Majjhima Nikaya


[Site Map]  [Home]  [Sutta Indexes]  [Glossology]  [Site Sub-Sections]

The Pali is transliterated as IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | Mobile (āīūŋńñţđņļ) | Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l) ]

 

Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
1. Devadaha Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
1. The Devadaha Division

Sutta 101

Devadaha Suttaɱ

Discourse at Devadaha

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][than][olds][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying among the Sakyans.

A market town of the Sakyans was called Devadaha.[1]

While he was there
the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

"Monks."

"Revered One," these monks answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

"There are, monks, some recluses and brahmans who speak thus
and are of these views:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,[2]
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

Jains speak thus, monks.

I, monks, speak thus-having approached Jains,
I speak thus:

'Is it true, as is said, reverend Jains,
that you speak thus
and are of these views:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'?

If, monks, these Jains
on being asked this by me
acknowledge it,
saying 'Yes',
then I speak thus:

'But do you, reverend Jains, know[2]
that you yourselves were in the past,
that you were not not?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'But do you, reverend Jains, know
that you yourselves did this evil deed in the past,
that you did not not do it?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'But do you, reverend Jains, know
that you did not do an evil deed like this
or like that?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'But do you, reverend Jains, know
that so much anguish is worn [4] away,
or that so much anguish is to be worn away,
or that when so much anguish is worn away,
all anguish will become worn away?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'But do you, reverend Jains, know
the getting rid of unskilled states of mind
here and now,
the arising of skilled states?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'From what you say, reverend Jains,
you do not know whether you yourselves were in the past,
or whether you were not not;
you do not know whether in the past
you yourselves did this evil deed,
or whether you did not not do it;
you do not know whether you did an evil deed
like this or like that;
you do not know that so much anguish is worn away,
or that so much anguish is to be worn away,
or that when so much anguish is worn away,
all anguish will become worn away;
you do not know the getting rid
of unskilled states of mind here and now,
or the arising of skilled states.

This being so,
it would not be suitable
that the reverend Jains should explain,
saying:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

But if you, reverend Jains, were to know:

"We ourselves were in the past,
we were not not";
if you were to know:
"We ourselves did this evil deed in the past,
we did not not do it";
if you were to know:
"We did not do an evil deed like this or like that";
if you were to know:
"So much anguish is worn away,
or so much anguish is to be worn away,
or when so much anguish is worn away,
all anguish will become worn away";
if you were to know
the getting rid of unskilled states of mind
here and now,
or the arising of skilled ones -
this being so,
it would be suitable
that the reverend Jains should explain,
saying:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

Reverend Jains,
it is as if a man were pierced by an arrow
that was thickly smeared with poison.[3]

And because he has felt the arrow
he might experience a feeling
that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

His [5] friends and acquaintances,
kith and kin
might procure a physician and surgeon.

That physician and surgeon
might cut round the opening of his wound with a knife,
but on account of cutting round the opening of the wound with the knife
the man might experience a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

That physician and surrgeon
might probe him for the arrow
with a (surgeon's) probe,[4]
but on account of his being probed for the arrow
with the (surgeon's) probe
he might also experience a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

That physician and surgeon
might extract the arrow from him,
but on account of having the arrow extracted
he might also experience a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

The physician and surgeon
might dress the opening of his wound
with medicated powder,[5]
but on account of having the opening of the wound
dressed with medicated powder
he might also experience a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

After a time
when the skin had healed on the wound
he would be well,
at ease,
independent,
his own master,
going wherever he liked.[6]

This might occur to him:

"Once upon a time I was pierced by an arrow
that was thickly smeared with poison.

And because I felt the arrow
I experienced a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

My friends and acquaintances,
kith and kin
procured a physician and surgeon.

