Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
1. Mūlapariyāya Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
1. The Division of the Synopsis of Fundamentals

Sutta 4

Bhayabhera Suttaɱ

Discourse on Fear and Dread

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


[21]

[1][chlm][ntbb][than][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's monastery.

Then Jaṇussoṇi the brahman[1] approached the Lord;
having approached,
he exchanged greetings with the Lord;
having exchanged greetings of friendliness and courtesy,
he sat down at a respectful distance.[2]

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, Jāṇussoṇi the brahman spoke thus to the Lord:

"Good[3] Gotama,
these who are sons of respectable families,[4]
who [22] have gone forth from home into homelessness
out of faith in the honoured Gotama,
of these the honoured Gotama is the leader,
to these the honoured Gotama is of great service,
of these the honoured Gotama is the adviser,[5] and these people emulate the views of the honoured Gotama."

"That is so, brahman, that is so, brahman.

These who are sons of respectable families,
who have gone forth from home into homelessness
out of faith in me,
of these I am the leader,
to these I am of great service,
of these I am the adviser.

And these people emulate my views."

"But, good Gotama,
remote lodgings in forest[6]
and in woodland wildernesses[6]
are hard to put up with,
arduous is aloofness,
it is difficult to delight in solitude;
methinks forests distract the mind
of a monk who does not secure concentration."

[17] "That is so, brahman, that is so, brahman.

Remote lodgings in forest
and in woodland wildernesses
are hard to put up with
arduous is aloofness,
it is difficult to delight in solitude;
methinks forests distract the mind
of a monk who does not secure concentration."

 


 

Brahman, before my Awakening,
and while I was yet merely the Bodhisatta,
not a fully self-awakened one,
it occurred to me also:

Remote lodgings in forest
and in woodland wildernesses
are hard to put up with
arduous is aloofness,
it is difficult to delight in solitude;
methinks forests distract the mind
of a monk who does not secure concentration."

In connection with this
it occurred to me, brahman:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
not wholly pure in bodily actions,
frequent remote lodgings in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are not wholly pure in bodily actions,
indeed evoke (in themselves) unskilled[7] fear and dread.

But I, not of impure bodily actions,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I am wholly pure in bodily actions,
I am one of those ariyans who,
wholly pure in bodily actions,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this complete purity of bodily actions,
gained greater assurance[8] for living in the forest.

[23] In connection with this,
it occurred to me, brahman:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
not wholly pure in action of speech,
frequent remote lodgings in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are not wholly pure in action of speech,
indeed evoke (in themselves) unskilled fear and dread.

But I, not of impure action of speech,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I am wholly pure in action of speech,
I am one of those ariyans who,
wholly pure in action of speech,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this complete purity of action of speech,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this,
it occurred to me, brahman:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
not wholly pure in action of thought,
frequent remote lodgings in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are not wholly pure in action of thought,
indeed evoke (in themselves) unskilled fear and dread.

But I, not of impure action of thought,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I am wholly pure in action of thought,
I am one of those ariyans who,
wholly pure in action of thought,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this complete purity of action of thought,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, it occurred to me, brahman:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
covetous,
strongly passionate in their desires,[9]
frequent remote lodgings
in the forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are covetous
and strongly passionate in their desires,
indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

But I,
not covetous or strongly passionate in my desires,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Without covetousness am I,
I am one of those ariyans who,
being without covetousness,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this lack of covetousness,
[18] gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman,
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
corrupt in heart,
wicked in thought and purpose,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans
because they are corrupt in heart,
wicked in thought and purpose,
indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not corrupt in heart,
nor wicked in thought and purpose
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Of a mind of friendliness am I,
I am one of those ariyans who,
with a mind of friendhness,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this mind of friendliness,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman,
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
obsessed by sloth or torpor,[10]
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are obsessed by sloth and torpor,
indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not obsessed by sloth and torpor
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I have got rid of sloth and torpor,
I am one of those ariyans who,
rid of sloth and torpor,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman,
beholding in myself
that sloth and torpor were got rid of,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

