Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
1. Gahapati Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
1. The Division on Householders

Sutta 51

Kandaraka Suttaɱ

Discourse to Kandaraka[1]

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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Scanned, digitized and proofread by Waiyin Chow.

 


[339] [3]

[1][chlm][ntbb][upal] Thus have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Cāmpa on the bank of the Gaggarā lotus-pond together with a large Order of monks.

Then Pessa, the son of an elephant-trainer, and the wanderer Kandaraka approached the Lord; when they had approached, Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer, having greeted the Lord, sat down at a respectful distance.

But the wanderer Kandaraka exchanged greetings with the Lord; having conversed in a friendly and courteous way, he stood at a respectful distance.

As he was standing at a respectful distance the wanderer Kandaraka, having looked round at the Order of monks which became absolutely silent, spoke thus to the Lord:

"It is wonderful, good Gotama, it is marvellous, good Gotama, that is to say how the Order of monks has been led[2] properly by the good Gotama.

And, good Gotama, those who in the long past were perfected ones, fully Self-Awakened Ones - did these Lords also have an equally excellent Order of monks that they led properly even as the Order of monks is now being led properly by the good Gotama?

And, good Gotama, those who in the distant future will be perfected ones, fully Self-Awakened Ones - will these Lords also have an equally excellent Order of monks that they will lead properly even as the Order of monks is now being led properly by the good Gotama?"

"It is so, Kandaraka; it is so, Kandaraka.

Those who, Kandaraka, in the long past were perfected ones, fully Self-Awakened Ones - these Lords had an equally excellent Order of monks that they led properly, even as the Order of monks is now being led properly by me.

And those, Kandaraka, who in the distant future [4] will be perfected ones, fully Self-Awakened Ones - these Lords will have an equally excellent Order of monks that they will lead properly, even as the Order of monks is now being led properly by me.

For there are, Kandaraka, monks in this Order of monks who are perfected ones, the cankers destroyed, who have lived the life, done what was to be done, shed the burden, attained their own goal, and who, by the utter destruction of the fetters of becoming, are freed by perfect profound knowledge.

And there are, Kandaraka, monks in this Order of monks who are learners, undeviating in moral habit,[3] undeviating in conduct, intelligent, their ways of living intelligent, and these dwell with their minds well applied to the four applications of mindfulness.

What four?

As to this, Kandaraka, [340] a monk fares along contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it), so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world;

he fares along contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly conscious (of them), mindful (of them), so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world;

he fares along contemplating the mind in the mind, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it), so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world;

he fares along contemplating the mental states in the mental states, ardent, clearly conscious (of them), mindful (of them), so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world."[4]

When this had been said, Pessa, the son of an elephant-trainer, spoke thus to the Lord:

"It is wonderful, revered sir, it is marvellous, revered sir, that these four applications of mindfulness are so well laid down by the Lord for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of griefs and sorrows, for the going down of sufferings and miseries, for winning the right path, for realising nibbāna.[5]

And, revered sir, we householders too, dressed in white, from time to time dwell with our minds well applied to the four applications of mindfulness.[6]

As to this, revered sir, we fare along contemplating the body in the body ... the feelings in the feelings ... the mind in the mind ... the mental states in the mental states, ardent, clearly [5] conscious (of them), mindful (of them), so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world.

It is wonderful, revered sir, it is marvellous, revered sir, how the Lord knows the welfare and woe of beings while there is this human tangle, this human guile, this human treachery.

For this,[7] revered sir, is a tangle, that is to say human beings.

But this, revered sir, is an open clearing, that is to say animals.[8]

Now I, revered sir, am able to make an elephant under training so remember that, every time he is coming into Cāmpa or leaving it, he will display all kinds of treachery, deceit, fraud, trickery.

But, revered sir, those that are called our slaves or messengers or workpeople, they do one thing with their body, another in speech, and their thought is still other.[9]

It is wonderful, revered sir, it is marvellous, revered sir, how the Lord knows the welfare and woe of beings while there is this human tangle, this human guile, this human treachery.

