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— UNABBREVIATED

Saŋyutta Nikāya
I. Sagātha Vagga
2. Devaputta Saŋyutta
3. Nānātitthiya-Vaggo

The Book of the Kindred Sayings
I. Kindred Sayings with Verses
3. The 'Divers Sectaries' Suttas

Translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids
Assisted by Sūriyagoḍa Sumangala Thera
Public Domain

 


 

Sutta 21

Siva

 


 

[21.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now Siva, son of the gods, when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with his effulgent beauty over the entire Jeta Grove, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and stood at one side.

So standing, Siva, son of the devas[1], spoke these verses before the Exalted One: —

See that with good men only ye consort,
With good men do ye practise intercourse.
Knowledge of how the good do shape their life
Will make the better man and not the worse.

See that with good men only ye consort,
With good men do ye practise intercourse.
Knowledge of how the good do shape their life
Bestoweth wisdom as naught else can do.

See that with good men only ye consort,
With good men do ye practise intercourse.
Knowledge of how the good do shape their life
Doth dry our tears in midst of those that weep.

See that with good men only ye consort,
With good men do ye practise intercourse.
Knowledge of how the good do shape their life
Makes us of bright renown amongst our kin.

See that with good men only ye consort,
With good men do ye practise intercourse.
Knowledge of how the good do shape their life
Doth make us find rebirth in happier worlds.

See that with good men only ye consort,
With good men do ye practise intercourse.
Knowledge of how the good do shape their life
Makes men persist in bliss perpetual.

Then the Exalted One made rejoinder to Siva's verses: -

See that with good men only ye consort,
With good men do ye practise intercourse.
Knowledge of how the good do shape their life
From all and every ill may set us free.

 


 

Sutta 22

Khema

 


 

[22.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now Khema, son of the gods, when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with his effulgent beauty over the entire Jeta Grove, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and stood at one side.

So standing, Khema, son of the devas, spoke these verses before the Exalted One: —

Th' unwise and indiscreet,[2] with self as foe
To self, live in the practice of ill deeds,
That bear fruit bitter as black hellebore.
Not that's a deed well done, that in its train
Brings burning,[3] the result whereof is reaped
By doer weeping with a tearful face.
But that's a deed well done, that in its train
No burning brings, result whereof is reaped
By doer with cheerful mind and thrilling zest.

Let him afore[4] [5] that thing elect to do,
Which he well knoweth is for his own good.
Thinking no 'carter's thoughts,' let him that's firm
In doctrine make a resolute advance.
As carter who hath left the smooth high road
And turned to byways rough, his axle broke,
Broods deep and long,[6] so he who did forsake
Right things and follow after what is wrong,
Wretched and with a death's head countenance,
Broods deep and long, his axle also broke.

 


 

Sutta 23

Serī

 


 

[23.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now Serī[7], son of the gods, when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with his effulgent beauty over the entire Jeta Grove, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and stood at one side.

So standing, Serī, son of the devas, spoke these verses before the Exalted One: —

'Tis food both gods and men chiefly desire.
Who may that creature be, demon or sprite,
Who, unlike them, hankers not after food?

[The Exalted One :—]

The food that's given in faith, with heart made pure,
That finds him out, in this world and the next.
Hence should he avarice suppress, and make
Off'rings of charity, mast'ring the taint.
Sure planted in some other future life
Rewards of virtue on all beings wait.

2. ''T is wonderful, lord, 'tis marvellous how well said that is by the Exalted One:

The food that's given in faith, with heart made pure,
That finds him out, in this world and the next.
Hence should he avarice suppress, and make
Off'rings of charity, mast'ring the taint.
Sure planted in some other future life
Rewards of virtue on all beings wait.

3. 'In former times, lord, I was a raja named Serī, a giver by habit[8], a generous benefactor,[9] a commender of giving. In the four gates [of my capital] there was given, through me, charity to all who asked for it: brahmins and recluses, paupers and cripples, wayfarers and beggars.

'Now when I used to come to my ladies' bower, they would say:

"His majesty has made an offering, but we have made none. Well for us if we also make offering through my lord, and win merit!"

And this, lord, occurred to me:

I am a giver by habit, a generous benefactor, a commender of giving; now what ought I to say to them who say:

"Let us make a gift?"

So I gave the first, lord, of the four gates to the ladies' bower, and there the gifts of the ladies were given, my own gifts coming back to me.

