Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
1. Gahapati Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
1. The Division on Householders

Sutta 51

Kandaraka Suttaɱ

Discourse to Kandaraka[1]

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, O.B.E., M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
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Scanned, digitized and proofread by Waiyin Chow.

 


[339] [3]

[1][chlm][ntbb][upal] Thus have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Cāmpa
on the bank of the Gaggarā lotus-pond
together with a large Order of monks.

Then Pessa, the son of an elephant-trainer,
and the wanderer Kandaraka
approached the Lord;
when they had approached,
Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer,
having greeted the Lord,
sat down at a respectful distance.

But the wanderer Kandaraka
exchanged greetings with the Lord;
having conversed in a friendly and courteous way,
he stood at a respectful distance.

As he was standing at a respectful distance
the wanderer Kandaraka,
having looked round at the Order of monks
which became absolutely silent,
spoke thus to the Lord:

"It is wonderful, good Gotama,
it is marvellous, good Gotama,
that is to say
how the Order of monks has been led[2] properly
by the good Gotama.

And, good Gotama,
those who in the long past were perfected ones,
fully Self-Awakened Ones -
did these Lords also
have an equally excellent Order of monks
that they led properly
even as the Order of monks
is now being led properly by the good Gotama?

And, good Gotama,
those who in the distant future
will be perfected ones,
fully Self-Awakened Ones -
will these Lords also
have an equally excellent Order of monks
that they will lead properly
even as the Order of monks
is now being led properly by the good Gotama?"

"It is so, Kandaraka;
it is so, Kandaraka.

Those who, Kandaraka,
in the long past
were perfected ones,
fully Self-Awakened Ones -
these Lords had an equally excellent Order of monks
that they led properly,
even as the Order of monks
is now being led properly by me.

And those, Kandaraka,
who in the distant future
[4] will be perfected ones,
fully Self-Awakened Ones -
these Lords will have an equally excellent Order of monks
that they will lead properly,
even as the Order of monks
is now being led properly by me.

For there are, Kandaraka,
monks in this Order of monks
who are perfected ones,
the cankers destroyed,
who have lived the life,
done what was to be done,
shed the burden,
attained their own goal,
and who,
by the utter destruction of the fetters of becoming,
are freed by perfect profound knowledge.

And there are, Kandaraka,
monks in this Order of monks
who are learners,
undeviating in moral habit,[3]
undeviating in conduct,
intelligent,
their ways of living intelligent,
and these dwell
with their minds well applied
to the four applications of mindfulness.

What four?

As to this, Kandaraka,
[340] a monk fares along
contemplating the body in the body,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world;

he fares along
contemplating the feelings in the feelings,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them),
mindful (of them),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world;

he fares along
contemplating the mind in the mind,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world;

he fares along
contemplating the mental states in the mental states,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them),
mindful (of them),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world."[4]

When this had been said,
Pessa, the son of an elephant-trainer,
spoke thus to the Lord:

"It is wonderful, revered sir,
it is marvellous, revered sir,
that these four applications of mindfulness
are so well laid down by the Lord
for the purification of beings,
for the overcoming of griefs and sorrows,
for the going down of sufferings and miseries,
for winning the right path,
for realising nibbāna.[5]

And, revered sir,
we householders too,
dressed in white,
from time to time
dwell with our minds well applied
to the four applications of mindfulness.[6]

As to this, revered sir,
we fare along
contemplating the body in the body
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world;

we fare along
contemplating the feelings in the feelings,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them),
mindful (of them),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world;

we fare along
contemplating the mind in the mind,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world;

we fare along
contemplating the mental states in the mental states,
ardent,
clearly [5] conscious (of them),
mindful (of them),
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection in the world."

It is wonderful, revered sir,
it is marvellous, revered sir,
how the Lord knows the welfare
and woe of beings
while there is this human tangle,
this human guile,
this human treachery.

For this,[7] revered sir,
is a tangle,
that is to say human beings.

But this, revered sir,
is an open clearing,
that is to say animals.[8]

Now I, revered sir,
am able to make an elephant under training so remember
that, every time he is coming into Cāmpa
or leaving it,
he will display all kinds of treachery,
deceit,
fraud,
trickery.

