PSALMS OF THE BRETHREN
Canto XVI. Psalms of Twenty Verses
Psalms of Twenty Verses
Translated from the Pali by Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids.
Reborn in this Buddha-age at Kapilavatthu, in the house of Amitodana the Sākiyan, he was named Anuruddha. Thus his elder brother was Mahānānama the Sākiyan, the son of the Master's paternal uncle. And he was reared most delicately and luxuriously, in a different house for each of the seasons,  and was surrounded with dancers and mimes, enjoying a divinely good fortune. And when he was summoned with the Sākiyan rajas to form a guard for the Master, he went to him in the Mango Wood at Anupiyā, took orders, and within the period of the rains, acquired celestial vision. Again, receiving an exercise under the tuition of the General of the Norm, he went into the East Bamboo Wood, and studying, mastered seven of the thoughts of a great man, but could not learn the eighth. The Master, discerning this, taught it to him, teaching him the great course of the lineage of the Ariyans. Remembering this lesson, Anuruddha developed insight and realized arahantship, accompanied by supernormal and analytic powers. Him the Master ranked foremost among those who had attained the celestial eye. And he, dwelling in the bliss of emancipation, reviewed one day his achievement. And thrilled with joy, he breathed forth this psalm:
 Forsaking mother, father, all his kin,
Sister and brother, quitting joys of sense,
Sits Anuruddha rapt in reverie.
 By dance and song attended, by the sound
Of cymbals in the morn awaked: - not so
Were pure religion to be reached, too fain
Was I in Māra's precincts to abide.
 And now that ail those things are left behind,
Fain with full heart to keep the Buddha's Rule,
Yea, passing over all the mighty Flood,
Sits Anuruddha rapt in reverie.
 And is he mindful, having few desires,
Contentedly serene and ne'er upset,
Delighting in seclusion, blithe of heart,
 Aye strenuous: - his qualities are good
And such as to enlightenment belong,
And he, sane and immune, - saith the Great Seer.
 No heaving breath left as He lay;
The mind in Jhana's steadfast stay,
With thought from every craving free,
Fixed on the Peace incessantly:
So passed the Man Who Saw away.
Now, a spirit, who in a former birth had been his attendant, seeing the Thera old and feeble, came, out of  her former love for him, and bade him aspire to rebirth among the gods. But he made answer:
Then the other bhikkhus, not seeing the goddess, were wondering to whom the Thera was speaking. To show his mystic power to them he said this verse:
 He who e'en in a moment by a thousand ways can take
Purview of all the world, he is for Brahma's heaven fit.
But here's a brother versed in power of magic who doth see
What time [both men and gods], thou goddess, die and come to be.
He now unfolds his former Karma: -
 But I beheld the Buddha, the Awake,
The Master, for whom no whence cometh fear.
In him my heart believed and was at rest,
And from the home I sought the homeless life.
 I know my former lives, and where and how
I lived in years gone by; among the gods
Thirty and Three I stood of Sakka's rank.
 Thence seven, and other seven spans of life,
E'en fourteen former births I recognize,
E'en then when in the world of gods reborn.
 I know the destinies of other lives: -
Whence beings come and whither they do go;
Life here below, or other-where of life -
Steadfast and rapt, in fivefold Jhāna sunk.
 Both text and legend give one of his names in a previous birth, in Kassapa Buddha's time (verse 910). The Br. manuscript misspells the father's name (correctly given in the Anguttara Nikāya Commentary) as Amittodhana. See further, Vinaya Texts, iii. 224 ff. On the dancers, etc. (nāṭakā), see ibid., iii. 225, n. 1.
 The eight thoughts (Ang. Nik., iv. 228 ff. where the dialogue is given) are that the Dhamma is for one who - (1) has few wants; (2) is contented, serene, (8) much alone, (4) strenuous, (5) introspectively mindful, (6) concentrated, and (7) wise; (8) delights in freedom from obsessions.
The course of the lineage of the Ariyans (ariyavaŋsapaṭipadā) in Ang. Nik., ii. 26, is simply contentment with three of the bhikkhu's 'four conditions,' or necessaries - raiment, food, and shelter-and with exercise or study, and selective or pruning culture (bhavanā, pahāna)).
 A unique variation: abhiññāpaṭiiambhidāparivāraɱ arahattaɱ.
 Lit., unseconded, unmated (cf. v. 54, 541). The Commentary paraphrases this by nittanho, without craving. Cf. Bud. Psy., p. 278; Sutta Nipiita, v. 740; and Saɱy. Nik., i. 25, where faith is the 'mate.' As Anuruddha, in the Majjhima Nikāya, is the type of an affectionate, loyal comrade bhikkhu (Suttaa 82, 128), he could not well be typical of the monachist, like Ekavihariya (CCXXXIV.). See also verse 155.
 Uddhato, often, as here, made synonymous with want of balance, as in our 'swelled head.'
 Verses 901-903 are in Ang. Nik., iv. 235, ending the lesson referred to. 'As if made of mind ... let this body be as this mind: thus by process of will-fixing iddhi' (Commentary). Cf. Compendium, p. 61, adhiṭṭhāniddhi. The Anguttara Cy. (i. 23), quotes verses 901-903.
 Verses elsewhere ascribed to Anuruddha at the Buddha's passing away (Dialogues, ii. 176; Avadana, 100). On the two versions (in Dialogues, line 4, is: ... yaŋ kālam akarī munī, 'the seer died'), cf. Oldenberg's discussion, 'Studien zur Geschichte des buddhistischen Kanon,' Nachrichṭen der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, 1912. p. 168 f.
 Addressed, according to the Commentary, to the goddess. In Saɱy. Nik., i. 200, where the goddess's verses are given, Jālinī (seducer, ensnarer) is said to be her name. Cf., however, below, ver. (1181).
 The Commentary reads sa Brahmakappo as saha-Brṅ, as in the frequent term sa-Brahmako, etc. But this seems more strained than the interpretation above, in which, with a more literal rendering, I follow Dr. Neumann. The Commentary does not explain devatā in the vocative, but else wise the verse does not parse correctly. Sa bhikkhu I take as eso bhikkhu. See verse 1181, n. 1.
 This episode is the latest recorded in the prose legend of his lives before 'our Buddha's' time. The name Annabhāra, 'food-bearer,' (cf. Ang. iii. 122) is doubtless framed to suit the legend or vice versa. Annabhāra works for a Councillor Sumana of Benares, who, on hearing of how the former abstained from a meal to feed a Silent Buddha, rewarded him and set him up in trade.
 Samādhi - i.e., of Fourth Jhāna - based on his power of abhiññā (Commentary). The 'fivefold' quality, according to the Commentary, is not the Four Stages, with the First divided (see Bud. Psy., p. 52), but a somewhat similar list of suffusion of - (1) zest; (2) pleasure; (8) ceto, ? will or intellect; (4) light; (5) a representative image. The fivefold Jhāna (917) is not so characterized. I have not as yet met with this classification elsewhere.
 According to the Commentary this was Hatthigāma, near Vesālī.