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Aŋguttaranikāyo
Catukkanipāto
XIX: Yodhajīva Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Fours
Chapter XIX: Fignthing Man

Sutta 186

Ummagga Suttaṃ, aka Bahussuta Suttaṃ

Approach[1]

Translated from the Pali by F. L. Woodward, M.A.

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[1] Thus have I heard:

On a certain occasion the Exalted One was staying near Sāvatthī.

Now a certain monk came to visit the Exalted One, and on coming to him saluted the Exalted One and sat down at one side.

As he sat thus
that monk said this to the Exalted One:

'Pray, lord, by what is the world led?

By what is the world drawn along?

Under the sway of what that has arisen
does it go?[2]

Well, said!

Well said, monk!

Happy is your approach to a question,[3]
happy is your ready wit
and goodly is your [185] questioning.

Your question is thus, is it not, monk?

"Pray, lord, by what is the world led?

By what is the world drawn along?

Under the sway of what that has arisen does it go?"

'It is, lord.'

'Well, monk, the world is led by thought.

By thought it is drawn along.

When thought has arisen, it goes under its sway.'

'That is well said, lord,'
replied that monk,
welcoming what was said by the Exalted One,
and after thanking him
asked another question:

'As to the common saying:

"Widely learned,
one who knows Dhamma by heart" -|| ||

pray, lord, of what sort
is one widely learned,
who knows Dhamma by heart?

'Well said!

Well said, monk!

Happy is your approach to a question,
happy is your ready wit
and goodly is your questioning.

You ask this, do you not?

"Pray, lord, of what sort
is one widely learned,
who knows Dhamma by heart?"

'I do, lord.'

'Well, monk, I have taught Dhamma widely, -
Sutta, Geyya, Veyyākarana, Gāthā, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Jātaka, Abbhu-tadhamma and Vedalla.[4]

Now if a monk understands
the meaning and (text of) Dhamma, -
even if it be but a stanza of four lines,-
and be set on living in accordance with Dhamma,
he may well be called

"One widely learned,
who knows Dhamma by heart."'

'That is well said, lord,'
replied that monk,
welcoming what [186] was said by the Exalted One,
and after thanking him
asked another question:

'As to the common saying, lord,

"Learned, of penetrative wisdom" -

pray, lord, of what sort is one learned, of penetrative wisdom?

'Well said!

Well said, monk!

Happy is your approach to a question,
happy is your ready wit
and goodly is your questioning.

You ask this, do you not?

"Pray, lord, of what sort is one learned,
of penetrative wisdom?"

'I do, lord.'

'In this case, monk, a monk hears it said:

"This is Ill."

By wisdom he penetrates the meaning of that saying
and sees that it is so.

He hears it said:

"This is the arising of Ill."

By wisdom he penetrates the meaning of that saying
and sees that it is so.

He hears it said:

"This is the ending of Ill."

By wisdom he penetrates the meaning of that saying
and sees that it is so.

He hears it said:

"This is the practice going to the ending of Ill."

By wisdom he penetrates the meaning of that saying
and sees that it is so.

Thus, monk, he is learned,
of penetrative wisdom.'

'That is well said, lord,'
replied that monk,
welcoming what was said by the Exalted One,
and after thanking him
asked another question:

'As to the common saying

"Wise, of great wisdom,"

pray, lord, of what sort is one who is wise,
of great wisdom?

'Well said!

Well said, monk!

Happy is your approach to a question,
happy is your ready wit
and goodly is your questioning.

You ask this, do you not?

"Pray, lord, of what sort is one who is wise,
of great wisdom?"

'I do, lord.'

'Well, monk, in this case
he who is wise,
of great wisdom,
thinks not with a view to harm
either himself
or another
or both alike.

So thinking
he thinks with a view
to the profit of self,
of another,
both of self and of another,
to the profit of the whole world.

Thus, monk, one is wise,
of great wisdom.'

 


[1] Ummagga. The uddāna, calls it ummanga, as at Vin. v, 144. See n. below.

[2] The question is put in verse at S. i, 39:

Kenassu nīyati loko, kenassu parilcassati?||
Kissassa ekadhammassa sabbe'va vasam anvagu?

Parikassati = ākaḍḍhīyati. Comy.

[3] Bhaddaka te ummaggo. Cf. Vin. v, 144; S. v, 16, where Bhadda (Lucky) is the questioner. It may be a pun on his name, and the 'certain monk' here may be he. Ummaggo (tunnel or boring; in mining called 'upcast'); the Ummagga-Jātaka (the last but one in JA.): = paññā-gamanaṃ. Comy. But cf. J.R.A.S., July, 1931, where Mr. E. H. Johnston discusses several Pāli words, this one amongst them, and points out that Comy. should probably read pañha-ummaggo here, which I think likely. I have previously trans. it 'penetration* (K.S. v, 16), but he thinks it means 'emergence of a desire for knowledge leading to questioning,' and refers to ummujja-nimmujja, connecting it with Skt. unmiñjita-nimin=jita. We have the word again below, p. 189 [AN 4.192, n9] of text. Cf. S. iv, 261 (bhaddaka-magga). My edition of SA. iii on S. v, 16 has paññā-ummagga paññā-vīmaŋsana, paññā-gavesanaṃ (my Sinh. MSS.), and Burmese paññā-umango (sic), which Mr. Johnston quotes (probably from the Siamese ed.) as pañhumango, pañhāmaggo, etc. Comy. on our passage (Sinh. printed ed.f 1904, p. 581, and my palm-Ieaf MS.) is: ummaggo ti, ummujjanaṃ paññā-gamanan ti attho; paññā eva vā ummujjan'atthena ummaggo ti vuccati (where again Mr. Johnston reads ummango ... ummujjanatthaṃ ummango ti?). See my note below on p. 189 of text.

[4] Cf. supra, I, Ī 6 n.; 102. This list of works of a far later date is obviously inserted by the compilers.


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