Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
1. Mūlapariyāya Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
1. The Division of the Synopsis of Fundamentals

Sutta 5

Anaŋgaṇa Suttaɱ[1]

Discourse on No Blemishes

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's monastery.

While he was there the venerable Sariputta addressed the monks, saying:

"Reverend monks."

"Your reverence," these monks answered the venerable Sariputta in assent.|| ||

Then the venerable Sariputta spoke thus:

"Your reverences, these four kinds of persons[2] are found existing in the world.[3]

What are the four?

Your reverences, there is here some person with a blemish[4] who thinks:

'Subjective' is ajjhattaɱ: ajjh [to this] + attā [self] attributable to this individual, personal, internal.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

'I have a subjective blemish,'

but who does not comprehend it as it really is.

And there is the person with a blemish who, thinking:

'I have a subjective blemish,'

comprehends it as it really is.

There is here the person without a blemish who thinks:

'I have no subjective blemish,'

but who does not comprehend it as it really is.

And there is the person without a blemish who, thinking:

'I have no subjective blemish,'

comprehends it as it really is.

Where, your reverences,
there is this person with a subjective blemish who thinks,

'I have a subjective blemish,'

but does not comprehend it as it really is,
this one, of these two persons with a blemish,
is shown to be the inferior man.[5]

Where, your reverences,
there is a person with a subjective blemish who thinks,

'I have a subjective blemish,'

and comprehends it as it really is,
this one, of these two persons with a blemish,
is shown to be the best man.

Where, your reverences,
there is a person without a subjective blemish who thinks,

'I have no subjective blemish,'

but does not comprehend it as it really is,
this one, of these two persons without a blemish,
is shown to be the inferior man.

Where, your reverences,
there is a person without a subjective blemish who thinks,

'I have no subjective blemish,'

and comprehends it as it really is,
this one, of these two persons without a blemish,
is shown to be the best man."

When this had been said,
the venerable Moggallana the Great spoke thus to the venerable Sariputta:

"Now, reverend Sariputta, what is the cause,
what the reason why,
of these two persons with a blemish,
one is shown as being the inferior man,
while the other is shown as being the best man?"

"Where, your reverence,
there is this person with a blemish who thinks:

'I have a subjective blemish,'

but who does not comprehend it as it really is,
this may be expected for him:
that he will not generate desire,
or strive,
or stir up energy
for getting rid of that blemish;
he will pass away while he has attachment,
aversion,
and confusion,
while he has the blemish,
while his mind is tarnished.

Your reverence, it is like a bronze bowi,
brought back from a shop or smithy
covered with dust and dirt
and that the owners would not make use of or clean,
but would throw away in the dust.

In consequence, your reverence,
would that bronze bowl
become more tarnished with dirt after a time?"

"Yes, your reverence."

"Even so, your reverence,
for that person with a blemish who thinks:

'I have a subjective blemish,'

but does not comprehend it as it really is,
this is to be expected:
that he will not generate desire,
or strive,
or stir up energy
for getting rid of that blemish;
he will pass away while he has attachment,
aversion,
confusion,
while he has the blemish,
while his mind is tarnished.

Where, your reverence,
there is this person with a blemish who thinks:

'I have a subjective blemish,'

and comprehends it as it really is,
this may be expected for him:
that he will generate desire,
and strive,
and stir up energy
for getting rid of that blemish;
he will pass away without attachment,
without aversion,
without confusion,
without the blemish,
his mind untarnished.

Your reverence, it is like a bronze bowl,
brought back from a shop or smithy
covered with dust and dirt,
but which the owners would use
and would clean,
and would not throw away in the dust.

In consequence, your reverence,
would that bronze bowl
become more clean after a time with the cleaning?"

"Yes, your reverence."

"Even so, your reverence,
for that person with a blemish who thinks:

'I have a subjective blemish,'

and who comprehends it as it really is,
this is to be expected:
that he will generate desire
and strive,
and stir up energy
for getting rid of that blemish;
he will pass away without attachment,
without aversion,
without confusion,
without the blemish,
his mind untarnished.