That physician and surgeon
cut round the opening of my wound with a knife,
but on account of cutting round the opening of the wound with the knife
I experienced a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

That physician and surrgeon
probed me for the arrow
with a (surgeon's) probe,
but on account of my being probed for the arrow
with the (surgeon's) probe
I experienced a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

That physician and surgeon
extracted the arrow from me,
but on account of having the arrow extracted
I experienced a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

The physician and surgeon
dressed the opening of my wound
with medicated powder,
but on account of having the opening of the wound
dressed with medicated powder
I experienced a feeling that was painful,
severe,
sharp.

But now that the skin has healed on the wound
I am well,
at ease,
independent,
my own master,
going wherever I like.

Even so, reverend Jains,
if you were to know:

"We ourselves were in the past,
we were not not";
if you were to know:
"We ourselves did this evil deed in the past,
we did not not do it";
if you were to know:
"We did not do an evil deed like this or like that";
if you were to know:
"So much anguish is worn away,
or so much anguish is to be worn away,
or when so much anguish is worn away,
all anguish will become worn away";
if you were to know
the getting rid of unskilled states of mind
here and now,
or the arising of skilled ones -
this being so,
it would be suitable
that the reverend Jains should explain,
saying:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

'But as you, reverend Jains, do not know:

"We ourselves were in the past,
we were not not";
if you were to know:
"We ourselves did this evil deed in the past,
we did not not do it";
if you were to know:
"We did not do [6] an evil deed like this or like that";
if you were to know:
"So much anguish is worn away,
or so much anguish is to be worn away,
or when so much anguish is worn away,
all anguish will become worn away";
if you were to know
the getting rid of unskilled states of mind
here and now,
or the arising of skilled ones -
therefore it would not be suitable
that the reverend Jains should explain,
saying:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

When this had been said, monks,
these Jains spoke to me thus:

'Your reverence, Nāṭaputta the Jain
is all-knowing,
all-seeing;[7]
he claims all-embracing knowledge-and-vision,
saying:

"Whether I am walking
or standing still
or asleep
or awake,
knowwledge-and-vision is permanently
and continuously before me."

He speaks thus:

"If there is, reverend Jains,
an evil deed that was formerly done by you,
wear it away by this severe austerity.

That which is the non-doing
of an evil deed in the future
is from control of body,
control of speech,
control of thought
here, now.

Thus by burning up,
by making an end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away."

And because that is approved of by us
as well as being pleasing to us,
therefore we are delighted.'

When this had been said
I, monks, spoke thus to those Jains:

'These five conditions here-now, reverend Jains,
have a twofold result.

What five?

Faith,
inclination,
tradition,
consideration of reasons,
reflection on and approval of some view.[8]

These, reverend Jains,
are five conditions here-now
that have a twofold result.

As to this,
what was the faith
that in the past
the reverend Jains had in a teacher,
what was their inclination,
what the tradition,
what the [7] consideration of reasons,
what the reflection on
and approval of somc view?'

I, monks, speaking thus,
beheld no reasoned response[9]
among the Jains.

 


 

And again, monks, I spoke to these Jains thus:

What do you think about this, reverend Jains?

At a time when there is severe effort for you,
severe striving,
do you at that time
experience a feeling that is severe,
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp?

But at a time when there is no severe effort for you,
no severe striving,
do you at that time
experience a feeling that is not severe
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp?'

'Reverend Gotama, at a time when there is severe effort for us
severe striving,
at that time
we experience a feeling that is severe,
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp.

But at a time when there is no severe effort for us,
no severe striving,
at that time we do not experiience a feeling
that is severe,
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp.

'So really it is, reverend Jains:

At a time when there is severe effort for you,
severe striving,
you at that time
experience a feeling that is severe,
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp.

But at a time when there is no severe effort for you,
no severe striving,
you at that time
you do not experience a feeling
that is severe
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp.'