And the nobles, my adherents, came and said:

"His majesty has made an offering, but we have made none. Well for us if we also make offering through my lord, and win merit!"

And this, lord, occurred to me:

I am a giver by habit, a generous benefactor, a commender of giving; now what ought I to say to them who say:

"Let us make a gift?"

So I gave the second, lord, of the four gates to the nobles, my adherents, and there the gifts of the nobles, my adherents were given, my own gifts coming back to me.

And the army came and said:

"His majesty has made an offering, but we have made none. Well for us if we also make offering through my lord, and win merit!"

And this, lord, occurred to me:

I am a giver by habit, a generous benefactor, a commender of giving; now what ought I to say to them who say:

"Let us make a gift?"

So I gave the third, lord, of the four gates to the army, and there the gifts of the army were given, my own gifts coming back to me.

And then the brahmins and burgesses came and said:

"His majesty has made an offering, but we have made none. Well for us if we also make offering through my lord, and win merit!"

And this, lord, occurred to me:

I am a giver by habit, a generous benefactor, a commender of giving; now what ought I to say to them who say:

"Let us make a gift?"

So I gave the fourth, lord, of the four gates to the brahmins and burgesses, and there the gifts of the brahmins and burgesses were given, my own gifts coming back to me.

And then my men came and said:

"Now is there nowhere[10] anything given by his majesty!'

So I told them, saying:

"Pass the word then that, of the revenue coming in from the outlying provinces, one half shall be sent into the palace, and one half shall be there and then given as gifts to those who ask: — brahmins, recluses, paupers and cripples, wayfarers, beggars."'

And so, lord, I never made an end of works of merit wrought for many years, of good works wrought for many years, whether I was reckoning them as merit, or as reward of merit, or as a status in heaven. As I said: 'T is wonderful, lord, 't is marvellous how' well said were those lines by the Exalted One: —

The food that's given in faith, with heart made pure,
That finds him out, in this world and the next.
Hence should he avarice suppress, and make
Off'rings of charity, mast'ring the taint.
Sure planted in some other future life
Rewards of virtue on all beings wait.

 


 

Sutta 24

Ghatīkāra

 


 

[24.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now Ghatīkāra, son of the gods, when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with his effulgent beauty over the entire Jeta Grove, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and stood at one side.

So standing, Ghatīkāra, son of the devas, spoke these verses before the Exalted One: —[ed1]

In the far heavens of Aviha there came,
Beborn, seven Brethren winning Liberty.
Lust and ill-will for them were perished quite.
Safe had they crossed where all the world sticks fast.

And who were they who crossed o'er the morass,
The realm of dying, passing hard to cross,
Who having left behind this mortal frame,
Passed into touch with things celestial?

'Twas Upaka, and Phalagaṇḍa too,
And Pukkusāti making three, besides
Bhaddiya, Khaṇḍadeva too, for five,
And Bāhuraggi, lastly Pingiya:
They having left behind this mortal frame
Passed into touch with things celestial.

[The Exalted One:—]

Fair things thou speakest of the Brethren seven
Who have abandoned Māra's traps and snares.
Whose was the doctrine that they learned, whereby
They smote in twain the fetters of rebirth?

Twas thine alone, Exalted One, thy Rule,
Thy teaching only 't was they learned; thereby
They smote in twain the fetters of rebirth?
'Where mind and body wholly cease to be': —
That learned they here from thee; thereby
They smote in twain the fetters of rebirth.

[The Exalted One:—]

Deep is the word thou speakest, hard to learn,
And passing difficult to understand.
Say then: whose doctrine is it thou hast learned,
That thou canst utter such a word as this?

[Ghaṭīkāra:—]

In former birth maker of jars was I,
In Vehalinga as the Potter known.
My mother and my father I maintained,
Lay-follower of the holy Kassapa.

Eschewing carnal things, unworldly, chaste.
I was of those men fellow-villager,
I was their comrade in those bygone days.
Wherefore I know these things, I know
Of us seven Brethren winning Liberty,
For whom lust and ill-will are perished quite,
Who safe have crossed where all the world sticks fast.

[The Exalted One:—]

Yea, as thou say'st then wast thou, Bhaggava!
In former birth maker of jars wast thou,
In Vehalinga as 'The Potter' known.
Thy mother and thy father didst thou keep,
Lay-follower of the holy Kassapa.
Eschewing carnal things, unworldly, chaste,
Of me wast thou the fellow-villager;
My comrade wast thou in those bygone days.

