Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
4. Mahā Yamaka Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
4. The Greater Division of the Pairs

Sutta 39

Mahā Assapura Suttaɱ

Greater Discourse at Assapura

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][than][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying among the Aŋgas;
a township of the Aŋgas was called Assapura.

While he was there
the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

"Monks."

"Revered one," these monks answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

"'Recluses, recluses,'
so the people know you, monks,
and you,
on being asked:

'Who are you?'

should acknowledge:

'We are recluses.'

Such being your designations, monks,
such being your vocations,
thus you should train yourselves, monks:

'We will go forward
undertaking those things
that are to be done by recluses,[1]
that are to be done by brahmans;
thus will this designation of ours
become true
and the vocation real;
and the gifts of those things we make use of -
robe-material,
almsfood,
lodgings,
medicine for the sick -
will come to be of great fruit,
of great advantage to us;
and this our going forth
will come to be not barren
but fruitful
and growing.'

And what, monks,
are the things to be done by recluses
and to be done by brahmans?

Thinking:

'We will become endowed with modesty
and fear of blame[2] -
thus you should train yourselves, monks.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship[3]
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks, is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'Our bodily conduct
must be perfectly pure,
clear,
open,
and without defects,
controlled.

But not on account of this perfectly pure bodily conduct
will we exalt ourselves or disparage others' -
thus must you train yourselves, monks.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is quite pure -
to this extent there is enough,
to this [326] extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'Our conduct in speech
must be perfectly pure,
clear,
open,
without defects,
controlled.

But not on account of this perfectly pure speech
will we exalt ourselves or disparage others' -
thus must you train yourselves, monks.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is perfectly pure;
our conduct in speech is perfectly pure -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'Our conduct in thought
must be perfectly pure,
clear,
open,
and without defects,
controlled.

But not on account of this perfectly pure thought
will we exalt ourselves or disparage others' -
thus must you train yourselves, monks.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is perfectly pure;
our conduct in speech is perfectly pure;
our conduct in thought is perfectly pure -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'Our mode of living must be perfectly pure,
clear,
open,
and without defects,
controlled.

But not on account of this perfectly pure mode of living
will we exalt ourselves or disparage others' -
thus you must train yourselves, monks.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is perfectly pure;
our conduct in speech is perfectly pure;
our conduct in thought is perfectly pure;
our mode of living is perfectly pure -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'We must be guarded as to the doors of the sense-organs;
having seen a material shape with the eye
we are not entranced by the general appearance,
we are not entranced by the detail;
for if [327] one had the organ of vision uncontrolled,
coveting and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

We will fare along for its control,
we will guard the organ of sight,
we will come to control over the organ of sight.

Having heard a sound with the ear
we are not entranced by the general appearance,
we are not entranced by the detail;
for if one had the organ of hearing uncontrolled,
coveting and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

We will fare along for its control,
we will guard the organ of hearing,
we will come to control over the organ of hearing.

Having smelt a smell with the nose
we are not entranced by the general appearance,
we are not entranced by the detail;
for if one had the organ of smell uncontrolled,
coveting and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

We will fare along for its control,
we will guard the organ of smell,
we will come to control over the organ of smell.

Having savoured a taste with the tongue
we are not entranced by the general appearance,
we are not entranced by the detail;
for if one had the organ of taste uncontrolled,
coveting and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

We will fare along for its control,
we will guard the organ of taste,
we will come to control over the organ of taste.

Having felt a touch with the body
we are not entranced by the general appearance,
we are not entranced by the detail;
for if one had the organ of touch uncontrolled,
coveting and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

We will fare along for its control,
we will guard the organ of touch,
we will come to control over the organ of touch.