Where, your reverence,
there is this person without a blemish who thinks,

'I have no subjective blemish,'

but who does not comprehend it as it really is,
this may be expected for him:
that he will attend to the fair aspect (of things);
because of attention to the fair aspect,
attachment will deprave his mind;
he will pass away while he has attachment,
aversion
and confusion,
while he has a blemish,
while his mind is tarnished.

Your reverence, it is Hke a bronze bowl,
brought back from a shop or smithy
quite pure,
quite clean,
but which its owners would neither use nor clean,
but would throw away in the dust.

In consequence, your reverence,
would that bronze bowl
become more tarnished with dirt
after a time?"

"Yes, your reverence."

"Even so, your reverence,
for that person without a blemish who thinks:

'I have no subjective blemish,'

but who does not comprehend it as it really is,
this may be expected for him;
that he will attend to the fair aspect (of things);
because of attention to the fair aspect,
attachment will deprave his mind;
he will pass away while he has attachment,
aversion
and confusion,
while he has a blemish,
while his mind is tarnished.

Where, your reverence,
there is this person without a blemish who thinks,

'I have no subjective blemish'

and comprehends it as it really is,
this may be expected for him:
that he will not attend to the fair aspect (of things);
because there is no attention to the fair aspect,
attachment will not deprave his mind;
he will pass away without attachment,
without aversion,
without confusion,
without a blemish,
his mind untarnished.

Your reverence, it is like a bronze bowl,
brought back from a shop or smithy
quite pure,
quite clean,
but which the owners would use and would clean,
and would not throw away in the dust.

In consequence, your reverence,
would that bronze bowl become more clean
after a time with the cleaning?"

"Yes, your reverence."

"Even so, your reverence,
for this person without a blemish who thinks,

'I have no subjective blemish'

and who comprehends it as it really is,
this may be expected for him:
that he will not attend to the fair aspect (of things);
because there is no attention to the fair aspect,
attachment will not deprave his mind;
he will pass away without attachment,
without aversion,
without confusion,
without blemish,
his mind untarnished.

This, reverend Moggallana,
is the cause,
this the reason why,
of these two persons with a blemish,
the one is shown to be the inferior man,
while the other is shown to be the best man.

This, reverend Moggallana,
is the cause,
this the reason why,
of these two persons without a blemish,
the one is shown to be the inferior man,
while the other is shown to be the best man."

 


 

"'Blemish, blemish,'
is it called, your reverence?

Now, of what is this a synonym, your reverence,
that is to say
'blemish'?"

"Your reverence, this -
that is to say 'blemish' -
is a synonym for being occupied with evil unskilled wishes.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this
may arise in some monk here:

'Indeed, should I fall into an offence,
the monks might not find out about me[6] -
that I have fallen into an offence.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when monks may find out about that monk,
that he has fallen into an offence.

He, thinking that the monks have found out
that he has fallen into an offence,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'But if I have fallen into an offence,
the monks might reprove me in private,
not in the midst of an Order.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when monks might reprove him
in the midst of an Order,
not in private.

He, thinking:

'The monks are reproving me
in the midst of an Order,
not in private,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this
may arise in some monk here:

'Should I have fallen into an offence,
an equal[7] should reprove me,
not one who is not an equal.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when one who is not an equal might reprove that monk.

He, thinking:

'One who is not an equal is reproving me,
not one who is an equal,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may the Teacher teach dhamma to the monks,
having interrogated me only time and again.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when the Teacher may teach dhamma to the monks
having interrogated some other monk time and again,
and when the Teacher may teach dhamma to the monks
not having interrogated that monk time and again,

He, thinking:

'The Teacher teaches dhamma to the monks
having interrogated another monk time and again;
the Teacher teaches dhamma to the monks
not having interrogated me time and again,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may the monks enter the village for rice
having put me in front;[8]
may the monks not enter the village for rice
having put another monk in front.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when the monks may enter the village for rice
having put another monk in front,
they may enter a village for rice
not having put that monk in front.

