Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
3. Suññata Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
3. The Division on Emptiness

Sutta 122

Mahā Suññata Suttaɱ

The Greater Discourse on Emptiness

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


[152]

[1][chlm][ntbb][than][olds][upal] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

At one time the Lord was staying among the Sakyans near Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha's park.[1]

[2] [ntbb] [olds] Then the Lord, having dressed early in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe
entered Kapilavatthu for almsfood.
When he had walked in Kapilavatthu for almsfood
and was returning from the alms gathering
after the meal,
he approached the dwelling-place of the Sakyan Kāḷakhe- [153] maka[2] for the day-sojourn.

Now at that time many lodgings[3] were prepared in the dwelling-place of Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan.

The Lord saw these many [110] lodgings prepared in the dwelling-place of Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan,
and when the Lord had seen them it occurred to him:

"Many lodgings are prepared in the dwelling-place of Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan.
Are many monks staying here?"

Now at that time the venerable Ānanda
together with many monks
was making up robe-material in the dwelling-place of Ghaṭāya the Sakyan.[4]

Then the Lord, emerging from solitary meditation towards evening,
approached the dwelling-place of Ghaṭāya the Sakyan;
having approached, he sat down on a seat that was ready.
While he was sitting down the Lord addressed the venerable Ānanda, saying:

"Many lodgings, Ānanda, are prepared in the dwelling-place of Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan.
Are many monks staying there?"

"Many lodgings, revered sir, are prepared in the dwelling-place of Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan;
many monks are staying there.
It is our time, revered sir, for making up robe-material."

[3] [ntbb] [olds] "Ānanda, a monk does not shine[5] who delights in his own group,[6]
is delighted by his own group,
is intent on delight in his own group,[7]
who delights in some other group,
is delighted by some other group,
is rejoiced by some other group.

Indeed, Ānanda, the situation does not exist when a monk,
delighting in his own group,
delighted by his own group,
intent on delight in his own group,
delighting in some other group,
delighted by some other group,
rejoicing in some other group,
can be one who acquires at will,
without trouble, without difficulty,
that which is the happiness of renunciation,[8]
the happiness of aloofness,[9] the happiness of calm,[10]
the happiness of self-awakening.[11]

But, Ānanda, the situation exists
[154] when it is expected of a monk who dwells alone,
remote from a group,
that he will be one who acquires at will,
without trouble, without difficulty,
that which is the happiness of renunciation,
the happiness of aloofness,
the happiness of calm,
the happiness of self-awakening.

[4] [ntbb] [olds] Indeed, Ānanda, the situation does not exist when a monk,
delighting in his own group,
delighted by his own group,
intent on delight in his own group,
delighting in some other group,
delighted by some other group,
rejoicing in some other group,
entering on the freedom of mind that is temporal and pleasing[12]
or on that which is not temporal and is unshakable,
[13] will abide in it.

But Ānanda, the situation exists
when it is expected of a monk who dwells alone,
remote from a group,
that, entering on the freedom of mind that is temporal and pleasing
[111] or on that which is not temporal and is unshakable,
he will abide in it.

[5] [ntbb] [olds] I, Ānanda, do not behold one material shape[14]
wherein is delight, wherein is content,
but that from its changing and becoming otherwise
there will not arise grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair.

But this abiding, Ānanda,
has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata,
that is to say,
by not attending to any signs,[15]
the entering on and abiding[16] in an inward (concept of) emptiness.[17]

And if, Ānanda, while the Tathagata is abiding in this abiding
there are monks, nuns,
men and women lay followers,
kings and kings' ministers,
leaders and disciples of other sects
who approach him,
then, Ānanda, the Tathagata
with his whole mind tending to aloofness,
leaning to aloofness,
inclining to aloofness,
remote,
delighting in renunciation,
bringing to an end all the things on which the cankers are founded,
speaks there[18] as one intent only on inspiring them.[19]

Wherefore, Ānanda, if a monk should desire:
'Entering on [155] an inward (concept of) emptiness,
may I dwell therein,'
that monk, Ānanda,
should steady, calm, make one-pointed and concentrate[20] his mind
precisely on what is inward.

