Anguttara Nikaya


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Anguttara Nikaya
Pañcaka-Nipāta
XX. Brāhmaṇa Vaggo

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Fives
Chapter XX: The Brāman

Sutta 193

Saŋgārava Suttaɱ

Brāhman Sangārava[1]

Translated by E. M. Hare

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[1] Thus have I heard:

Once the Exalted One dwelt near Sāvatthī.

Now brāhman Sangārava[2] visited the Exalted One
and greeted him;
and after exchanging the customary words of greetings,
sat down at one side.

So seated,
brāhman Sangārava said to the Exalted One:

"What is the cause, Master Gotama,
what is the reason,
why sometimes[3] even mantras long studied
are not clear,[4]
not to speak of those not studied;
and what is the cause,
what the reason,
why sometimes even mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those studied?"

 

 

"When, brāhman,
one dwells with heart possessed by lust and passion,
overwhelmed by lust and passion,
and knows [169] not the escape[5]
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

Suppose, brāhman, a pot of water,
mixed with lac,
tumeric,
blue
or yellow dye,[6]
and a man with eyes to see
were to look there
for his own face-refieetion —
he would not know it,
he would not see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by lust and passion,
overwhelmed thereby,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by ill-will,
overwhelmed by ill-will,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
heated on the fire,
boiling up and bubbling over,
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would not know it,
he would not see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by ill-will,
overwhelmed by ill-will,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by sloth and torpor
overwhelmed by sloth and torpor,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

[170] Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
covered over with slimy moss
and water-plants,[7]
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would not know it,
he would not see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by sloth and torpor,
overwhelmed by sloth and torpor,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by flurry and worry
overwhelmed by flurry and worry,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
were shaken[8] with the wind,
so that the water trembled,
eddied
and rippled,
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would not know it,
he would not see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by flurry and worry,
overwhelmed by flurry and worry,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman, when one dwells with heart possessed by doubt,
overwhelmed by doubt,,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
stirred[8] up,
turbid,
made muddy,
set in a darkened room,[9]
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would not know it,
he would not see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart possessed by doubt,
overwhelmed by doubt,
and knows not the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows not,
sees not
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows not,
sees not
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied.

 


 

"When, brāhman,
one dwells with heart neither possessed by lust and passion,
nor overwhelmed by lust and passion,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
[171] the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

Suppose, brāhman, a pot of water,
unmixed with lac,
tumeric,
blue
or yellow dye,
clear,
limpid,
pellucid,
set in the open,
and a man with eyes to see
were to look there
for his own face-refieetion —
he would know it,
he would see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by lust and passion,
nor overwhelmed thereby,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by ill-will,
nor overwhelmed by ill-will,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
unheated on the fire,
not boiling up and bubbling over,
clear,
limpid,
pellucid,
set in the open,
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would know it,
he would see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by ill-will,
nor overwhelmed by ill-will,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by sloth and torpor
nor overwhelmed by sloth and torpor,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
not covered over with slimy moss
and water-plants,
clear,
limpid,
pellucid,
set in the open,
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would know it,
he would see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by sloth and torpor,
nor overwhelmed by sloth and torpor,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by flurry and worry
nor overwhelmed by flurry and worry,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
not shaken with the wind,
untrembling,
without eddies
and ripples,
clear,
limpid,
pellucid,
set in the open,
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would know it,
he would see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by flurry and worry,
nor overwhelmed by flurry and worry,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

 

 

Again, brāhman, when one dwells with heart neither possessed by doubt,
nor overwhelmed by doubt,,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

Suppose, brāhman,
a pot of water,
not stirred up,
not turbid,
not made muddy,
not set in a darkened room,
clear,
limpid,
pellucid,
set in the open,
and a man with eyes to see were to look there for his own face-refiection —
he would know it,
he would see it,
as it really was;
even so, brāhman,
when one dwells with heart neither possessed by doubt,
nor overwhelmed by doubt,
and knows the escape
from the surge thereof,
as it really is;
then he knows,
sees
the self-goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
another's goal,
as it really is;
knows,
sees
the goal of both,
as it really is;
then even the mantras not long studied
are clear,
not to speak of those long studied.

This verily, brāhman, is the cause,
the reason,
why sometimes even mantras long studied
are not clear,
not to speak of those not studied;
and this is the cause,
the reason,
why sometimes even mantras not long studied are clear,
not to speak of those studied.'

But it is marvellous what you say, Master Gotama,
it's wonderful, Master Gotama![ed1]

'Tis just as if one had set upright a thing toppled over,
opened out a covered thing,
showed a blind man along the road,
brought an oil lamp into the dark,
so that those that had eyes could see objects —
it is just thus that Dhamma has been blazed abroad by Master Gotama in manifold ways.

'I, Master Gotama,
go to Master Gotama for refuge,
to Dhamma
and to the monk-Order;
let Master Gotama look upon me as a lay-disciple,
to that refuge gone,
henceforth as long as life lasts!'

 


[1] The whole sutta recurs at S. v, 121 ff. (K.S. v, 102), 'At Savatthi.'

[2] Discourses with this brāhman occur at S. i, 183; A. i, 168; v, 232, 252; Cf. also M. ii, 210 (there termed māṇavo, young; see K.S. i, 231 n.).

[3] Ekadā; P.E.D. does not give this meaning but see Skt. Dict. (Macdonell's).

[4] Na ppaṭibhaniti. K.S. trsl. 'do not recur,' from \/Ḥbhā, to shine.

[5] Nissaraṇa. Comy. observes that in respect of lust the escape is by elimination, suitable resort and cutting off by means of 'asubha' musing, insight and the way of arahantship, respectively; of ill-will the first and third, substituting 'metta' for 'asubha' and the way of the Non-retumer; of sloth and torpor the same but by means of 'ālokasaññā' and arahantship; of flurry and worry the same but substituting calm for 'ālokasaññā'; the escape from doubt is by elimination, by Dhamma-determining (-vavatthāna).

Nīvaraṇā
Diversion
Nissaraṇa
Escape
kāmarāga
lust
elimination, suitable resort, cutting off by asubha meditation (meditation on the foul) insight, and the way of arahantship
vyāpāda
deviation
elimination, cutting off by 'metta' meditation (meditation on loving kindness), and the way of the non-returner
thīnamiddha
sloth and inertia
elimination, cutting off by 'ālokasaññā' meditation (meditation on light) and arahantship
uddhaccakukkucca
fear and trembling
elimination, cutting off by samatha meditation (calming down)
vicikicchā
doubt and wavering
elimination and Dhamma-analysis (vavatthāna)

See also: Glossology Nīvaraṇā

[6] For this list see M. i, 127; S. ii, 101.

[7] Cf. above, Ī 162; here Comy. Tilabījakādi-bhedena sevālena vā nīla-maṇḍaka-piṭṭhi-vaṇṇena vā udaka-piṭṭhiɱ chādetvā nibbatta-paṇaka-pariyonaddho.Cf. Mil. 35, 259-60. 3 Comy. Analoka-Uham fhapito.

[8] Cf. Mil. 35, 259-60.

[9] Comy. Anāloka-ṭṭhāne ṭhapito.

 


[ed1] Hare abridges as does the PTS Pali, the BJT Pali has the full formula. I have picked this up from AN 5.194.


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