But, revered sir,
those that are called our slaves
or messengers
or workpeople,
they do one thing with their body,
another in speech,
and their thought is still other.[9]

It is wonderful, revered sir,
it is marvellous, revered sir,
how the Lord knows the welfare
and woe of beings
while there is this human tangle,
this human guile,
this human treachery.

For this, revered sir, is a tangle,
that is to say human beings.

But this, revered sir,
is an open clearing,
that is to say animals."

"It is so, Pessa,
it is so, Pessa.

[341] For this, Pessa, is a tangle,
that is to say human beings.

But this, Pessa, is an open clearing,
that is to say animals.

Pessa, these four kinds of persons
are found in the world.[10]

What four?

As to this, Pessa,
some person is a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment;

as to this, Pessa,
some person is a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others;

as to this, Pessa,
some person is both a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of tormenting self,
and a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others;

as to this, Pessa,
some person is neither a self-tormentor,
not intent on the practice of self-torment,
nor a tormentor of others,
not intent on the practice of tormenting others.

He, neither a self-tormentor
nor a tormentor of others,
is here-now allayed,
quenched,
become cool,
an experiencer of bliss[11]
that lives with self Brahma-become.

Of these four persons, Pessa,
which appeals to your mind?"

"Now, revered sir,
that person who is a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment -
that person does not appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir,
that person who is a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others -
neither does [6] that person appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir,
that person who is a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment,
and who is also a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others -
neither does that person appeal to my mind.

But, revered sir,
that person who is neither a self-tormentor,
not intent on the practice of self-torment,
nor a tormentor of others,
not intent on the practice of tormenting others,
he, neither a self-tormentor
nor a tormentor of others,
is here-now allayed,
quenched,
become cool,
an experiencer of bliss
that lives with self Brahma-become -
this person appeals to my mind."

"But why, Pessa,
do these three persons
not appeal to your mind?"

"Revered sir,
whatever person is a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment,
he mortifies and torments himself[12]
although he yearns for happiness
and recoils from pain.

Therefore this person
does not appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir,
whatever person is a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others,
he mortifies and torments others
although they yearn for happiness
and recoil from pain.

Therefore this person
does not appeal to my mind.

And, revered sir,
whatever person is both a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment,
and also a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others,
he mortifies and torments himself and others
although they (all) yearn for happiness
and recoil from pain.

Therefore this person
does not appeal to my mind.

But, [342] revered sir,
whatever person is neither a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment,
nor a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others,
he, neither a self-tormentor
nor a tormentor of others,
is here-now allayed,
quenched,
become cool,
an experiencer of bliss
that lives with self Brahma-become.

Therefore this person
appeals to my mind.

But, revered sir, we must be going,
we are very busy,
there is much to be done by us."

"You must do, Pessa,
whatever you think it is now the right time for."

Then Pessa, the son of the elephant trainer,
having rejoiced in what the Lord had said,
having given thanks,
rising from his seat,
having greeted the Lord,
departed keeping his right side towards him.

Soon after Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer,
had departed, the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

[7] "Monks, Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer,
is clever;[13]
monks, Pessa, the son of the elephant-trainer,
is of great wisdom.

If, monks, Pessa, the elephant-trainer's son,
had sat down for a moment
whilst I had analysed
the four kinds of persons for him in detail,
he would have gained great good.[14]

Nevertheless,
even to some extent
has Pessa, the elephant-trainer's son,
gained great good."

"It is the right time for this, Lord[15]
it is the right time for this, Wellfarer -
for the Lord to analyse
these four persons in detail.

When the monks have heard the Lord,
they will remember."

"Well then, monks, listen,
attend carefully,
and I will speak."

"Yes, revered sir,"
these monks answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

"And which, monks,
is the self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment?

In this case, monks,
some person comes to be unclothed,[16]
flouting life's decencies,
licking his hands (after meals),
not one to come when asked to do so,
not one to stand still
when asked to do so.

He does not consent (to accept food)
offered or specially prepared (for him)
or (to accept) an invitation (to a meal).