For this, revered sir, is a tangle, that is to say human beings.

But this, revered sir, is an open clearing, that is to say animals."

"It is so, Pessa, it is so, Pessa.

[341] For this, Pessa, is a tangle, that is to say human beings.

But this, Pessa, is an open clearing, that is to say animals.

Pessa, these four kinds of persons are found in the world.[10]

What four?

As to this, Pessa, some person is a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment;

as to this, Pessa, some person is a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others;

as to this, Pessa, some person is both a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of tormenting self, and a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others;

as to this, Pessa, some person is neither a self-tormentor, not intent on the practice of self-torment, nor a tormentor of others, not intent on the practice of tormenting others.

He, neither a self-tormentor nor a tormentor of others, is here-now allayed, quenched, become cool, an experiencer of bliss[11] that lives with self Brahma-become.

Of these four persons, Pessa, which appeals to your mind?"

"Now, revered sir, that person who is a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment - that person does not appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir, that person who is a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others - neither does [6] that person appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir, that person who is a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment, and who is also a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others - neither does that person appeal to my mind.

But, revered sir, that person who is neither a self-tormentor, not intent on the practice of self-torment, nor a tormentor of others, not intent on the practice of tormenting others, he, neither a self-tormentor nor a tormentor of others, is here-now allayed, quenched, become cool, an experiencer of bliss that lives with self Brahma-become - this person appeals to my mind."

"But why, Pessa, do these three persons not appeal to your mind?"

"Revered sir, whatever person is a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment, he mortifies and torments himself[12] although he yearns for happiness and recoils from pain.

Therefore this person does not appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir, whatever person is a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others, he mortifies and torments others although they yearn for happiness and recoil from pain.

Therefore this person does not appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir, whatever person is both a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment, and also a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others, he mortifies and torments himself and others although they (all) yearn for happiness and recoil from pain.

Therefore this person does not appeal to my mind.

But, [342] revered sir, whatever person is neither a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment, nor a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others, he, neither a self-tormentor nor a tormentor of others, is here-now allayed, quenched, become cool, an experiencer of bliss that lives with self Brahma-become.

Therefore this person appeals to my mind.

But, revered sir, we must be going, we are very busy, there is much to be done by us."

"You must do, Pessa, whatever you think it is now the right time for."

Then Pessa, the son of the elephant trainer, having rejoiced in what the Lord had said, having given thanks, rising from his seat, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his right side towards him.

Soon after Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer, had departed, the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

[7] "Monks, Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer, is clever;[13] monks, Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer, is of great wisdom.

If, monks, Pessa, the elephant-trainer's son, had sat down for a moment whilst I had analysed the four kinds of persons for him in detail, he would have gained great good.[14]

Nevertheless, even to some extent has Pessa, the elephant-trainer's son, gained great good."

"It is the right time for this, Lord[15] it is the right time for this, Wellfarer - for the Lord to analyse these four persons in detail.

When the monks have heard the Lord, they will remember."

"Well then, monks, listen, attend carefully, and I will speak."

"Yes, revered sir," these monks answered the Lord in assent. The Lord spoke thus:

"And which, monks, is the self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment?

In this case, monks, some person comes to be unclothed,[16] flouting life's decencies, licking his hands (after meals), not one to come when asked to do so, not one to stand still when asked to do so.

He does not consent (to accept food) offered or specially prepared (for him) or (to accept) an invitation (to a meal).

He does not accept (food) straight from a cooking-pot or pan, nor within the threshold, nor among the faggots, nor among the rice-pounders, nor when two people are eating, nor from a pregnant woman, nor from one giving suck, nor from one cohabiting with a man, nor from gleanings, nor from where a dog is standing by, nor where flies are swarming, nor fish, nor meat.

He drinks neither fermented liquor nor spirits nor rice-gruel.

