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Saŋyutta Nikāya
I. Sagātha Vagga
3. Kosala Saŋyutta
1. Bandhana Vagga

The Book of the Kindred Sayings
I. Kindred Sayings with Verses
3. Kosala
1. [Untitled] or Bonds

Translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids
Assisted by Sūriyagoḍa Sumangala Thera

Public Domain

 


 

Sutta 1

Young Creatures[1]

 


[93]

[1.1][than][bodh][olds] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy,[2] sat down at one side. So seated he said to the Exalted One: —

'Does master Gotama also make no claim to be perfectly and supremely enlightened?'

'If there be anyone, sire, to whom such enlightenment might rightly be attributed, it is I.

I verily, sire, am perfectly and supremely enlightened.'

'But, master Gotama, there are recluses and brahmins who also (like yourself) have each their order of disciples, their attendant followers, who are teachers of disciples, well-known and reputed theorizers,[3] highly esteemed by the people — I [94] mean Pūraṇa-Kassapa, Makkhali of the Cowstall, the Nigaṇṭha Nāta's son, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhi's son, Kaccāyana of the Pakudhas,[4] Ajita of the Hairblanket.

Now they, when I have asked this same question of them, have not laid claim to perfect and supreme enlightenment.

How can this be?

For (as compared with them) master Gotama is young in years, and is a novice in the life of religion.'[5] 'There are four young creatures, sire, who are not to be disregarded or despised, because they are youthful.

What are the four?

A noble prince,
a snake,
a fire,
an almsman (bhikhhu).

Yea, sire, these four young creatures are not to be disregarded or despised because they are youthful.' Thus spake the Exalted One. And the Blessed One so saying, the Master spake again on this wise: —

A princely youth, by birth with fortune blest,
Offspring of well-born families, let none
Disdain for being youthful nor despise.
The time may come when he, as lord of men,
Comes to his heritage, and in his wrath
May with a despot's weapons seek revenge
With heavy hand. Hence from such attitude
Let everyone who guards his life refrain.

Or if a man do walk within the woods
And see a snake glide by, let him not say
Disdainful: 'Tis a young one' and despise.
In divers shapes and with an ardent force[6]
[95] Fareth the snake. Should he attacking strike,
He bites the heedless, be it man or maid,
No matter when. Hence from such attitude
Let everyone who guards his life refrain.

A fire ablaze with appetite immense
And swarthy trail let none despise as young
Since it was lit, nor hold of no account.
If it but win to fuel, growing great,
It may attack the heedless, man or maid,
And burn no matter when. From this therefore
Let everyone who guards his life refrain.

The forest burnt by fire, the swarthy-trailed,
After the lapse of many nights and days,
In shoots and seedlings[7] springs once more to life.
But he whom almsman, strong in righteousness,
Burneth with ardent flame,[8] may look in vain
For child, or offspring 'mong his stock. No wealth
His heirs may find; childless and without heirs,
Like to a palm-tree stump such men become.

Hence with these four—the serpent and the fire,
The prince of high estate, the saintly friar —
Let the wise man, his own good-will in sight,
Conduct himself as seemly is and right.

When these things had been said, King Pasenadi, the Kosalan, spoke thus to the Exalted One: —

'Most excellent, lord, most excellent!

Just as if a man were [96] to set up that which has been thrown down, or were to reveal that which is hidden away, or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into the darkness so that those who have eyes could see external forms — just even so, lord, has the truth been made known to me, in many a figure by the Exalted One. I, even I, lord, betake myself to the Exalted One as my refuge, to the Norm and to the Order.

May the Exalted One accept me as a follower, as one who from this day forth as long as life endures has taken his refuge therein.

 


 

Sutta 2

A Man

 


 

[2.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he asked the Exalted One: —[9]

'How many kinds of inward experiences, your reverence, arising in a man arise for his bane, his suffering, his discomfort?'

'Three such experiences, sire; and which are the three?

Greed, hate, dulness.

These three inward experiences arising in a man 'arise for his bane, his suffering, his discomfort.'

As plants o' the rush-tribe,[10] their own fruit become,
Do suffer, so a man of evil heart
Through greed and hate and dulness suffers scathe,
For these none other than himself become.

 


 

Sutta 3

The King

 


 

[3.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he asked the Exalted One: —

'Is there, your reverence, any born thing that can live without[11] decay and death?'