He does not accept (food)
straight from a cooking-pot or pan,
nor within the threshould,
nor among the faggots,
nor among the rice-pounders,
nor when two people are eating,
nor from a pregnant woman,
nor from one giving suck,
nor from one cohabiting with a man,
nor from gleanings,
nor from where a dog is standing by,
nor where flies are swarming,
nor fish,
nor meat.

He drinks neither fermented liquor
nor spirits nor rice-gruel.

He comes to be a one-house man
or a one-piece man,
or a two-house man
or a two-piece man or a three-house man
or a three-piece man or a four-house man
or a four-piece man or a five-house man
or a five-piece man or a six-house man
or a six-piece man or a seven-house man
or a seven-piece man.

He subsists on one little offering
he subsists on two little offerings
he subsists on three little offerings
he subsists on four little offerings
he subsists on five little offerings
he subsists on six little offerings
he subsists on seven little offerings.

He takes food only once a day,
[343] and once in two days
and once in three days
and once in four days
and once in five days
and once in six days
and once in seven days.

Then he lives intent
on such a practice
as eating rice
at regular fortnightly intervals.

He is one feeding on potherbs
or feeding on millet
or on wild rice
or on snippets of leather
or on water-plants
or on the red powder of rice husks
or on the discarded scum of rice on the boil
or on the flour of oil- [8] seeds
or grass
or cowdung.

He is one who subsists
on forest roots or fruits,
eating the fruits that have fallen.

He wears coarse hempen cloths
and he wears mixed cloths
or cerements
or rags taken from the dust-heap
or tree-bark fibre
or antelope skins
or strips of antelope skin
or cloths of kusa-grass
or cloths or bark
or cloths of wood shavings
or a blanket of human hair
or he wears owls' feathers.

He is one who plucks out
the hair of his head and beard,
intent on the practice
of plucking out the hair of the head and beard;
and he is one who stands upright,
refusing a seat;
and he is one who squats on his haunches,
intent on the practice of squatting;
and he is one for covered thorns,
he makes his bed on covered thorns;
and he lives intent on the practice
of going down to the water to bathe
three times in an evening.

Thus in many a way
does he live intent on the practice
of mortifying and tormenting his body.

Monks, this is called
the person who is a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment.

And which, monks, is the person
who is a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others?

In this case, monks,
some person is a cattle-butcher,
or a pig-killer,
fowler,
deer-stalker,
hunter,
fisherman,
thief,
executioner,
jailer,
or (one of) those others
who follow a bloody calling.[17]

This is the person, monks,
who is called a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others.

And which, monks,
is the person who is both a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of tormenting self,
and also a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others?

In this case, monks,
some person is a noble anointed king
or a very rich brahman.

He, having had a new conference hall[18] built
to the east of the town,
having had his head and beard shaved,
having put on a shaggy skin,
having smeared his body with ghee and oil,
scratching his back with a deer-horn,
enters the conference hall
together with his chief consort
and a brahman priest.

Then he lies down to sleep
on the bare grassy ground.

The king lives
on the milk from one udder
of a cow that has a calf of like colour,
[344] his chief consort
lives on the milk from the second udder,
the brahman priest
lives on the milk from the third udder,
the milk from the fourth udder
they offer to the fire;
the calf lives on what is over.

He speaks thus:

'Let so many bulls
be slain for the sacrifice,
let so many steers
be slain for the sacrifice,
[9] let so many heifers
be slain for the sacrifice,
let so many goats
be slain for the sacrifice,
let so many rams be slain for the sacrifice,
let so many trees
be felled for the sacrificial posts,
let so much kusa-grass
be reaped for the sacrificial spot.'[19]

Those who are called his slaves
or messengers
or workpeople,
they, scared of the stick,
scared of danger,[20]
with tearful faces and crying,
set about their preparations.

This, monks, is called
the person who is both a self-tormentor,
intent on the practice of self-torment,
and a tormentor of others,
intent on the practice of tormenting others.

