Anguttara Nikaya


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Aŋguttara Nikāya
Chakkanipata
VI. Mahā Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Sixes
Chapter VI: The Great Chapter

Sutta 57

Chaḷābhijāti Suttaṃ

The Six Breeds[1]

Translated from the Pali by E.M. Hare.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[1] Thus have I heard:

Once, when the Exalted One was dwelling on Mount Vulture Peak
near Rājagaha,,
the venerable Ānanda approached him,
saluted,
and sat down at one side.

So seated,
he said to the Exited One:

'Lord, six breeds
have been declared by Pūraṇa Kassapa:[2] the black,
the blue,
the red,
the yellow,
the white
and the purest white.

Lord, here is the black breed declared by him:
mutton-butchers,
pork-butchers,
fowlers,
hunters,

Thug. It would probably be better not to use 'thug' in this case as the term originated in India, and much later, and specifically designated a religious cult of Kali-worshiping Mohamadin thieves that always strangled their victims.
Their erradication c. 1800-1840, under the direction of William Sleeman of the East India Company, might be said to be the beginning point of modern police tactics and anticipated 'big-data' methods of intelligence gathering.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

thugs,[3]
fishermen,
robbers,
cut-throats,
jailers,
and all others
who follow a bloody trade.

Here is the blue:
monks who live as though with a thorn[4] in the side,
and all others
who profess the deed and doing [theory].[5]

Here is the red:
Jains[6] and loin-cloth folk.

Here is the yellow:
white-robed householders
and followers of naked ascetics.

Here is the white:
fakirs and their disciples.

And here, lord, is the breed
of the purest white
declared by Pūraṇa Kassapa:
Nanda Vaccha,
Kisa Saŋkicca
and Makkhali Gosala.[7]

Lord, these are the six breeds
dedared by him.'

'But[8] what, Ānanda,
does the whole world
agree with Pūraṇa Kassapa
in this declaration of his?'

'Certainly not, lord.'

'Well, Ānanda,
just as men might thrust a piece of meat
on [273] some poor,
needy,
unwilling wretch,
saying:

"Here, sirrah,
eat this meat -
and pay for it too!"

Even so is Pūraṇa Kassapa's declaration
to these recluses and brāhmans,
made without their consent
as though by a foolish,
witless numskull,
lacking common-sense.[9]

 


 

I, verily, Ānanda,
will declare the six breeds;
hear,
give heed,
I will speak!'

'Yes, lord,'
rejoined the venerable Ānanda;
and the Exalted One said:

'And what, Ānanda, are the six breeds?

There[10] are some of black breed, Ānanda,
who breed black Dhamma;
some who breed white Dhamma;
some who breed Nibbāna,
neither black nor white:
there are some of white breed
who breed white Dhamma;
some who breed black Dhamma;
and some who breed Nibbāna,
neither black nor white.

And how, Ānanda,
breeds the black breed
black Dhamma?

Consider,[11] Ānanda,
one reborn in a low-caste clan -
pariah,
hunter,
weaver,
wheelwright,
sweeper —
in a poor family,
where food and drink are scarce,
life is hard,
keep and clothing hardly come by;
and he is ugly,
ill-featured,
misshapen
and much afflicted,
being blind,
deformed in hand,
lame
or crippled;
and is no recipient of food,
drink,
clothes,
carriages,
flowers,
scents,
ointments,
bed,
lodging
or lighting:
and suppose he wayfare in the wrong way
in deed,
word
and thought —
on the breaking up of the body after death,
he arises in the wayward way,
the ill way,
the abyss,
hell.

Thus, Ānanda,
some of the black breed
breed black Dhamma.

And how, Ānanda,
breeds the black breed
white Dhamma?

Consider, again, one born in a low-caste clan -
pariah,
hunter,
weaver,
wheelwright,
sweeper —
in a poor family,
where food and drink are scarce,
life is hard,
keep and clothing hardly come by;
and he is ugly,
ill-featured,
misshapen
and much afflicted,
being blind,
deformed in hand,
lame
or crippled;
and is no recipient of food,
drink,
clothes,
carriages,
flowers,
scents,
ointments,
bed,
lodging
or lighting:
who wayfares in the right way
in deed,
word
and thought -
on the breaking up of the body after death,
he arises in the good way,
the heaven-world.

Thus, Ānanda,
some of the black breed
breed white Dhamma.

[275] And how, Ānanda,
breeds the black breed Nibbāna,
neither black nor white?

