Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
4. Vibhaŋga Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
4. The Division on Analysis

Sutta 140

Dhātu-Vibhaŋga Suttaɱ

Discourse On The Analysis Of The Elements

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
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[1][chlm][than][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord, walking on tour among the people of Magadha, arrived at Rājagaha and approached the potter, Bhaggava;[1]
having approached, he spoke thus to Bhaggava the potter:

"If it is not inconvenient to you, Bhaggava,
I would spend one night in your dwelling."

"It is not convenient to me, revered sir.
For there is here one gone forth
who came before you to stay.
But if he allow it, do stay, revered sir,
according to your pleasure."

[238] At that time there was a young man of family called Pukkusāti[2]
who had gone forth from home into homelessness
through faith in the Lord.
He it was that had arrived first at that potter's dwelling.
Then the Lord approached the venerable Pukkusāti
having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Pukkusāti:

"If it is not inconvenient to you, monk,
I will spend a night in the dwelling."

"Spacious,[3] friend,[4] is the potter's dwelling;
let the venerable one stay according to his pleasure."

Then the Lord, having entered the potter's dwelling
and laid down a spreading of grass to one side,
sat down cross-legged,
keeping his back erect
and arousing mindfulness in front of him.

And the Lord passed much of that night sitting down.

And the venerable Pukkusāti too
spent much of that night sitting down.

Then it occurred to the Lord:

"This young man of respectable family
certainly comports himself pleasantly.
Suppose I were to question him?"

And the Lord spoke thus to the venerable Pukkusāti:

"On account of whom have you, monk, gone forth?
Who is your teacher?
Whose dhamma do you profess?"

"There is, friend, the recluse Gotama,
son of the Sakyans,
gone [286] forth from the Sakyan clan;
concerning this Lord Gotama a lovely reputation has gone abroad thus:
He is indeed Lord, perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One,
endowed with (right) conduct and knowledge,
well-farer,
knower of the world(s),
matchless charioteer of men to be tamed,
teacher of devas and mankind,
the Awakened One,
the Lord.

On account of this Lord have I gone forth,
and this Lord is my teacher;
I profess this Lord's dhamma."

"But where, monk, is this Lord,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One,
staying now?"

"There is a town called Sāvatthī, friend,
in the northern districts;
this Lord, perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One
is now staying there."

"Have you, monk, ever seen this Lord?
If you saw him would you know him?"

[239] "No, friend, I have never seen this Lord,
so I would not know him if I saw him."

Then it occurred to the Lord:

"This young man of respectable family
has gone forth on account of me.
Suppose I were to teach him dhamma?"

And the Lord addressed the venerable Pukkusāti, saying:

I will teach you dhamma, monk;
listen carefully, pay attention and I will speak."

"Yes, friend,"
the venerable Pukkusāti answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

"Monk, this man has six elements,
six fields of (sense-)impingement,
eighteen mental ranges,[5]
four resolves.[6]

Where there is stability,
conceit and boasting do not continue in existence,
and when they do not continue in existence
the sage is said to be at peace.

He[7] should not be slothful in wisdom,
he should guard the truth,
cultivate relinquishment,[8]
and train himself for peace itself.[9]

This is the exposition of the analysis of the six elements:

[287] Monk, when it is said:
'This man has six elements,'
in reference to what is it said?

To the element of extension,
the liquid element,
the element of radiation,
of motion,
of ākāsa,
of consciousness.

Monk, when it is said,
'This man has six elements,'
it is said in reference to this.

Monk, when it is said:
'This man has six fields of (sense-)impingement,'
in reference to what is it said?

To the field of visual impingement,
of auditory impingement,
of olfactory impingement,
of gustatory impingement,
of tactile impingement,
of mental impingement.

Monk, when it is said:
'This man has six fields of (sense-)impingement,'
it is said in reference to this.

Monk, when it is said:
'This man has eighteen mental ranges,'
in reference to what is it said?

Having seen a material shape with the eye,
one ranges over the material shape that gives rise to joy,
ranges over the material shape that gives rise to sorrow,
ranges over the material shape that gives rise to equanimity.

[240] Having heard a sound with the ear,
one ranges over the sound that gives rise to joy,
ranges over the sound that gives rise to sorrow,
ranges over the sound that gives rise to equanimity.

Having smelt a smell with the nose,
one ranges over the smell that gives rise to joy,
ranges over the smell that gives rise to sorrow,
ranges over the smell that gives rise to equanimity.