[97] 'There is no life, sire, without decay and death. Even they who are eminent nobles, eminent brahmins, eminent burgesses, men of authority, owning great treasure, great wealth, immense hoards of gold and silver, immense aids to enjoyment, immense supplies of goods and corn, even they, being born, cannot live without decay and death. Even those almsmen, sire, who are Arahants, for whom the intoxicants have perished, who have lived The Life, have done that which was to be done, for whom the burden is laid low, who have won their own highest good,[12] for whom the chain of becoming is utterly destroyed, Who by right insight are free[13] — even in them this composite frame is of a nature to dissolve and be laid aside.'

The king's own cars,[14] gay in their gold and silver,
Wear out with age; so doth our body also
Fare to decay. Norm of the good decays not:
The good, in sooth, one to another tell this.[15]

 


 

Sutta 4

The Dear One

 


 

[4.1][bit][wp][than][bd]THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

[4.2][bit][wp][than][bd] Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he said this to the Exalted One: —

'These were the thoughts, lord, that arose in my heart, while I was privately meditating: —

For whom, now, is the self a dear friend, and for whom is the self a hateful enemy?[16]

[98] And I thought, lord, thus: —

[4.3][bit][wp][than][bd]They whose conduct in deed, word, and thought is evil, for them the self is a hateful enemy.

Even though they were to say:

"Dear to us is the self,"

nevertheless the self is for them a hateful enemy.

Why is this?

Because that which an enemy would do to an enemy, even that are they themselves doing to the self.

Therefore for them is the self a hateful enemy.

[4.4][bit][wp][than][bd]'And they whose conduct in deed, word, and thought is virtuous, for them is the self a dear friend.

Even though they were to say:

"Hateful to us is the self,"

nevertheless for them the self is a dear friend.

Why is this?

Because that which a friend would do to a friend, even that are they themselves doing to the self.

Therefore for them is the self a dear friend.

[4.5][bit][wp][than][bd]'Even so, sire, even so.[17]

They, sire, whose conduct in deed, word, and thought is evil, for them the self is a hateful enemy.

Even though they were to say:

"Dear to us is the self,"

nevertheless the self is for them a hateful enemy.

Why is this?

Because that which an enemy would do to an enemy, even that are they themselves doing to the self.

Therefore for them is the self a hateful enemy.

'And they whose conduct in deed, word, and thought is virtuous, for them is the self a dear friend.

Even though they were to say:

"Hateful to us is the self,"

nevertheless for them the self is a dear friend.

Why is this?

Because that which a friend would do to a friend, even that are they themselves doing to the self.

Therefore for them is the self a dear friend.

[4.6][bit][wp][than][bd] He who would know the self as dear and kind,
Let him not be with evil conduct yoked.
Ill-won in sooth is evil-doer's weal.
Laid low by 'him-who-cometh-at-the-end,'[18]
And life among mankind abandoning,
To such what thing's his own? What takes he hence?
What dogs his steps, like shadow in pursuit?
Man's merits and the sins he here hath wrought: —
That is the thing he owns, that takes he hence,
That dogs his steps, like shadow in pursuit.[19]
Hence let him make good store for life elsewhere.
Sure platform in some other future world,
Rewards of virtue on good beings wait.[20]

 


 

Sutta 5

Self-Guarded

 


[99]

[5.1][than] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he spake thus to the Exalted One: —

'These, lord, were the thoughts that arose in my heart while I was privately meditating: —

"Who are they by whom the self is guarded?

Who are they by whom the self is not guarded?"

And I thought: —

"They whose conduct in deed and word and thought is bad,
by them the self is not guarded.

Yea, though a squadron of elephants, or of cavalry, or of chariots, or of infantry may keep guard for them,
yet is the self by them not guarded.

And why is this?

Because this guard is external;
because it is not an inner guard;
therefore is the self by them not guarded.

'"And they whose conduct in deed and word and thought is good,
by them the self is guarded.

Yea, though no squadron of elephants, or of cavalry, or of chariots, or of infantry keep guard for them,
yet is the self guarded by them.

And why is this?

Because theirs is an inner guard,
not an external guard;
therefore is the self guarded by them."

'Even so, sire, even so, sire.'

"They, sire, whose conduct in deed and word and thought is bad,
by them the self is not guarded.

Yea, though a squadron of elephants, or of cavalry, or of chariots, or of infantry may keep guard for them,
yet is the self by them not guarded.

And why is this?

Because this guard is external;
because it is not an inner guard;
therefore is the self by them not guarded.

'"And they whose conduct in deed and word and thought is good,
by them the self is guarded.

Yea, though no squadron of elephants, or of cavalry, or of chariots, or of infantry keep guard for them,
yet is the self guarded by them.

And why is this?

Because theirs is an inner guard,
not an external guard;
therefore is the self guarded by them."