And how, Ānanda, does a monk
steady, calm, make one-pointed and concentrate his mind
precisely on what is inward?

As to this, Ānanda, a monk,
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
entering on it abides in the first meditation,
which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness
and is rapturous and joyful.

And again, Ānanda, a monk,
by allaying initial thought and discursive thought,
his mind subjectively tranquillised and fixed on one point,
enters and abides in the second meditation,
which is devoid of initial thought and discursive thought,
is born of concentration
and is rapturous and joyful.

And again, Ānanda, a monk,
by the fading out of rature,
dwells with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and he experiences in his person
that joy of which the Ariyans say:
'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful.'
and he enters and abides in the third meditation.

And again, Ānanda, a monk,
by getting rid of joy,
by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of his former pleasures and sorrows,
enters and abides in the fourth meditation,
which has neither anguish nor joy,
and which is entirely purified by equanimity and mindfulness.

Even so, Ānanda, does a monk steady,
calm,
make one-pointed
and concentrate his mind
precisely on what is inward.

[9] [ntbb] [olds] [112] He attends to in inward (concept of) emptiness.

While he is attending to the inward (concept of) emptiness,
his mind is not satisfied with,
not pleased with,
not set on,
not freed in
the inward (concept of) emptiness.

This being so, Ānanda, the monk comprehends thus:
'While I was attending to an inward (concept of) emptiness
my mind was not satisfied with,
not pleased with,
not set on,
not freed in
the inward (concept of) emptiness.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

He attends to an external (concept of) emptiness.[21]

He attends to an inward and to an external (concept of) emptiness.[22]

He attends to imperturbability.[23]

While he is attending to imperturbability his [156] mind is not satisfied with,
not pleased with,
not set on,
not freed in
imperturbability.

This being so, Ānanda, the monk comprehends thus;
'While I was attending to imperturbability my mind was not satisfied with,
not pleased with,
not set on,
not freed in
imperturbability.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

[10] [ntbb] [olds] Ānanda, that monk should steady,
calm,
make one-pointed
and concentrate his mind
precisely on what is inward in that earlier[24] sign of concentration itself.

He attends to the inward (concept of) emptiness,
his mind is satisfied with,
pleased with,
set on
and freed in
the inward (concept of) emptiness.

This being so, Ānanda, the monk comprehends thus:
'While I was attending to an inward (concept of) emptiness
my mind was satisfied with,
pleased with,
set on
and freed in
the inward (concept of) emptiness.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

He attends to an external (concept of) emptiness.

He attends to imperturbability.

While he is attending to imperturbability
his mind is satisfied with,
pleased with,
set on
and freed in
imperturbability.

This being so, Ānanda, the monk comprehends thus:
'While I was attending to imperturbability my mind was satisfied with,
pleased with,
set on
and freed in
imperturbability.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

[11] [ntbb] [olds] If, Ānanda, while this monk is abiding in this abiding,[25]
he turns his mind to pacing up and down,
then he paces up and down, thinking:
'While I am pacing up and down thus,
no covetousness or dejection
— evil, unskilled states —
[113] will flow in.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.[26]

If, Ānanda, while this monk is abiding in this abiding,
he turns his mind to standing
then he stands, thinking:
'While I am standing thus,
no covetousness or dejection
— evil, unskilled states —
will flow in.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

If, Ānanda, while this monk is abiding in this abiding,
he turns his mind to sitting down,
then he sits down, thinking:
'While I am sitting down thus,
no covetousness or dejection
— evil, unskilled states —
will flow in.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

If, Ānanda, while this monk is abiding in this abiding,
he turns his mind to lying down,
then he lies down, thinking:
'While I am lying down thus,
no covetousness or dejection
— evil, unskilled states —
will flow in.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

