in number are those beings
that are winners of the essence of the meaning,
the essence of Dhamma,
the essence of release:[154] more numerous are those that do not.

Wherefore I say unto you, monks,
thus must ye train yourselves:
We will become winners of the essence of the meaning,
of the essence of Dhamma,
of the essence of release.
That is how ye must train yourselves.'

[33]

(b)[ed1]

[348-377][olds] 'Just as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land
trifling in number
are the pleasant parks,
the pleasant groves,
the pleasant grounds and lakes,
while more numerous
are the steep, precipitous places,
unfordable rivers,
dense thickets of stakes and thorns,
and inaccessible mountains

— just so few in number are those beings
who, deceasing as men,
are reborn among men.
More numerous are those beings who,
deceasing as men,
are reborn in Purgatory
who are reborn in the wombs of animals
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.[155]

— just so few in number are those beings
who, deceasing as men,
are reborn among the devas
More numerous are those beings who,
who, deceasing as men,
are reborn in Purgatory
who are reborn in the wombs of animals
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few in number are those beings
who, deceasing as devas,
are reborn among the devas
More numerous are those beings who,
deceasing as devas
are reborn in Purgatory
who are reborn in the wombs of animals
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few in number are those beings
who, deceasing as devas,
are reborn among men
More numerous are those beings who,
deceasing as devas
are reborn in Purgatory
who are reborn in the wombs of animals
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few are those beings
who, deceasing from Purgatory,
are reborn among men:
more numerous are they
who, deceasing from Purgatory,
who are reborn in Purgatory,
who are reborn in the wombs of animals,
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few are they
who, deceasing from Purgatory,
are reborn among the devas:
more numerous are they
who, deceasing from Purgatory,
are reborn in Purgatory,
who are reborn in the wombs of animals,
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few are they
who, deceasing from the wombs of animals,
are reborn among men:
more numerous are they
who, deceasing from the womb of animals,
are reborn in Purgatory,
who are reborn in the wombs of animals,
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few are they
who, deceasing from the wombs of animals,
are reborn among the devas:
more numerous are they who
who, deceasing from the womb of animals,
are reborn in Purgatory,
who are reborn in the wombs of animals,
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few are those beings
who, deceasing from the Realm of Ghosts,
are reborn among men:
more numerous are they
who, deceasing from the Realm of Ghosts,
are reborn in Purgatory,
who are reborn in the wombs of animals,
who are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.

— just so few in number, monks,
are those beings
who, deceasing from the Realm of Ghosts,
are reborn among the devas:
[34] more numerous are those beings
who, deceasing from the Realm of Ghosts,
are reborn in Purgatory,
are reborn in the wombs of animals,
are reborn in the Realm of Ghosts.'[156]

Chapter XX On Musing (a)

[378][olds] 'Of a truth,[157] monks, this is[ed2] to be reckoned among gains: — Forest-dwelling.

[379][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — living on alms.

[380][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — wearing rag-robes.

[381][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — wearing three robes only.

[382][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — talking of Dhamma.

[383][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — mastery of the Discipline.

[384][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — wide knowledge.

[385][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — the rank of an elder.[158]

[386][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — the blessing of true deportment.

[387][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — the blessing of a following.[159]

[388][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — the blessing of a large following.

[389][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — as a man of good family.[160].

[390][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — a fair complexion.

[391][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — pleasant speech.

[392][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — to be content with little.

[393][olds] 'Of a truth, monks, this is to be reckoned among gains: — freedom from sickness.

 


[132] Anussati. Cf. Buddh. Psych. 90.

[133] Cetanā.

[134] Nimba is (acc. to Pāli Dict.) Azadirackta Indica, a tree of hard wood and bitter leaf. For the figure see A. v, 212.

[135] Kos¢takī. A sort of creeper.

[136] Tittaka-lābu. Bitter pumpkin.

[137] Bhaddakā (text bhaddikā) as opposed to pāpa is 'lucky.'

[138] Muddikā.

[139] Paramāni.

[140] Makkhali Gosāla (of the cow-pen). One of the six well-known "heretics.' Cf. Dialog. i, 71; K.S. i, 90; iii, 61 n. He was ahetu-vādin, non-causationist.'

[141] Khipaŋ = kuminaŋ Comy. It was probably a sort of wicker eel-pot.

[142] Samādapeti.

[143] Mattā = pamāṇa.

[144] Acc. to Comy. in perverted systems of teaching the giver should know how much he has to give. But in this true Dhamma the almsman must be contented if he gets little, and if he gets in excess he must use only what is necessary. Cf. K.S. ii, 135.

[145] This refers to the self-torture of hatha-yogis, such as Gotama himself underwent in the early days.

[146] Jambudīpa. One of the four 'great islands,' of which the southern-most includes India.

[147] Comy. 'in the four ways of woe.'

[148] 'The non-Ariyans, such as Tamils, etc.' Comy. Cf. S. v, 466 (K.S. v, 391 n.); DA, i, 177.

[149] Ajaḷā.

[150] Eḷa-mūgā. Comy. however takes this word to mean 'with saliva trickling from the mouth,' as at JA. iii, 347 (e'a mukhato na galati).

[151] The path, with insight. Comy.

[152] Anuloma-paṭpadaŋ pūrenti. Comy.

[153] Saŋvejanīyesu ṭhānesu.

[154] The four fruits of recluseship; the four paths; the deathless Nibbāna. Comy.

[155] Cf. S. v, 466; K.S. v, 301; Buddh. Psych. 151.

[156] It is difficult to think the Buddha responsible for all these 'combinations and permutations.'

[157] Addhaŋ (generally addhā) = ekaŋs¢dhivaccanaŋ = addhā idaŋ lābhānaŋ ekaŋso, esa lābhānaŋ. Comy.

[158] Thāvareyyaŋ. G. following Comy. (cira-pabbajitattāya thāvarappatta-bhāvo) takes it as 'seniority.'

[159] Comy. takes it as suci-parivāra (a fine following).

[160] Kolaputti = kula-putta-bhāvo. Comy. Pāli Dict. quotes Nid. i, 80, where this is reckoned one of the ten qualifications of personal superiority.

 


[ed1] This section is certainly mangled. The Woodward translation has here been left as originally presented; as one sutta [numbering indicates the suttas encompassed]. Sutta Numbers reflect our version of the Pali. I think Woodward did not much care for this style [a wheel] of sutta (see n156). For further discussion and suggested reconstruction see the Mike Olds translation, note 12.

[ed2] This whole section is one sentence here; it has been broken up into separate suttas following the BJT Pali Text, so 'these are' is changed to 'this is'.


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