Anguttara Nikaya


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Aŋguttaranikāyo
Catukkanipāto
IX: M-acala Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Fours Chapter IX: Unshaken

Sutta 87

Samaṇa-m-acala-Putta Suttaɱ

Kinds of Recluses[1] (a)

Translated from the Pali by F. L. Woodward, M.A.

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[1] Thus have I heard:

On a certain occasion the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying:

"Monks."

"Yes, lord," they replied, and the Exalted One said:

"Monks, these four persons are found existing in the world.

What four?

The unshaken recluse,
the blue-lotus recluse,
the white-lotus recluse,
and the recluse who is exquisite among recluses.

And how, monks, is a person an unshaken recluse?

Herein, monks, a monk is a pupil,
one who has entered the way;[2]
he dwells aspiring
for the unsurpassed rest from the toil.

Just like a rajah's eldest son,
a noble duly anointed,
one who is not yet anointed
and has not come to security,[3]
even so, [97] monks, is the pupil
who has entered the Way,
one who dwells aspiring
for the unsurpassed rest from the toil.

And how, monks, is a person
a blue-lotus recluse?

Herein a monk, by destroying the āsavas,
has reached the heart's release,
the release by wisdom
that is free from the āsavas,
and having realized it
abides therein.

Yet does he not abide
experiencing with his own person[4]
the eight deliverances.

Thus, monks, is a person
a blue-lotus recluse.

And how, monks, is a person
a white-lotus recluse?

Herein a monk, by destroying the āsavas,
has reached the heart's release,
the release by wisdom
that is free from the āsavas,
and having realized it
abides therein,
and abides experiencing with his own person
the eight deliverances.

And how, monks, is a person
a recluse exquisite among recluses?

Herein a monk when invited
enjoys a plentiful supply of robes,[5]
but he gets little if uninvited;
when invited
enjoys a plentiful supply of alms-food and lodging;
but he gets little if uninvited;
when invited
he enjoys a plentiful supply of requisites
and medicines for use in sickness,
but he gets little if uninvited.

With whatsoever fellows in the holy life he dwells,
their behaviour (towards him)
in action of body, speech and thought
is generally pleasing,
rarely displeasing;
moreover their presents to him
are generally pleasing,
rarely displeasing.

Again, as to those afflictions
which originate from bile,[6]
phlegm,
wind,
from the union of bodily humours,
from changes of seasons,
from stress of circumstances,[7]
from personal assaults,[8]
or from the ripeness of one's karma, -
such do not trouble him much.

He is free from sickness.

As to the four musings
which belong to the higher thought
and lead to happy [98] living
in this very life,
he is a winner of them at will,
without difficulty
and without trouble.[9]

By destroying the āsavas
he reaches the heart's release,
the release by wisdom,
himself comprehending it
in this very life,
and having attained it
he abides therein.

Thus, monks, is a person
a recluse exquisite among recluses.

Now, monks, if rightly speaking
one would speak of the recluse exquisite among recluses,
it is just of me that he would rightly use the words.

For I, monks,
when invited
enjoy a plentiful supply of robes,
but get little if uninvited;
when invited
enjoy a plentiful supply of alms-food and lodging;
but get little if uninvited;
when invited
enjoy a plentiful supply of requisites
and medicines for use in sickness,
but get little if uninvited.

With whatsoever fellows in the holy life I dwell,
their behaviour (towards me)
in action of body, speech and thought
is generally pleasing,
rarely displeasing.

Again, as to those afflictions
which originate from bile,
phlegm,
wind,
from the union of bodily humours,
from changes of seasons,
from stress of circumstances,
from personal assaults,
or from the ripeness of one's karma, -
such do not trouble me much.

I am free from sickness.

As to the four musings
which belong to the higher thought
and lead to happy living
in this very life,
I am a winner of them at will,
without difficulty
and without trouble..

By destroying the āsavas
I reach the heart's release,
the release by wisdom,
myself comprehending it
in this very life,
and having attained it
I abide therein.

So monks, if rightly speaking
one would speak about the recluse exquisite among recluses,
it is just of me that he would rightly use the words.

These, monks, are the four persons found existing in the world.'

 


[1] I give this title to the four next suttas. The uddāna of our text calls the first two Anno (?) saŋyojanañ ca, which is nonsense. The Sinh. text has Putto saŋyojanañ ca (the word putta does occur in Ī 2, but without significance). The framework is again at Pugg. 63. As the qualifications differ in A. and Pugg., I tabulate the four sorts of recluses:

i. In Ang. Samaṇa-m-acala = a pupil aspiring for yoga-kkhema.
  In Pugg. = a Stream-winner.
ii. In Ang. Samaṇa-puṇḍarika = one who has destroyed the āsavas,
but not realized the eightfold release; a Non-returner.
  In Pugg. = a breaker of the five lower fetters; a Non-returner.
iii. In Ang. Samaṇa-paduma = destroyer of the āsavas; and has realized the eightfold release.
  In Pugg. = destroyer of three fetters; a Once-retumer.
iv. In Ang. Samaṇa-sukhumāla = one who has every blessing in this life, and all powers;
is absolutely happy.
  In Pugg. = destroyer of āsavas; Arahant.

Thus there is some confusion here, Nos. ii and iii being different in this sutta and in Abhidhamma versions. Our next sutta gives the same set of recluses in the usual order of Stream-winner, Once-retumer, Nonreturner and Arahant.

[2] Paṭipado (not in A. Index or P.Dict.) = paṭipannako (Comy.), but we have paṭipado at M. i, 354; It. 79, which seems the more correct form.

[3] Cf. A. i, 108; G.S. i, 92 (of the unanointed prince), where I translate 'has reached the age of discretion,' but it must mean 'is secure in the succession.' As there, our text should read abhisekh'anabhisitto.

[4] Cf. Dial. iii, 242, kāyena phassitvā = nāma-kāyena (Comy.) as below at Ī 113. Cf. K.S. v, 202 n. Some MSS. passitvā, others phusitvā.

[5] As at A. iii, 33.

[6] Cf. S. iv, 230 = K.S. iv, 155, 161 n. MP. 134.

[7] Visama-parihārajāni, at S. iv. expl. as 'untoward happenings,' but here 'from sitting or standing too long.'

[8] Opakkamikāni, such as imprisonment, flogging or (as at S. iv) arrest for robbery or adultery or assault. Comy.

[9] Cf. K.S. v, 280; Buddh. Psych. 114 ff.


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