This being so,
it would be suitable
that the reverend Jains should explain,
saying:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

If, reverrend Jains, at a time
when there is severe effort for you,
severe striving,
at that very time
there might be a feeling that is acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp;
but at the time
when there is no severe effort for you,
no severe striving,
at that very time
there might (also) be a feeling that is acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp —
this being so,
it would be suitable that the reverend Jains should explain,
saying:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

But inasmuch reverend Jains,
as at a time
when there is severe effort for you:
severe striving,
at that time
you experience a feeling that is severe
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp;
but at a time
when there is no severe effort for you,
no severe striving,
at that time
you do not experience a feeling that is severe,
acute,
painful,
severe
sharp -
then it is precisely you yourselves
who, while experiencing a feeling that is severe
acute,
painful,
severe,
sharp,
are deceived by ignorance,
nescience,
confusion,
saying:

'Whatever this individual experiences,
[8] whether pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant,
all is due to what was previously done.

Thus by burning up,
by making and end
of ancient deeds,
by the non-doing of new deeds,
there is no overflowing into the future.

From there being no overflowing into the future
comes the destruction of deeds;
from the destruction of deeds
comes the destruction of anguish;
from the destruction of anguish
comes the destruction of feeling;
from the destruction of feeling
all anguish will become worn away.'

Again, monks, I, speaking thus,
beheld no reasoned response among the Jains.

 


 

And again, monks, I spoke to these Jains thus:

'What do you think about this, reverend Jains?

Is it possible to say:

"Let that deed[10]
which is to be experienced here and now
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced in a future state (instead)[11]"?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'Is it possible to say:

"Let that deed
which is to be experienced in a future state
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced here and now (instead)"?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'What do you think about this, reverend Jains?

Is it possible to say:

"Let that deed
which is to be experienced as pleasant
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced as painful?"'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'But is it possible to say:

"Let that deed
which is to be experienced as painful
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced as pleasant?"'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'What do you think about this, reverend Jains?

Is it possible to say:

"Let that deed
which is to be experienced as thoroughly ripened[12]
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced as not thoroughly ripened?"'[13]

[9] 'Not this, your reverence.'

'But is it possible to say:

"Let that deed
which is to be experiienced as not thoroughly ripened
be, through striving or effort,
one to be experienced as thoroughly ripened"?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'What do you think about this, reverend Jains?

Is it posssible to say:

"Let that deed which is to be much experienced
be, through effort or striving,
to be little experienced"?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'But is it possible to say:

"Let that deed
which is to be little experiienccd
be, through effort or striving,
one to be much experienced"?'

'Not this, your reverenee.'

'What do you think about this, reverend Jains?

Is it possible to say:

"Let that deed which is to be experienced[14]
be, through effort or striving,
one not to be experienced"?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'But is it possible to say:

"Let that deed which is not to be experienced
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced"?'

'Not this, your reverence.'

'So really it is, reverend Jains:

It is not possible to say:

"Let that deed
which is to be experienced here and now
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced in a future state (instead);

Let that deed
which is to be experienced in a future state
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced here and now (instead);

Let that deed
which is to be experienced as pleasant
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced as painful;

Let that deed
which is to be experienced as painful
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced as pleasant;

Let that deed
which is to be experienced as thoroughly ripened
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced as not thoroughly ripened;

Let that deed
which is to be experiienced as not thoroughly ripened
be, through striving or effort,
one to be experienced as thoroughly ripened;

Let that deed which is to be much experienced
be, through effort or striving,
to be little experienced;

Let that deed
which is to be little experiienccd
be, through effort or striving,
one to be much experienced;

Let that deed which is to be experienced
be, through effort or striving,
one not to be experienced;

Let that deed which is not to be experienced
be, through effort or striving,
one to be experienced;

This being so,
the effort of the reverend Jains
is fruitless,
their striving fruitless.'