Blessed is self-control in deed and word
And thought, yea, in all ways 't is blest.
'Guarded ' we call the conscientious man[21]
Who in all ways doth practise self-control.

 


 

Sutta 6

Few

 


 

[6.1][than] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he spake thus to the Exalted One: —

'These, lord, were the thoughts that arose in my heart, while I was privately meditating:

"Few are those persons in this world who,
when they have gained great wealth and treasure,
are not carried away and become intoxicated thereby,
and indulge in greed of sense-desires,
and misconduct them- [100] selves among their fellow men.

But very many are they who,
when they have gained great wealth and treasure,
are carried away and become intoxicated thereby,
and indulge in greed of sense-desires,
and misconduct themselves among their fellow men."'[ed1]

'Even so, sire, even so, sire.

"Few, sire, are those persons in this world who,
when they have gained great wealth and treasure,
are not carried away and become intoxicated thereby,
and indulge in greed of sense-desires,
and misconduct themselves among their fellow men.

But very many are they who,
when they have gained great wealth and treasure,
are carried away and become intoxicated thereby,
and indulge in greed of sense-desires,
and misconduct themselves among their fellow men."'

Infatuated in their worldly wealth,
Greedy and languishing in sense-desire,
Discerning not that they have gone too far,
No more than deer discern the trap prepared: —
Evil the aftermath to them must be,
And bitter[22] verily the ripened fruit.

 


 

Sutta 7

At the Seat of Judgment

 


 

[7.1][than] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he spake thus to the Exalted One: —

'I have been sitting, lord, in the judgment-hall,[23] and I saw how eminent nobles and brahmins and burgesses, men of authority, owning great treasure, great wealth, immense aids to enjoyment, immense supplies of goods and corn, deliberately told lies through and because of and in connection with their worldly desires.

And I said, lord, to myself: —

"Enough of the judgment-hall for me! My valiant friend may win fame as a judge!"'[24]

'Those nobles and brahmins and burgesses, sire, of whom you speak as deliberately telling lies through and because [101] of and in connection with their worldly desires —
for them this will for many a long day become a source of bane and ill.'

Infatuated in their worldly wealth,
Greedy and languishing in sense-desires,
Discerning not that they have gone too far.
Like fish who've swum into a basket-snare:[25]
Evil the aftermath to them will be,
And bitter verily the ripened fruit.

 


 

Sutta 8

Mallikā

 


 

[8.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King the Kosalan Pasenadi, happened to be upon the upper terrace of his palace with Mallikā, the queen. And he asked her:

'Is there now anyone dearer, Mallikā, to you than the soul?[26]'

'There is no one, sire, dearer to me than my soul.

And to you, sire, is there anyone dearer than your soul.'

'Nor to me either, Mallikā, is there any one dearer than my soul.'

[102] Then the king went down from the terrace and sought the Exalted One and told him of this talk.

And the Exalted One understanding the matter uttered in that hour this verse: —

The whole wide world we traverse with our thought,
And nothing find to man more dear than soul.
Since aye so dear the soul to others is,
Let the soul-lover harm no other man.

 


 

Sutta 9

Sacrifice

 


 

[9.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now at that time a great sacrifice was arranged to be held for the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi.

Five hundred bulls, five hundred bullocks and as many heifers, goats, and rams, were led to the pillar to be sacrificed.

And they that were slaves and menials and craftsmen, hectored about by blows and by fear, made the preparations with tearful faces weeping.

Now a number of almsmen having risen early and dressed and taken bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms.

And after their return they sought the presence of the Exalted One and said this:[ed2]

Here Bhante a great sacrifice is being arranged to be held for the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi.

Five hundred bulls, five hundred bullocks and as many heifers, goats, and rams, are being led to the pillar to be sacrificed.

And they that are slaves and menials and craftsmen, hectored about by blows and by fear, make the preparations with tearful faces weeping.

Then the Exalted One, understanding the matter, uttered in that hour these verses: —

The sacrifices called 'the Horse' the Man,
The Peg-thrown Site, the Drink of Victory,
The Bolts Withdrawn,[27] and all the mighty fuss: —
[103] These are not rites that bring a rich result.
Where divers goats and sheep and kine are slain,
Never to such a rite as that repair
The noble seers who walk the perfect way.

But rites where is no bustle nor no fuss,
Are offerings meet, bequests perpetual,[28]
Where never goats and sheep and kine are slain.
To such a sacrifice as this repair
The noble seers who walk the perfect way.
These are the rites entailing great results.
These to the celebrant are blest, not cursed.
Th' oblation runneth o'er; the gods are pleased.