[12] [ntbb] [olds] If, Ānanda, while this monk is abiding in this abiding,
he turns his mind to speaking, then he thinks:
'I will not talk that kind of talk which is low,
of the village,
of the ordinary folk,
unAriyan,
not connected with the goal,
which does not conduce to turning away from
nor to detachment
nor to stopping
nor to calm
nor to super-knowledge [157]
nor to self-awakening
nor to Nibbāna
— that is to say
talk of kings,
talk of thieves,
talk of great ministers,
talk of armies,
talk of fears,
talk of battles,
talk of food,
talk of drink,
talk of clothes,
talk of beds,
talk of garlands,
talk of scents,
talk of relations,
talk of vehicles,
talk of villages,
talk of market towns,
talk of towns,
talk of the country,
talk of women,
talk of valiant men,[27]
talk of streets,
talk of wells,
talk of those departed before,
talk of diversity,
speculation about the world,
speculation about the sea,
talk on becoming or not becoming such or so.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

But, Ānanda, in regard to that talk which is austere,[28]
a help to opening up the mind
and which conduces to complete turning away from,
to detachment,
stopping,
calm,
super-knowledge,
self-awakening
and Nibbāna,
— that is to say talk about wanting little,
talk about contentment,
talk about aloofness,
talk about ungregariousness,
talk about putting forth energy,
talk about moral habit,
talk about concentration,
talk about intuitive wisdom,
talk about freedom,
talk about the knowledge and vision of freedom,
he thinks:
'I will talk talk like this.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

[13] [ntbb] [olds] If, Ānanda, while this monk is abiding in this abiding
[114] he turns his mind to thought,[29] he thinks:
'I will not think those kinds of thought which are low,
of the village,
of the ordinary folk,
unAriyan,
not connected with the goal
and which do not conduce to turning away from
nor to detachment
nor to stopping
nor to calm
nor to super-knowledge
nor to self-awakening
nor to Nibbāna,
— that is to say thoughts of sense-pleasures,
thoughts of malevolence,
thoughts of harming.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

But, Ānanda, in regard to those thoughts which are Ariyan,
leading forward,
which lead forward the thinker (of them)
to the complete destruction of anguish,[30]
— that is to say thoughts of renunciation,
thoughts of non-malevolence,
thoughts of harmlessnes,
he thinks:
'I will think thoughts like these.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to them.

[14] [ntbb] [olds] [158] Ānanda, there are these five strands of sense-pleasures.[31]
What five?

Material shapes cognizable by the eye,
agreeable, pleasant, liked, enticing,
connected with sensual pleasure,
alluring.
Sounds cognizable by the ear,
agreeable, pleasant, liked, enticing,
connected with sensual pleasure,
alluring.
Smells cognizable by the nose,
agreeable, pleasant, liked, enticing,
connected with sensual pleasure,
alluring.
Tastes cognizable by the tongue,
agreeable, pleasant, liked, enticing,
connected with sensual pleasure,
alluring.
Touches cognizable by the body,
agreeable, pleasant, liked, enticing,
connected with sensual pleasure,
alluring.

These, Ānanda, are the five strands of sense-pleasures.

[15] [ntbb] [olds] Wherefore a monk should constantly reflect in his own mind:
'Does there arise in my mind
any dealing with this or that field
of the five strands of sense-pleasures?'

If, Ānanda, while the monk is reflecting he comprehends thus:
'There does arise in my mind
some dealing with this or that field
of the five strands of sense-pleasures'
— this being so, Ānanda, the monk comprehends thus:
'That which is my desire and attachment
to the five strands of sense-pleasures
has not been got rid of.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

But if, Ānanda, while the monk is reflecting he comprehends thus:
'No dealing arises in my mind
with this or that field
of the five strands of sense-pleasures'
— this being so, Ānanda, the monk comprehends thus:
'That which was my desire and attachment
to the five strands of sense-pleasures
has been got rid of by me.'[32]

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

[16] [ntbb] [olds] And, Ānanda, there are these five groups of grasping.
Wherefore they should be forsaken
by a monk who realizes (their) rise and fall,
with the thought:

'This is material shape,
this the arising of material shape,
this the setting of material shape;

'This is feeling,
this [115] the arising of feeling,
this the setting of feeling;

'This is perception
this the arising of perception,
this the setting of perception.