Monks, Jains speak thus;
monks, the ten reasoned theses of the Jains
who speak thus
give occasion for contempt.[15]

 


 

[10] If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to what was previously done;[16]
certainly, monks, the Jains
were formerly doers of deeds
that were badly done
in that they now exxperience such painful,
severe,
sharp feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to creation by an overrlord,[16]
certainly, monks, the Jains
were created by an evil overlord
in that they now experience such painful,
severe,
sharp feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to necessary conditiona.[17]
certainly, monks, the Jains
are evil of necessity
in that they now experience such painful,
severe,
sharp feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to the species[18] (to which they belong),
certainly, monks, the Jains
are of an evil species
in that they now experience such painful,
severe,
sharp feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to effort here and now,
certainly, monks, the Jains
are of evil effort here and now
in that they now experience such painnful,
severe,
sharp feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to what was previously done,
the Jains arc contemptible;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures underrgo
is not due to what was previously done
the Jains are contemptible.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo are due to an overlord,
the Jains arc contemptible;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures underrgo
is not due to an overlord
the Jains are contemptible.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo are due to necessary conditions,
the Jains arc contemptible;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures underrgo
is not due to necessary conditions
the Jains are contemptible.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo are due to the species (to which they belong),
the Jains arc contemptible;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures underrgo
is not due to the species (to which they belong)
the Jains are contemptible.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo are due to effort here and now,
the Jains arc contemptible;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures underrgo
is not due to effort here and now
the Jains are contemptible.

Monks, Jains speak thus;
monks, these ten reasoned theses of the Jains
who speak thus
give occasion for conntempt.

Even so, monks, is fruitless effort,
fruitless striving.

 


 

And how, monks,
is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful?

Herein, monks,
a monk does not let his unmastered self
be mastered by anguish,
and he does not cast out rightful happiness
and is undefiled [11] by[19] that happiness.

He comprehends thus:

'While I am striving against the aggregate[20]
of this source of anguish,[21]
from striving against the aggregate
there is detachment for me.

But while I am indifferent
to that source of anguish,
through (my) developing equanimity
there is detachment for me.'

While (a monk) is striving
against the aggregate
of this source of anguish,
from striving against the aggregate
there is detachment for him -
accordingly[22] he strives against the aggregate;
but while he is indifferent
to that source of anguish,
through (his) developing equanimity
there is detachment for him -
accordingly he develops equanimity.

While he is striving
against the aggregate
of that source of anguish,
from striving against the aggregate
there is detachment (for him).

Even so is that anguish worn away for him.

While he is indifferent to that[23] source of anguish,
through (his) developing equanimity
there is detachment for him.

Even so is that anguish
also worn away for him.

Monks, it is like a man,
passionately in love with a woman
his desire acute,
his longing acute.

He might see that woman
standing and talking,
joking and laughing
with another man.

What do you think about this, monks?

Would it not be
that grief,
sorrow,
suffenng,
lamentation
and despair
did not rise up in that man
when he saw that woman
standing and talking,
joking and laughing
with another man?"

"Yes, revered sir.

What is the reason for this?

It is that that man
is passionately in love with that woman,
his desire acute,
his longing acute.

Therefore, seeing that woman
standing and talking,
joking and laughing
with another man,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
rise up (in him)."

"But then, monks,
that man might think thus:

'I am passionately in love with this woman,
my desire acute,
my longing acute;
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
rise up in me
when I see this woman
standing and talking,
joking and laughing
with another man.

Suppose I were to get rid of
my desire and attachment
for that woman?'

So he may get rid of
his desire and attachment
for that woman.

After a time
he may see that woman
standing and talking,
joking and laughing
with another [12] man.

What do you think about this, monks?

Would it be
that grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and dispair
rose up in that man
on seeing that woman
standing and talking,
joking and laughing
with another man?"

"No, revered sir.

What is the reason for this?

It is, revered sir, that this man
is (now) without passion for this woman.

Therefore on seeing that woman
standing and talking,
joking and laughing
with another man,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering
lamentation
and despair
do not rise up (in him)."

"Even so, monks,
one does not let his unmastered self
be mastered by anguish and he does not cast out rightful happiness
and is undefiled by that happiness.

He comprehends thus:

'While I am striving against the aggregate
of this source of anguish,
from striving against the aggregate
there is detachment for me.