And which, monks,
is the person who is neither a self-tormentor,
not intent on the practice of self-torment,
nor a tormentor of others,
not intent on the practice of tormenting others,
and who,
neither a self-tormentor
nor a tormentor of others,
is here-now allayed,
quenched,
become cool,
an experiencer of bliss
that lives with self Brahma-become?

In this case, monks,
a Tathāgata arises in the world,[21]
a perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One,
endowed with (right) knowledge and conduct,
well-farer,
knower of the worlds,
matchless charioteer of men to be tamed,
teacher of devas and mankind,
the Awakened One,
the Lord.

Having realised it by his own super-knowledge,
he proclaims this world
with its devas,
Māras,
Brahmās,
creation
with its recluses and brahmans,
with its devas and men.

With the meaning and the spirit
he teaches Dhamma
that is lovely at the beginning,
lovely in the middle,
lovely at the ending;
he proclaims the Brahma-faring
wholly fulfilled and purified.

A householder
or a householder's son
or one born in some respectable family
hears that Dhamma.

When he has heard that Dhamma
he acquires faith in the Tathāgata.

Possessed of this faith he has acquired,
he reflects thus:

'Confined is this household life,
a path of dust,
while going forth is of the open air.

Yet it is not easy
for one who has lived in a house
to fare the Brahma-faring
completely fulfilled,
completely purified,
polished like a conch-shell.

Yet suppose I were to have my hair and beard shaved,
to don saffron robes,
and go forth from home
into homelessness?'

After a time,
getting rid of his mass of wealth,
whether large or small,
[345] getting rid of his circle of relations,
whether large or small,
having had his hair and beard shaved,
having donned saffron robes,
he goes forth from home
into homelessness.

He, gone forth thus,
being possessed of the way of life
and the [10] training of monks,
abandoning onslaught on creatures,
is one that abstains from onslaught on creatures;
stick and sword laid aside
he dwells scrupulous,
kindly,
friendly
and compassionate towards all living things
and creatures.

Abandoning the taking
of what has not been given,
he is one that abstains from taking
what has not been given;
taking (only) what is given,
waiting for what is given,
without stealing
he dwells with self become pure.

Abandoning unchastity,
he is one that is chaste,
keeping remote
he is one that refrains[22] from dealings with women.

Abandoning lying speech,
he is one that abstains from lying speech,
a truth-speaker,
a bondsman to truth,
trustworthy,
dependable,
no deceiver of the world.

Abandoning slanderous speech,
he is one that abstains from slanderous speech;
having heard something here
he is not one to repeat it elsewhere
for (causing) variance among those people;
or, having heard something elsewhere
he is not one to repeat it here
for (causing) variance among these people;
concord is his pleasure,
concord his delight,
concord his joy,
concord the motive of his speech.

Abandoning harsh speech,
he is one that abstains from harsh speech;
whatever speech is gentle,
pleasing to the ear,
affectionate,
going to the heart,
urbane,
pleasant to the manyfolk,
agreeable to the manyfolk -
he is one that utters speech like this.

Abandoning frivolous chatter,
he is one that abstains from frivolous chatter;
he is a speaker at a right time,
a speaker of fact,
a speaker on the goal,
a speaker on Dhamma,
a speaker on discipline,
he speaks words that are worth treasuring,
with an opportune simile,[23]
discriminating,
connected with the goal.

He is one that abstains
from what involves destruction to seed-growth,
to vegetable growth.

He is one that eats one meal a day,
desisting at night,
refraining from eating at a wrong time.

He is one that abstains
from watching shows of dancing,
singing,
music.

He is one that abstains
from using garlands,
scents,
unguents,
adornments,
finery.

He is one that abstains
from using high beds,
large beds.

He is one that abstains
from accepting gold and silver.

He is one that abstains
from accepting raw grain.

He is one that abstains
from accepting raw meat.

He is one that abstains
from accepting women and girls.

He is one that abstains
from accepting women slaves and men slaves.

He is one that abstains
from accepting goats and sheep.

He is one that abstains
from accepting fowl and swine.

He is one that abstains
from accepting elephants,
cows,
horses,
mares.

He is one that abstains
fields and sites.

