Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
2. Anupada Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
2. The Division of the Uninterrupted

Sutta 118

Ānāpāna-Sati Suttaɱ

Discourse on Mindfulness when Breathing In and Out

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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Scanned, digitized and proofread by Waiyin Chow.

 


 

[1][chlm][than][olds][ntbb][upal] Thus have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī in the Eastern Monastery in the palace of Migāra's mother, together with a number of well known elders and disciples: the venerable Sāriputta,[1] the venerable Moggallāna the Great, the Venerable Kassapa the Great, the Venerable Kaccāyana the Great, the venerable Koṭṭhita the Great, the venerable Kappina the Great,[2] the venerable Cunda the Great, the venerable [79] Anuruddha, the venerable Revata, the venerable Ānanda and with other well known elders and disciples.

At that time the monks who were elders exhorted and instructed newly ordained monks.

Some monks who were elders exhorted and instructed ten monks, and some monks who were elders exhorted and instructed twenty ... thirty ... forty monks.

And these newly ordained monks, while being exhorted [122] and instructed by the monks who were elders, were aware of excellent successive attainment.[3]

"Now at that time on an Observance day, the fifteenth, on the night of the full moon after the "Invitation"[4] the Lord was sitting down in the open air surrounded by an Order of monks.

Then the Lord, having looked round at the Order of monks which had become quite silent, addressed the monks, saying:

"I am satisfied,[5] monks, with this course, I am satisfied in mind, monks, with this course.

Wherefore do you, monks, stir up energy to a still greater degree for attaining the unattained, for winning what is not yet won, for realising the unrealised.

Now I will wait[6] here in Sāvatthī itself for Komudī (the festival in) the fourth month."[7]

Monks who lived in the country heard that the Lord had said that he would wait there in Sāvatthī itself for Komudī (the festival in) the fourth month.

And these monks who lived in the country resorted to Sāvatthī to see the Lord.[8]

And those monks who were elders were exhorting and instructing the newly ordained monks still more.

Some monks who were elders were exhorting and instructing ten newly ordained monks and some monks who were elders were exhorting and instructing twenty ... thirty ... forty newly ordained monks.

And these newly ordained monks, while being exhorted and instructed by the monks who were elders, [80] were aware of excellent successive attainment.

Now at that time on an Observance day, the fifteenth, on the night of the full moon at (the time of Komudī (a festival in) the fourth month, the Lord was sitting down in an open air surrounded by an Order of monks.

Then the Lord, having looked round at the Order of monks which had become quite silent, addressed the monks, saying:

"This assembly,[9] monks, is without idle words, this assembly, monks, has no idle words, it is established on the pure pith.

Monks, an Order of monks such as this company is a company worthy of veneration, of honour, of gifts, of salutation with joined palms, [123] (with the thought):

'It is an incomparable field of merit for the world.'

Monks, an Order of monks such as this company is a company to which if a little is given it becomes much, if much is given it becomes more.

Monks, an Order of monks such as this company is a company that is hard to see in the world.

Monks, in order to see an Order of monks such as is this company, it is fitting to go many a yojana with one's foodbag on one's shoulder.[10]

Such, monks, is this Order of monks; such, monks, is this company.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks who are perfected ones, their cankers destroyed, who have lived the life, done what was to be done, laid down the burden, attained their own goal, whose fetters of becoming are utterly destroyed, and who are freed by right profound knowledge.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks in whom the five fetters binding to the lower (shore) are utterly destroyed, who are of spontaneous uprising, attainers of nibbāna there, not liable to return from that world.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks in whom the three fetters are utterly destroyed, in whom attachment, aversion and confusion are reduced; they are once-returners who, having come back once to this world, will make an end of anguish.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks in whom the three fetters are utterly destroyed; they are stream-attainers, not liable to the downfall, but assured, bound for awakening.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks who live intent on the practise of the (mind-)development of the four applications of mindfulness.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks who live intent on the practice of the (mind-)development of the four right efforts ...

of the four bases of psychic power ...

of the five controlling faculties ...

of the five powers ...

of the seven links in awakening.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks who live intent on the practice of the (mind-)development of the ariyan eightfold Way.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks who live intent on the [124] practice of the (mind-)development that is friendliness[11] ...