But while I am indifferent
to that source of anguish,
through (my) developing equanimity
there is detachment for me.'

While (a monk) is striving
against the aggregate
of this source of anguish,
from striving against the aggregate
there is detachment for him -
accordingly he strives against the aggregate;
but while he is indifferent
to that source of anguish,
through (his) developing equanimity
there is detachment for him -
accordingly he develops equanimity.

While he is striving
against the aggregate
of that source of anguish,
from striving against the aggregate
there is detachment (for him).

Even so is that anguish worn away for him.

While he is indifferent to that source of anguish,
through (his) developing equanimity
there is detachment for him.

Even so is that anguish
also worn away for him.

Thus, monks, is effort fruitful,
is striving fruitful.

And again, monks, a monk reflects thus:

'Dwelling as I please,
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline'
but while striving against my self
through anguish[24]
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much.

Suppose I were to strive against self
through anguisll?'

He strives against self through anguish;
striving against self through anguish
his unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much.

After a time
he does not strive against self
through anguish.

What is the reason for this?

Monks, the purposes[25] of that monk
who might strive against self
through anguish
is accomplished,
therefore after a time
he docs not strive against self
through anguish.

Monks, it is like a fletcher
who heats and scorches
a shaft
between two fire-brands
to make it straight
and serviceable.

But when, monks, the fletcher's
shaft
has been heated
and scorched
between the two fire-brands
and made straight
and serviceable,
he no longer heats
and scorches
the shaft
between the two fire-brands
to make it straight
and serviceable.

What is the reason for this?

Monks, the purpose
for which the fletcher might heat and scorch the shaft
between the two fire-brands
to make it straight and serviceable
is accomplished;
therefore he no longer heats and scorches it
between the two fire-brands
to make it straight and serviceable.

Even so, monks, a monk reflects thus:

'Dwelling as I please,
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline'
but while striving against my self
through anguish
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much.

Suppose I were to strive against self
through anguisll?'

He strives against self through anguish;
striving against self through anguish
his unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much.

After a time
he does not strive against self
through anguish.

What is the reason for this?

Monks, the purposes of that monk
might [13]strive against self
through anguish
is accomplished,
therefore after a time
he docs not strive against self
through anguish.

So too, monks, is effort fruitful,
is striving fruitful.

And again, monks, a Tathāgata arises in the world,
a perfected one,
a fully Self-awakened one
endowed with right knowledge and conduct,
well-farer,
knower of the worlds,
the matchless charioteer of men to be tamed,
the Awakened One,
the Lord.

He makes known this world
with the devas,
with Māra,
with Brahmā,
creation
with its recluses and brahmans,
its devas and men,
having realised them by his own super-knowledge.

He teaches dhamma which is lovely at the beginning,
lovely in the middle,
lovely at the ending,
with the spirit and the letter;
he proclaims the Brahma-faring
wholly fulfilled,
quite purified.

A householder
or a householder's son
or one born in another family
hears that dhamma.

Having heard that dhamma,
he gains faith in the Tathāgata.

Endowed with this faith
that he has acquired,
he reflects in this way:

'The household life is confined and dusty;
going forth is of the open;
it is not easy for one who lives in a house
to fare the Brahma-faring
wholly fulfilled,
wholly pure,
polished like a conch-shell.

Suppose now that I,
having cut off hair and beard,
having put on saffron robes,
should go forth from home
into homelessness?'

After a time,
getting rid of his wealth,
be it small or great,
getting rid of his circle of relations,
be it small or great,
having cut off his hair and beard,
having put on saffron robes,
he goes forth from home
into homelessness.

He, being thus one who has gone forth
and who is endowed with the training
and the way of living of monks,
abandoning onslaught on creatures,
is one who abstains from onslaught on creatures;
the stick laid aside,
the knife laid aside,
he lives kindly,
scrupulous,
friendly
and compassionate
towards all breathing things and creatures.

Abandoning the taking of what is not given,
he is one who abstains from taking what is not given;
being one who takes (only) what is given,
who waits for what is given,
not by stealing he lives with a self become pure.