He, thinking:

'The monks are entering the village for rice
having put another monk in front,
they are entering the village for rice
not having put me in front,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'O may I receive the best seat,
the best water,
the best almsfood in a refectory,[9]
may no other monk receive the best seat,
the best water,
the best almsfood in the refectory.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may receive the best seat,
the best water,
the best almsfood in a refectory,
when that monk does not receive the best seat
the best water,
the best almsfood in the refectory.

He, thinking:

'Another monk is receiving the best seat
the best water,
the best almsfood in the refectory;
I am not receiving the best seat
the best water,
the best almsfood in the refectory,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'O may I, when I have eaten in a refectory,
give the thanks,
may no other monk,
when he has eaten in a refectory,
give the thanks.'

This situation occurs, yoɱr reverence,
when another monk,
when he has eaten in the refectory,
may give the thanks,
when that monk,
when he has eaten in the refectory,
may not give the thanks.

He, thinking:

'Another monk,
when he has eaten in the refectory,
is giving the thanks;
I, when I have eaten in the refectory,
am not giving the thanks,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'O may I teach dhamma to the monks who are in a monastery,
may no other monk teach dhamma to the monks who are in the monastery.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may teach dhamma to the monks whoare in a monastery,
when that monk may not teach dhamma to the monks who are in a monastery.

He, thinking,

'Another monk is teaching dhamma to the monks who are in a monastery,
I am not teaching dhamma to the monks who are in the monastery,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may I teach dhamma to the nuns who are in a monastery
may no other monk teach dhamma to the nuns who are in the monastery.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may teach dhamma to the nuns whoare in a monastery,
when that monk may not teach dhamma to the nuns who are in a monastery.

He, thinking,

'Another monk is teaching dhamma to the nuns who are in a monastery,
I am not teaching dhamma to the nuns who are in the monastery,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may I teach dhamma to the layfollowers who are in a monastery
may no other monk teach dhamma to the layfollowers who are in the monastery.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may teach dhamma to the layfollowers whoare in a monastery,
when that monk may not teach dhamma to the layfollowers who are in a monastery.

He, thinking,

'Another monk is teaching dhamma to the layfollowers who are in a monastery,
I am not teaching dhamma to the layfollowers who are in the monastery,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may I teach dhamma to women layfollowers who are in a monastery,
may no other monk teach dhamma to the women layfollowers who are in a monastery.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when some other monk may teach dhamma to the women layfollowers who are in a monastery,
when that monk does not teach dhamma to the women layfollowers who are in a monastery.

He, thinking:

'Another monk is teaching dhamma to the women layfollowers who are in a monastery,
I am not teaching dhamma to the women layfollowers who are in a monastery,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence, when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may the monks revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
may the monks revere, esteem, venerate, honour no other monk.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when the monks revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
when the monks do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour that monk.

He, thinking:

'The monks revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
the monks do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence, when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may the nuns revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
may the nuns revere, esteem, venerate, honour no other monk.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when the nuns revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
when the nuns do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour that monk.

He, thinking:

'The nuns revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
the nuns do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence, when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may the layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
may the layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour no other monk.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when the layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
when the layfollowers do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour that monk.

He, thinking:

'The layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
the layfollowers do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence, when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'0 may the women layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
may the women layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour no other monk.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when the women layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
when the women layfollowers do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour that monk.

He, thinking:

'The women layfollowers revere, esteem, venerate, honour some other monk,
the women layfollowers do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour me,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence, when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'O may I receive fine may no other monk receive fine robe-material.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may receive fine robe-material,
when that monk does not receive fine robe-material.