'These are the habitual tendencies
this the arising of the habitual tendencies,
this the setting of the habitual tendencies.

'This is consciousness,
this the arising of consciousness,
this the setting of consciousness.'

[17] [ntbb] [olds] While he is abiding realizing the rise and fall
of these five groups of grasping,
whatever among these five groups of grasping
was his bias towards "I am,"
that is got rid of.

This being so, Ānanda, the monk comprehends thus:
'Whatever among these five groups of grasping
was my bias towards "I am,"
that has been got rid of by me.'

So he is clearly conscious in regard to it.

[18] [ntbb] [olds] These states, Ānanda,
concerned solely with what is skilled,[33]
are Ariyan, supermundane,
beyond the range of the Malign One.

[19] [ntbb] [olds] [159]What do you think about this, Ānanda?
From his beholding what reason
does a disciple regard it as fit that,
even though he is being repulsed,[34]
he should follow after a teacher?"

"Things for us,[35] revered sir, are rooted in the Lord,
have the Lord for conduit,
the Lord for arbiter.
It were good indeed, revered sir,
if this speech of the Lord's were explained;
having heard it from the Lord,
the monks would remember it."

[20] [ntbb] [olds] "Ānanda, it is not fit that a disciple should follow after a teacher
if it is for the sake of an exposition of the Discourses
that are in prose
and in prose and verse.[36]

What is the reason for this?

It is that for a long time, Ānanda,
these things have been heard,
borne in mind,
repeated out loud,
pondered over in the mind,
well comprehended by (right) understanding.[37]

But, Ānanda, that talk which is austere,
a help to opening up the mind
and which conduces to complete turning away from,
to detachment,
stopping,
calm,
super-knowledge,
self-awakening
and Nibbāna,
— that is to say talk about wanting little,
talk about contentment,
talk about aloofness,
talk about ungregariousness,
talk about putting forth energy,
talk about moral habit,
talk about concentration,
talk about intuitive wisdom,
talk about freedom,
talk about the knowledge and vision of freedom
— it is fit, Ānanda, that a disciple,
even though being repulsed,
should follow after a teacher
for the sake of talk like this.

This being so,[38] Ānanda, there is affliction for teachers;
this being so, there is affliction for pupils;
this being so, there is affliction for Brahma-farers.

And how, Ānanda, is there affliction for teachers?

As to this, Ānanda, some teacher[39] chooses a secluded lodging in a forest,
at the [160] root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
a hill-cave,
a cemetery,
[116] a forest-haunt,
in the open air
or on a heap of straw.

While he is living remote like this
brahman householders crowd in on him
and townsfolk
as well as countryfolk.

When the brahman householders,
the townsfolk
and the countryfolk
crowd in on him
he becomes infatuated,[40]
he falls in love,
he becomes envious,
he reverts to abundance.

This, Ānanda, is called the afflicted teacher.

Because of the teacher's affliction
evil unskilled states that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
that are fearful,
and the results of which are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing
and dying in the future,[41]
strike at him.

In this way, Ānanda,
is there affliction for teachers.

[23] [ntbb] [olds] And how, Ānanda, is there affliction for pupils?

As to this, Ānanda, a teacher's pupil,
imitating[42] the teacher's aloofness,
chooses a secluded lodging in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
a hill-cave,
a cemetery,
a forest-haunt,
in the open air
or on a heap of straw.

While he is living remote like this
brahman householders,
the townsfolk
and the countryfolk
crowd in on him
he becomes infatuated,
he falls in love,
he becomes envious,
he reverts to abundance.

This, Ānanda, is called the afflicted pupil.

Because of the pupil's affliction
evil unskilled states that are connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
that are fearful,
and the results of which are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing
and dying in the future,
strike at him.

In this way, Ānanda, is there affliction for pupils.

[24] [ntbb] [olds] And how, Ānanda, is there affliction for Brahma-farers?

