Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
4. Vibhaŋga Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
4. The Division on Analysis

Sutta 142

Dakkhiṇa-Vibhaŋga Suttaɱ

Discourse on the Analysis of Offerings

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
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[1][chlm][upal] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

At one time the Lord was staying among the Sakyans in Nigrodha's monastery near Kapilavatthu.

Then Mahā Pajāpatī[1] the Gotamid,[2]
bringing a pair of new cloths,[3]
approached the Lord;
having approached and greeted the Lord,
she sat down at a respectful distance.

As she was sitting down at a respectful distance,
Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, this pair of new cloths
has been cut out by me
and woven by me
specially for the Lord;
revered sir, may the Lord
out of compassion
accept it from me."

When this had been said,
the Lord spoke thus to Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid:

"Give it to the Order,[4] Gotami.

If you give it to the Order
I will be honoured
and the Order too."

And a second time Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, this pair of new cloths
has been cut out by me
and woven by me
specially for the Lord;
revered sir, may the Lord
out of compassion
accept it from me."

And a second time,
the Lord spoke thus to Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid:

"Give it to the Order, Gotami.

If you give it to the Order
I will be honoured
and the Order too."

And a third time[5] Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, this pair of new cloths
has been cut out by me
and woven by me
specially for the Lord;
revered sir, may the Lord
out of compassion
accept it from me."

And a third time,
the Lord spoke thus to Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid:

"Give it to the Order, Gotami.

If you give it to the Order
I will be honoured
and the Order too."

When this had been said,
the venerable Ānanda, spoke thus to the Lord:

[301] "Revered sir, let the Lord accept the Gotamid Mahā Pajāpatī's
new pair of cloths.[6]

Revered sir, Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid
has been of much service to the Lord.[7]

She is his maternal aunt,
the one who brought him up,[8]
who looked after him[9]
and gave him milk,
for when the Lord's own mother passed away
she suckled him.[10]

And, revered sir,
the Lord has been of much service to Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid.

Revered sir, it is due to the Lord
that Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid
has gone to the Awakened One for refuge,
has gone to dhamma for refuge,
has gone to the Order for refuge.

Revered sir, it is due to the Lord,
that Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid
refrains from onslaught on creatures,
refrains from taking what has not been given,
refrains from going wrongly among the sense-pleasures,
refrains from lying speech,
refrains from occasions of sloth induced by intoxicants.

Revered sir, it is due to the Lord that Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid
is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Awakened One,
is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Order,
is possessed of the moral habits pleasing to the ariyans.

Revered sir, it is due to the Lord that Mahā Pajāpatī
is not doubtful about anguish,
is not doubtful about the origin of anguish,
is not doubtful about the stopping of anguish,
is not doubtful about the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

So, revered sir,
the Lord has been of much service to Mahā Pajāpatī the Gotamid."

"That is so, Ānanda,
that is so, Ānanda.

And if it is due to a person[11]
that some (other) person[12]
goes to the Awakened One for refuge,
to dhamma for refuge,
to the Order for refuge,
I say of this person, Ānanda,
that there is no proper requital
in regard to that person,
that is to say as regards greeting,
rising up for,
saluting with joined palms,
doing what is suitable
(to do for him),
and as regards procuring him gifts
of the requisites
of robes,
almsfood,
lodgings
and medicines for the sick.

If it is due to a person
that some (other) person
refrains from onslaught on creatures,
from taking what [302] has not been given,
from going wrongly among sense-pleasures,
from lying speech,
from occasions of sloth induced by intoxicants,
I say of this person, Ānanda,
that there is no proper requital
in regard to that person,
that is to say as regards greeting,
rising up for,
saluting with joined palms,
doing what is suitable
(to do for him),
and as regards procuring him gifts
of the requisites
of robes,
almsfood,
lodgings
and medicines for the sick.

If it is due to a person
that some (other) person
is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Awakened One,
is possessed of unwavering confidence in the dhamma
is possessed of unwavering confidence in the the Order
and of the moral habits pleasing to the ariyans,
I say of this person, Ānanda,
that there is no proper requital
in regard to that person,
that is to say as regards greeting,
rising up for,
saluting with joined palms,
doing what is suitable
(to do for him),
and as regards procuring him gifts
of the requisites
of robes,
almsfood,
lodgings
and medicines for the sick.

If it is due to a person
that some (other) person

is not doubtful about anguish,
is not doubtful about the origin of anguish,
is not doubtful about the stopping of anguish,
is not doubtful about the course leading to the stopping of anguishis not doubtful about anguish,
I say of this person, Ānanda,
that there is no proper requital
in regard to that person,
that is to say as regards greeting,
rising up for,
saluting with joined palms,
doing what is suitable
(to do for him),
and as regards procuring him gifts
of the requisites
of robes,
almsfood,
lodgings
and medicines for the sick.