Having cognised a mental object with the mind
we are not entranced by the general appearance,
we are not entranced by the detail;
for if one had the organ of mind uncontrolled,
coveting and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

We will fare along for its control,
we will guard the organ of mind,
we will come to control over the organ of mind' -
this is how you must train yourselves, monks.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is perfectly pure;
our conduct in speech is perfectly pure;
our conduct in thought is perfectly pure;
our mode of living is perfectly pure,
guarded are the doors of our sense-organs -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'We must be moderate in eating,
carefully reflecting must we eat,
not for fun or pleasure
or adornment
or beautifying,
but just enough for maintaining this body
and keeping it going,
for keeping it from harm,
for furthering the Brahma-faring;
with the thought:

'I am destroying old feehng,
and I must not allow new feehng to arise,
so that there will be blamelessness for me
and living in comfort' -
thus, monks, must you train yourselves.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is perfectly pure;
our conduct in speech is perfectly pure;
our conduct in thought is perfectly pure;
our mode of living is perfectly pure,
guarded are the doors of our sense-organs;
we are moderate in eating -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'We must be intent on vigilance;
during the day,
pacing up and down,
sitting down,
we must cleanse the mind
from obstructive mental objects;
during the first watch of the night,
pacing up and down,
sitting down
we must cleanse the mind
from obstructive mental objects;
during the middle watch of the night,
we must lie down [328] on our right side
in the lion posture,[4]
placing one foot on the other,
mindful,
clearly conscious,
attending to the thought of getting up again;
during the last watch of the night,
rising,
pacing up and down,
sitting down,
we must cleanse the mind
from obstructive mental objects' -
thus, monks, must you train yourselves.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is perfectly pure;
our conduct in speech is perfectly pure;
our conduct in thought is perfectly pure;
our mode of living is perfectly pure,
guarded are the doors of our sense-organs;
we are moderate in eating;
we are intent on vigilance -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

Thinking:

'We must be possessed of mindfulness
and clear consciousness,
acting with clear consciousness,[5] whether setting out or returning;
acting with clear consciousness,
whether looking down or looking around,
acting with clear consciousness,
whether bending back or stretching out (the arm),
acting with clear consciousness,
whether carrying the outer cloak, the bowl, the robe,
acting with clear consciousness,
whether munching, drinking, eating, savouring,
acting with clear consciousness,
when obeying the calls of nature,
acting with clear consciousness
when walking,
standing,
sitting,
asleep,
awake,
talking,
silent' -
thus, monks, must you train yourselves.

But it may occur to you, monks:

'We are endowed with modesty
and fear of blame;
our bodily conduct is perfectly pure;
our conduct in speech is perfectly pure;
our conduct in thought is perfectly pure;
our mode of living is perfectly pure,
guarded are the doors of our sense-organs;
we are moderate in eating;
we are intent on vigilance;
we are possessed of mindfulness and clear consciousness -
to this extent there is enough,
to this extent it is done;
attained by us is the goal of recluseship,
there is nothing further to be done by us' -
up to this very point
you may come to find contentment.

I protest to you, monks,
I declare to you, monks:

While you are aiming at recluseship,
fall not short of the goal of recluseship
if there is something further to be done.

And what, monks,
is there further to be done?

'In this case, monks,
a monk chooses a remote lodging[6] in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
in a hill-cave,
in a [329] cemetery,
in a forest haunt,
in the open
or on a heap of straw.

Returning from alms-gathering
after the meal,
he sits down cross-legged,
holding the back erect,
having made mindfulness rise up in front of him.

He, by getting rid of coveting for the world,
he dwells with a mind devoid of coveting,
he purifies the mind
of coveting.

By getting rid of the taint of ill-will
he dwells benevolent in mind,
compassionate for the welfare
of all creatures and beings,
he purifies the mind
of the taint of ill-will.

By getting rid of sloth and torpor,
he dwells devoid of sloth and torpor;
perceiving the hght,
mindful,
clearly conscious,
he purifies the mind
of sloth and torpor.

By getting rid of restlessness and worry,
he dwells calmly,
the mind subjectively tranquilhsed,
he purifies the mind
of restlessness and worry.