Consider again, one born in a low-caste clan -
pariah,
hunter,
weaver,
wheelwright,
sweeper —
in a poor family,
where food and drink are scarce,
life is hard,
keep and clothing hardly come by;
and he is ugly,
ill-featured,
misshapen
and much afflicted,
being blind,
deformed in hand,
lame
or crippled;
who has his hair and beard shaved,
dons the yellow robe
and goes forth from the home
to the homeless life -
thus gone forth,
he rids himself of the five hindrances,
weakens the mental defilements by insight,
becomes firmly fixed
in the four arisings of mindfulness,
makes become the seven factors of awakening,
as they can become,[12]
and breeds Nibbāna,
neither black nor white.

Thus, Ānanda,
some of the black breed
breed Nibbāna,
neither black nor white.

And how, Ānanda,
breeds the white breed
breed black Dhamma?

Consider one born in a high-caste clan:
noble,
brāhman
or householder,
owning stately homes,
riches,
wealth,
domains,
with gold and silver in plenty,
means and service in plenty,
corn and grain in plenty;
and is well-formed,
sightly,
pleasing,
blessed with a lily-like loveliness;
is a recipient of food,
drink,
clothes,
carriages,
flowers,
scents,
ointments,
bed,
lodging
and lighting:
and suppose he wayfare
in the wrong way
in deed,
word
and thoughtr -
on the breaking up of the body after death,
he arises in the wayward way,
the ill way,
the abyss,
hell.

Thus, Ānanda,
some of the white breed
breed black Dhamma.

And how, Ānanda, breeds the white breed white Dhamma?

Consider, again, one born in a high-caste clan:
noble,
brāhman
or householder,
owning stately homes,
riches,
wealth,
domains,
with gold and silver in plenty,
means and service in plenty,
corn and grain in plenty;
and is well-formed,
sightly,
pleasing,
blessed with a lily-like loveliness;
is a recipient of food,
drink,
clothes,
carriages,
flowers,
scents,
ointments,
bed,
lodging
and lighting:
who wayfares in the right way
in deed,
word
and thought -
on the breaking up of the body after death,
he arises in the good way,
the heaven-world.

Thus, Ānanda,
some of the white breed
breed white Dhamma.

And how, Ānanda, breeds the white breed Nibbāna, neither black nor white?

Consider one born in a high-caste clan:
noble,
brāhman
or householder,
owning stately homes,
riches,
wealth,
domains,
with gold and silver in plenty,
means and service in plenty,
corn and grain in plenty;
and is well-formed,
sightly,
pleasing,
blessed with a lily-like loveliness;
who goes forth from the home
to the homeless life -
thus gone forth,
he rids himself of the five hindrances,
weakens the mental defilements by insight,
becomes firmly fixed
in the four arisings of mindfulness,
makes become the seven factors of awakening,
as they can become
and breeds Nibbāna,
neither black nor white.

Verily, Ānanda,
these are the six breeds.'

 


[1] Chaḷābhijātiyo see DA. i, 162; Dial. i, 72 n.; K.S. iii, 170; D. iii, 250.

[2] See Dial. i, 69; DA. i, 142.

[3] Luddā. Comy. dāruṇā, violent men. It is noteworthy that none were so 'black' as to kill cattle. This list recurs at M. i, 343; Pug. 56.

Hosea ii, 6: Therefore, behold, I will hedge up thy way with thorns, and make a wall, that she shall not find her paths.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[4] Kaṇṭaka-vuttikā. Comy. samaṇā nām'ete. DA. eke pabbajitā; also te kira catusa paccayesu kaṇṭhake pakkhipitvā khādanti, whieh I suppose means that they 'hedge their ways with thorns'; cf. Hosea ii, 6.

[5] Kamma-, kiriya-vādā. See G.S. i, 265 n.; cf. above VI, Ī 38.

[6] Nigaṇṭhā.

[7] See F. Dial. i, 170, 371; they were naked ascetics. Comy. is silent; MA. ii, 285 gives no real information about them. See Dial. i, 73; K.S. iii, 61, on Makkhali.

[8] Cf. M. ii, 178, also i, 450.

[9] A-khetta'ññunā, no field-sense; at A. iv, 418, used of a cow.

[10] Kaŋhābhijātiyo samāno kaŋhaṃ dhammaṃ abhijāyati. Comy. and D. iii read -ābhijātiko, but S.e. as our text.

[11] This is all stock; see A. i, 107; ii, 85; S. i, 93.

[12] Yathā bhūtaṃ


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