As to this, Ānanda, a Tathagata arises in the world,
perfected one,
fully Self-awakened one,
endowed with knowledge and right conduct,
well-farer,
knower of the world(s),
incomparable charioteer of men to be tamed,
teacher of devas and men,
an Awakened One,
a Lord.

He chooses a secluded lodging in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
a hill-cave,
a cemetery,
a forest-haunt,
in the open air
or on a heap of straw.

While he is living remote like this
brahman householders crowd in on him
and townsfolk
as well as country folk.
When the brahman householders,
the townsfolk
and the countryfolk
crowd in on him
he does not become infatuated,
he does not fall in love,
he does not become envious,
he does not revert to abundance.
[117] But a disciple of this Teacher,
applying himself to this Teacher's aloofness, cultivating[43] it,
chooses [161] a remote lodging in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
a hill-cave,
a cemetery,
a forest-haunt,
in the open air
or on a heap of straw.

While he is living remote like this
brahman householders crowd in on him
and townsfolk
as well as country folk.
When the brahman householders,
the townsfolk
and the countryfolk crowd in on him
he becomes infatuated,
falls in love,
becomes envious
and reverts to abundance.

This, Ānanda, is called the afflicted Brahma-farer.

Because of the Brahma-farer's affliction
evil unskilled states connected with the defilements,
with again-becoming,
that are fearful
and the results of which are anguish,
leading to birth,
ageing and dying in the future,
strike at him.

In this way, Ānanda,
is there affliction for Brahma-farers.

But, Ānanda, this affliction of Brahma-farers is more ill in result,
[44] more terrible in result
than either the affliction of teachers
or the affliction of pupils;
and moreover it conduces to the Downfall.[45]

[25] [ntbb] [olds] Wherefore, [118] Ānanda, conduct yourselves towards me with friendliness,
not with hostility;
and for a long time that will be for your welfare and happiness.

And how, Ānanda, do disciples conduct themselves towards a teacher with hostility,
not with friendliness?

As to this, Ānanda, the teacher,
compassionate,
teaches dhamma to disciples,
seeking their welfare,
out of compassion, saying:
'This is for your welfare,
this is for your happiness.'
But his disciples do not listen,
do not lend ear,
do not prepare their minds for profound knowledge but,
turning aside,
they move away from the teacher's instruction.

Even so, Ānanda, do a teacher's disciples conduct themselves towards him with hostility,
not with friendliness.

[26] [ntbb] [olds] And how, Ānanda, do disciples conduct themselves towards a teacher with friendliness,
not with hostility?

As to this, Ānanda, the teacher,
compassionate,
teaches dhamma to disciples,
seeking their welfare,
out of compassion, saying:
'This is for your welfare,
this is for your happiness.'
And his disciples listen,
lend ear,[46]
prepare their minds for profound knowledge and,
not turning aside,
they do not[47] move away from the teacher's instruction.

Even so, Ānanda, do a teacher's disciples conduct themselves towards him with friendliness,
not with hostility.

Wherefore, [118] Ānanda, conduct yourselves towards me with friendliness,
not with hostility;
[162] for a long time that will be for your welfare and happiness.

And I, Ānanda, will not proceed with you
as does a potter with an unbaked (vessel),
not fully dry.[48]

I will speak, Ānanda,
constantly reproving,[49]
constantly cleansing.[50]

That which is the pith will stand fast."[51]

Thus spoke the Lord. Delighted, the venerable Ānanda rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

 


 

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[1] See M.L.S. i. 119

[2] Khemaka was his name; his complexion was dark, kā'a, MA. iv. 155

[3] Of various kinds: beds, seats, mattresses, squatting mats, straw mats, strips of hide, grass, leaves, branches, all placed touching one another, for this is where groups of monks were staying. MA. iv. 155.