Having savoured a taste with the tongue,
one ranges over the taste that gives rise to joy,
ranges over the taste that gives rise to sorrow,
ranges over the taste that gives rise to equanimity.

Having felt a touch with the body,
one ranges over the touch that gives rise to joy,
ranges over the touch that gives rise to sorrow,
ranges over the touch that gives rise to equanimity.

Having cognised a mental state with the mind,
one ranges over the mental state that gives rise to joy,
ranges over the mental state that gives rise to sorrow,
ranges over the mental state that gives rise to equanimity.

Thus there are six ranges for joy,
six for sorrow,
six for equanimity.

Monk, when it is said:
'This man has eighteen mental ranges,'
it is said in reference to this.

Monk, when it is said:
'This man has four resolves,'
in reference to what is it said?

To the resolve for wisdom,
the resolve for truth,
the resolve for relinquishment,
the resolve for calm.

Monk, when it is said
'This man has four resolves,'
it is said in reference to this.

Monk, when it is said:
'He should not be slothful in wisdom,
he should guard the truth,
cultivate relinquishment
and train himself for peace itself,'
in reference to what is it said?

And how, monk, is one not slothful in wisdom?

There are these six elements:
the element of extension,
the liquid element,
the element of radiation,
of motion,
of ākāsa,
of consciousness.

And what, monk, is the element of extension?[10]

The element of extension may be internal, it may be external.

And what, monk, is the internal element of extension?

Whatever is hard, solid, is internal,
referable to an individual and derived therefrom,
that is to say:
the hair of the head,
the hair of the body,
nails,
teeth,
skin,
flesh,
sinews,
bones,
marrow of the bones,
kidneys,
heart,
liver,
pleura,
spleen,
lungs,
intestines,
mesentery,
stomach,
excrement,
or whatever other thing is hard, solid, is internal,
referable to an individual
or derived therefrom
— this, monk, is called the internal element of extension.

Whatever is the internal element of [288] extension
and whatever is the external element of extension,
just these are the element of extension.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
this should be seen as it really is, thus:
This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.

Having seen this thus as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the element of extension,
he cleanses his mind of the element of extension.

And what, monk, is the liquid element?

The liquid element may be internal,
[241] it may be external.

And what, monk, is the internal liquid element?

Whatever is liquid, fluid, is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
that is to say:
bile,
phlegm,
pus,
blood,
sweat,
fat,
tears,
serum,
saliva,
mucus,
synovial fluid,
urine
or whatever other thing is liquid, fluid, is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
this, monk, is called the internal liquid element.

Whatever is an internal liquid element
and whatever is the external liquid element,
just these are the liquid element.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
this should be seen as it really is, thus:
This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.

Having seen this thus as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the liquid element,
he cleanses his mind of the liquid element.

And what, monk, is the element of radiation?

The element of radiation may be internal, it may be external.

And what, monk, is the internal element of radiation?

Whatever is heat, warmth, is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
such as that by which one is vitalised
and that by which one is consumed,
and that by which one is burnt up,
and that which one has munched, drunk, eaten and tasted
which is properly transformed (in digestion),
or whatever other thing is heat, warmth, is intemal,
referable to an individual
or derived therefrom,
this, monk, is called the internal element of radiation.

Whatever is an internal element of radiation
and whatever is the external element of radiation,
just these are the element of radiation.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
this should be seen as it really is, thus:
This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.

Having seen this thus as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the element of radiation,
he cleanses his mind of the element of radiation.

And what, monk, is the element of motion?

The element of motion may be internal, it may be external.

And what, monk, is the internal element of motion?

Whatever is motion, wind, is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
such as winds going upwards,
winds going downwards,
winds in the abdomen,
winds in the belly,
winds that shoot across the several limbs,
in-breathing,
out-breathing,
or whatever other thing is motion, wind, is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
this, monk, is called the internal element of motion.

Whatever is an internal element of motion
and whatever is the external element of motion,
just these are the element of motion.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
this should be seen as it really is, thus:
This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.

Having seen this thus as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the element of motion,
he cleanses his mind of the element of motion.

[289] And what, monk, is the element of space?

The element of space may be internal, it may be external.

And what, monk, is the internal [242] element of space?