Now, Ānanda, there are these fourteen offerings
graded as to individuals.[13]

One gives a gift
to a Tathāāgata,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One -
this is the first offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to one enlightened for and by himself alone[14] -
this is the second offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to a Tathāāgata's disciple
who is one perfected -
this is the third offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to one faring along for the realisation
of the fruit of perfection -
this is the fourth offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to a non-returner -
this is the fifth offering offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to one faring along for the realisation of the fruit of non-returning -
this is the sixth offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to a once-returner -
this is the seventh offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to one faring along for the realisation of the fruit of once-retuming -
this is the eighth offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to a stream-attainer -
this is the ninth offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to one faring along for the realisation of the fruit of stream-attainment -
this is the tenth offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to one who is beyond and without attachment to sense-pleasures[15] -
this is the eleventh offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to an ordinary person of moral habit -
this is the twelfth offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to an ordinary person of poor moral habit -
this is the thirteenth offering graded as to individuals.

One gives a gift
to an animal -
this is the fourteenth offering graded as to individuals.

[303] As to this, Ānanda,
when a gift has been given
to an animal,
it is expected that the offering (yields) a hundredfold.[16]

when a gift has been given
to an ordinary person of poor moral habit,
it is to be expected that the offering (yields) a thousandfold.

When a gift has been given
to an ordinary person of moral habit,
it is to be expected that the offering (yields) a hundred thousandfold.

When a gift[17] has been given
to one who is beyond and without attachment to sense-pleasures,
it is to be expected that the offering (yields) a hundred thousandfold of crores.

When a gift has been given
to one faring along for the realisation of the fruit of stream-attainment,[18]
it is to be expected that the offering
(yields) what is incalculable and immeasurable.

So what can be said of the stream-attainer?

What can be said of the one faring along for the realisation of the fruit of once-returning?

What can be said of the once-returner?

What can be said of one faring along for the realisation of the fruit of non-returning?

What can be said of the non-retumer?

What can be said of one faring along for the realisation of the fruit of perfection?

What can be said of one perfected?

What can be said of a Tathāāgata's disciple
who is one perfected?

What can be said of one enlightened for and by himself alone?

What can be said of a Tathāāgata, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One?

 


 

And there are these seven kinds of offerings to the Order, Ānanda:

One gives a gift
to both Orders
with the Awakened One at the head[19] -
this is the first offering to the Order.[20]

One gives a gift
to both Orders
after the Awakened One has attained final nibbāna[21] -
this is the second offering to the Order.

One gives a gift
to the Order of monks -
this is the third offering to the Order.

One gives a gift
to the Order of nuns -
this is the fourth offering to the Order.

One gives a gift,
saying,
'May so many monks and nuns be specified for me by the Order' -
this is the fifth offering to the Order.

One [304] gives a gift, saying:
'May so many monks be specified for me by the Order' -
this is the sixth offering to the Order.

One gives a gift, saying,
'May so many nuns be specified for me by the Order' -
this is the seventh offering to the Order.

 


 

But, Ānanda, in the distant future
there will be those of the ariyan clan,[22]
the yellow robes around their necks,[23]
who will be of bad morality
and evil character;
and a gift will be given to the Order
specially for these of bad morality.

But when I, Ãnanda, say
that an offering to the Order
is incalculable
and immeasurable
I by no means say
that a gift graded as to individuals
is of greater fruit
than an offering to the Order.

 


 

There are these four purifications of offerings,[24] Ānanda.

What four?

There is, Ānanda,
the offering purified by the giver
but not by the recipient.

There is, Ānanda,
the offering purified by the recipient
but not by the giver.

There is, Ānanda,
the offering purified
neither by the giver
nor the recipient.

There is, Ānanda,
the offering purified
both by the giver
and the recipient.

 


 

And what offering, Ānanda,
is purified by the giver
but not by the recipient?

As to this, Ānanda,
the giver is of moral habit
and lovely character,
the recipients are of poor morality
and of evil character.

It is thus, Ānanda,
that an offering is purified by the giver
but not by the recipient.

And what offering, Ānanda,
is purified by the recipient
but not by the giver?

As to this, Ānanda,
the giver is of poor morality
and evil character,
the recipients are of moral habit
and lovely character.

It is thus, Ānanda,
that an offering is purified by the recipient
but not by the giver.

And what offering, Ānanda,
is purified neither by the giver
nor the recipient?

As to this, Ānanda,
the giver is of poor morality
and evil character
and the recipients are of poor morality
and evil character.

It is thus, Ānanda,
that an offering is purified neither by the giver
nor the recipient.

And what offering, Ānanda,
is purified both by the giver
and the recipient?

As to this, Ānanda,
the giver is of moral habit
and lovely character
and the recipients are of moral habit
and lovely character.

It is thus, Ānanda,
that an offering is purified both by the giver
and the recipient.

These, Ānanda, are the four purifications in offerings."

Thus spoke the Lord;
the Well-farer having spoken thus,
the Teacher further said:

[305] Whoever, moral in habit, gives to the poor in moral habit
A gift rightfully acquired, the mind well pleased,[25]
Firmly believing in the rich fruit of kamma -
This is an offering purified by the giver.