By getting rid of doubt,
he dwells doubt-crossed,
unperplexed as to the states that are skilled,
he purifies the mind
of doubt.

Monks, as a man[7]
after contracting a loan
might set some affairs going,
and if these affairs of his should succeed,
and if he should pay off those old original debts,
and if he had a surplus over
with which to maintain a wife,
it might occur to him:

'I, formerly,
after contracting a loan,
set some affairs going,
and these affairs of mine succeeded
so that I paid off those old original debts,
and have a surplus over
with which to maintain a wife.'

He, from this source
would obtain joy,
he would reach gladness.

And, monks,
as a man might be a prey to disease,
in pain,
seriously ill,
and could not digest his food,
and there were not strength in his body,
but if after a time
he were to recover from that disease
and could digest his food
and there were some strength in his body,
it might occur to him:

'Formerly I was a prey to disease,
in pain,
seriously ill,
and could not digest my food,
and there was no strength in my body,
but now I am recovered from that disease,
I digest my food,
there is some strength in my body.'

He, from this source,
would obtain joy,
he would reach gladness.

And, monks,
as a man might be bound in a prison,
but after a time
might be freed from those bonds,
safe and sound,
and with no loss of his property,
it might occur to him:

'Formerly I was bound in a prison,
but now I am freed from those bonds,
safe and sound,
and with no loss of my property.'

He, from this source
would obtain joy,
he would reach gladness.

Monks, it is as if a man had been a slave,
not his own master,
[330] subject to others,
not able to go where he liked,
but who after a time
were freed from that slavery,
his own master,
not subject to others,
able to go where he liked;
it might occur to him:

'Formerly I was a slave,
not my own master,
subject to others,
not able to go where I liked,
but now I am freed from that slavery,
my own master,
not subject to others,
able to go where I like.'

He, from this source,
would obtain joy,
he would reach gladness.

Monks, as a rich and prosperous man[8]
might travel on a road through a wilderness
and after a time
might emerge safe and sound
and with no loss of his property,
it might occur to him:

'Formerly I,
rich and prosperous,
travelled on a road through a wilderness,
but now I have emerged
safe and sound
and with no loss of my property.'

He, from this source,
would obtain joy,
he would reach gladness.

Even so, monks,
does a monk regard these five hindrances
that are not got rid of from the self
as a debt,
as a disease,
as a prison,
as slavery,
as travelhng on a road through a wilderness.

But, monks,
when these five hindrances
are got rid of from the self,
a monk regards them as debtlessness,
as health,
as freedom from the bonds,
as liberty,
as secure ground.

By getting rid of these five hindrances
which are defilements of the mind
and weakening to intuitive wisdom[9]
then, aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
he enters on and abides in
the first meditation
which is accompanied by initial thought
and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness,
and is rapturous and joyful.

He drenches,
saturates,
permeates,
suffuses
this very body
with the rapture and joy
that are born of aloofness;
there is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused
with the rapture and joy
that are born of aloofness.

Monks, as a skilled bath-attendant
or his apprentice,
having sprinkled bath-powder into a bronze vessel,
might knead it together with drops of water
until the ball of lather
has taken up moisture,
is drenched with moisture,
suffused with moisture inside and out,
but there is no oozing -
even so, monks, does a monk
drench,
saturate,
permeate,
suffuse
this very body
with the rapture and joy
that are born of aloofness;
there is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused
with the rapture and joy
that are born of aloofness.

And again, monks, a monk
by allaying initial and discursive [331] thought,
with the mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
enters on and abides in
the second meditation
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration
and is rapturous and joyful.

He drenches,
saturates,
permeates,
suffuses
this very body
with the rapture and joy
that are born of concentration;
there is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused
with the rapture and joy
that are born of concentration.