[24] In connection with this, brahman,
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
unbalanced, of unquiet minds,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are of unquiet minds,
they indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not unbalanced,
not of unquiet mind
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Of quiet mind am I,
I am one of those ariyans who,
with quiet minds,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman,
beholding in myself this quiet mind,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman,
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
doubting, perplexed,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are doubting, perplexed,
they indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not doubting, not perplexed
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Crossed over doubt[11] am I,
I am one of those ariyans who,
crossed over doubt,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman,
beholding in myself this doubt crossed over,
[19] gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
extolling themselves,
disparaging others,[12]
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are extolling themselves,
disparaging others,
they indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not extolling myself,
not disparaging others
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Not an extoller of self am I,
not a disparager of others,
I am one of those ariyans who,
not extolling self,
not disparaging others,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this lack of extolling self,
this lack of disparaging others,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
terrified, affrighted,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are terrified, affrighted,
they indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not terrified,
not affrighted
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Not horrified[13] am I,
I am one of those ariyans who,,
not extolling self,
not horrified,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this [lack of horrification? horror?][ed1],
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans, striving after gains, honours, fame,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are striving after gains, honours, fame,
they indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not striving after gains, honours, fame
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Of few desires am I,
I am one [25] of those ariyans of few desires
who frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this ['fewness of desires'?][ed1]
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans, lethargic, lacking in energy,[14],
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are lethargic and lacking in energy,
they indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not lethargic,
not lacking in energy
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Of stirred up energy am I,
I am one of those ariyans
of stirred up energy
who frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Of stirred up energy am I,,
I am one of those ariyans of stirred up energy
who frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this stirred up energy
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman,
[20] it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses, of muddled mindfulness,
not clearly conscious,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are of muddled mindfulness,
not clearly conscious,
they indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not of muddled mindfulness,
not not clearly conscious,
do I frequent remote lodgings in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Of raised up mindfulness am I,
I am one of those ariyans
of raised up mindfulness
who frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this raised up mindfulness
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman,
it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans,
not composed,
their minds wavering,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are not composed,
because their minds are wavering,
indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not not composed,
my mind not wavering
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Possessed of concentration am I,
I am one of those ariyans who,
possessed of concentration,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this possession of concentration,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

In connection with this, brahman, it occurred to me:

Whatever recluses or brahmans, weak in intuitive wisdom,[15] drivellers,[16]
[26] frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses,
these worthy recluses and brahmans,
because they are weak in intuitive wisdom,
drivellers,
indeed evoke (in themselves)
unskilled fear and dread.

Not weak in intuitive wisdom,
not a driveller
do I frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

Possessed of intuitive wisdom am I,
I am one of those ariyans who,
possessed of intuitive wisdom,
frequent remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses.

I, brahman, beholding in myself
this possession of intuitive wisdom,
gained greater assurance for living in the forest.

 


 

In connection with this, brahman,
it occurred to me:

Suppose that I,
on those recognised and fixed nights:
the fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth
of the half-months,[17] should stay in such frightening
and horrifying lodgings
as park-shrines,[18] forest-shrines,[19]
tree-shrines,[20]
so that I should see that fear and dread.

So I, brahman, after a time,
on those recognised and fixed nights,
the fourteenth, the fifteenth and the eighth
of the half-months,
stayed in such frightening
and horrifying places
as park-shrines,
forest-shrines,
tree-shrines.

As I was staying there, brahman,
either an animal came along,
or a peacock[21] [21] broke off a twig,
or the wind rustled the fallen leaves.

It occurred to me:

Surely this is that fear and dread coming.

Then it occurred to me, brahman:

Why am I staying longing for nothing but fear?

Suppose now that I,
in whatever posture I may be
as that fear and dread come upon me
should, while in that same posture,
drive out that fear and dread?

If, brahman,
that fear and dread came upon me
while I was pacing up and down,
I, brahman,
neither stood still
nor sat down
nor lay down,
but drove out [27] that fear and dread
as I was pacing up and down.

While I was standing, brahman,
that fear and dread came upon me.

So I, brahman,
neither paced up and down
nor sat down
nor lay down
until I had,
while I was standing,
driven out that fear and dread.

While I was sitting down, brahman,
that fear and dread came upon me.

So I, brahman,
neither lay down
nor stood up
nor paced up and down
until, while I was sitting down,
I drove out that fear and dread.

While I was lying down, brahman,
that fear and dread came upon me.

So I, brahman,
neither sat down
nor stood up
nor paced up and down
until I had,
while I was lying down,
driven out that fear and dread.

 


 

Now there are, brahman,
some recluses and brahmans
who suppose that night is similar to day
and who suppose that day is similar to night.

Of these recluses and brahmans
I say that they are living in bewilderment.