[The Editors of the Canon:—]

Such was the meeting of these ancient friends.
Both having faculties supremely trained,
Both bearing bodies of their final life.

 


 

Sutta 25

Jantiu

 


 

[25.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

There was once a great number of bhikkhus living among the Kosalese, on the slopes of Himalaya, in a forest-lodge. And they were muddled in mind, puffed up, vain, noisy, loose of speech, heedless, unintelligent, without concentration, unsteady in mind, uncontrolled in faculties.[11]

Now Jantu, son of the gods, on a fifteenth-day festival, came into the presence of those bhikkhus and addressed them in verses: —

Happy the bhikkhus as they lived of yore,
Who true disciples were of Gotama.
Unhankering they sought their frugal alms,
Unhankering, their lodging and their couch.
The impermanence of things they understood,
And hence of misery they made an end.

Now, making evil-doers of themselves,
Like headmen of the village [taking toll],[12]
Longing for what their neighbours' house contains,
They eat and eat until they sink to rest.

The Order [as a whole] I humbly greet;
To some of those here met I homage pay.[13]
Others, forlorn and leader-less are they,
As cast out bodies of the dead are they.

My message is for them who heedless live.
To earnest diligent souls I say, All hail!

 


 

Sutta 26

Rohitassa[14]

 


 

[26.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now Rohitassa, son of the gods, when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with his effulgent beauty over the entire Jeta Grove, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and stood at one side.

So standing, Rohitassa, son of the devas, spoke thus before the Exalted One: —

'Now where, lord, does one not get born, nor grow old, nor die, nor leave one's sphere for another, nor get reborn?

How is one able, lord, by walking,[15] to come to know the end of the world,[16] or to see it, or to get there?'

'Where, friend, one does not get born, nor grow old, nor die, nor leave one sphere for another, nor get reborn: — that end of the world, I say, thou art not able by walking to come to know, nor to see, nor to arrive at.'

'Wonderful is it, lord, and marvellous how well that is said by the Exalted One: —

'Where, friend, one does not get born, nor grow old, nor die, nor leave one sphere for another, nor get reborn: — that end of the world, I say, thou art not able by walking to come to know, nor to see, nor to arrive at.'

In past times, lord, I was Rohitassa the seer, son of Bhoja, gifted so that I could fly through the air, yea, so swift was I, that I could fly just as quickly as a master of archery,[17] well trained, expert, proficient, a past master in his art,[18] armed with a strong bow, could without difficulty send a light shaft far past the area covered by a palm-tree's shadow. And so great, lord, was my stride that I could step from the eastern to the western sea.

In me, lord, arose the wish: I will get by walking to the end of the world. And though such, lord, was my speed, and such my stride, and though I waited not to eat or drink or rest, or to give way to sleep or fatigue, or other needs of nature, though a century was then the normal term of life, though my life was of normal length, yet I spent a hundred years on that journey and died on it or ever I got to the end of the world. Wonderful therefore and marvellous is this that hath been so well spoken by the Exalted One.'

[26.9] But neither do I say, friend, that by not having got to the end of the world is the end of ill to be accomplished. It is in this fathom-long[19] carcase, friend, with its impressions and its ideas[20] that, I declare, lies the world, and the cause of the world, and the cessation of the world, and the course of action that leads to the cessation of the world.'

Ne'er may world's end be won by walking there,
Nor if ye win not, are ye freed from ill.
Therefore in sooth[21] he that is rich in wisdom,
Who knows the world, he it is goes to world's end,
He who 'bove all liveth the life that's holy;
With heart serene he understands the world's end,
Nor for this world nor for another prayeth.

 


 

Sutta 27

Nanda

 


 

[27.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now Nanda, son of the gods, when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with his effulgent beauty over the entire Jeta Grove, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and stood at one side.

So standing, Nanda, son of the devas, spoke thus before the Exalted One: —[ed2]

The hours pass by. Nights drive us ever on.
Stages of life in turn abandon us:—
Whoso doth contemplate this fear of death,
Let him so act that merit brings him bliss.

[The Exalted One: —]

The hours pass by. Nights drive us ever on.
Stages of life in turn abandon us.
Whoso doth contemplate this fear of death,
Let him reject the bait of all the worlds,
Let him aspire after the final peace.