Monks, as a pool of water
with water welling up within it,
but which has no inlet for water from the eastern side,
no inlet for water from the western side,
no inlet for water from the northern side,
no inlet for water from the southern side,
and even if the god did not send down showers upon it
from time to time,
yet a current of cool water
having welled up from that pool
would drench,
saturate,
permeate,
suffuse
that pool with cool water;
there would be no part of that pool
that was not suffused with cool water.

Even so, monks, does a monk
drench,
saturate,
permeate,
suffuse
this very body
with the rapture and joy
that are born of concentration;
there is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused
with the rapture and joy
that are born of concentration.

And again, monks, a monk
by the fading out of rapture,
dwells with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious
and experiences in his person
that joy of which the ariyans say:

'Joyful lives he
who has equanimity
and is mindful,'

and he enters on and abides in
the third meditation.

He drenches,
saturates,
permeates,
suffuses
this very body
with the joy that has no rapture;
there is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused
with the joy that has no rapture.

As in a pond of white lotuses
or a pond of red lotuses
or a pond of blue lotuses,
some white lotuses
or red lotuses
or blue lotuses
are born in the water,
grow up in the water,
never rising above the surface
but flourishing beneath it -
these from their roots to their tips
are drenched,
saturated,
permeated,
suffused
by cool water.

Even so, monks, a monk
drenches,
saturates,
permeates,
suffuses
this very body
with the joy that has no rapture;
there is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused
with the joy that has no rapture.

And again, monks, a monk
by getting rid of joy
and by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down
of his former pleasures and sorrows,
enters on and abides in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish nor joy,
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

He, having suffused this very body
with a mind that is utterly pure,
utterly clean,
comes to be sitting down;
there [332] is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused
with a mind that is utterly pure,
utterly clean.

Monks, as a monk might be sitting down
who has clothed himself
including his head
with a white cloth,
no part of his whole body
would not be suffused
with the white cloth.

Even so, monks, a monk,
having suffused this very body
with a mind that is utterly pure,
utterly clean,
comes to be sitting down;
there is no part of his whole body
that is not suffused by a mind
that is utterly pure,
utterly clean.

He, with his mind thus composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
directs his mind to the knowledge
and recollection of former habitations:
thus:

One birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration;
such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state
where such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.

Thus he remembers divers former abodes in all their modes and detail.

Monks, it is as if a man should go from his own village
to another village,
and should go from that village to another village,
and as if he should go back again from that village
to his own village.[10]

This might occur to him:

'Now I went from my own village to a certain village,
there I stood in such a way,
sat in such a way,
spoke in such a way,
became silent in such a way.

And from that village I went to a certain village,
there I stood in such a way,
sat in such a way,
spoke in such a way,
became silent in such a way.

Then I went back again from that village to my own village.'

Even so, monks, does a monk remember various former habitations, that is to sayOne birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration;
such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state
where such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.

Thus he remembers divers former abodes in all their modes and detail.

He, with his mind thus composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
directs his mind to the knowledge of the passing hence and arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
he sees beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of their deeds,
and he thinks:

Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of speech,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
who were possessed of good conduct in speech,
who were possessed of good conduct in thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
he sees beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of their deeds.

Monks, it is as if there were two houses with doors[11]
and a man with vision
standing there between them
might see people entering a house
and leaving it
and going back and forth
and walking across.

Even so, monks, does a monk with the purified deva-vision
[333] surpassing that of men
see beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of their deeds,
and he thinks:

Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of speech,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
who were possessed of good conduct in speech,
who were possessed of good conduct in thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
he sees beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of their deeds.

Then with the mind composed
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

He understands as it really is:

This is anguish,
this is the arising of anguish,
this is the stopping of anguish,
this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

He understands as it really is:

These are the cankers,
this is the arising of the cankers,
this is the stopping of the cankers,
this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

When he knows thus,
sees thus,
his mind is freed from the canker of sense-pleasures,
his mind is freed from the canker of becoming,
his mind is freed from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom
the knowledge comes to be
that he is freed,
and he comprehends:

Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close is the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or such.