 


 

Sutta 10

Bonds

 


 

[10.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now at that time the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi, had had many of the people seized and bound with ropes, with chains, and in other ways taken prisoners.

Now a number of almsmen having risen early and dressed and taken bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms.

And after their return they sought the presence of the Exalted One and said this:[ed3]

'Here, Bhante, the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi, has had many of the people seized and bound with ropes, with chains, and in other ways taken prisoners.'

And he, understanding the matter, uttered in that hour these verses: —

Not such a mighty bond—the wise have told —
Is forged of iron, wrought of wood or hemp,
As binds all those who live infatuate
With love of pelf[29]:—of precious stones and rings —[30]
Whose thoughts are bent on children and on wives.[31]
[104] Even this mighty bond — the wise have said —
Down-dragging, subtle, and yet hard to loose,
They who renounce the world sever in twain,
Their hearts averted from all sensuous joys.[32]

 


[1] 'Such as mutual inquiries after health, etc. By all such a pleasant even current is set flowing, as of blended hot and cold streams of water.' Comy.

[2] The word pi means inclusion with the other six teachers. The meaning is: 'thus you too do not (na) claim?' Comy.

[3] Titthakarā. One of the secondary meanings of tittha (landing place, ford) is 'unsound view,' or the teacher of it. See JPTS, 1913-14, p. 117, n. 5. B. paraphrases by laddhikarā: opinion-, or hypothesis-makers. On these six teachers see Dialogues i, 66 f.; and above, II, 3, Ī 10. The soubriquets of the second and sixth were, says B., from birthplace and habitual garment respectively. The third was leader of the (later so-called) Jains. B. gives the traditional account of the King's interview with them alluded to. It seems to show that the idea of a Buddha's advent was 'in the air' at that time.

[4] Comy.: Pakudhassa gottassa. Feer elects to call him Kakudha; but in his index he gives Kakuddha, or Pakuddha.

[5] This point is historically interesting, as illustrating the long loyal friendship of Pasenadi. In M. ii, 124, we see him venerating the Buddha as one eighty years of age, like himself. On this king, whose personal name was probably Agnidatta, see Bud. India, 8-11. His sister, Princess Sumanā, was present, and there resolved to leave the world (as if the Sisters' Order was already started). See Pss. of the Sisters, p. 19 — a result scarcely to have been expected from the discourse.

[6] The Comy. takes urago as a generic term for several species of reptiles. It is not easy to render justly the notion of tejasi, tejasā: lit. with heat, or flame. Cf. the varied renderings of the term symbolically used in the Upanishads: (e.g. in Chāndogya III, 1, 3), Max Müller: 'glory of countenance'; Deussen: 'Kraft'; Böthlingk: 'Glanz.' Cf. ib. vii, 11, 1, 2; B.rhad. vi, 4, 6.

[7] Pārohā.

[8] Comy.: sīlatejena. As in our 'heaping coals of fire on the head' of the wrong-doer, 'such a bhikkhu is one who is incapable of retaliation, when injured, by anger or violence': — so the Comy., to exclude the interpretation that a rishi's curse is here meant.

[9] As all the Suttas in this Chapter are associated with conversations at the Jeta Grove (Vihara), it is needless to repeat the preliminaries. The text merely states the name of the town. [Ed. All these needlessly repeated preliminaries have been restored in this edition.]

[10] I.e. the bamboo and the rush, both of the order 'Juncus.' The generic Pali word is taca-sāra, husk-pith, i.e. a plant having its pith attached to the walls of its hollow stem.

[11] This descriptive formula occurs in Dialogues i, 175, 177, but with the term mahāsālā omitted.

[12] Sadatthā.

[13] This sentence is one of the formulas of Arahantship that run all through the four Nikayas. B. has a comment on each of the beads in this 'rosary.'
The 'burden' of the five aggregates (mind and body), of the kilesas or ten leading passions, of purposive worldly activities, of the pleasures of sense: — all these may be viewed as burdens by the Arahant. Comy.

[14] Dhp. 151. The sight of Pasenadi's waiting chariots richly adorned suggested the simile. Comy.

[15] B. gives three interpretations of this line. I follow that of the Dhp. Comy, (iii, 123): — sabbhihi saddhiy ... evaɱ kathenti.

[16] I assign no metaphysical import to this dramatization of consciousness into a dual subject. Cf. my Buddhist Psychology (1914) p. 28 f. Cf. below 1, Ī 8: 'self' and 'soul' are the same word: attā. It should be noticed that in the verses the emphasis is shifted from the 'self,' animistically understood, to a man's acts — his present self — and results of acts which make up his future self.

