Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
1. Devadaha Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
1. The Devadaha Division

Sutta 110

Cūḷa Puṇṇama Suttaɱ

Lesser Discourse (at the Time) of a Full Moon

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner.
For free distribution only.
From Taming the Mind: Discourses of the Buddha (WH 51),
edited by the Buddhist Publication Society,
(Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).
Copyright ©1983 Buddhist Publication Society.
Used with permission.

 


 

[1][chlm][than][upal] Thus I have heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the palace of Migāra's mother in the Eastern Monastery.

Now at that time the Lord was sitting down in the open air
on the night of a full moon
on an Observance day,
the fifteenth,
surrounded by an Order of monks.

Then the Lord, having looked round the Order of monks
which, as he did so, became quite silent,
addressed the monks, saying:

"Now, monks, could a bad man[1]
know of a bad man:

'This worthy is a bad man'?"

"No, revered sir."

"It is good, monks.

This is impossible, monks,
it cannot come to pass
that a bad man
could know of a bad man:

'This worthy is a bad [71] man.'

But, monks, could a bad man
know of a good man:

'This worthy is a good man'?"

"No, revered sir."

"It is good, monks.

This too is impossible, monks,
it cannot come to pass
that a bad man could know of a good man:

'This worthy is a good man.'

A bad man, monks,
is possessed of bad states of mind,
he consorts with bad men,
he thinks as do bad men,
he advises as do bad men,
he speaks as do bad men,
he acts as do bad men,
he has the views of bad men,
he gives a gift as do bad men.

And how, monks, is a bad man
possessed of bad states of mind?

As to this, monks,
a bad man is lacking in faith,
he has no shame,
no fear of blame,
he has heard little,
he is lazy,
he is of muddled mindfulness,
he is weak in wisdom -
it is thus, monks, that a bad man
is possessed of bad states of mind.

And how, monks, does a bad man
consort with bad men?

As to this, monks,
those recluses and brahmans who are lacking in faith,
have no shame,
no fear of blame,
who have heard little,
who are lazy,
of muddled mindfulness,
weak in wisdom -
these are the friends and companions of that bad man.

It is thus, monks, that a bad man
consorts with bad men.

And how, monks, does a bad man
think as do bad men?

As to this, monks,
a bad man is set on self-torment,
he is set on the torment of others,
he is set on the torment of both -
it is thus, monks, that a bad man
thinks as do bad men.

And how, monks,
does a bad man
advise as do bad men?

As to this, monks,
a bad man advises the torment of self
and he advises the torment of others
and he advises the torment of both -
it is thus, monks, that a bad man
advises as do bad men.

And how, monks,
does a bad man
speak as do bad men?

As to this, monks, a bad man
is of lying speech,
slanderous speech,
harsh speech,
a gossip -
it is thus, monks, that a bad man
speaks as do bad men.

And how, monks, does a bad man
act as do bad men?

As to this, monks, a bad man
is one to make onslaught on creatures,
to take what has not been given,
to enjoy himself wrongly among the sense-pleasures -
it is thus, monks that a bad man
acts as do bad men.

And how, monks, does a bad man
have the views of bad men?

As to this, monks, a bad man
is of these views:

'There is no (result of) gift,
there is no (result of) offering,
there is no (result of) sacrifice;
there is no fruit or ripening of deeds
well done or ill done;
there is not this world,
there is not a world beyond;
there is no (benefit from [72] serving) mother,
no (benefit from serving) father;
there are no spontaneously arising beings;
there are not in the world
recluses and brahmans who are faring rightly,
proceeding rightly,
and who proclaim this world
and the world beyond,
having realised them by their own super-knowledge.'

It is thus, monks, that a bad man has the views of bad men.

And how, monks, does a bad man
give a gift as do bad men?

As to this, monks, a bad man
gives a gift disrespectfully,[2]
he gives a gift not with his own hand,
he gives a gift without due consideration,[3]
he gives a gift of what is not wanted,[4]
he gives a gift regardless of the future.[5]

It is thus, monks, that a bad man
gives a gift as do bad men.

Monks, that bad man,
thus possessed of bad states of mind,
who thus consorts with bad men,
thinks thus as do bad men,
advises thus as do bad men,
speaks thus as do bad men,
acts thus as do bad men,
who thus has the views of bad men,
who thus gives a gift as do bad men,
on the breaking up of the body after dying
arises in some bourn of bad men.

And what, monks, is a bourn of bad men?

It is Niraya hell
or animal birth.

 


 

Now, monks, could a good man
know of a good man:

'This worthy is a good man'?"

"Yes, revered sir."

"It is good, monks.

This situation occurs, monks,
that a good man could know of a good man:

'This worthy is a good man.'

But, monks, could a good man
know of a bad man:

'This worthy is a bad man'?"

"Yes, revered sir."

"It is good, monks.