He, thinking:

'Another monk is receiving fine robe-material,
I am not receiving fine robe-material,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'O may I receive fine fine almsfood,
may no other monk receive fine almsfood.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may receive fine almsfood,
when that monk does not receive fine almsfood.

He, thinking:

'Another monk is receiving fine almsfood,
I am not receiving fine almsfood,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'O may I receive fine fine lodgings,
may no other monk receive fine lodgings.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may receive fine lodgings,
when that monk does not receive fine lodgings.

He, thinking:

'Another monk is receiving fine lodgings,
I am not receiving fine lodgings,
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when a wish such as this may arise in some monk here:

'O may I receive fine requisites of medicines for the sick,
may no other monk receive fine requisites of medicines for the sick.'

This situation occurs, your reverence,
when another monk may receive fine requisites of medicines for the sick,
when that monk does not receive fine requisites of medicines for the sick.

He, thinking:

'Another monk is receiving fine requisites of medicines for the sick,
I am not receiving fine requisites of medicines for the sick,'
becomes angry and discontented.

Whatever is anger, your reverence,
whatever is discontent,
both are a blemish.

This, your reverence -
that is to say 'blemish' -
is a synonym for being occupied with evil unskilled wishes.

 


 

In whatever monk, your reverence,
it is seen and also heard
that these occupations with evil unskilled wishes
are not destroyed -
even though he be a forest-dweller
whose lodgings are remote,
one who walks for almsfood
on continuous almsround,[10]
a rag-robe wearer
who wears robes that are worn thin[11] -
then his fellow Brahma-farers
do not revere, esteem, venerate, honour him.

What is the cause of this?

It is that these see
and also hear
of this reverend one
that his occupations with evil unskilled wishes
are not destroyed.

Your reverence,
it is like a bronze bowl
brought back from a shop or smithy
quite pure,
quite clean;
its owners, having filled it with a dead snake
or a dead dog
or a dead human being,
and having enclosed it in another bronze bowl,
might take it back inside the shop.

People, on seeing it, would say:

'Just look,
what is this that has been brought back
like a very lovely thing?'

Having lifted it up and opened it,
they would look at it;
at the sight of it,
repugnance would set in
and loathing would set in
and disgust would set in;
those who had been hungry
would have no desire for food,
far less those who had eaten already -

even so, your reverence,
of whatever monk it is seen and heard
that these occupations with evil unskilled wishes
are not destroyed -
even though he be a forest-dweller
whose lodgings are remote,
one who walks for almsfood
on continuous almsround,
a rag-robe wearer
who wears robes that are worn thin -
then his fellow Brahma-farers do not revere,
esteem, venerate, honour him.

What is the cause of this?

This reverend one's occupations
with evil unskilled, wishes
are seen as well as heard
to be not destroyed.

In whatever monk, your reverence, these occupations
with evil unskilled wishes
are seen and are heard
to be destroyed -
even though he were staying near a village,
were one who is invited,[12]
were one who wears householder's robe-material[13] -
then his fellow Brahma-farers
would revere, esteem, venerate, honour him.

What is the cause of this?

It is that these see and also hear
of that reverend one
that his occupations
with evil unskilled wishes
are destroyed.

Your reverence, it is like a bronze bowl,
brought back from a shop or smithy
quite pure, quite clean.

Its owners,
having filled it with fine rice;
rice-water,
the black grains removed,
with various curries,
various vegetables,
and having enclosed it in another bronze bowl,
might take it back inside the shop.

People, seeing it, would say:

'Just look,
what is this that has been brought back
like a very lovely thing?

Having lifted it up,
having opened it,
they would look at it.

On seeing it,
liking would set in,
and no loathing would set in
and no disgust would set in;
even those who had eaten
would have a desire for food,
how much more those who were hungry? -

even so, your reverence,
of whatever monk it is seen and heard that these occupations
with evil unskilled wishes
are destroyed -
even though he were staying near a village,
were one who is invited,
were one who wears householder's robe-material -
then his fellow Brahma-farers would revere
would revere, esteem, venerate, honour him.