Whatever is space, spacious, is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
such as the auditory and nasal orifices,
the door of the mouth
and that by which one swallows
what is munched, drunk, eaten and tasted,
and where this remains,
and where it passes out (of the body) lower down,
or whatever other thing is space, spacious, is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
this, monk, is called the internal element of space.

Whatever is an internal element of space
and whatever is the external element of space,
just these are the element of space.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
this should be seen as it really is, thus:
This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.

Having seen this thus as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the element of space,
he cleanses his mind of the element of space.

And when the consciousness that remains is quite pure, quite clean,
he knows something by means of that consciousness:
he discriminates pleasure
and he discriminates pain
and he discriminates what is neither painful nor pleasant.

If, monk, because of impingement
there arises an experience of pleasure
it it is a pleasant feeling.

He, experiencing that pleasant feeling,
comprehends that he is experiencing a pleasant feeling.

On the cessation of the impingement
whence comes that experience of pleasure he comprehends:
'The pleasant feeling arisen on account of an impingement
experienced as a complemental[11] pleasant experience
is stopped, is allayed.'

If, monk, because of impingement
there arises an experience of pain
it it is a painful feeling.

He, experiencing that painful feeling,
comprehends that he is experiencing a painful feeling.

On the cessation of the impingement
whence comes that experience of pain he comprehends:
'The painful feeling arisen on account of an impingement
experienced as a complemental painful experience
is stopped, is allayed.'

If, monk, because of impingement
there arises an experience of what is neither painful nor pleasant
it is a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant.

He, experiencing that feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant,
comprehends that he is experiencing a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant.

On the cessation of the impingement
whence comes that experience of what is neither painful nor pleasant he comprehends:
'The feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant
arisen on account of an impingement
experienced as a complemental experience that is neither painful nor pleasant
is stopped, is allayed.'

Monk, it is like the heat obtained,
the light produced
from the contact and friction of two sticks;
when the two sticks are separated
their complemental heat is stopped, is allayed.

Even so, monk, [290] [243] does a pleasant feeling arise
on account of the impingement of an experience of pleasure.

He, experiencing that pleasant feeling,
comprehends that he is experiencing a pleasant feeling.

On the cessation of the impingement
whence comes that experience of pleasure he comprehends:
'The pleasant feeling arisen on account of an impingement
experienced as a complemental pleasant experience
is stopped, is allayed.'

Even so, monk, does a painful feeling arise
on account of the impingement of an experience of pleasure.

He, experiencing that painful feeling,
comprehends that he is experiencing a painful feeling.

On the cessation of the impingement
whence comes that experience of pain he comprehends:
'The painful feeling
arisen on account of an impingement
experienced as a complemental painful experience
is stopped, is allayed.'

Even so, monk, does a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant arise
on account of the impingement of an experience of what is neither painful nor pleasant.

He, experiencing that feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant,
comprehends that he is experiencing a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant.

On the cessation of the impingement
whence comes that experience of neither painful nor pleasant feeling he comprehends:
'The feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant
arisen on account of an impingement
experienced as a complemental experience
that is neither painful nor pleasant is stopped,
it is allayed.'

And further, the equanimity that remains
is quite pure, quite cleansed,
soft and pliable and resplendent.

Monk, it is like a skilled goldsmith or a goldsmith's apprentice preparing a furnace;
when he has prepared the furnace
he lights the smelting-pot;
when he has lit the smelting-pot
he takes up the gold with tongs
and places it in the smelting-pot;
and then from time to time he blows on it,
from time to time he sprinkles water over it,
and from time to time he looks at it carefully
— that gold becomes clear, pure, cleansed,
(the impurities) removed,
free from dross,
soft and pliable and resplendent
so that whatever kind of ornament one requires,
a ring or earring or necklace or golden garland,
it is suitable for that purpose.

Even so, monk, the equanimity that then remains
is quite pure, quite cleansed,
soft and pliable and resplendent.

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of infinite ether
and should develop my thought in accordance with that,
then would this equanimity,
supported by this,
nourished by this,
stand firm in me for a very long time.

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of infinite consciousness
[244] and should develop my thought in accordance with that,
then would this equanimity,
supported by this,
nourished by this,
stand firm in me for a very long time.

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of no-thing
and should develop my thought in accordance with that,
then would this equanimity,
supported by this,
nourished by this,
stand firm in me for a very long time.

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
and should develop my thought in accordance with that,
then would this equanimity,
supported by this,
nourished by this,
stand firm in me
for a very long time.