 


 

Sutta 28

Nandivisala

 


 

[28.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now Nandivisala, son of the gods, when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with his effulgent beauty over the entire Jeta Grove, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and stood at one side.

So standing, Nandivisala, son of the devas, spoke thus before the Exalted One: —[ed3]

Lo! the four-wheeled, the nine-doored fulsome thing,
Guided by greed, begotten from a bog: —
Great hero, say! how shall there egress be?

[The Exalted One: —]

Let but the traces, let the thong be cut —
Let but the evil wish, the greed, yea, let
Thy craving with its root be utterly
Drawn out and banned — then shall there egress be.

 


 

Sutta 29

Susima

 


 

[29.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now the venerable Ānanda came into the presence of the Exalted One and, saluting him, sat down at one side.

So seated the Exalted One spake thus to the venerable Ānanda: —

'Do you also, Ānanda, approve of our Sāriputta?'

"Nay, but who, lord, that is not childish, or corrupt, or stupid, or of perverted mind would not approve of the venerable Sāriputta?[22]

Wise, lord, is the venerable Sāriputta!

Comprehensive and manifold is his wisdom,
joyous and swift is his wisdom!

Sharp and fastidious is his wisdom![23]

Small in his desires, lord, and contented is the venerable Sāriputta!

Loving seclusion and detachment is he!

Of rampant energy is the venerable Sāriputta!

A preacher [insistent],[24] accepting advice,[25] a critic, a scourge of evil is the venerable Sāriputta: —

Nay, lord, but who that is not childish, or corrupt, or stupid, or of perverted mind would not approve of the venerable Sāriputta?

''T is even so, Ānanda, 't is even so.[ed4]

"Who that is not childish, or corrupt, or stupid, or of perverted mind would not approve of the venerable Sāriputta?

Wise is the venerable Sāriputta!

Comprehensive and manifold is his wisdom,
joyous and swift is his wisdom!

Sharp and fastidious is his wisdom!

Small in his desires, and contented is the venerable Sāriputta!

Loving seclusion and detachment is he!

Of rampant energy is the venerable Sāriputta!

A preacher [insistent], accepting advice, a critic, a scourge of evil is the venerable Sāriputta: —

Nay, but who that is not childish, or corrupt, or stupid, or of perverted mind would not approve of the venerable Sāriputta?

Now Susima, son of the devas, attended by a great company of sons of the gods, had come into the Exalted One's presence, while the praises of the venerable Sāriputta were being recited.

And he, saluting and standing at one side, spake thus to the Exalted One: —

''T is even so, Exalted One!

"Who that is not childish, or corrupt, or stupid, or of perverted mind would not approve of the venerable Sāriputta?

Wise is the venerable Sāriputta!

Comprehensive and manifold is his wisdom,
joyous and swift is his wisdom!

Sharp and fastidious is his wisdom!

Small in his desires, and contented is the venerable Sāriputta!

Loving seclusion and detachment is he!

Of rampant energy is the venerable Sāriputta!

A preacher [insistent], accepting advice, a critic, a scourge of evil is the venerable Sāriputta: —

Nay, but who that is not childish, or corrupt, or stupid, or of perverted mind would not approve of the venerable Sāriputta?

To whichsoever company of devas I go, I hear just these words on every hand:

Wise is the venerable Sāriputta!

Comprehensive and manifold is his wisdom,
joyous and swift is his wisdom!

Sharp and fastidious is his wisdom!

Small in his desires, and contented is the venerable Sāriputta!

Loving seclusion and detachment is he!

Of rampant energy is the venerable Sāriputta!

A preacher [insistent], accepting advice, a critic, a scourge of evil is the venerable Sāriputta: —

Nay, but who that is not childish, or corrupt, or stupid, or of perverted mind would not approve of the venerable Sāriputta?

Then the celestial retinue of Susima, son of the devas, while the praises of the venerable Sāriputta were being uttered, through the pleasure, the gladness, the joy and rapture that they felt, waxed wondrous in divers colour-tones.

Even as a beautiful, illustrious beryl-stone of eight facets, well polished, when laid on an orange-coloured cloth[26] shines and glows and blazes, even so did the celestial retinue of Susima, son of the devas, while the praises of the venerable Sāriputta were being uttered, through the pleasure, the gladness, the joy and rapture that they felt, waxed wondrous in divers colour-tones.

