Anguttara Nikaya


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Anguttara Nikāya
Sattaka Nipāta

Sutta 63

Nagarūpama Suttaɱ

The Citadel

Translated from the Pali by E.M. Hare.

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[1] Thus have I heard:

'Monks, when a rajah's citadel in the marches is well provided with the seven requisites[1] of a fortress,
and can obtain at will,
easily and without trouble[2]
the four kinds of supplies
it is said to be one
that cannot be undone
by outside foe or perfidious ally.

With what seven requisites of a fortress
is it well provided?

Monks, there is in a rajah's citadel in the marches
the pillar,[3]
deeply embedded,
well dug in,
immovable
and unshakable.

With this first fortress requisite
is the rajah's citadel in the marches
well provided -
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders.

Monks, there is the moat,
both deep and wide.

With this second requisite
is the rajah's citadel in the marches
well provided -
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders.

There is the road going round the citadel.

With this third requisite
is the rajah's citadel in the marches
well provided -
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders.

There is the great armoury of spear and sword.[4]

With this fourth requisite
is the rajah's citadel in the marches
well provided -
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders.

cuirass
17th/18th Century Indian Cuirass

A cuirass is a piece of armour, formed of a single or multiple pieces of metal or other rigid material, which covers the front of the torso.
— Wikipedia
c 500 BC India use of body armor was rare because of the heat and where used would likely have been iron, likely chain-mail sometimes with ornamental gold and jewels or even made of silk (which apparently worked somewhat like kevlar to prevent penetration of arrows).

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

There is the large body of troops stationed in the citadel,
that is to say:
mahouts,
horsemen,
charioteers,
bowmen,
standard-bearers,
billeting officers,
soldiers of the supply corps,
noted rajahs' sons,
storm troops,
men as brave as mighty nagas,[5]
valiants,
warriors in cuirasses
and home-born slaves.[6]

With this fifth requisite
is the rajah's citadel in the marches
well provided -
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders.

There is the gate-keeper,[7] clever,
intelligent,
wise,
who refuses entrance to the unknown,
but admits those he knows.

With this sixth requisite
is the rajah's citadel in the marches
well provided -
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders.

Then, monks, there is in the rajah's citadel in the marches
the rampart,
both high and wide,
covered with a coat of plaster.

With this seventh requisite
is the rajah's citadel
well provided -
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders.

With these seven fortress requisites
is it well provided.

And what are the four kinds of supplies
it can obtain at will,
easily and without trouble?

There are in the rajah's citadel in the marches
great stores of grass,
wood
and water,
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders.

There are great stores of rice and corn
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders.

There are great stores of sesame,
beans,
vetches and cereals,
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders.

Then, monks, there are in the rajah's citadel in the marches
great stores of medicaments,
that is to say:
ghee,
fresh butter,
oil,
honey,
sugar
and salt,[8]
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders.

These are the four kinds of supplies
it can obtain at will,
easily and without trouble.

Verily, monks,
when a rajah's citadel in the marches
is well provided with these seven requisites
and can obtain at will,
easily and without trouble
these four kinds of supplies,
it is said to be one
which cannot be undone by outside foe
or perfidious ally.

 


 

In just the same way, monks,
when an Ariyan disciple is possessed
of the seven good things[9]
and can obtain at will,
easily and without trouble
four musings,
highly mental,
bringing comfort here now,[10]
the Ariyan disciple is said to be
one who cannot be undone by Māra,
undone by the Evil One.

Of what seven good things is he possessed?

Just as a rajah's citadel in the marches
has the pillar,
deeply embedded,
well dug in,
immovable and unshakable,
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks,
an Ariyan disciple
has faith;
he believes in the tathagata's awakening:
Of a truth he is the Exalted One,
arahant,
the fully awake,
abounding in wisdom and righteousness,
the well-gone,
the world-knower,
the incomparable tamer of tamable men,
the teacher,
awake among devas and men,
the Exalted One![11]

With faith as a pillar,[12]
the Ariyan disciple abandons unrighteous ways,
he makes righteousness become;
he abandons what is blameworthy,
he makes blamelessness become;
he bears himself in pureness.