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of infinite ether
and should develop my thought in accordance with that,
this[12] is constructcd.'[13]

He therefore [291] neither constructs nor thinks out[14] for becoming or for de-becoming.[15]

Not constructing, not thinking out for becoming or for de-becoming,
he grasps after nothing in the world;
not grasping, he is not troubled,
being untroubled he himself is individually attained to Nibbāna,
and he comprehends:
'Destroyed is birth, brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or so.'

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of infinite consciousness
and should develop my thought in accordance with that,
this is constructcd.'

He therefore neither constructs nor thinks out for becoming or for de-becoming.

Not constructing, not thinking out for becoming or for de-becoming,
he grasps after nothing in the world;
not grasping, he is not troubled,
being untroubled he himself is individually attained to Nibbāna,
and he comprehends:
'Destroyed is birth, brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or so.'

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of no-thing.

He comprehends thus:
'If I should focus this equanimity,
purified thus, cleansed thus,
on the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
and should develop my thought in accordance with that,
this is constructcd.'

He therefore neither constructs nor thinks out for becoming or for de-becoming.

Not constructing, not thinking out for becoming or for de-becoming,
he grasps after nothing in the world;
not grasping, he is not troubled,
being untroubled he himself is individually attained to Nibbāna,
and he comprehends:
'Destroyed is birth, brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or so.'

If he experience a pleasant feeling
he comprehends that it is impermanent
he comprehends that it is not to be cleaved to
he comprehends that it is not an object of enjoyment.

If he experience a painful feeling
he comprehends that it is impermanent
he comprehends that it is not to be cleaved to
he comprehends that it is not an object of enjoyment.

If he experience a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant,
he comprehends that it is impermanent
he comprehends that it is not to be cleaved to
he comprehends that it is not an object of enjoyment.

If he experience a pleasant feeling,
then detached from it he experiences it.

If he experience painful feeling
then detached from it he experiences it.

If he experience a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant,
then detached from it he experiences it.

Experiencing a feeling that is limited by the body,[16]
he comprehends that he is experiencing a feeling that is limited by the body.

[245] Experiencing a feeling that is limited by the life-principle
he comprehends that he is experiencing a feeling that is limited by the life-principle.

He comprehends that on the breaking up of the body
after the life-principle has come to an end
all enjoyable experiences here will become cool.[17]

[292]Monk, as an oil-lamp burns
on account of the oil and on account of the wick
but goes out[18] from lack of fuel
if the oil and the wick come to an end
and no others are brought,
even so, monk,
experiencing a feeling that is limited by the body
he comprehends that he is experiencing a feeling that is limited by the body;
experiencing a feeling that is limited by the life-principle
he comprehends that he is experiencing a feeling that is limited by the life-principle.

He comprehends that
on the breaking up of the body
after the body has come to an end
all enjoyable experiences here will become cool.

He comprehends that
on the breaking up of the body
after the life-principle has come to an end
all enjoyable experiences here will become cool.

Therefore a monk, endowed thus,
is endowed with this highest resolve for wisdom.

For this, monk, is the highest ariyan wisdom,
that is to say the knowledge of the complete destruction of anguish.

That freedom of his,
founded on truth,
is unshakable.

For that which is liable to falsity, monk, is falsehood;
that truth which is not liable to falsity is Nibbāna.

Therefore, endowed thus a monk is endowed with this highest resolve for truth.

For this, monk, is the highest Ariyan truth,
that is to say Nibbāna
that is not liable to falsity.

Verily, his former[19] foolish clingings[20] are ended and done with.

These are got rid of by him,
cut off at the root,
made like a palm-tree stump
that can come to no future growth.

Therefore, endowed thus,
a monk is endowed with this highest resolve for relinquishment.

For this, monk, is the highest Ariyan relinquishment,
that is to say the casting away of all clingings.

His former foolish covetousness was passionate desire.

This is got rid of by him,
cut off at the root,
made like a palm-tree stump that can come to no future growth.

His former foolish hostility was malevolence and corruption.

This is got rid of by him,
cut off at the root,
made like a palm-tree stump
that can come to no future growth.

His former foolish ignorance was confusion and corruption.

This is got rid of by him,
cut off at the root,
[246] made like a palm-tree stump
that can come to no future growth.

Therefore, endowed thus,
a monk is endowed with this highest resolve for calm.