And even as an ornament of fine gold excellently wrought in high relief[27] by a skilled goldsmith, when laid on .an orange-coloured cloth, shines and glows and blazes, even so did the celestial retinue of Susima, son of the devas, while the praises of the venerable Sāriputta were being uttered, through the pleasure, the gladness, the joy and rapture that they felt, waxed wondrous in divers colour-tones.

And even as, when night fades into dawn, the morning-star shines and glows and blazes, even so did the celestial retinue of Susima, son of the devas, while the praises of the venerable Sāriputta were being uttered, through the pleasure, the gladness, the joy and rapture that they felt, waxed wondrous in divers colour-tones.

And even as, in autumn, when the clouds are fled afar in the sky,[28] the sun breaking forth in high heaven, smiting all darkness in the firmament, shines and glows and blazes, even so did the celestial retinue of Susima, son of the devas, while the praises of the venerable Sāriputta were being uttered, through the pleasure, the gladness, the joy and rapture that they felt, waxed wondrous in divers colour-tones.

Then Susima, son of the devas, spoke this verse before the Exalted One concerning Sāriputta:—

Wise is he! so we reckon, one and all: —
Our Sāriputta gentle, meek and mild,
Of few desires, self-mastered, and a seer
Who hath the Master's praises rightly earned.

Then the Exalted One spoke this verse in response to Susima, son of the gods, concerning Sāriputta: —ṁ

Wise is he! so we reckon one and all: —
Our Sāriputta, gentle, meek and mild,
Of few desires, self-mastered, and a seer
Waiting the hour for wage that he hath earned.[29]

 


 

Sutta 30

Divers Sectaries

 


 

[30.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, at the Squirrels' Feeding-ground.

And a great many sons of the gods who had been disciples of different alien teachers[30]:
Asama and Sahali and Ninka and Ākoṭaka and Veṭambari and Māṇava-Gāmiya,
when the night was far spent, shedding radiance with their effulgent beauty over the entire Bamboo Grove, came into the Exalted One's presence and saluting him, stood at one side.

So standing, Asama, son of the gods, spoke this verse before the Exalted One concerning Pūraṇa-Kassapa:

Here if a man do mutilate or slay,
Despoil or ruin others, Kassapa
Sees in such acts no blame, nor otherwise
Doth he find merit for the agent's self.[31]
He hath declared the basis for our faith.
A master he, worthy to be revered.

Then Sahali, son of the gods, spoke this verse before the Exalted One concerning Makkhali-Gosāla: —

By fasting and by austere practices
To perfect self-control hath he attained;
He hath abandoned speech and wordy strife
With any folk, abhorrent of offence
And equable, speaker of truth,
No evil such as that doth he commit.[32]

Then Ninka, son of the gods, spoke this verse before the Exalted One concerning the Nigaṇṭha, Nāṭa's son: —

Austerely scrupulous and subtly wise,
An almsman, by the Four-fold Watch restrained,[33]
Revealer of things seen and heard by him,[34]
Now sooth in him what fault is there to find?

Then Ākotaka, son of the gods, spoke this verse before the Exalted One concerning different alien teachers: —

The Pakudha Kātiyāna,[35] Nigaṇṭha,
Yea, and with these Makkhali, Pūrana also:
Distinguished friars, each of a school the leader,
From saintly men these are in sooth not distant.

Then Veṭambari, son of the gods, made rejoinder to Akotaka, son of the gods, in a verse: —

For all his howl[36] vile is the jackal reckoned.
The wretched beast ne'er is the lion's equal.
Th' ascetic nude, liar, and leader of pupils
Suspecting[37] all, bears to the good no semblance.

Then Mara, the Evil One, stealing up to Vetambari, spoke [for him][38] this verse before the Exalted One: —

To rules austere and careful scruples given,
With this and that self-torture[39] exercised,
With things material engrossed, their hearts
Set on attaining where the devas dwell: —
Mortals themselves, they for another world
Do of a surety give the right advice to men.

But the Exalted One, discerning that this was Mara the Evil One, made rejoinder to him by a verse: —

Whatever shapes living in earth or heaven,[40]
They that on high radiate shining beauty,[41]
Of all these thou, Namuci,[42] sing'st the praises,
As bait to fish, cast with a purpose deadly.