... compassion

... sympathetic joy

... equanimity.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks who live intent on the practice of the (mind-)development that is on the foul[12] ...

intent on the practice of the (mind-)development that is perception of impermanence.

There are, monks, such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks who live intent on the practice of the (mind-)development that is mindfulness on in-breathing and out-breathing.

Mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing, monks, if developed and made much of, is of great fruit, of great advantage.

Mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing, monks, if developed and made much of, brings to fulfilment the four applications of mindfulness;

the four applications of mindfulness, if developed and made much of, bring to fulfilment the seven links in awakening;

the seven links in awakening, if developed and made much of, bring to fulfilment freedom through knowledge.[13]

And how, monks is mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing developed?

How is it made much of?

How is it of great fruit, of great advantage?

Herein, monks, a monk[14] who is forest-gone or gone to the root of a tree or gone to an empty place, sits down cross-legged, holding his back erect, arousing mindfulness in front of him.

Mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.

Whether he is breathing in a long (breath) he comprehends,

'I am breathing in a long (breath)';

or whether he is breathing out a long (breath) he comprehends,

'I am breathing out a long (breath)';

or whether he is breathing in a short (breath) he comprehends,

'I am breathing in a short (breath)';

or whether he is breathing out a short (breath) he comprehends,

'I am breathing out a short (breath).'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath in experiencing the whole body.'[15]

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath out experiencing the whole body.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath in tranquillising the activity of body.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath out tranquillising the activity of body.'

He trains [125] himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in ... breathe out experiencing rapture.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in ... breathe out experiencing joy.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in ... breathe out experiencing the activity of thought ...

tranquillising the activity of thought ...

experiencing thought ...

rejoicing in thought ...

concentrating thought ...

freeing thought.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in ... breathe out beholding impermanence ...

beholding detachment ...

beholding stopping ...

beholding casting away.'

Monks, mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing when developed thus, made much of thus, is of great fruit, of great advantage.

And how, monks, when mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing is developed, how when it is made much of, does it bring the four applications of mindfulness to fulfilment?

At the time, monks, when a monk breathing in ... breathing out a long (breath) ... a short (breath) comprehends,

'I am breathing in ... breathing out a long (breath) ... a short (breath)';

when he trains himself, thinking

'I will breathe in ... breathe out experiencing the whole (breath-)body ...

tranquillising the activity of (breath-)body,'

at that time, monks, the monk is faring along contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world.

I say, monks, that of bodies[16] this is one, that is to say breathing-in and breathing-out.[17]

Wherefore,[18] monks, at the time when a monk is faring along contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world, at that time, monks, the monk trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing rapture[19] ...

I will breathe out experiencing rapture ...

I will breathe in ... breathe out experiencing joy ...

I will breathe in ... breathe out experiencing the activity of thought ...

I will breathe in ... breathe out tranquillising the activity of thought';

at that time, monks, the monk is faring along contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent clearly conscious [126] (of them), mindful (of them) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world.

I say, monks, that of feelings this is one,[20] that is to say proper attention to breathing-in and breathing-out.

Wherefore, monks, at the time when a monk is faring along contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly conscious (of them), mindful (of them) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world, at that time, monks, the monk trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in ... breathe out experiencing thought ...

breathe in ... breathe out rejoicing in thought ...

breathe in ... breathe out concentrating thought ...

breathe in ... breathe out freeing thought';

at that time, monks, the monk is faring along contemplating the mind in the mind, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world.

I, monks, say that the (mind-)development that is mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing is not for one of muddled mindfulness, not for one not clearly conscious.