For this, monk, is the highest Ariyan calm,
that is to say
the calm in regard to attachment, hatred and confusion.

When it is said, 'One [293] should not be slothful is wisdom,
he should guard the truth,
cultivate relinquishment
and train himself for peace itself,'
it is said in reference to this.

Monk, when it is said,
'Where there is stability,
conceit and boasting do not continue in existence,
and when they do not continue in existence
the sage is said to be at peace,'
in reference to what is it said?

'I am,' monk, this is a supposition.

'This am I' monk, this is a supposition.

'I will be' monk, this is a supposition.

'I will not be' monk, this is a supposition.

'I will be possessed of form' monk, this is a supposition.

'I will be incorporeal' monk, this is a supposition.

'I will be possessed of perception' monk, this is a supposition.

'I will be possessed of neither perception nor non-perception,' this is a supposition.

A supposition, monk, is an ill,
a supposition is an imposthume,
a supposition is a barb.

Monk, when he has gone beyond all suppositions
the sage is said to be at peace.

But, monk, a sage who is at peace
is not born,
does not age,
is not agitated,
does not envy.

As there is nothing by which he can be born,
how, monk, not being born
could he age?

Not ageing, how could he die?

Not dying, how could he be agitated?

Not being agitated, how could he envy?

When it is said:
'Where there is stability,
conceit and boasting do not continue in existence,
and when they do not continue in existence
the sage is said to be at peace,'
it is said in reference to this.

Do you, monk, remember my analysis in brief[21] of the six elements."

Then the venerable Pukkusāti thought:
"Indeed it is the Teacher that has come to me;
indeed it is the Well-farer that has come to me;
indeed it is the Fully Self-Awakened One that has come to me,"
and rising from his seat,
arranging his robe over one shoulder
and bowing his head to the Lord's feet,
he spoke thus to the Lord:

"A transgression, revered sir, has overcome me[22] in that
foolish, errant and [247] unskilled as I was,
I supposed the Lord could be addressed with the epithet 'friend.'

Revered sir, may the Lord acknowledge my transgression as a transgression
for the sake of restraint in the future."

"Indeed, monk, a transgression overcame you
in that foolish, errant and unskilled as you were,
you supposed I could be addressed with the epithet 'friend.'

But if you, monk, seeing this transgression as a transgression,
confess it according to the rule,
we acknowledge it for you.
For this is growth, monk, in the discipline for an Ariyan,
that whoever, seeing a transgression as a transgression,
confesses it according to ru1e,
he comes to restraint in the future."

"Revered sir, may I receive ordination in the Lord's presence?"

"But are you, monk, complete as to bowl and robe?"

"Revered sir, I am not complete as to bowl and robe."

"Monk, Tathāgatas do not ordain anyone not complete as to bowl and robe."

Then the venerable Pukkusāti,
having rejoiced in what the Lord had said,
having given thanks for it,
rising from his seat
greeted the Lord and,
keeping his right side towards him,
departed in order to search for a bowl and robe.

But while he was touring about in search of a bowl and robe,
a cow swerved[23] and deprived him of life.

Then a number of monks approached the Lord;
having approached, having greeted the Lord,
they sat down at a respectful distance.
As they were sitting down at a respectful distance,
these monks spoke thus to the Lord:

'That young man of family, Pukkusāti, revered sir,
whom the Lord exhorted with an exhortation in brief, has died.[24]
What is his bourn,
what his future state?"

"Clever,[25] monk, was Pukkusāti,
the young man of family;
he followed after dhamma
according to the various parts of dhamma,
and he did not annoy me with questionings about dhamma.

Monks, Pukkusāti, the young man of family,
by the complete destruction of the five fetters binding to this lower (shore),
is of spontaneous uprising,
one who attains Nibbāna there,
not liable to return from that world."

Discourse on the Analysis of the Elements :
The Tenth

 


[1] Here Bhaggava seems to be the potter's personal name. See M.L.S. ii. 248 (= M. ii. 52).

[2] MA. v. 33 ff. gives a long history of this monk; see D.P.P.N.

[3] ūrunda, which perhaps should be uruddha, giving space for (breathing). MA. v. 47 explains by vivitta, isolated, secluded, and asambādha, not crowded.

[4] āvuso.

[5] As at M. iii. 216. The first three of these headings are also stated and analysed at A. i. 175. but the four Ariyan truths are given there in place of the four resolves.

[6] D. iii. 229.