[4] Like the dwelling-place of Kāḷakhemaka, Ghaṭāya's was also built in Nigrodha's park (or, monastery), MA. iv. 157

[5] In the Buddha's teaching, MA. iv. 158

[6] saŋgaṇika is explained as a coming together of one's own company, while a group, gaṇa, is a coming together of various persons, MA. iv. 158. It is only the monk who delights in solitude who "shines."

[7] As at D. ii. 78

[8] Of the sense-pleasures, MA. iv. 158

[9] From the sense-pleasures.

[10] This conduces to allaying attachment, aversion and confusion

[11] This conduces to the goal of awakening to the way(s).

[12] sāmāyikā kantā cetovimutti. At the time the mind is concentrated there is freedom from the defilements. MA. iv. 158, quoting Pts. ii 40 says that this temporal (or temporary) deliverance consists in the attainments of the four jhānā and the four planes of immateriality. See M. i.196f., and M.L.S. i. 243.

[13] asāmāyikā akuppā cetovimutti. This is freedom from the defilements and has not to do with things of time. So it is freedom that is immovable, supermundane. It consists of the four Ariyan Ways and the four fruits of recluseship. MA. iv. 159, quoting Pts. ii. 40 which adds Nibbāna.

[14] rūpa, called sarīra, body, at MA. iv. 159

[15] nimitta, signs of the phenomenal world

[16] viharituɱ, with v.ll. viharataɱ, viharati

[17] As though alone, even though sitting in the midst of a company.

[18] In the midst of that company, MA. iv. 160

[19] aññadatthu uyyojaniyapaṭisaŋyuttaɱ yeva kathaɱ kattā hoti; also at A. iv 233. This is a passage of great difficulty, partly because of the two meanings of uyyojeti: (1) to incite, instigate, (2) to dismiss. MA. iv 160, reading uyyojanikapaṭisaŋyuttaɱ, says that, in saying, "Go away, you," the expression is thus connected with words of dismissal, uyyojanikena vacanena. And it proceeds: When the Lord had arisen after lying down after a meal ... he attained the attainment of the fruit(s). At that time the company assembled to hear dhamma. The Lord ... taught dhamma, and without letting pass the right time (to hear it), he vivekaninnena cittena parisaɱ uyyojeti. This could mean either: with his mind tending to aloofness he dismissed the company; or: with his mind tending to aloofness he inspired the company. E.M. Hare at G.S. iv 158 renders the phrase as: "entirely confines his talk to the subject of going apart." It is possible that uyyojeti should be understood in both its meanings: that the Lord incited the company to seek aloofness for themselves and also dismissed them in order that they might do so. If we were to take uyyojeti only as "to dismiss," this would imply a certain selfishness on the Lord's part, and the AA. (iv 122) is apparently against this: teasɱ upaṭṭhānagamanakaɱ yevā ti attho, the meaning is going to their service (i.e. helping them).

[20] Cf. M. i. 116, A. ii. 94

[21] To the five khandhā of another (person), MA. iv 161.

[22] Sometimes to the one and sometimes to the other, MA iv 161. Cf. the internal and external contemplation of the body at M.i 56 (M.L.S. i. 72 and see there n. 4)

[23] ānañja. Cf. M. ii 229, Vin. iii 4. "Thinking, I will become freed both ways," he attends to the attainment of immateriality and imperturbability, āñaja-arūpasamāpatti, MA iv 161, VinA. 157 glosses by acala, unshaking, steady.

[24] The text reads parimasmiɱ. P.E.D. and Geiger, Pali Lit. u. Sprache Ī19, say that parima is equivalent to parama. But MA. iv 161 reads purimasmiɱ, and I follow this. I think the meaning is that the monk should make another attempt to enter and abide in the inward concept of emptiness.

[25] An abiding in calm and insight, MA. iv 162

[26] That is, to this kammaṭṭhāna, or exercise in meditation, MA. iv. 162

[27] Here reading sūrakathā. See notes on these kinds of talk at B.D. iii. 82

[28] As at Ud. 36, A. iii 117, iv. 352, v. 67; quoted at MA. i. 97

[29] vitakka.