He is one that abstains
from the practice
of sending or going on [11] messages.

He is one that abstains
from buying and selling.

He is one that abstains
from from cheating with weights,
bronzes
and measures.

[346] He is one that abstains
from the crooked ways
of bribery,
fraud
and deceit.

He is one that abstains
from maiming,
murdering,
manacling,
highway robbery.

He is contented with a robe
to protect his body,
with almsfood
to sustain his stomach.

Wherever he goes
he takes these things with him as he goes.

As a bird on the wing
wherever it flies
takes its wings with it as it flies,
so a monk,
contented with a robe
to protect his body,
with almsfood to sustain his stomach,
wherever he goes
takes these things with him as he goes.

He, possessed of this ariyan body of moral habit,
inwardly experiences
the bliss of blamelessness.[24]

Having seen a material shape with the eye,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of sight uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it,
he guards the organ of sight,
he achieves control over the organ of sight.

Having heard a sound with the ear,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of hearing uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it,
he guards the organ of hearing,
he achieves control over the organ of hearing.

Having smelt a smell with the nose,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of smell uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it,
he guards the organ of smell,
he achieves control over the organ of smell.

Having savoured a taste with the tongue,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of taste uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it,
he guards the organ of taste,
he achieves control over the organ of taste.

Having felt a touch with the body,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of touch uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it,
he guards the organ of touch,
he achieves control over the organ of touch.

Having cognised a mental object with the mind,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwell with this organ of mind uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it,
he guards the organ of mind,
he achieves control over the organ of mind.

He, possessed of this ariyan control
over the sense-organs,
inwardly experiences the bliss
of being 'unaffected.'[25]

Whether he is setting out or returning,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is looking down or looking round,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is bending back or stretching out (his arm),
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is carrying his outer cloak,
his bowl,
his robe,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is munching,
drinking,
eating,
savouring,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is obeying [12] the calls of nature,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is walking,
standing,
asleep,
awake,
talking,
silent,
he is one who comports himself properly.

Possessed of this ariyan body of moral habit,
possessed of this ariyan control over the sense-organs,
and possessed of this ariyan mindfulness
and clear consciousness,
he chooses a remote lodging
in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
a hill-cave,
a cemetery,
a forest haunt,
in the open air
or on a heap of straw.

Returning from alms-gathering
after the meal,
he sits down cross-legged
holding the back erect,
having made mindfulness rise up in front of him.

[347] Having got rid of covetousness for the world,
he lives with a mind devoid of coveting
and purifies the mind of coveting.

By getting rid of the taint of ill-will,
he lives benevolent in mind;
and compassionate for the welfare
of all creatures and beings,
he purifies the mind
of the taint of ill-will.

By getting rid of sloth and torpor,
he lives devoid of sloth and torpor;
perceiving the light,
mindful and clearly conscious,
he purifies the mind
of sloth and torpor.

By getting rid of restlessness and worry,
he lives calmly,
the mind inwardly tranquillised,
and he purifies the mind
of restlessness and worry.

By getting rid of doubt,
he lives doubt-crossed;
unperplexed as to states that are skilled,
he purifies the mind of doubt.

He, by getting rid of these five hindrances -
defilements of the mind
and weakening to intuitive wisdom -
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
enters and abides in the first meditation,
which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness
and is rapturous and joyful.

By allying initial and discursive thought,
the mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
he enters and abides in the second meditation,
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration
and is rapturous and joyful.

By the fading out of rapture,
he dwells with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and experiences in his person
that joy of which the ariyans say:
'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful',
and he enters and abides in the third meditation.

By getting rid of joy,
by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of his former pleasures and sorrows,
he enters and abides in the fourth meditation,
which has neither anguish nor joy,
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

Thus with the mind composed,[26]
quite purified,
quite clarified,
[13] without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind to the knowledge and recollection
of former habitations.

He recollects a variety of former habitations, thus:

one birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration:

'Such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so I was nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state
where I was such a one by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so I was nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
[348] so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.'

Thus he recollects
divers former habitations
in all their modes and detail.