[7] Perhaps referring to the "man," purisa, of the first heading in this paragraph.

[8] cāga, the giving up of, abandoning or forsaking all the defilements, MA. v. 52; all the clingings, M. iii. 245.

[9] It is, I think a question whether the order of these last two headings should not be reversed to tally with the order of the analysis below which appears to be the more logical sequence. But the commentarial exegesis, MA. v. 51 f. is against this, for it takes the headings as they stand above.

[10] Down to the element of space, see M. l. 421 ff. See also M. i. 185 ff. and M.L.S. i. 231 ff. for notes.

[11] tajja, as at M. i. 190. S. iv. 215, Dhs. 3-6.

[12] "This," etaɱ, appears to refer to "life-span," āyu., so MA. v. 55: "however much this life-span is of 20,000 kappas ... it is not permanent or eternal, it is temporary, liable to deceasing, falling, breaking up and shattering; it is dogged by birth, bestrewn by disease, struck down by death; it is founded on anguish, with no authority, no refuge. ... All these perils are spoken of by the one phrase: 'this is constructed,'" saŋkhatam etaɱ.

[13] saŋkhatam etaɱ. The meaning probably is that, however much one applies equanimity to the various meditative planes and develops thought according to them, still this life-span remains. It is therefore a construction: saŋkhāra (and hence impermanent, cf. M. i. 336, sabbasaŋkhāresu aniccānupassino, translated at M.L.S. i. 400 as: beholding the impermanence of all constructions; and cf. Dhp. 277 sabbe saŋkhārā aniccā, impermanent are all the constructions), or it is a construct, saŋkhata; or it is constructed, saŋkhata. The underlying idea is one of activity (see M.L.S. i., Intr., p. xxv), a karmic "effecting" or bringing about, which, in this context above, is a result of the decision the meditator has just taken to focus his equanimity and develop his thought. But, as he immediately perceives, this will only lead to the constructing of new effects in the future. So he stills his mind in order to bring no new constructs into existence. Therefore, following his realisation that saŋkhatam etaɱ, he seeks to go no further with such mental activity as will bear future karmic fruit and n'eva abhisaŋkharoti nābhisañcetayati, neither constructs nor thinks out. At M. i. 350 the bhikkhu comprehends of each jhāna, of each brahmavihāra and of each of the first three meditative planes that it is "effected" (or constructed or produced-by past mental activity) and thought out (or planned) and is therefore impermanent (and all that this entails). So that here again it is implied, as above, that the realisation and comprehension of such impermanence is a stepping-stone to further progress on the Way, whereas the lack of realisation is a hindrance or obstacle to such progress.

[14] Now speaking from the height of arahantship.

[15] bhava and vibhava are called growth and decline respectively; they are said to be connected with eternalism and annihilationism, again respectively.

[16] D. i. 46, ii. 128, S. ii. 83, A. ii. 198.

[17] sītibhavissanti. The term sītibhūta, become cool, is often combined with nibbuta, gone out, extinguished. For nibbuta see P.E.D. The fires of rāga dosa and moha no longer burn in one who is nibbuta sītibhūta; it is in respect of these that a man is extinguished and cooled.

[18] nibkhāyati. Cf. Thīg. 116 padīpass'eva Nibbānaɱ: the going out of the lamp.

[19] Referring to the time when he was a puthujjana, an ordinary average person.

[20]To the khandhā, to the defilements, to the "activities" (abhisaŋkhārā) and to the five strands of sensual pleasure, MA. v. 60.

[21] Bu. here says, MA. v. 60, that the whole teaching of Dhamma by the Buddhas is "in brief"; there is no extended teaching. Even the whole of the Paṭṭhānakathā is in brief. Among the four types of persons (reference appears to be to A. ii. 135, Pug. 41), beginning with the one who could understand Dhamma in a pondensed form (ugghāṭitaññū), Pukkusāti was a vipacitaññū (i.e. a "diffuse-learner," to whom Dhamma had to be explained in detail). It was because of this that the Lord spoke the Dhātuvibhaŋgasutta.

[22] The wording is stock, only the transgression, accaya, varies in the different contexts. See P.T.C. under accaya.

[23] bhantagāvī, a swerving or staggering cow. MA. v. 62 explains she was rushing after her wandering young calf.

[24] kālam karoti, has done his (karmic) time

[25] Cf. M. ii. 146 for this paragraph.


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