[17] The Buddha repeats the King's words in the text. 'They thus become a logion of the All-Knower.' Comy. [Ed. the abbreviated contents is restored in this edition.]

[18] Antaka: 'ender,' a name of death or Māra. Cf. Pss. of the Sisters, 59, 62 ('Destroyer'), and below, IV, 1, Ī 1, etc.

[19] See Dhp. 2.

[20] The last five lines recur below, II, 2, Ī 10; the last three, III, 3, Ī 2; the last two, above, I, 4, Ī 2; 5, Ī 3.

[21] Lajjī.

[22] In the text the position of 'bitter' and 'evil' are reversed.

[23] Atthakaraṇe. The Comy. reads aṭṭa°: daīs or platform. The Siamese ed. of Dīgha Nikāya, in the Mahāpadāna S., also reads aṭṭa°.x

[24] Bhadramukha, referred to in the Comy. as senāpati. This is probably a reference to Bandhula the general taking over the duties of a judge and repealing miscarriages of justice. See Jātaka iv, 150, The Rev. S. Sumangala tells me that bhudra-mukha (handsome-faced) is a polite colloquialism like our 'my learned, or honourable, or distinguished friend.' Or the remark may be meant more generally: —
'I am sick of it. Let any fine fellow show what he can do as judge! If they go such lengths to my face who am their feudal lord, what will they not do among themselves! What have I to do with such bribe-eating liars!' Comy.

[25] Reading, of course, khipaɱ for khippaɱ. Cf. Anguttara, i, 287 (III, 'Yodhājīva-vagga,' 5).x

[26] The Comy. gives in brief the story of Queen Mallikā's humble antecedents, piety and swift promotion as told in the Kummasāpinda Jātaka (No. 415). But the Sutta itself is repeated only in the Udāna (V. 1). The Comy. pictures the King as seeking a confession of love for himself from the woman he had so benefited, and a confirmation of mutual trust; the Queen, on the other hand, as very wise and pious, going to the roots of the matter (sa-rasen'eva kathetabbo). No exegesis, however, is given on the import of the attā (soul or self) that is so supremely dear. For mothers, for all devoted lovers and friends, Mallikā would know that, as meaning one's own life or living self, what she said was untrue. If the Ātman, or immanent God be meant, it was true only of the pious non-Buddhist Indian. In rendering it 'soul,' I have had in mind rather that meaning of ideal self, 'honour,' 'character,' which seems latent both in the Christian text 'What shall a man give in exchange for his soul?' and in the inscription to the famous war-cartoon of Punch (1914): King Albert to Emperor William II. — 'Not my soul!' — than anything of definite animistic or Ātmanistic doctrine.

[27] The Comy. here tells the story of the Pasenadi's dream as given in the Lohakumbhi Jātaka, where the mythical King Brahmadatta is made to dream a similar dream. See also Dhammapada Comy. on verse 60. In the Saŋyutta Comy. the fevered sleep of the dreamer is explained by his cherishing an illicit passion and plotting harm to the woman's husband. When the dream is explained by the Buddha, the King is described as hastily breaking off the preparations for the sacrifice. The ritual terms of the text are discussed at some length. Contrary to our moden theories, they are declared to have been in primitive times, peaceful rites, but to have been changed, in the days of Okkāka the Sākyan, into bloody sacrifices. On the 'Drink of Victory' see Questions of King Milinda, ii, 16, n. 3. The 'Peg-thrown Site' (sammāpāsaɱ) is explained as the binding or building of an altar where a sammā (wooden pin or peg) falls when thrown. The 'Bolts withdrawn' are said to have referred to a festivity of mutual trust and unlocked doors, but since those days to mean merely sacrificial paraphernalia.

[28] Anukūlaɱ sadā: 'perpetual meals, etc., established by persons in the past, given regularly.' Comy.

[29] Sāratta-rattā.

[30] Cf. Theragāthā, ver. 187.

[31] Cf. Sutta-Nipāta, ver, 38, and the translation in Jātaka, No. 201. Dr. Rouse is more fettered by his double rhymes. Here, sans rhyme, I have been able to be more literally accurate.

[32] Tradition assigns this royal raid to the sudden disappearance of the King's turban-diadem. So our Comy. and the Mahāsāra Jātaka Introduction (No. 381). The verses, however, belong to the Bandhanāgāra Jātaka (No. 201), with which Dhammapada Comy. on ver. 345, 346 agrees.

 


[ed1] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates. Here it is expanded in her words according to the Pali.

[ed2] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates. Here it is expanded in her words according to the Pali.

[ed3] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates. Here it is expanded in her words according to the Pali.


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