He comes to be a one-house man or a one-piece man, or a two-house man or a two-piece man ... or a seven-house man or a seven-piece man.

He subsists on one little offering ... he subsists on seven little offerings.

He takes food only once a day, [343] and once in two days ... and once in seven days.

Then he lives intent on such a practice as eating rice at regular fortnightly intervals.

He is one feeding on potherbs or feeding on millet or on wild rice or on snippets of leather or on water-plants or on the red powder of rice husks or on the discarded scum of rice on the boil or on the flour of oil- [8] seeds or grass or cowdung.

He is one who subsists on forest roots or fruits, eating the fruits that have fallen.

He wears coarse hempen cloths and he wears mixed cloths or cerements or rags taken from the dust-heap or tree-bark fibre or antelope skins or strips of antelope skin or cloths of kusa-grass or cloths or bark or cloths of wood shavings or a blanket of human hair or he wears owls' feathers.

He is one who plucks out the hair of his head and beard, intent on the practice of plucking out the hair of the head and beard; and he is one who stands upright, refusing a seat; and he is one who squats on his haunches, intent on the practice of squatting; and he is one for covered thorns, he makes his bed on covered thorns; and he lives intent on the practice of going down to the water to bathe three times in an evening.

Thus in many a way does he live intent on the practice of mortifying and tormenting his body.

Monks, this is called the person who is a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment.

And which, monks, is the person who is a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others?

In this case, monks, some person is a cattle-butcher, or a pig-killer, fowler, deer-stalker, hunter, fisherman, thief, executioner, jailer, or (one of) those others who follow a bloody calling.[17]

This is the person, monks, who is called a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others.

And which, monks, is the person who is both a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of tormenting self, and also a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others?

In this case, monks, some person is a noble anointed king or a very rich brahman.

He, having had a new conference hall[18] built to the east of the town, having had his head and beard shaved, having put on a shaggy skin, having smeared his body with ghee and oil, scratching his back with a deer-horn, enters the conference hall together with his chief consort and a brahman priest.

Then he lies down to sleep on the bare grassy ground.

The king lives on the milk from one udder of a cow that has a calf of like colour, [344] his chief consort lives on the milk from the second udder, the brahman priest lives on the milk from the third udder, the milk from the fourth udder they offer to the fire; the calf lives on what is over.

He speaks thus:

'Let so many bulls be slain for the sacrifice, let so many steers [9] ... heifers ... goats ... let so many rams be slain for the sacrifice, let so many trees be felled for the sacrificial posts, let so much kusa-grass be reaped for the sacrificial spot.'[19]

Those who are called his slaves or messengers or workpeople, they, scared of the stick, scared of danger,[20] with tearful faces and crying, set about their preparations.

This, monks, is called the person who is both a self-tormentor, intent on the practice of self-torment, and a tormentor of others, intent on the practice of tormenting others.

And which, monks, is the person who is neither a self-tormentor, not intent on the practice of self-torment, nor a tormentor of others, not intent on the practice of tormenting others, and who, neither a self-tormentor nor a tormentor of others, is here-now allayed, quenched, become cool, an experiencer of bliss that lives with self Brahma-become?

In this case, monks, a Tathāgata arises in the world,[21] a perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, endowed with (right) knowledge and conduct, well-farer, knower of the worlds, matchless charioteer of men to be tamed, teacher of devas and mankind, the Awakened One, the Lord.

Having realised it by his own super-knowledge, he proclaims this world with its devas, Māras, Brahmās, creation with its recluses and brahmans, with its devas and men.

With the meaning and the spirit he teaches dhamma that is lovely at the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the ending; he proclaims the Brahma-faring wholly fulfilled and purified.

A householder or a householder's son or one born in some respectable family hears that dhamma.

When he has heard that dhamma he acquires faith in the Tathāgata.

Possessed of this faith he has acquired, he reflects thus:

'Confined is this household life, a path of dust, while going forth is of the open air.

Yet it is not easy for one who has lived in a house to fare the Brahma-faring completely fulfilled, completely purified, polished like a conch-shell.

