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— UNABBREVIATED

Saŋyutta Nikāya
I. Sagātha Vagga
3. Kosala Saŋyutta
2. Aputtaka-Vaggo

The Book of the Kindred Sayings
I. Kindred Sayings with Verses
3. Kosala
2. [Untitled] or Childless

Translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids
Assisted by Sūriyagoḍa Sumangala Thera
Public Domain

 


[104]

Sutta 11

He of the Matted Hair

 


 

[11.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying at Sāvatthī, in the Eastern Park, at the Terraced House of Migāra's mother.[1]

Now on that occasion the Exalted One at eventide had arisen from his meditations and was seated in the loggia outside the eastern door.[2]

And the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came to visit the Exalted One, and having saluted him, took a seat at one side.

Now just then there passed by, not far from the Exalted One, seven ascetics of those who wore the hair matted, seven of the Niganthas, seven naked ascetics, seven of the Single Vestment class,[3] and seven Wanderers, all with hairy bodies and long nails, carrying friars' kit.[4]

Then the king, rising [105] from his seat, and draping his robe over one shoulder, knelt down on his right knee, and holding forth clasped hands, thrice called out his name to those ascetics:

'I am the king, your reverences, the Kosalan Pasenadi.'[5]

And when they were gone by, he came back to the Exalted One, and saluting him, sat down as before.

So seated, he asked the Exalted One: —

'Are those persons, lord, either among this world's Arahants, or among those who are in the Path of Arahantship?'

'Hard is it, sire, for you who are a layman, holding worldly possessions, dwelling amidst the encumbrances of children, accustomed to Benares sandalwood, arrayed in garlands and perfumed unguents, using gold and silver, to know whether those are Arahants, or are in the Path of Arahantship.

'It is by life in common with a person, sire,
that we learn his moral character;
and then only after a long interval
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.

It is by converse with another, sire,
that we learn whether he is pure-minded;
and then only after a long interval
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.

It is in time of trouble, sire,
that we learn to know a man's fortitude
and then only after a long interval,
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.

It is by intercourse, sire,
that we learn to know a man's wisdom,
and then only after a long interval,
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.'

'It is wonderful, lord, it is marvellous how excellently the Exalted One has spoken as to a layman's difficulties in learning to know anyone well and truly.[ed1]

'It is by life in common with a person,
that we learn his moral character;
and then only after a long interval
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.

It is by converse with another,
that we learn whether he is pure-minded;
and then only after a long interval
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.

It is in time of trouble,
that we learn to know a man's fortitude
and then only after a long interval,
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.

It is by intercourse,
that we learn to know a man's wisdom,
and then only after a long interval,
if we pay good heed and are not heedless,
if we have insight and are not unintelligent.'

Mrs. Rhys Davids misses the picture here. These so called 'ascetics' are the king's spys. He has arranged a test of the Buddha.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

There are men of mine, lord, who are spies, informants, and when they have investigated a district they come to me.

First they give in [106] their reports, and thereafter I form conclusions.

They meanwhile, when they have cleansed themselves of dust and dirt,
are well bathed and anointed,
trimmed as to hair and beard,
and arrayed in white garments,
will be waited upon and provided and surrounded with every kind of enjoyment.'

Thereupon the Exalted One, understanding the matter, uttered these verses: —

Not by his outward guise is man well known.
In fleeting glance let none place confidence.
In garb of decent well-conducted folk
The unrestrained live in the world at large.
As a clay earring made to counterfeit,
Or bronze half penny coated o'er with gold,
Some fare at large hidden beneath disguise,
Without, comely and fair; within, impure.[6]

 


 

Sutta 12

The five Rajas[7]

 


 

[12.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

There on one occasion, five rājas, the Pasenadi being the chief among them, were indulging in various forms of amusement, provided for and surrounding them; and they fell to discussing among themselves:

'Which of the pleasures of sense is the highest?'[8]

There are five kings, four less Pasanadi, and four opinions. Since it is unlikely that any one of them would simultaneously hold that two different things were the highest, the translation of 'Ekacce' should rather be 'a certain one' 'one of such' rather than 'some'.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Then some said: 'things seen'
and some 'things heard,'
some said 'odours'
some 'tastes,'
and some 'things felt.'

[107] And when[9] those rajas were unable to convince each other, the Pasenadi said:

'Let us go, dear sirs, and visit the Exalted One, and refer the matter of our inquiry to him. And let us accept his decision, whatever that may be.'

And the rajas assented, saying:

'So be it, dear sir.'

So they repaired to the Exalted One and, saluting him, took seats at one side.