Of this first good thing is he possessed.

Just as the citadel has a moat,
both deep and wide,
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple
is conscientious;[13]
he is ashamed of misconducting himself
in deed, word and thought;
ashamed of falling into evil and unrighteous ways.

With conscientiousness as a moat,
the Ariyan disciple abandons unrighteous ways
and makes righteousness become;
he abandons what is blameworthy,
he makes blamelessness become;
he bears himself in pureness.

Of this second good thing is he possessed.

Just as the citadel has a road going round it,
both high and wide,
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple
has fear of blame;
he fears to be blamed for misconduct
in deed, word and thought,
he fears the blame
of having fallen into evil and unrighteous ways.

With the fear of blame as an encircling road,
the Ariyan disciple abandons unrighteous ways
and makes righteousness become;
he abandons what is blameworthy,
he makes blamelessness become;
he bears himself in pureness.

Of this third good thing is he possessed.

Just as the citadel has a great armoury
of spear and sword,
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple
has heard much,
and there is a retaining,
a storing of things heard.

Those Dhammas,
lovely in the beginning,
lovely in the middle
and lovely in the end,
which set forth in meaning and detail
the godly life
wholly fulfilled,
perfectly pure,
even those are learned by him,
resolved upon,
made familiar by speech,
pondered over in mind,
well penetrated by right view.[14]

With learning as an armoury,
the Ariyan disciple
abandons unrighteous ways
and makes righteousness become;
he abandons what is blameworthy,
he makes blamelessness become;
he bears himself in pureness.

Of this fourth good thing is he possessed.

Just as the citadel has a large body of troops stationed therein,
that is to say:
mahouts,
cavalry,
charioteers,
bowmen,
standard-bearers,
billeting officers,
soldiers of the supply corps,
noted rajahs' sons,
storm troops,
men as brave as mighty nagas,
valiants,
warriors in cuirasses
and home-born slaves
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple
abides stirred in energy
to be rid of unrighteousness,
to follow righteous things,
steadfast,
firm in advance,
he lays not aside the yoke of righteousness.[15]

With energy as an armed force,
the Ariyan disciple abandons unrighteous ways
and makes righteousness become;
he abandons what is blameworthy,
he makes blamelessness become;
he bears himself in pureness.

Of this fifth good thing is he possessed.

Just as the citadel has a gate-keeper,
clever,
intelligent
and wise,
who refuses entrance to the unknown,
but admits those he knows,
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple
has mindfulness
and is endowed in the highest degree
with mindfulness and discrimination;[15]
he remembers and calls to mind
things done and said long ago.

With mindfulness as a gate-keeper,
the Ariyan disciple abandons unrighteous ways
and makes righteousness become;
he abandons what is blameworthy,
he makes blamelessness become;
he bears himself in pureness.

Of this sixth good thing is he possessed.

Just as the rajah's citadel in the marches
has a rampart,
both high and wide,
covered with a coat of plaster,
for the protection of the inmates
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks,
the Ariyan disciple has wisdom,
endowed is he with wisdom
as to the way of growth and decay,
with Ariyan penetration of the way
to the utter destruction of ill.[15]

With wisdom as a coat of plaster,
tho Ariyan disciple abandons unrighteous ways,
he makes righteousness become;
he abandons what is blameworthy,
he makes blamelessness become;
he bears himself in pureness.

Of this seventh good thing is he possessed.

Of these seven good things is he possessed.

What four musings,
highly mental,
bringing comfort here now,
can he obtain at will,
easily and without trouble?