Yet suppose I were to have my hair and beard shaved, to don saffron robes, and go forth from home into homelessness?'

After a time, getting rid of his mass of wealth, whether large or small, [345] getting rid of his circle of relations, whether large or small, having had his hair and beard shaved, having donned saffron robes, he goes forth from home into homelessness.

He, gone forth thus, being possessed of the way of life and the [10] training of monks, abandoning onslaught on creatures, is one that abstains from onslaught on creatures; stick and sword laid aside he dwells scrupulous, kindly, friendly and compassionate towards all living things and creatures.

Abandoning the taking of what has not been given, he is one that abstains from taking what has not been given; taking (only) what is given, waiting for what is given, without stealing he dwells with self become pure.

Abandoning unchastity, he is one that is chaste, keeping remote he is one that refrains[22] from dealings with women. Abandoning lying speech, he is one that abstains from lying speech, a truth-speaker, a bondsman to truth, trustworthy, dependable, no deceiver of the world.

Abandoning slanderous speech, he is one that abstains from slanderous speech; having heard something here he is not one to repeat it elsewhere for (causing) variance among those people; or, having heard something elsewhere he is not one to repeat it here for (causing) variance among these people; concord is his pleasure, concord his delight, concord his joy, concord the motive of his speech.

Abandoning harsh speech, he is one that abstains from harsh speech; whatever speech is gentle, pleasing to the ear, affectionate, going to the heart, urbane, pleasant to the manyfolk, agreeable to the manyfolk - he is one that utters speech like this.

Abandoning frivolous chatter, he is one that abstains from frivolous chatter; he is a speaker at a right time, a speaker of fact, a speaker on the goal, a speaker on dhamma, a speaker on discipline, he speaks words that are worth treasuring, with an opportune simile,[23] discriminating, connected with the goal.

He is one that abstains from what involves destruction to seed-growth, to vegetable growth. He is one that eats one meal a day, desisting at night, refraining from eating at a wrong time.

He is one that abstains from watching shows of dancing, singing, music.

He is one that abstains from using garlands, scents, unguents, adornments, finery. He is one that abstains from using high beds, large beds.

He is one that abstains from accepting gold and silver.

He is one that abstains from accepting raw grain ... raw meat ... women and girls ... women slaves and men slaves ... goats and sheep ... fowl and swine ... elephants, cows, horses, mares ... fields and sites.

He is one that abstains from the practice of sending or going on [11] messages.

He is one that abstains from buying and selling ... from cheating with weights, bronzes and measures.

[346] He is one that abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, fraud and deceit.

He is one that abstains from maiming, murdering, manacling, highway robbery.

He is contented with a robe to protect his body, with almsfood to sustain his stomach.

Wherever he goes he takes these things with him as he goes.

As a bird on the wing wherever it flies takes its wings with it as it flies, so a monk, contented with a robe to protect his body, with almsfood to sustain his stomach, wherever he goes takes these things with him as he goes.

He, possessed of this ariyan body of moral habit, inwardly experiences the bliss of blamelessness.[24]

Having seen a material shape with the eye, he is not entranced by the general appearance, he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of sight uncontrolled, covetousness and dejection, evil unskilled states of mind might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it, he guards the organ of sight, he achieves control over the organ of sight. Having heard a sound with the ear ...

Having smelt a smell with the nose ...

Having savoured a taste with the tongue ...

Having felt a touch with the body ...

Having cognised a mental object with the mind, he is not entranced by the general appearance, he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of mind uncontrolled, covetousness and dejection, evil unskilled states of mind might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it, he guards the organ of mind, he achieves control over the organ of mind.

He, possessed of this ariyan control over the sense-organs, inwardly experiences the bliss of being 'unaffected.'[25]

Whether he is setting out or returning, he is one who comports himself properly; whether he is looking down or looking round ... whether he is bending back or stretching out (his arm) ... whether he is carrying his outer cloak, his bowl, his robe ... whether he is munching, drinking, eating, savouring ... whether he is obeying [12] the calls of nature .. whether he is walking, standing, asleep, awake, talking, silent, he is one who comports himself properly.