Monks, it is like[12] a pure,
limpid,
serene pool of water
in which a man with vision
standing on the bank
might see oysters
and shells,
also gravel
and pebbles,
and shoals of fish moving about
and keeping still.[13]

It might occur to him:

This pool of water is pure,
limpid,
serene,
here these oysters and shells,
and gravel and pebbles,
and shoals of fish
are moving about
and keeping still.

Even so, monks, a monk comprehends as it really is:

This is anguish,
this is the arising of anguish,
this is the stopping of anguish,
this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

He understands as it really is:

These are the cankers,
this is the arising of the cankers,
this is the stopping of the cankers,
this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

When he knows thus,
sees thus,
his mind is freed from the canker of sense-pleasures,
his mind is freed from the canker of becoming,
his mind is freed from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom
the knowledge comes to be
that he is freed,
and he comprehends:

Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close is the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or such.

Monks, this is called a monk who is a recluse,
and who is a brahman,
and who is washen,
and who is expert in lore,
and who is learned,[14]
and who is an ariyan,
and who is a perfected one.

And how, monks, is a monk a recluse?

Evil, unskilled states that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
fearful,
whose results are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying in the future
are allayed in him.

It is thus, monks, that a monk is a recluse.

And how, monks, is a monk a brahman?

Evil, unskilled states [334]
that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
fearful,
whose results are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying
in the future,
are excluded by him.

It is thus, monks, that a monk is a brahman.

And how, monks, is a monk washen? Evil, unskilled states
that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
fearful,
whose results are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying
in the future,
are washed away by him.

It is thus, monks, that a monk is washen.

And how, monks, is a monk expert in lore? Evil unskilled states
that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
fearful,
whose results are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying
in the future,
are understood by him.

It is thus, monks, that a monk is expert in lore.

And how, monks, does a monk become learned? Evil unskilled states
that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
fearful,
whose results are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying
in the future,
come to be vanished[15] from him.

It is thus, monks, that a monk comes to be learned.

And how, monks, is a monk an ariyan?

Evil unskilled states
that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
fearful,
whose results are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying
in the future,
are far from him.

It is thus, monks, that a monk is an ariyan.

And how, monks, is a monk a perfected one?

Evil unskilled states
that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
fearful,
whose results are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying
in the future,
are far from him.

It is thus, monks, that a monk is a perfected one.'

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Greater Discourse at Assapura:
The Ninth

 


[1] Cf. A. i. 229; but MA. ii. 313 says different duties are given here (below, in next paragraph).

[2] MA. ii. 313-14 quotes A. i. 51.

[3] See S. v. 25, quoted MA. ii. 314.

[4] MA. ii. 316 gives four postures, or sleeping-ways, seyyā: that of those indulging in sense-pleasures, that of the petas, that of the lion, and that of the Tathāgata. Cf. A. ii. 244-45. But the Tathāgata's posture is that (assumed) during the fourth meditation. At e.g. S. iv. 184 the Lord lay down in the lion-posture.

[5] Cf. M. i. 57, 181.

[6] Cf. A. iii. 72 with what follows.

[7] Cf. D. i. 71 ff.

[8] Cf. D. i. 73 (somewhat different).

[9] Cf. M. i. 181. this sentence differs at D. i. 73.

[10] MA. ii. 323 says these villages represent the three becomings mentioned in the recollection of former abodes (as is clear from the text).

[11] Facing one another, MA. ii. 323. This simile also at M. ii. 21, iii. 178, both in connection with deva-vision.

[12] = M. ii. 22 = D. i. 84 = A. i. 9.

[13] MA. ii. 324 says the gravel and pebbles lie still; the other two groups both keep still and move about.

[14] sottiyo; or, cleansed. Cf. Thag. 221.

[15] nissuta.

 


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