With the mind composed thus,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge of the passing hence
and the arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of deeds,
and thinks:

'Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
speech
and thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
speech
and thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.'

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
does he see beings as they pass hence,
as they arise;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of deeds.

With the mind composed thus
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind to
the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

He comprehends as it really is:

This is anguish,
this is the arising of anguish,
this is the stopping of anguish,
this is the course
leading to the stopping of anguish.

He comprehends as it really is:

These are the cankers,
this is the arising of the cankers,
this is the stopping of the cankers,
this is the course
leading to the stopping of the cankers.

Knowing [14] thus,
seeing thus,
his mind is freed from the canker of sense-pleasures
and his mind is freed from the canker of becoming
and his mind is freed from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom the knowledge comes to be:

'I am freed';
and he comprehends:

'Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or so.'

This, monks, is called
the person who is neither a self-torment
or intent on the practice of tormenting self,
nor a tormentor of others
intent on the practice of tormenting others.

[349] He, neither a self-tormentor
nor a tormentor of others,
is here-now allayed,
quenched,
become cool,
an experiencer of bliss
that lives with self Brahma-become."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Discourse to Kandaraka

 


[1] Kandaraka (whom MA. iii. 2 says was a clothed wanderer) asks only one question however; but the answer and the way Pessa takes this up lead on to the main topics: the ineffectiveness and cruelty of asceticism, and the disciple's development from the moment he acquires faith to his attainment of arahantship. The name of this Discourse might more suitably be rendered: "Discourse prompted by Kandaraka."

[2] paṭipādita, made to fare, to journey along.

[3] santata-sīla. Santata, which MA. iii. 4 explains as nirantara, uninterrupted, means consistent, stable.

[4] See M. Sta. 10 (M.L.S. i. 83) [sic p 70] and D. Sta. 22.

[5] As at (M.L.S. i. 83) [sic p 70]

[6] As they have various things to do for monks they cannot engage in the four applications of mindfulness all the time; but when they get an opportunity they are able to do so, MA. iii. 6.

[7] Cited at DhA. i. 173.

[8] All four-footed things, MA. ill. 7.

[9] Cf. DhA. i. 173.

[10] Cf. M. i. 411, ii. 159; D. iii. 234; A. ii. 205; Pug. 55.

[11] MA. iii. 10, the "blisses" (happinesses, eases) of meditation, the Ways, the fruits, nibbāna.

[12] cf. S. iv. 337 ff.

[13] Not in regard to these four categories of persons, but in regard to the four applications of mindfulness, MA. iii. 10.

[14] mahatā atthena saɱyutto agamissa. Siam. version has abhavissa for text's agamissa, and is supported by MA. iii. 10-11: sotāpanno abhavism.

[15] bhagavā, as at M. i. 433.

[16] The remainder of this paragraph as at M. i. 77-78; A. ii. 205 ff. is similar to above from here to the end of this Discourse.

[17] Cf. A. iii. 383.

[18] santhāgāra. MA. iii. 12 says yaññasālā, sacrificial hall.

[19] D. i. 141; A. ii. 207.

[20] bhayatajjitā; cf. Dhp. 188. Tajjita also means "spurred on by."

[21] From here to the end of this Discourse cf. M. i. 179 ff.; and see M.L.S. i. 235 ff. for notes. [Ed.: Linked as cited but this must really be to M.L.S. i. 224 scroll up a few lines from here.]

[22] virato. I have translated the more frequent paṭivirato of this passage as "one that abstains."

[23] sāpadesa, explained at DA. i. 76 as sa-upama, sakāraṇa, with a simile, with a device (argument, supposition?).

[24] anavajjasukha.

[25] avyāsekasukha, not sprinkled (with evil), not mixing with it. His control acts as a barrier to the flowing-in of impurity. At M.L.S. i. 227 I translated the compound as "unsullied well-being." I now think that the above translation better balances the "bliss of blamelessness" at the end of the preceding paragraph, and that the two compounds ending in sukha are intentional. "Unsullied well-being" at vol. i, p. 226 [Ed. corrected] is an error and should read "bliss of blamelessness."

[26] A. ii. 211 omits this paragraph and the next.


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