Possessed of this ariyan body of moral habit, possessed of this ariyan control over the sense-organs, and possessed of this ariyan mindfulness and clear consciousness, he chooses a remote lodging in a forest, at the root of a tree, on a mountain slope, in a wilderness, a hill-cave, a cemetery, a forest haunt, in the open air or on a heap of straw.

Returning from alms-gathering after the meal, he sits down cross-legged holding the back erect, having made mindfulness rise up in front of him.

[347] Having got rid of covetousness for the world, he lives with a mind devoid of coveting and purifies the mind of coveting.

By getting rid of the taint of ill-will, he lives benevolent in mind; and compassionate for the welfare of all creatures and beings, he purifies the mind of the taint of ill-will.

By getting rid of sloth and torpor, he lives devoid of sloth and torpor; perceiving the light, mindful and clearly conscious, he purifies the mind of sloth and torpor.

By getting rid of restlessness and worry, he lives calmly, the mind inwardly tranquillised, and he purifies the mind of restlessness and worry.

By getting rid of doubt, he lives doubt-crossed; unperplexed as to states that are skilled, he purifies the mind of doubt.

He, by getting rid of these five hindrances - defilements of the mind and weakening to intuitive wisdom - aloof from pleasures of the senses, aloof from unskilled states of mind, enters and abides in the first meditation, which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought, is born of aloofness and is rapturous and joyful.

By allying initial and discursive thought, the mind subjectively tranquillised and fixed on one point, he enters and abides in the second meditation, which is devoid of initial and discursive thought, is born of concentration and is rapturous and joyful.

By the fading out of rapture, he dwells with equanimity, attentive and clearly conscious, and experiences in his person that joy of which the ariyans say: 'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful', and he enters and abides in the third meditation.

By getting rid of joy, by getting rid of anguish, by the going down of his former pleasures and sorrows, he enters and abides in the fourth meditation, which has neither anguish nor joy, and which is entirely purified by equanimity and mindfulness.

Thus with the mind composed,[26] quite purified, quite clarified, [13] without blemish, without defilement, grown soft and workable, stable, immovable, he directs his mind to the knowledge and recollection of former habitations. He recollects a variety of former habitations, thus:

one birth, two births, three ... four ... five ... ten ... twenty ... thirty ... forty ... fifty ... a hundred ... a thousand ... a hundred thousand births, and many an eon of integration and many an eon of disintegration and many an eon of integration-disintegration:

'Such a one was I by name, having such and such a clan, such and such a colour, so I was nourished, such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine, so did the span of life end.

Passing from this, I came to be in another state where I was such a one by name, having such and such a clan, such and such a colour, so I was nourished, such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine, [348] so did the span of life end.

Passing from this, I arose here.'

Thus he recollects divers former habitations in all their modes and detail.

With the mind composed thus, quite purified ... fixed, immovable, he directs his mind to the knowledge of the passing hence and the arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision surpassing that of men, he sees beings as they pass hence or come to be; he comprehends that beings are mean, excellent, comely, ugly, well-going, ill-going, according to the consequences of deeds, and thinks:

'Indeed these worthy beings who were possessed of wrong conduct in body, speech and thought, scoffers at the ariyans, holding a wrong view, incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view - these, at the breaking up of the body after dying, have arisen in a sorrowful state, a bad bourn, the abyss, Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings who were possessed of good conduct in body, speech and thought, who did not scoff at the ariyans, holding a right view, incurring deeds consequent on a right view - these at the breaking up of the body after dying, have arisen in a good bourn, a heaven world.'

Thus with the purified deva-vision surpassing that of men does he see beings as they pass hence, as they arise; he comprehends that beings are mean, excellent, comely, ugly, well-going, ill-going according to the consequences of deeds.