For I, brahman,
suppose that night is similar to night,
I suppose that day is similar to day.

Whoever, brahman,
in speaking aright should say:

'A being not liable to bewilderment
has arisen in the world
for the welfare of the many-folk,
for the happiness of the manyfolk,
out of compassion for the world,
for the good,
the welfare,
the happiness of devas and men,
then, in speaking aright of me
he would say:
'A being not liable to bewilderment
has arisen in the world
for the welfare of the many-folk,
for the happiness of the manyfolk,
out of compassion for the world,
for the good,
the welfare,
the happiness of devas and men.'[22]

Unsluggish energy is stirred up by me, brahman,
unmuddled mindfulness is raised up,
my body is tranquil,
impassible,
my mind composed,
one-pointed.

So I, brahman,
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
entered into the first meditation[23]
which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought, is born of aloofness,
and is rapturous and joyful.

By allaying initial and discursive thought,
with the mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
[22] I entered into and abided in the second meditation
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration,
and is rapturous and joyful.

By the fading out of rapture,
I dwelt with equanimity,
attentive,
and clearly conscious;
and I experienced in my person
that joy of which the ariyans say:

'Joyful lives he
who has equanimity and is mindful,'

and I entered into and abided in the third meditation.

[28] By getting rid of joy,
by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down
of my former pleasures and sorrows,
I entered into and abided in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish nor joy,
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

Thus with the mind composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge and recollection
of former habitations[24]:

I remembered a variety of former habitations, thus:
one birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration;
such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state[25]
where such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.[26]

Thus I remember divers former habitations
in all their modes and detail.

This, brahman,
was the first knowledge attained by me
in the first watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose,
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

Then with the mind composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge of the passing hence
and the arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
I see beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
I comprehend that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of their deeds,
and I think:

Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of [29] speech,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
[23] who were possessed of good conduct in speech,
who were possessed of good conduct in thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
do I see beings as they pass hence,
as they arise;
I comprehend that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of their deeds.

This, brahman,
was the second knowledge attained by me
in the middle watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose,
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

Then with the mind composed
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

I understood as it really is:

This is anguish,
this is the arising of anguish,
this is the stopping of anguish,
this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

I understood as it really is:

These are the cankers,
this is the arising of the cankers,
this is the stopping of the cankers,
this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

Knowing this thus,
seeing thus,
my mind was freed
from the canker of sense-pleasures,
and my mind was freed
from the canker of becoming,
and my mind was freed
from the canker of ignorance.[27]

In freedom
the knowledge came to be:

I am freed;

and I comprehended:

Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close is the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or such.[28]

This, brahman,
was the third knowledge attained by me
in the last watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

[30] But it may be, brahman, that this occurs to you:

'Is the recluse Gotama
even today
not devoid of attachment,
not devoid of aversion,
not devoid of confusion,
and that therefore
he frequents remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses?

But this is not to be taken in this way, brahman.

I frequent[29] remote lodgings
in forest and woodland wildernesses, brahman,
beholding two special reasons:
beholding for the self[30]
an abiding in ease here and now,[31]
and being compassionate
for the folk that come after.[32]"

"The folk that come after
have the compassion of the revered Gotama
[24] because of his perfection,
because of his complete self-awakening.

Excellent, good Gotama,
excellent, good Gotama.

It is as if one might set upright
what had been upset,
or might disclose what was covered,
or show the way to one who had gone astray,
or bring an oil-lamp into the darkness
so that those with vision might see material shapes -
even so
in many a figure
has dhamma been made clear
by the revered Gotama.

Thus I am going to the revered Gotama for refuge,
to dhamma
and to the Order of monks.

May the revered Gotama accept me as a layfollower
going for refuge
from today forth
for as long as life lasts."

Discourse on Fear and Dread
the Fourth

 


[1] A brahman by birth. But the pure ones (ariyans) are called brahmans because they exclude evil, MA. i. 109. Jāṇussoṇi was not a name given him by his parents, but was that which he received in virtue of his office as chaplain to the king.

[2] See B.D. ii. 42, n. 5.

[3] bho.

[4] MA. i. 111 divides these into two kinds: those who are such by birth, and those who are such by right conduct.

[5] samādapetā, as at M. iii. 4, 6, of Gotama as the adviser or instructor in the Way to Nibbāna. MA. i. 111 however says "training them in moral habit and the rest."

