Anguttara Nikaya


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Anguttara Nikāya
Chakkanipata
V. Dhammika vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Sixes
Chapter V: Dhammika

Iṇa suttaṃ

Sutta 45

The Debt

Translated from the Pali by E.M. Hare.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[1][than] Thus have I heard:

Once the Exalted One was dwelling near Sāvatthī,
at Jeta Grove,
in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

There the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying:

'Monks.'

'Yes, lord,' they replied,
and the Exalted One said:

'Monks, is poverty a woeful thing
for a worldly wanton?'

'Surely, lord.'

'And when a man is poor,
needy,
in straits,[1]
he gets into debt;
and is that woeful too?'

'Surely, lord.'

'And when he gets into debt,
he borrows;[2]
and is that woeful to?'

'Surely, lord.'

'And when the bill falls due,[3]
he pays not
and they press[4] him;
is that woeful too?'

'Surely, lord.'

'And when pressed,
he pays not
and they beset[5] him;
is that woeful to?'

'Surely, lord.'

'And when beset,
he pays not
and they bind him;
is that woeful too?'

'Surely, lord.'

[250] 'Thus, monks, poverty,
debt,
borrowing,
being pressed,
beset
and bound
are all woes for the worldly wanton.

Monks, it is just the same for anyone
who has no faith in right things,
is not conscientious about right things,
has no fear of blame about right things,
no energy for right things,
no insight into right things;
he is said to be poor,
needy,
in straits,
in the Ariyan discipline.

Now that very man -
poor,
needy,
in straits,
wanting in faith concerning right things,
wanting in conscientiousness concerning right things,
wanting in fear of blame concerning right things,
wanting in energy concerning right things
wanting in insight concerning right things -
works evilly in deed,
word
and thought.

I call that his getting into debt.

And to cloak[6] his evil deeds,
he lays hold
upon false hope.[7]

"Let none know[8] this of me,"
he hopes;

"Let none know this of me,"
he resolves;

"Let none know this of me,"
he says;

"Let none know this of me,"
he strives in act.

And to cloak his evil words,
he lays hold
upon false hope.

"Let none know this of me,"
he hopes;

"Let none know this of me,"
he resolves;

"Let none know this of me,"
he says;

"Let none know this of me,"
he strives in act.

And to cloak his evil his evil thoughts,
he lays hold
upon false hope.

"Let none know this of me,"
he hopes;

"Let none know this of me,"
he resolves;

"Let none know this of me,"
he says;

"Let none know this of me,"
he strives in act.

I call that his borrowing.

Then his pious fellows in the godly life say thus:

"This venerable sir
acts in this sort,
carries on in this way."

I call that his being pressed.

Then, gone to forest,
tree-root
or lonely place,
evil,
unrighteous thoughts
and attendant remorse
pursue him.

I call that his being beset.

And that man, monks -
poor,
needy,
in straits -
having worked evilly in deed,
word
and thought,
on the breaking up of the body after death,
is bound in hell's bonds
or the bonds of some beast's womb;
and I see no other single bondage, monks,[9]
so harsh,
so bitter,
such a bar
to winning the un-surpassed peace from effort -
I mean,
hell's bonds
or the bonds of a beast's womb.

Woeful i'the world is poverty and debt
'Tis said. See[10] how the poor wanton, plunged in debt,
Suffers, is then beset, e'en bound with bonds -
A woe indeed for one who pleasure craves!
So in the Ariyan discipline, who lives
Sans faith, sans shame, sans fear of blame, fashions[11] [251] Ill deeds and, working evilly in deed,
In word and thought, hopes none shall know of it.
Wavering[12] in deed, in word, in thought, he breeds[13] A brood of evil deeds, here, there, again -
Fool, evil-doer, who knows his own misdeeds,
He suffers as the wanton, plunged in debt!
Longings and evil thoughts in forest, town,
Beset him then, with black remorse's horde[14] -
Fool, evil-doer, who knows his own misdeeds,
For him a beast's womb waits or bonds in hell;
Those woeful bonds from which the sage is freed.

Who, gladdening, gives from plenty, justly won,
Casting a win both ways[15]-believing man,
Seeker of homely joys - for him here's weal,
Hereafter, bliss. Such is the goodman's standard,
For merit grows by generosity.[16]
So in the Ariyan discipline, who's set
In faith, wise, modest and by virtue ruled,
Is called "blythe dweller" in that discipline.
Erstwhile unsullied bliss he wins, then poise
Preserves;[17] the five bars[18] passed, with ardent zeal,
The musings enters, watchful, apt, intent;
Breaks all the bonds and knows reality;
And grasping naught, wholly his heart's released.
If in that high release, where life's[19] bonds break,
This gnosis comes: "Immutable's release!"
Then is that gnosis final, unsurpassed
That bliss, a griefiess state of passionless peace -
That (for the saint) is debtlessness supreme.'

 


[1] S.e. with text anāḷiko, Comy. anāḷhiyo; see P.E.D. s.v.

[2] Vaḍḍhiṃ paṭisuṇāti.

[3] Kālābhataṃ vaḍḍhiṃ. P.E.D. omits.

[4] Codenti, \/Ḥcud, to urge; cf. Sn. 120.

[5] Anucaranti pi nap. Comy. they dog his footsteps and vex him, throwing mud at him in public or in a crowd, and do like things that cause pain (ātapa-ṭṭhapana-).

[6] Paṭicchādana-hetu.

Hebrews vi, 18: That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us:
Proverbs xxi, 25-26: The desire of the slothful killeth him; for his hands refuse to labour.
He coveteth greedily all the day long: but the righteous giveth and spareth not.

K.J.V.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[7] Pāpikaṃ icchaṃ paṇidahati; cf. Hebrews vi, 18.

[8] With Comy. and S.e. jaññā; see Sn. loc. cit.

[9] Cf. S. ii, 226 ff.

[10] Cf. Proverbs xxi, 25-26.

[11] Vinicchayo. Comy. vaḍḍhako.

James i, 6: But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed.
K.J.V.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[12] Saṃsappati. Comy. paripphandati; cf. A. v, 289; James i, 6.

[13] Pāpakammaṃ pavaḍḍhento

[14] Yaaaa vippaṭisāra-jā. Comy. ye assa vippaṭisārato jātā.

[15] Ubhayattha kaṭaṁggāha; cf. Thag. 462; S. iv, 352; J. iv, 322: referring to throwing dice.

[16] The two lines of the text recur at A. iv, 285; cf. also J.P.T.S., 1909 336.

[17] Comy. observes that these two refer to the third and fourth musings.

[18] Viz. lust, ill-will, torpor, worry and doubt.

[19] Bhava, beooming.


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