Wherefore, monks, when a monk is faring along contemplating the mind in the mind, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world, at that time, monks, the monk trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in ... breathe out beholding impermanence ...

beholding detachment ...

beholding stopping ...

beholding casting away';

at that time, monks, the monk is faring along contemplating mental states in mental states, ardent, clearly conscious (of them), mindful (of them) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world.

He, by getting rid of[21] that which is covetousness and dejection,[22] having seen it by means of wisdom,[23] is one who looks on with proper care.[24]

Wherefore, monks, at this time a monk is faring along contemplating the mental states in the mental states, ardent, clearly conscious (of them) mindful (of them) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world.

[127] Monks, mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing when developed thus, made much of thus, brings to fulfilment the four applications of mindfulness.

And how, monks, when the four applications of mindfulness have been developed, how when they have been made much of, do they bring to fulfilment the seven links in awakening?

At the time, monks, when a monk is faring along contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world, at that time unmuddled mindfulness is aroused in him.

At that time, monks, when unmuddled mindfulness is aroused in the monk, at that time the link in awakening that is mindfulness is stirred up in the monk; at that time the monk develops the link in awakening that is mindfulness; at that time the link in awakening that is mindfulness comes to fulfilment of development in the monk.

He, faring along mindful thus, examines, inquires into, brings this thing forward for investigation by means of wisdom.

At the time, monks, when a monk, faring along mindful thus, examines, inquires into, brings this thing forward for investigation by means of wisdom, at that time the link in awakening that is investigation into things is stirred up in the monk; at that time the monk develops the link in awakening that is investigation into things; at that time the link in awakening that is investigation into things comes to fulfilment of development in the monk.

While he is examining, inquiring into, bringing this thing forward for investigation by means of wisdom, unsluggish energy is stirred up in him.

At the time, monks, when unsluggish energy is stirred up in a monk who is examining, inquiring into, bringing this thing forward for investigation by means of wisdom, at that time the link in awakening that is energy is stirred up in the monk; at that time the monk develops the link in awakening that is energy; at that time the link awakening that is energy comes to fulfilment of development in that monk.

When he has stirred up energy unsullied rapture arises.

At the time, monks, when unsullied rapture arises in the monk of stirred up energy, at that time the link in awakening that is rapture is stirred up in the monk; at that time the monk develops the link in awakening that is rapture; at that time the link in awakening that is rapture comes to fulfilment of development in the monk.

The body of one whose mind is rapturous is tranquillised and thought is tranquillised.

At the time, monks, when both the body of a monk whose mind is rapturous is tranquillised and thought is tranquillised, at that time the link in awakening [128] that is tranquillity is stirred up in the monk; at that time the monk develops the link in awakening that is tranquillity; at the time the link in awakening that is tranquillity comes to fulfilment of development in the monk.

The thought of one whose body is tranquil and at ease is concentrated.

At the time, monks, when thought is concentrated in a monk whose body is tranquil and at ease, at the time the link in awakening that is concentration is stirred up in the monk; at that time the monk develops the link in awakening that is concentration; at that time the link in awakening that is concentration comes to fulfilment of development in the monk.

He is one who looks on with proper care at the thought concentrated thus.

At the time, monks, when a monk looks on with proper care at the thought concentrated thus, at that time the link in awakening that is equanimity is stirred up in the monk; at that time the monk develops the link in awakening that is equanimity; at that time the link in awakening that is equanimity comes to fulfilment of development in the monk.

At the time, monks, when a monk is faring along contemplating the feelings in the feelings ... the mind in the mind ... mental states in mental states, ardent, clearly conscious (of them), mindful (of them) so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world, at that time unmuddled mindfulness is aroused in him ... (as above) ... ... at that time the link in awakening that is equanimity comes to fulfilment of development in the monk.

Monks, the four applications of mindfulness, when developed thus, made much of thus, bring to fulfilment the seven links in awakening.

And how, monks, when the seven links in awakening are developed, how when they are made much of, do they bring to fulfilment freedom through knowledge?