Then Māṇava-Gāmiya,[43] son of the gods, spoke this verse before the Exalted One concerning the Exalted One: —

Of Rajgir's hills the chief is Vipula;
Mount White[44] is chief of peaks in Himalay;
The sun is chief of things that traverse space,
The ocean of all waters is the chief,
As is among the starry groups the moon.
Of all the world and all the gods therein
A Buddha is by all esteemed supreme.

 


[1] B. finds nothing of interest in this name, any more than he found in that of Veṇhu (I, 2, Ī 2). Even he apparently lived too early to witness the rise and florescence of those devas into powerful deities. The word siva in the Canon means simply 'luck' and 'lucky'. The verses ascribed to him are, in I, 4, Ī 1, distributed among six devas.

[2] These 9 lines = Dhp. 66-68, the Comy, on which defines bālā (here 'unwise') as they that know neither their own good nor that of others.

[3] I.e. remorse. Indians liken it to burning, as we, to biting (-morse).

[4] B. resumes his Commentary here, as if aware that the preceding verses had been discussed in another Comy. (? of his own. See above, p. 30, n. 3). These lines are quoted in Milinda, i, 102 f. I differ from Rhys Davids's translation of them only in omitting the simile within a simile, viz. of the gamester. Since akkha can mean 'axle' no less than 'die,' the 'gamester' seems redundant.

[5] Paṭikacca.

[6] Avajhāyati.

[7] See I, 5, Ī 3. B. tells of Serī that he was king of two kingdoms, Sindhu and Sodhika, his city being Roruva (in Jāt. iii, 470, the capital of Sovīra), and that he had built gift-halls at each of its four gates, and there had made daily doles of 100,000 [coins], and a similar sum at the central judgment-hall. I have not met with him elsewhere.

[8] Dāyako.

[9] B. repeats the classes of charitable givers given, s.v. Dānaŋ, in Childers. This is dānapati, the 'noble giver' who gives not less than, nor just equal to what he uses himself, but fares worse than his beneficiary.

[10] Koci = katthaci. Comy.

[11] Uddhatā, capala, mukharā, vikiṇṇavācā. Cf. JPTS, 1913-14 (Puggala-Paññatti Comy.), 217, and Phussa's verses: Theragāthā, 958, 959, 971.

[12] Gāmaṇikā.B. emphasizes the occasion seized by the deva, when he could address many. 2 There is no accounting for the shortened form Rohita given in the summary of the Vagga and placed as title by Feer, save metrical reasons. The sutta occurs also, verbatim,, as this, in A. ii, 47 /. (iv, 45). ** Gamanena. 3 The 'world' is qualified by B. as the satla-sanlchdraloko: the conditioned (phenomenal) world of sentient creatures.

[13] B. emphasizes the occasion seized by the deva, when he could address many.

[14] There is no accounting for the shortened form Rohita given in the summary of the Vagga and placed as title by Feer, save metrical reasons. The sutta occurs also, verbatim, as this, in A. ii, 47 f. (iv, 45).

[15] Gamanena.

[16] The 'world' is qualified by B. as the satta-sankhāraloko: the conditioned (phenomenal) world of sentient creatures. [Ed: see on translating sankhāra.]

[17] A 'teacher of the bow.' Comy.

[18] Katupāsano.

[19] Vyāma: 'as far as a man may reach with both arms extended.'Comy.

[20] Lit. this be-saṇṇā-ed be-mano-ed carcase (kaḷebara,*). The Buddha draws him away from his pre-occupation about the dimensions of the world (this Chakkavāla) and his 'seven-league-boot's' stride, and leaves him to infer that the only way to get past or out of all processes of life was to get release from the ill that goes with life. It was a great opportunity for exegesis, but B. makes no use of it.

[21] Read have for bhave. The Pali metre changes here.

[22] B. judges that this Sutta is an opportunity for him, and expatiates on the magnanimous enthusiasm of Ānanda for his beloved comrade, on the epithets he uses in his eulogy, and on the glowing effulgence in the devas' expression of their emotions.