[30] niyyanti (niyyāti) takkarassa sammādukkhakkhayāya is stock, e.g. at MA. i. 68, 81, 322. It is suggested that in the above passage kara, normally "doing" (i.e., in takkarassa, of one doing thus), would be better rendered as "thinker."

[31] As at M. i. 85, etc.

[32] me is not in the text at the corresponding passage above.

[33] kusalāyatakā; MA. iv 163 says kusalato āgatā, derived from what is skilled; but the sense of the exegesis and of the v.ll. seems to be 'leading on (step by step) to what is skilled."

[34] The reading above, and again below, is payujjamāno, passive present participle of payuñjati, to harness, yoke, employ. I have taken it however as panujjamāno as at M. i. 108.

[35] Cf. M. i. 310

[36] Of the nine divisions into which the Teaching was classified only the first two are mentioned here, sutta and geyya. The word veyyākaraṇa, "exposition," which also occurs in the above passage, is not being used there with the special sense of the third division of the Teaching, "the Expositions," but in a general and untechnical sense.

[37] As at M. i. 213

[38] evaɱ sante. While some disciples are living alone, the matter (connected with the ten topics of talk) does not prosper; therefore, to show the peril, ādīnava, besetting solitude, he said evaɱ sante, which means: being in solitude thus, evaɱ ekībhāve sante, MA. iv 164-165

[39] MA iv 165, an outside teacher who is a ford-maker, i.e., the leader of an "heretical" sect.

[40] Text reads mucchati kāmayati; but Siam. Version and MA. iv 165 read mucchaɱ nikāmayati. The latter explains: mucchanataṇhaɱ pattheti pavatteti, which seems to mean: he longs for and sets going the craving for infatuation, i.e. for falling in love, a meaning which kāmeti (kāmayati) bears at e.g. M. ii 40.

[41] Cf. M. i. 280

[42] anubrūhayamāno.

[43] vivekam anuyutto brūhayamāno. Cf. M. Sta. 6, "the cultivator of empty places."

[44] Those who have gone forth in this Dispensation, sāsana, should be able to attain the four ways, the four fruits and Nibbāna but, failing of the instructions, sāsana, they fail of these nine strands of the supermundane.

[45] Cf. S. ii 128

[46] The na of the text should be omitted as it is in some MSS.

[47] The ca should read na ca as in one MS. version.

[48] āmake āmakamatte. MA. iv 166 says āmake is apakkhe, and āmakamatte ti āmake nātisukkhe bhājane, "an unbaked vessel, not quite dry." "The potter gently takes these vessels in both hands, saying: 'Do not break'; but I will not proceed with you as the potter proceeds." I do not see the full force of this simile; therefore my translation must remain very tentative. But I believe it means that whereas the potter gives, and can give, his vessels one chance only, the Teacher is undefeated by any initial failure there may be, and proceeds undeterred with the expectation of final success on the part of his pupil.

[49] niggayha niggayha MA iv 166 says, "having exhorted once, I will not be silent; constantly reproving (niggahetvā niggahetvā) again and again I will exhort, I will instruct." Cf. niggayhavādin at Dhp. 76; and see DhA. ii 108 which quotes the above passage.

[50] pavayha pavayha as at M. i. 442, 443. From pavāhati, to cause to be carried away, to remove (stains), hence to cleanse: of faults or taints, dosa, as at MA. iv 166 which also says: as a potter, having removed, pavāhetvā (v.l. pajahitvā) the cracked and broken vessels (reading with Siam. Edn. bhinnachinnabhājanāni) from among those that have been baked, takes the well baked ones, tapping (i.e. testing) them again and again. So too I, having repeatedly removed (stains from you), will again and again exhort and instruct (you).

[51] yo sāro so ṭhassati: "While you are being exhorted thus by me that which is the pith of the ways and the fruits will persist," MA. iv 167. Sāra is the heartwood, pith, core. It is no doubt meant that this will persist and endure (like well baked vessels) when all the mistakes and errors that dog a learner's path have been cleared away and removed (like the cracked and broken vessels from among those that have been well baked).


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