What is the cause of this?

It is that these see and also hear
of this reverend one
that his occupations
with evil unskilled wishes
are destroyed."

When this had been said, the venerable Moggallana the Great spoke thus to the venerable Sāriputta:

"A simile occurs[14] to me, reverend Sāriputta."

"Let it be evident,[15] reverend Moggallāna."

"Once I, your reverence,
was staying near Rājagaha in the mountain Cowpen.[16]

Then I, your reverence,
having dressed in the morning,
taking my bowl and robe,
entered Rājagaha for alms-food.

Now at that time Samīti,
the son of a vehicle maker,
was shaping a felloe,
and the Naked Ascetic, Paṇḍu's son,
who had formerly been the son of a vehicle maker,
was standing near him.

Then, your reverence,
this reasoning arose in the mind of the Naked Ascetic,[17] Pandu's son, who had formerly been the son of a vehicle maker:

felloe

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

'O that this Samīti,
the son of a vehicle maker,
might shape away this felloe's crookedness,
its twist and notch,
so that the felloe,
without crookedness,
without twist,
without notch,
might be clear and placed on the pith.'

Even while there was this reasoning
in the mind of the Naked Ascetic, Pandu's son,
who had formerly been a vehicle maker,
so did Samīti, the son of a vehicle maker,
shape away that crookedness
and that twist
and that notch from the felloe.

Then, your reverence,
the Naked Ascetic, Paṇḍu's son,
who had formerly been the son of a vehicle maker,
was delighted;
he let forth a cry of dehght:

'It seems as if he is shaping it away
because with his heart[18] he knows my heart.'

Even so, your reverence,
those persons who are without faith,
but who, in want of a way of living,
have gone forth from home into homelessness,
not from faith,
who are crafty,
fraudulent,
deceitful,
who are unbalanced[19] and puffed up,
who are shifty,
scurrilous
and of loose talk,
the doors of whose sense-faculties are not guarded,
who do not know moderation in eating,
who are not intent on vigilance,
indifferent to recluse-ship,
not of keen respect for the training,
ones for abundance,
lax,
taking the lead in backshding,
shirking the burden of seclusion[20] who are indolent,
of feeble energy,
of confused mindfulness,
not clearly conscious,
not concentrated
but of wandering minds,
who are weak in wisdom,
drivellers[21] -
it seems that the venerable Sāriputta,
because he knows their hearts with his heart,
is shaping them
by means of this disquisition on dhamma.

But those young men of respectable families who,
from faith,
have gone forth from home into homelessness,
who are not crafty,
fraudulent
or deceitful,
who are not unbalanced,
not puffed up,
not shifty,
not scurrilous
or of loose talk,
the doors of whose sense-faculties are guarded,
who know moderation in eating,
who are intent on vigilance,
who long for recluseship,
who are of keen respect for the training,
not ones for abundance,
not lax,
shirking back-sliding,
taking the lead in seclusion,
who are of stirred up energy,
self-resolute,
with mindfulness aroused,
clearly conscious,
who are concentrated,
their minds one-pointed,
who have wisdom,
are not drivellers -
these, having heard this disquisition on dhamma
from the venerable Sariputta,
seem to drink it,
seem to savour it with speech
as well as with mind.

Indeed it is good that a fellow Brahma-farer,
having caused one to rise up from[22] what is unskilled,
estabhshes him in what is skilled.