Herein,[25] monks, a monk develops the link in awakening that is mindfulness and is dependent on aloofness, dependent on detachment, dependent on cessation, ending in abandoning;

he develops the link in awakening that is investigation into things ...

the link in awakening that is energy ...

the link in awakening that is rapture ...

the link in awakening that is tranquillity ...

the link in awakening that is concentration ...

the link in awakening that is equanimity and is dependent on aloofness,[26] dependent on detachment, dependent on cessation, ending in abandoning.[27]

Monks, when the seven links in awakening are developed thus, are made much of thus, they bring to fulfilment freedom through knowledge."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Discourse on Mindfulness when Breathing In and Out: The Eight.

 


[1] Cf. other lists of theras at Vin. i. 354 f., ii. 15 f., iv. 66, and see B.D. ii. 245 for references.

[2] Mentioned also at Vin. i. 105.

[3] During meditation on the "devices," MA. iv. 137. Cf. D. i. 233, A. iv. 47, S. v. 154.

[4] A monastic ceremony held at the end of the rains. See Vin. i. 160, ii. 32; B.D. i. 283, 292, ii. 153, n. 2.

[5] āraddha, explained by tuṭṭha at MA. iv. 137.

[6] MA. iv. 137 reads āgamessāmi; text āgamissāmi.

[7] Komudiṃ cātumāsiniṃ, cf. B.D. ii. 157, n. 3. MA. iv. 137 says it is called komudī because of the existence of white lotuses, and cātumāsinī because it is at the conclusion of the four months of the rains.

[8] After the full moon of Kattika.

[9] Cf. A. ii. 183.

[10] putosenāpi. MA. iv. 139 also gives another reading, putaŋsena. See G.S. ii. 192, n. 1.

[11] For this and the following cf. M. i. 424 f.

[12] The reference is probably to the cemetery meditations.

[13] vijjāvimutti, as at S. v. 28, 335. See also Pts. ii. 243, SA. iii. 275.

[14] For the following see M. Sta. 10; also M. i. 425, A. v. 111, and Ānāpānasaɱyutta (S. v. 311).

[15] I.e. the breath-body

[16] kāyesu. MA. iv. 140, among the four bodies of extension and so on, this is one (aññatara), I say it is the body of mobility (vāyokāya). Or, the body that is material shape consists of twenty-five classes of rūpa (mentioned at Dhs. 585); rūpāyatanam ... pe ... kabiḷiŋkaro āhāro. Of these, breathing is a body because it is included in the field of touch.

[17] assāsapassāsa here

[18] He either beholds that the body of mobility is one of the four bodies, or that breathing is one of the twenty-five classes of material shape.

[19] On the experience of rapture being two-fold see Vism. 287, and Pts. i. 187.

[20] It is a certain feeling of pleasantness among the three kinds of feeling, MA. iv. 140.

[21] By contemplating impermanence, he gets rid of the perception of permanence; getting rid is a form of knowledge, ñāṇa.

[22] The hindrance of sensual desire is covetousness; the hindrance of ill-will is shown by dejection.

[23] After the knowledge of getting rid of, there is insight into what constitutes impermanence, detachment, stopping and casting away.

[24] ajjhupekkhitar, perhaps meaning with mastery, so that he looks at the objects of thought or meditation, ārammaṇa, or at sense-impressions unmoved by them and indifferent to them, MA. iv. 142. Cf. S. v. 69, etc.

[25] Cf. M. iii. 275.

[26] MA. iv. 144 says that in this Discourse mindfulness on breathing, which is worldly, brings to fulfilment the applications of mindfulness which are worldly; these bring to fulfilment the seven links in awakening which are worldly; and these bring to fulfilment the supermundane nibbāna and fruit of freedom through knowledge.

[27] vossaggapariṇāmi, maturing (or, mature) (pariṇāmin) in relinquishing, letting go of, abandoning, ejecting (vossagga). This abandonment is two-fold: of the defilements and to the mind's leap into nibbāna, see SA. i. 159, Pts. i. 194.


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