This situation also occurs, monks,
that a good man could know of a bad man:

'This worthy is a bad man.'

A good man, monks,
is possessed of good states of mind,
he consorts with good men,
he thinks as do good men,
he advises as do good men,
he speaks as do good men,
he acts as do good men,
he has the views of good men,
he gives a gift as do good men.

And how, monks, is a [73] good man
possessed of good states of mind?

As to this, monks, a good man
has faith,
he has shame
and fear of blame,
he has heard much,
he is of stirred up energy,
he has mindfulness aroused,
he has wisdom -
it is thus, monks, that a good man
is possessed of good states of mind.

And how, monks, does a good man
consort with good men?

As to this, monks,
those recluses and brahmans who have faith,
shame,
fear of blame,
who have heard much,
are of stirred up energy,
whose mindfulness is aroused,
who have wisdom -
these are the friends and companions of that good man.

It is thus, monks, that a good man
consorts with good men.

And how, monks, does a good man
think as do good men?

As to this, monks, a good man
is neither set on self-torment,
nor on the torment of others
nor on the torment of both -
it is thus, monks, that a good man
thinks as do good men.

And how, monks, does a good man
advise as do good men?

As to this, monks, a good man
advises neither self-torment
nor the torment of others
nor the torment of both -
it is thus, monks, that a good man
advises as do good men.

And how, monks, does a good man
speak as do good men?

As to this, monks, a good man
refrains from lying speech,
from slanderous speech,
from harsh speech,
he refrains from gossiping -
it is thus, monks, that a good man
speaks as do good men.

And how, monks, does a good man
act as do good men?

As to this, monks, a good man
refrains from onslaught on creatures,
from taking what has not been given,
from enjoying himself wrongly among the sense-pleasures -
it is thus, monks, that a good man
acts as do good men.

And how, monks, does a good man
have the views of good men?

As to this, monks, a good man
is of these views:

'There is (result of) gift,
there is (result of) offering,
there is (result of) sacrifice;
there is fruit and ripening
of deeds well done or ill done;
there is this world,
there is a world beyond;
there is (benefit from serving) mother,
there is (benefit from serving) father;
there are spontaneously arising beings;
there are in the world
recluses and brahmans who are faring rightly,
proceeding rightly
and who proclaim this world
and the world beyond
having realised them by their own superknowledge.

It is thus, monks, that a good man
has the views of good men.

And how, monks, does a good man
give a gift as do good men?

As to this, monks, a good man
gives a gift respectfully,
he gives a [74] gift with his own hand,[6]
he gives a gift with due consideration,
he gives a gift that is pure,
he gives a gift with regard to the future.[7]

It is thus, monks, that a good man
gives a gift as do good men.

Monks, that good man,
thus possessed of good states of mind,
who thus consorts with good men,
thinks thus as do good men,
advises thus as do good men,
speaks thus as do good men,
acts thus as do good men,
who thus has the views of good men,
who thus gives a gift as do good men,
on the breaking up of the body after dying
arises in some bourn of good men.

And what, monks, is a bourn of good men?

It is deva-greatness[8]
or human greatness."[9]

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Lesser Discourse (at the time) of a Full Moon:
The Tenth
Devadaha Division:
The First

 


[1] asappurisa, called pāpapurisa at MA. iv. 79; not a "true" man, not following "our" dhamma and discipline. See A. ii. 179 where the brahman Vassakāra (mentioned in M. Sta. 108) put some of these same questions to the Lord.

[2] Cf. D. ii. 356, A. iii. 171 for these improper ways of giving a gift. Disrespectfully means both towards the gift and the recipient.

[3] I.e. either of the gift or the recipient; acittikatvā dānaṁ deti.

[4] apaviddha, not wanted, neglected, rejected (as useless). MA. iv. 81 says that wanting to throw it away, he gives it as though he were flinging a snake on to an ant-hill.

anāgamanadiṭṭhi. Without a view as to where it is going. Not to whom, for kamma returns to the doer, but what he expects to receive from the return. He should be thinking in terms of self awareness as to his motive, and his expectation should be in alignment with the benefits derived from the gift on the part of the recipient. "Let this food-gift to the order result in such strength and energy in me that I may attain the state of non-returning."

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[5] anāgamanadiṭṭhika, i.e. not thinking to whom will the fruit of the gift return (AA. iii. 291); or, hoping it will return to himself (MA. iv. 81).

[6] This clause is omitted in the text, probably in error.

[7] He gives having faith in the deed and its ripening, AA. iii. 291.

[8] mahattatā; MA. iv. 81 says that this means the devas of the six sensuous realms (for these cf. Vbh. 417).

[9] MA. iv. 81, success in (or, attainment of), sampaiti, the three skills, kusalāni, perhaps referring to skill in the three ways of body, speech and thought; or to skill due to the absence of attachment, hatred and confusion (?).


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