[6] Defined at Vbh. 251, and quoted at MA. i. 112.

[7] akusala, explained at MA. i. 113 as sāvajja akkhema, blameable, faulty; and unsafe, insecure ... fear is unskilled through being based on sāvajja, dread through being based on akkhema.

[8] palloma. Word occurs at D. i. 96. See JPTS. 1889, p. 206 for notes, MA. i. 114 gives pannalomata; and also khema, sotthibhāva, security.

[9] Cf. A. ii. 30.

[10] See A. i. 3; ii. 211. iii. 92, v. 163; D. i. 71.

[11] tiṇṇavicikiccha, as at D. i. 71, 110; A. iii. 297, iv. 186.

[12] Cf. M. i. 95.

[13] vigatalomdhaɱsa, "gone is horripilation, hair standing on end."

[14] Cf. Dhp. 7, 112; It. p. 27, 71, 116.

[15] paññā, extra-sensory wisdom or knowledge.

[16] eḷamugā, as at M, i. 32. Translated at G.S. iii. 305 as "dullard." See also G.S. ii. 257, n. 1. Cf. mūgasūkara at Vin. i. 102. The idea is a "driveller." MA. i. 118 says "eḷamugā means eḷamukhā: the ga comes from the kha. It comes to be called lālāmukha (saliva-mouths). While those of poor wisdom are talking, saliva drips from their mouths. It is called lālā and eḷa. Accordingly it is said: 'See the saliva-mouthed two-tongued snake' (reference to Jā. iii. 347, which should be inserted at MA. i. 118). Therefore they are called eḷamugā. Eḷamūgā is also a reading. Some also read eḷamūkhā. Further, there is also eḷamukhā. Everywhere the meaning is eḷamukhā." It seems that lālā, saliva, is the real synonym. Jā. iii. 347 explains that eḷamūgaɱ is so called because eḷa trickles, or oozes, from the mouth. "To drivel" is given in the OED as "to let saliva or mucus flow from the mouth or nose, as infants and idiots do; to slaver. To flow ineptly from the lips."

[17] The three days originally designated for teaching dhamma, Vin. i. 102.

[18] Park, ārāma, is defined at MA. i. 119 as flower parks and orchards, as at Vin. iii. 49.

[19] Forests where oblations should be taken.

[20] According to MA. i. 119 these are trees to be worshipped at the entrance gates to villages, little towns and so on. On going to all three when afraid, cf. Dhp. 188.

[21] MA. i. 120 says that here a peacock signifies all birds.

[22] As at M. i. 83.

[23] jhāna, meditation, mental absorption. As being of the fine-material sphere, rūpajjhāna, they are conditioned by concentration, samādhi, and by the absence of the five hindrances, nīvaraṇāni. This statement of the meditation processes is of frequent occurrence in the Majjhima.

[24] On these three "knowledges" see e.g. Vin. iii. 3-4, and notes at B.D. i. 7-10.

[25] MA. i. 125 says this was the Tusita abode (where the Bodhisatta passes his last "birth" before being born for the final time as a man). Here he was a devaputta called Setaketu, in the same class as those devas, the colour of gold, nourished on beautiful deva-food. He experienced deva-like happiness, but his painful experiences were those connected only with the saŋkhāras.

[26] MA. i. 126, "here in the womb of the lady Mahāmāya."

[27] At the parallel passage at Vin. iii. 5. the four cankers are mentioned. But only three at A. ii. 211, iv. 179.

[28] nāparaɱ itthattāya. MA. i. 128 (cf. DA. 112, SA. i. 20S) say there is not now again itthambhāvā (being thus) owing to development in the Way or to the destruction of the depravities. Or it means that for me there is no further continuity of the khandhas, for, being thoroughly understood, they are like trees cut down at the roots.

[29] Also at A. i. 60.

[30] MA. i. 128, for the individuality that is present here and now.

[31] In regard to the four postures, MA. i. 128.

[32] pacchimaɱ janataɱ. See B.D. i. 66, n. MA. i. 129 says: "the young men of family, gone forth from faith, seeing that the Lord dwells in the forest, think that the Lord would not undertake forest lodgings if there were not something to be known, something to be got rid of, something to be developed, something to be realised - so why should not they? And they think that they should dwell there. Thus do they quickly become end-makers of anguish. Thus there comes to be compassion for those who come after (or, the lowest of folk)."

 


[ed1] Ms. Horner's abbreviation leave her choice here in doubt.


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