Your reverence,
it is like[23] a woman or a man,
young and of tender years,
fond of adornment,
who, having washed the head,
having acquired a garland of lotuses
or a garland of jasmine
or a garland of acacia creeper,
and having taken it in both hands
should place it on the top of the head -
even so, your reverence,
those young men of respectable famihes
who have gone forth from home into homelessness from faith,
who are not crafty,
fraudulent
or deceitful,
who are not unbalanced,
not puffed up,
not shifty,
not scurrilous
or of loose talk,
the doors of whose sense-faculties are guarded,
who know moderation in eating,
who are intent on vigilance,
who long for recluseship,
who are of keen respect for the training,
not ones for abundance,
not lax,
shirking back-sliding,
taking the lead in seclusion,
who are of stirred up energy,
self-resolute,
with mindfulness aroused,
clearly conscious,
who are concentrated,
their minds one-pointed,
who have wisdom,
are not drivellers -
having heard this disquisition on dhamma from the venerable Sāriputta,
seem to drink it,
seem to savour it with speech
as well as with mind.

Indeed it is good that a fellow Brahma-farer,
having caused one to rise up from what is unskilled,
establishes him in what is skilled."

In this wise did each of these great beings[24]rejoice together in what was well spoken by the other.

Discourse on No Blemishes
the Fifth

 


[1] Referred to at MA. ii. 246: Vism. 377. The Anaŋgaṇavatthustta, mentioned at VA. i. 158, probably refers to this Majjhima Sutta.

[2] MA. i. 137 notes that there is both a conventional teaching and a teaching according to ultimate truth (paramatthadesanā}. Herein "individual person, being, woman, man, khattiya, brahman, deva, Māra" come under conventional meaning; and "impermanence, anguish, insubstantiality, the khandhas, the elements, the planes, the applications of mindfulness" under ultimate truth. "The four persons are to be understood in the conventional way" (MA. i. 139).

[3] MA. i. 139 calls this sattaloka, the world of beings.

[4] MA. 368: "attachment, hatred and folly are called the three blemishes." MA. i. 139ff. equates them with the defilements, the kilhesa.

[5] hīnapurisa.

[6] See Vin. ii. 32.

[7] sappaṭipuggala. MA. i. 144 says this means "an equal person. 'Equal' means one who has an offence. 'Paṭipuggala' means the reprover. He thinks it possible to say, wishing for reproof from one who has an offence, 'You have fallen into this and that offence. You can reprove me after you have confessed it.' Or, he may wish for reproof from one of his own birth, family, learning, experience, or ascetic practice."

[8] I.e. of the procession walking for almsfood to be put into their bowls.

[9] See Vin. ii. 101, where a list of those monks fit for such an honour is given.

[10] I.e. not picking and choosing between the houses he would visit, but taking them in the order in which they come, according to Sekhiya 33.

[11] MA. i. 149 says that this may be due to three causes: because they are cut with a knife, sewn with a coarse long thread, or stained by dust.

[12] I.e. to go and take his meals at houses (either as a regular diner, or as one specially invited) instead of walking for his almsfood. Cf. A. iii. 391.

[13] I.e. robe-material given by householders - superior to robes made of rags taken from the dust-heap. Cf. M. iii. 126.

[14] paṭibhāti explained by upaṭṭhāti at MA. i. 151.

[15] paṭibhātu. MA. i. 151 says, "let it occur, let it rise up. The meaning is: you speak."

[16] Giribbaje. MA. i. 151 says, "it (Rājagaha) was called Giribbaja because it stood like a cattle pen (vaja) with a circle of mountains ail round." So Giribbaja, which is usually taken as a name for Rājagaha, is the Cowpen in the mountains which surround Rājagaha.

[17] MA. i. 151 explains ājīvika as naggasamaṇa. See A. L. Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas, London, 1951.

[18] hadaya.

[19] This word and the next four also occur at M. i. 470, S. i. 01, 203; all at A. iii. 198-199.

[20] As at M. i. 14.

[21] As at M. i. 20.

[22] vuṭṭhāpetvā. Or having caused one to remove himself from.

[23] As at Vin. ii. 255, A. iv. 278, etc.

[24] mahānāga. MA. i. 153 says that this is what the two chief disciples are called; it gives three derivations for nāga, and quotes Sn. 522.


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