Whoever, poor in moral habit, gives to those of moral habit
A gift unrightfully acquired, the mind not pleased,
Not believing in the rich fruit of kamma -
This is an offering purified by the recipient.

Whoever, poor in moral habit, gives to the poor in moral habit
A gift unrightfully acquired, the mind not pleased,
Not believing in the rich fruit of kamma -
This is an offering purified by neither.

Whoever, moral in habit, gives to those of moral habit
A gift rightfully acquired, the mind well pleased,
Firmly believing in the rich fruit of kamma -
I assert this gift to be of abundant fruit.

Whoever, without attachment,[26] gives to those without attachment
A gift rightfully acquired, the mind well pleased,
Firmly believing in the rich fruit of kamma -
I assert this gift to be a gift abundant in gain.

Discourse on the Analysis of Offerings:
The Twelfth

Division on Analysis:
The Fourth

 


[1] At A. i. 25 called foremost of nuns of long experience. Her verses are at Thīg. 167-162. The younger sister of Mahāmāyā, Gotama's mother, she attained arahantship soon after her ordination, ThigA. 141. The story of her ordination, with a number of Sakyan ladies, is given at Vin. ii. 253, A. iv. 274.

[2] Her family name.

not given Gotama ... she suckled him!

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[3] MA. v. 66 explains she thought that as she had not given Gotama anything, not even cakes or fruit, in the 29 years he had led a household life she would now give him an outer cloak and a robe, but only what was made by hand would satisfy her. But sāmaṁ vāyitaṁ, according to MA. v. 66, does not mean woven by her own hand, but that every day, surrounded by a group of foster-mothers, she went to the weaving place for women artisans and, taking the movable part of her loom, worked there.

[4] As at Miln. 240, though there she was giving cloths for the rains.

[5] She was much disappointed; but Gotama, according to MA. v. 67, was acting out of compassion, for what is given to an Order is of great fruit, and a gift given both to him and the Order will twice arouse the three thoughts connected with giving.

...no higher gift... But the whole point of this sutta is to show that there is no higher gift than that given to the Order!

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[6] Ānanda knew there was no gift higher than one made to the Teacher.

[7] This description of Mahā Pajāpatī (except for the word bahūpakāra, of much service) is also ascribed to Ānanda at Vin. ii. 289.

[8] Making him do things with his hands and feet.

[9] Who, two or three times a day, washed him and gave him to eat and to drink, MA. v. 69.

[10] In preference to her own son, Nanda, whom she gave to foster-mothers.

[11] A teacher, ācariya. The behaviour of pupils and teachers towards one another is given at Vin. i. 44 ff.

[12] A pupil, antevāsika, MA. v. 70.

pāṭipuggalikā dakkhiṇā, This is saying that this is the way to classify the kammic rebound of gifts according to the individual receiving the gift. That is not to say that the worth and merit of the gift depends entirely on the recipient. The gift itself and the manner in which it is given also contribute to the rebound.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[13] pāṭipuggalikā dakkhiṇā, the worth and merit of the offerings are reckoned according to the worth and merit of the recipient.

[14] paccekabuddha; he does not teach others.

[15] bāhirake kāmesu vītarāge, of which MA. v. 71 says kammavādikiriyavādin hi lokiyapañcabhiññe, in regard to the five mundane super-knowledges he is a speaker on the deed and on the efficacy of the deed.

[16] A hundred advantages, according to MA. v. 71; cf. A. iii. 42.

[17] From here to "So what can bo said of a stream-attainer?" is quoted at MA. i. 187 where this Discourse is called Dakkhiṇāvisuddhisutta.

[18] MA. v. 72 says even a lay-follower gone to the three Refuges is called one faring along for the fruit of stream-attainment.

[19] Or Buddhapamukhe may mean with the Buddha facing them or before' them. For MA. v. 73 says "on one side is the Order of monks, on the other the Order of nuns, and the Teacher is sitting in the middle."

[20] This explains why, if Mahā Pajāpatī gives a gift to the Order, the Lord will be honoured as well as the Order. This is an offering unequalled by any other, and neither the second nor any other reaches this highest offering, MA. v. 73.

This is almost certainly a late development in that at first there were no images of the Buddha.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[21] parinibbute. Bu. explains that an image is placed on a chair before both Orders, and having given everything first of all to the Teacher, it is then to be given to both Orders.

[22] gotrabhū, see G.S. iv. 247. Defined at Pug. 12, 13.

[23] kāsāvakaṇtha, as at Dhp. 307 = Iti. 43.

[24] Cf. A. ii. 80.

[25] I.e. with the Teaching. Miln. 258 quotes this verse and mentions this Sutta by name.

This may mean a non-returner, or it may mean any person who at the time of giving is without attachment to the gift or results.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[26] MA. v. 77 says this means a non-returner here, for an arahant is wholly without attachment, ekantavītarāga, therefore a gift given by an arahant to an arahant is the chief of gifts. Because of his being without desire or attachment, a deed done by an arahant is neither skilled nor unskilled but remains in the position of its doing.


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