Abandoning unchastity,
he is one who is chaste,
keeping remote (from unchastity),
abstaining from dealings with women.

Abandoning lying speech,
he is one who abstains from lying speech,
a truth-speaker,
a bondsman to truth,
trustworthy,
dependable,
no deceiver of the world.

Abandoning slanderous speech,
he is one who abstains from slanderous speech;
having heard something here
he is not one for repeating it elsewhere
for (causing) variance among these (people),
or having heard something elsewhere
he is not one to repeat it there
for (causing) variance among these (people).

In this way
he is a reconciler of those who are at variance,
and one who combines those who are friends.

Concord is his pleasure,
concord his delight,
concord his joy,
concord is the motive of his speech.

Abandoning harsh speech,
he is one who abstains from harsh speech.

Whatever speech is gentle,
pleasing to the ear,
affectionate,
going to the heart,
urbane,
pleasant to the manyfolk,
agreeable to the manyfolk -
he comes to be one who utters speech like this.

Abandoning frivolous chatter,
he is one who abstains from frivolous chatter.

He is a speaker at a right time,
a speaker of fact,
a speaker on the goal,
a speaker on dhamma,
a speaker on discipline,
he speaks words that are worth treasuring,
with similes at a right time
that are discriminating,
connected with the goal.

He comes to be one who abstains
from what involves destruction to seed-growth,
to vegetable growth.

He comes to be one who eats one meal a day,
refraining at night,
abstaining from eating at a wrong time.

He comes to be one who abstains
from watching shows of dancing,
singing,
music.

He comes to be one who abstains
from using garlands,
scents,
unguents,
adornments,
finery.

He comes to be one who abstains
from using high beds,
large beds.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting gold and silver.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting raw grain.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting raw meat.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting women and girls.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting women slaves and men slaves.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting goats and sheep.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting fowl and swine.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting elephants, cows, horses, mares.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting fields and sites.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting messages or going on such.

He comes to be one who abstains from buying and selling.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting from cheating with weights.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting from cheating with bronzes.

He comes to be one who abstains
from cheating with measures.

He comes to be one who abstains
from the crooked ways of bribery, fraud and deceit.

He comes to be one who abstains
from maiming, murdering, manacling, highway robbery.

He comes to be contented
with the robes for protecting his body,
with the almsfood for sustaining his stomach.

Wherever he goes
he takes these things with him as he goes.

As a bird on the wing
wherever it flies
takes its' wings with it as it flies,
so a monk,
contented with the robes for protecting his body,
with the almsfood for sustaining his stomach,
wherever he goes
takes these things with him as he goes.

He, possessed of the ariyan body of moral habit,
subjectively experiences unsullied well-being.

Having seen a material shape with the eye,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of sight uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of sight,
he comes to control over the organ of sight.

Having heard a sound with the ear,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of hearing uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of hearing,
he comes to control over the organ of hearing.

Having smelt a smell with the nose,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of smell uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of smell,
he comes to control over the organ of smell.

Having savoured a taste with the tongue,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of taste uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of taste,
he comes to control over the organ of taste.

Having felt a touch with the body,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of touch uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of touch,
he comes to control over the organ of touch.

Having cognised a mental object with the mind,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he lives with this organ of mind uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of mind,
he comes to control over the organ of mind.

If he is possessed of this ariyan control of the (sense-) organs,
he subjectively experiences unsulhed well-being.

Whether he is setting out
or returning,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is looking down
or looking round,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is bending back
or stretching out (his arm),
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is carrying his outer cloak,
his bowl,
his robe,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is munching,
drinking,
eating,
savouring,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is obeying the calls of nature,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is walking,
standing,
asleep,
awake,
talking,
silent,
he is one who comports himself properly.

Possessed of this ariyan body of moral habit
and possessed of this ariyan control of the (sense-) organs
and possessed of this ariyan mindfulness
and clear consciousness,
he chooses a remote lodging in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
in a hill-cave,
in a cemetery,
in a forest haunt,
in the open
or on a heap of straw.