Just as in a rajah's citadel in the marches
there are great stores
of grass, wood and water,
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple,
aloof from sense desires,
aloof from evil ideas,
enters and abides in the first musing,
wherein applied[16] and sustained thought works,
which is born of solitude
and is full of joy and ease -
for his own convenience,
for his own comfort,
for his own well-being
and for faring to the cool.[17]

Just as in the citadel
there are great stores of rice and corn
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple,
suppressing applied and sustained thought,
enters and abides in the second musing,
which is self-evolved,
born of concentration,
full of joy and ease,
free from applied and sustained thought,
wherein the mind becomes calm
and one-pointed -
for his own convenience
for his own comfort,
for his own well-being
and for faring to the cool.

Just as the citadel
has great stores of sesame,
beans,
vetches and other cereals,
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple,
dwelling free from the fervour of zest,
detached,
mindful
and self-possessed,
enters and abides in the third musing,
experiencing that bodily ease,
whereof the Ariyans declare:

"He that is detached and mindful
dwelleth at ease"

- for his own convenience
for his own comfort,
for his own well-being
and for faring to the cool.

Just as in the rajah's citadel in the marches
there are great stores of medicaments,
that is to say:
ghee,
fresh butter,
oil,
honey,
sugar
and salt -
for the convenience of the inmates,
for their comfort,
for their well-being
and for the warding off of outsiders;
even so, monks, an Ariyan disciple,
by putting away ease
and by putting away ill,
by the passing away
of happiness and misery
he was wont to feel,
enters and abides in the fourth musing,
which is the utter purity of mindfulness,
which comes of detachment
and is free from ill and ease alike -
for his own convenience,
for his own comfort,
for his own well-being
and for faring to the cool.

These are the four musings,
highly mental,
bringing comfort here now,
he can obtain at will,
easily and without trouble.

Monks, when an Ariyan disciple is possessed of these seven good things
and can obtain at will,
easily and without trouble
these four musings,
highly mental,
bringing comfort here now,
the Ariyan disciple is said to be
one who cannot be undone by Māra,
undone by the Evil One.

 


[1] See Vism. trsl. 40, 'Requisite means protection.'

[2] This is a stock phrase, M. i, 33; S. ii, 278; A. i, 184; Ud. 37 and passim.

[3] The city of Kusāvatī had such a pillar, see D, ii, 171. It is a symbol of stability; see D. i, 14, 56; S. iii, 200.

[4] Jevanīyaɱ (? javelin). Comy, reads: chevaniyaɱ, glossing: single-edged and double-edged weapons, evidently deriving it from \/Ḥchid.

[5] Mahānāgā. Nāga means snake, demon or elephant (? dragon); see H. Parker's Ancient Ceylon, p. 13 f.

[6] This list (extended) recurs at D. i, 51; Mil. 331. D.A. i, 156 f. is much the same as A.A. Rhys Davids at Dial, i, 68 translates some terms differently.

[7] This passage is generally used in simile - e.g., D. ii, 83; iii. 101; A. v. 194.

[8] Cf. the lists at D. i, 141; J. i, 227; Mil. 106.

[9] This set recurs at M. i, 356, in detail; as a list at D. iii, 252, 282; M. iii, 23; cf. below VII, 'the Recital.' (Saddhamma; Comy. Suddhamma, which is probably the more correct tradition.)

[10] This is a stock passage; cf. D. iii, 113; M. i, 33; S. ii, 278; A. ii, 23 and passim.

[11] Cf. above, p. 2, for this and the two following qualities.

[12] The text reads saddhāsiko for saddhesiko. P.E.D. suggests saddhāyiko, but the context requires saddhesiko. Comy, also so, observing: Saddhaɱ esikāttharnbhaɱ katvā. Cf. SnA. 143.

[13] Hiri.

[14] Cf.above, p. 4.

[15] Cf. above, p. 2.

[16] A.A. on A. i, 53 (I quote Vism. trsl. 165): Applied, thinking, as a lifting of the mind on to the object, is likened to the movement of a big bird in the sky, taking the wind with both wings and keeping them steadily in a line. Sustained thinking, on the other hand, should be understood as like the movement of the flying bird flapping its wings to take the wind.

[17] Okkamanāya nibbānassa; lit. descending (or entering) into Nibbāna. Cf. below, p. 156.


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