[23] So far the eulogy agrees with that ascribed to the Buddha in M. iii, 25 f. (Anupada-Sutta; cf. A. i, 45 [I, xxi, 53]; S. v, 376 f.). B. analyzes each term, here and in the other Commentaries. For the content of 'wisdom' he refers to M. iii, 62 f. (Bahudhātuka-Sutta): 'proficient knowledge of elements, of sense-processes, of cause and effect, and of possibles and impossibles' in the cosmic order. The second pair of adjectives are associated in S. v, 376 f. See also *hāsa- pañño, 'joyous' — i.e. 'over the line of virtuous clean-minded conduct and intellectual concentration he is pursuing.' 'Swift': 'who quickly cognizes, understands.' On the double meaning of *javana, see Compendium, 245 f. 'Sharp' implies swift elimination, intolerance of vicious consciousness, volcanic attainment 'at one sitting.' Here the Vedanāpariggaha-Sutta (sic: M. i, No. 74) is instanced. Cf, Pss. of the Brethren, pp. 342, 345. 'Fastidious' involves the exegetical double use of nibbedhika: he is pierced by emotion and disgust at the World, and he pierces and shatters greed, hate, ignorance.

[24] Vattā is speaker, but the Comy. adds the implication of odhunana, stirring, and of undelaying exhortation. Cf. Pss. of the Brethren, v. 994.

[25] A pretty instance in giving from extra-canonical tradition is quoted of Sāriputta who, when a little novice had told him that his cloak was in unseemly disarray, stepped aside to readjust it and then, saluting the child, said: 'Teacher, it is folded now.'

[26] Paṇḍu. The devas were believed to glow with hyper-vivid colours: indigo, yellow, red, white — on such occasions.

[27] Sampahaṭṭhaṃ.

[28] B. explains deva here by ākāsa: space.

[29] There is a word-play in this line and the last of the preceding stanza ābhato (praise-borne) and bhatiko (bearer, carrier, wage-earner). The concluding line is amplified in Sāriputta's own verses (Pss. of the Brethren, 1002, 1003), quoted by B.: —

Not fain am I to die, nor yet to live,
... I await the hour.
Like any hireling who hath done his task.

[30] These were believers in karma; thus, by meritorious acts they attained celestial rebirth, and by common consent came down to praise their respective teachers on earth.

[31] See the statement of this teacher's theory, Dialogues, i, 69. On the corrupt readings of the third pada (3rd line), B. only remarks: 'in outline he taught that there is no result (in the agent's sentient consciousness hereafter) of good or bad deeds.' Cf. below, III, 1, Ī 1.

[32] On the fatalism of this notable teacher whom the Buddha ranked as the most dangerous among his rivals (e.g. A. i, 33; 286) see Dialogues i, 71 f. Buddhism, 1912, 83 f.

[33] I.e. four restrictions in the use of water, a specially Jainist austerity, to avoid injuring the satta's, or living souls there might be in it. For these the Buddha substituted a Fourfold Watch of the four precepts against taking life, stealing, inchastity and lying. D. iii, 48 f.

[34] Cf. M. ii, 31.

[35] Usually spelt Kaccāyana. Cf. below, p. 94; Dialogues i, 74; (with the t in the Thera's name, Pss. of the Brethren, pp. 40, 215. The name scans badly, as it stands.

[36] B. reads sahāravena. The lengthened a of saha may be from ā-ravati, to howl at. G and h in Singhalese are easily confused. The simile is perhaps an echo of the verse in D. iii, 25; and is comparable to the fable of the ass in the lion's skin.

[37] On sankassara, cf. Dhp. Comy. iii, 485, on ver. 312. 'Mischief-making' in Pss. of the Brethren, ver. 277, is less accurate.

[38] 'Took his shape, making the deva contradict himself.' Comy.

[39] Such as pulling out hairs (cf. Pss. of the Sisters, p. 65), going naked, eating like dogs from the ground, lying on thorns. Comy.

[40] Cf. Sn. ver. 468f.; 801; 224. Discussed in JPTS, 1884, 103.

[41] 'E.g. the moon and sun, the lord of the Order (Sangharāja), the rainbow.' Comy.

[42] B. reads sabb'eva te te, and Namuci (Māra) in the vocative: te tayā (they by thee).

[43] A former body-servant of the Buddha. Comy. Not included in the list of these given by Dhammapāla (Pss. of the Brethren, p. 350). The name means simply 'village youth.'

[44] Seta. Was this the snowy Kinchenjunga so familiar to us, as it was to the founders of Buddhism?

 


[ed1] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates, referencing SN 1.1.50

[ed2] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates, referencing SN 1.1.4

[ed3] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates, referencing SN 1.1.29

[ed4] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates, here and in the following paragraphs.


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