With the mind composed thus ... fixed, immovable, he directs his mind to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

He comprehends as it really is:

This is anguish, this is the arising of anguish, this is the stopping of anguish, this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

He comprehends as it really is:

These are the cankers, this is the arising of the cankers, this is the stopping of the cankers, this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

Knowing [14] thus, seeing thus, his mind is freed from the canker of sense-pleasures and his mind is freed from the canker of becoming and his mind is freed from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom the knowledge comes to be:

I am freed; and he comprehends:

Destroyed is birth, brought to a close the Brahma-faring, done is what was to be done, there is no more of being such or so.

This, monks, is called the person who is neither a self-tormentor intent on the practice of tormenting self, nor a tormentor of others intent on the practice of tormenting others.

[349] He, neither a self-tormentor nor a tormentor of others, is here-now allayed, quenched, become cool, an experiencer of bliss that lives with self Brahma-become."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Discourse to Kandaraka: The First

 


[1] Kandaraka (whom MA. iii. 2 says was a clothed wanderer) asks only one queston however; but the answer and the way Pessa takes this up lead on to the main topics: the ineffectiveness and cruelty of asceticism, and the disciple's development from the moment he acquires faith to his attainment of arahantship. The name of this Discourse might more suitably be rendered: "Discourse prompted by Kandaraka."

[2] paṭipādita, made to fare, to journey along.

[3] santata-sīla. Santata, which MA. iii. 4 explains as nirantara, uninterrupted, means consistent, stable.

[4] See M. Sta. 10 (M.L.S. i. 83) [sic p 70] and D. Sta. 22.

[5] As at (M.L.S. i. 83) [sic p 70]

[6] As they have various things to do for monks they cannot engage in the four applications of mindfulness all the time; but when they get an opportunity they are able to do so, MA. iii. 6.

[7] Cited at DhA. i. 173.

[8] All four-footed things, MA. ill. 7.

[9] Cf. DhA. i. 173.

[10] Cf. M. i. 411, ii. 159; D. iii. 234; A. ii. 205; Pug. 55.

[11] MA. iii. 10, the "blisses" (happinesses, eases) of meditation, the Ways, the fruits, nibbāna.

[12] cf. S. iv. 337 ff.

[13] Not in regard to these four categories of persons, but in regard to the four applications of mindfulness, MA. iii. 10.

[14] mahatā atthena saɱyutto agamissa. Siam. version has abhavissa for text's agamissa, and is supported by MA. iii. 10-11: sotāpanno abhavism.

[15] bhagavā, as at M. i. 433.

[16] The remainder of this paragraph as at M. i. 77-78; A. ii. 205 ff. is similar to above from here to the end of this Discourse.

[17] Cf. A. iii. 383.

[18] santhāgāra. MA. iii. 12 says yaññasālā, sacrificial hall.

[19] D. i. 141; A. ii. 207.

[20] bhayalajjitā; cf. Dhp. 188. Tajjita also means "spurred on by."

[21] From here to the end of this Discourse cf. M. i. 179 ff.; and see M.L.S. i. 235 ff. for notes. [Ed.: Linked as cited but this must really be to M.L.S. i. 224 scroll up a few lines from here.]

[22] virato. I have translated the more frequent paṭivirato of this passage as "one that abstains."

[23] sāpadesa, explained at DA. i. 76 as sa-upama, sakāraṇa, with a simile, with a device (argument, supposition?).

[24] anavajjasukha.

[25] avyāsekasukha, not sprinkled (with evil), not mixing with it. His control acts as a barrier to the fiowing-in of impurity. At M.L.S. i. 227 I translated the compound as "unsullied well-being." I now think that the above translation better balances the "bliss of blamelessness" at the end of the preceding paragraph, and that the two compounds ending in sukha are intentional. "Unsullied well-being" at vol. i, p. 226 [Ed. corrected] is an error and should read "bliss of blamelessness."

[26] A. ii. 211 omits this paragraph and the next.


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