He, returning from alms-gathering
after his meal,
sits down cross-legged
holding the back erect,
having made mindfulness
rise up in front of him.

He, having got rid of covetousness for the world,
lives with a mind devoid of coveting,
he purifies the mind of coveting.

By getting rid of the taint of ill-will,
he lives benevolent in mind;
and compassionate for the welfare
of all creatures and beings,
he purifies the mind of the taint of ill-will.

By getting rid of sloth and torpor,
he hves devoid of sloth and torpor;
perceiving the light,
mindful and clearly conscious,
he purifies the mind of sloth and torpor.

By getting rid of restlessness and worry,
he lives calmly,
the mind subjectively tranquillised,
he purifies the mind of restlessness and worry.

By getting rid of doubt,
he hves doubt-crossed;
unperplexed as to the states that are skilled,
he purifies his mind of doubt.

He, by getting rid of these five hindrances -
defilements of a mind and weakening to intuitive wisdom -
aloof from pleasurs of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
enters and abides in the first meditation,
which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness
and is rapturous and joyful.

Thus too, monks, is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful.

And again, monks, a monk,
by allaying initial and discursive thought,
his mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
enters on
and abides in
the second meditation
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration
and is rapturous and joyful.

Thus too, monks, is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful.

And again, monks, a monk,
by the fading out of rapture,
dwells with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and experiences in his person
that joy of which the ariyans say:
'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,'
and he enters on
and abides in
the third meditation.

Thus too, monks, is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful.

And again, monks, a monk
by getting rid of joy,
by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of his former pleasures and sorrows,
enters on
and abides in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish nor joy,
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

Thus too, monks, is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful.

Thus with the mind composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge and recollection of former habitations.

He recollects a variety of former habitations, thus:

One birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration:

'Such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so I was nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state
where I was such a one by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so I was nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.'

Thus he recollects divers former habitations
in all their modes and detail.

Thus too, monks, is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful.

With the mind composed thus,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge of the passing hence
and the arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of deeds,
and thinks:

'Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
speech
and thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
speech
and thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.'

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
does he see beings as they pass hence,
as they arise;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of deeds.

Thus too, monks, is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful.

With the mind composed thus,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

He comprehends as it really is:

'This is anguish',
'this is the arising of anguish',
'this is the stopping of anguish',
'this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish'.

He comprehends as it really is:

'These are the cankers',
'this is the arising of the cankers',
'this is the stopping of the cankers',
'this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers'.

Knowing thus,
seeing thus,
his mind is freed from the canker of sense-pleasures
and his mind is freed from the canker of becoming
and his mind is freed from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom the knowledge comes to be:

'I am freed';
and he comprehends:

'Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no [14] more of being such or so.'

Thus too, monks, is effort fruitful,
striving fruitful.

The Tathāāgata speaks thus, monks;
ten reasoned theses of a Tathāāgata who speaks thus, monks,
give occasion for praise[26]:

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to what was previously done,
certainly, monks, the Tathāāgata
was formerly a doer of deeds that were well done
in that he now experiiences
such cankerless pleasant feelings;

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to creation by an overlord,
certainly, monks, the Tathāāgata
was created by an auspicious overlord
in that he now experiiences
such cankerless pleasant feelings;

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to necessary conditions,
certainly, monks, the Tathāāgata
is lovely of necessity
in that he now experiiences
such cankerless pleasant feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to the species (to which they belong),
certainly, monks, the Tathāāgata
is of a lovely species
in that he now experiiences
such cankerless pleasant feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to effort here and now,
certainly, monks, the Tathāāgata
is of lovely effort here and now
in that he now experiiences
such cankerless pleasant feelings.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to what was previously done,
the Tathāāgata
is praiseworthy;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
is not due to what was previously done,
the Tathāāgata is praiseworthy.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to creation by an overlord,
the Tathāāgata
is praiseworthy;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
is not due to creation by an overlord,
the Tathāāgata is praiseworthy.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to necessary condiitions,
the Tathāāgata
is praiseworthy;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
is not due to necessary condiitions,
the Tathāāgata is praiseworthy.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to the species (to which they belong),
the Tathāāgata
is praiseworthy;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
is not due to the species (to which they belong),
the Tathāāgata is praiseworthy.

If, monks, the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
are due to effort here and now,
the Tathāāgata
is praiseworthy;
and if the pleasure and pain
which creatures undergo
is not due to effort here and now,
the Tathāāgata is praiseworthy.

Monks, the Tathāāgata speaks thus;
monks, these ten reasoned theses
of the Tathāāgata who speaks thus
give occasion for praise."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Discourse at Devadaha:
The First

 


[1] Mentioned at S. iii. 5, iv, 124; Jā. i. 52; BudvA. 274. It was near the Lumbini Grove, and here the Lord was staying, MA. iv. 1.

[2] As at M. i. 93; see M.L.S. i. 122.

[3] As at M. ii, 256; cf. also M. i. 429.

[4] esanī, MA. iv. 2: with a probe that is a small stick, salāka (cf. Miln. 112, 149, perhaps a stick of caustic) or even with a shred of cloth, nantakavaṭṭī.

[5] agadaŋgāra. MA. iv, 2 says a powder, cuṇṇa, of myrobalans that was jhāma, hot, burning. Perhaps a hot compress.

[6] As at M. i. 506.

[7] This paragraph also occurs at M. i. 92-93 (M.L.S. i. 122).

[8] Cf. S. ii, 115, iv. 138; A. i. 189, ii, 191.

[9] sahadhammikaṁ vādaparihāraṁ; on p. 220 (text) vādapaṭihāraṁ, also at MA. iv.4.

[10] M. ii. 220 reads kamma, deed, throughout. MA. iv. 4 supplies vipākadāyaka, whose fruits are produced: in this very existence.

[11] I.e. in a future birth, such as the second or third from this one. For the following pairs of questions, see A. iv. 382.

[12] I.e. in this birth (attabhāva, individuality). MA. iv. 5 says: whatever is done in youth gives its fruit, vipāka, in youth, middle or old age; if done in middle age, the fruit is in middle or old age; if done in old age it gives its fruit then - this is called what is to be experienced here and now, diṭṭha-dhamma-vedanīya. But whatever givcs its fruit within seven days is called "to be experienced as thoroughly ripened," paripakkavedanīya (or, to be experienced complete). Cf. AA. iv. 175: laddha-vipākavāra.

[13] I.e. some of the effects or fruits overflowing into future births.

[14] vedanīya, explained at MA. iv. 9 as savipākakamma, a deed with a result or fruit. Cf. AA. iv. 175.

[15] See M. i. 368 (and M.L.S. ii, 33 for further references).

[16] Cf. A. i. 173.

[17] Cf. D. i. 53 for saŋgatibhāva, destiny or fate.

[18] abhijāti. MA. iv. 10 interprets as the six species or classes into which certain heretical teachers divided mankind. See M. i. 517, D. i. 53, A. iii. 383. But apparently used in a Buddhist sense above and at D. iii. 250, Netti. 158.

[19] anadhimucchito hoti, with loc. "undefiled" because he does not cling to the happiness.

[20] saṁkhāraṁ. padahato ti sampayogaṁ viriyaṁ karontassa, MA. iv. ll.

[21] MA. iv. II says the source of the anguish of the five khandhā is in thirst or craving, taṇhā.

[22] tatthā, "he strives with the striving of the Way," MA. iv. 12.

[23] tassa tassa. But I think the duplication is an error.

[24] dukkhāya pana me attānaṁ padahato.

[25] attha, aim, goal, purpose.

[26] At A. v. 120 a different ten are given.


Contact:
E-mail
Copyright Statement   Webmaster's Page