Then the Pasenadi told him of their discussion, and asked him:[ed2]

'Which of the pleasures of sense is the highest?'

'The highest sensuous pleasure, sire, is in my judgment the limit-point in anyone's enjoyment.

Objects of sight are enjoyable for some,
for others they are not so.

And when anyone is so gratified and so satisfied to all intents and purposes by any given objects of sight,
that he does not wish for any other,
any better thing to see than just those objects,
then those objects are for him supreme,
those objects are for him superlative.

The same, in my judgment, holds true, for the other four kinds of sense-objects.'[10][ed3]

Now on that occasion a lay-adherent named Candanangalika[11] was seated among the company.

And he, rising from his seat and draping his robe over one shoulder, stretched forth his clasped hands toward the Exalted One saying:

'An idea is revealed to me, Exalted One!
An idea is revealed to me, Blessed One!'

'Let it be revealed, Candanangalika!' said the Exalted One.

Then Candanangalika, before the Exalted One, uttered praise in suitable verse: —

Like the red lotus, sweet-scented, full-blown,
At dawn of day, unspent its perfume's treasure,
Behold him! th' Angīrasa shedding radiance
As shines the sun filling, all heaven with glory.

[108] Thereupon the five rajas wrapped their robes around Candanangalika.

But Candanangalika wrapped those five robes around the Exalted One.

 


 

Sutta 13

Heavy Meal

 


 

[13.1][ati-olen] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

There on one occasion, the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi, dined off a large quantity of curried rice.

Thereupon, replete and puffing, he came to see the Exalted One, saluted him, and took his seat at one side.

Then the Exalted One, discerning the king's state of repletion and sterterous breathing, uttered in that hour this verse: —

To sons of men who ever mindful five,
Measure observing in the food they take,
All minished becomes the power of sense.
Softly old age steals on, their days prolonged.

Now just then prince Sudassana was standing behind the king.

And the king bade him, saying:

'Come you, dear Sudassana, learn this verse from the Exalted One,
and recite it to me when you bring me my dinner,
and I will arrange that a hundred pence[12] be instituted as a daily dole for you in perpetuity.'

'So be it, your majesty,' responded Sudassana, and he forthwith carried out the king's bidding.

Thereupon the king made it a rule to eat no more than one nāḷika.

And on a later occasion it came to pass that the king,
his body in good condition,
stroked his healthy limbs and fervently exclaimed:

'Ah! surely for my salvation[13] both in this life and hereafter hath the Exalted One shown compassion unto me!'[14]

 


[109]

Sutta 14

About War (1)[ed4]

 


 

[14.1][ati] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, son of the Accomplished Princess,[15] mustering an army of cavalry and infantry[16] advanced into Kasi against tie king, the Kosalan Pasenadi.[17]

And the Pasenadi, hearing of the expedition, mustered a similar army and went to meet him.

So they two fought one with another, and Ajatasattu defeated the Pasenadi, who retreated to his own capital, Savatthi.

And almsmen returning from their alms-round in Savatthi, came and told the Exalted one of the battle and the retreat.

'Almsmen, the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, son of the Accomplished Princess, is a friend to, an intimate of, mixed up with, whatever is evil.[18]

The king, the Kosalan Pasenadi, is a friend to, an intimate of, mixed up with, whatever is good.

But for the present the Pasenadi will pass this night[19] in misery, a defeated man.

Conquest engenders hate; the conquered lives
In misery. But whoso is at peace
[110] And passionless, happily doth he live;
Conquest hath he abandoned and defeat.

 


 

Sutta 15

About War (2)[20][ed4]

 


 

[15.1][ati] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, son of the Accomplished Princess, mustering an army of cavalry and infantry advanced into Kasi against tie king, the Kosalan Pasenadi.

And the Pasenadi, hearing of the expedition, mustered a similar army and went to meet him.

But in that battle the Kosalan Pasenadi defeated Ajatasattu, son of the Accomplished Princess, and captured him alive.[21]

Then the Pasenadi thought:

'Although this king injures me who was not injuring him, yet is he my nephew.

What if I were now to confiscate his entire army — elephants, horses, chariots and infantry — and leave him only his life?'

And he did so.

And almsmen returning from their alms-tour in Savatthi, brought word of this to the Exalted One.

Thereupon the Exalted One, understanding the matter in that hour, uttered these verses: —

A man may spoil[22] another, just so far
As it may serve his ends, but when he's spoiled
By others he, despoiled, spoils yet again.
So long as evil's fruit is not matured,
The fool doth fancy 'now's the hour, the chance!'
But when the deed bears fruit, he fareth ill.
The slayer gets a slayer in his turn;
The conqueror gets one who conquers him;
Th' abuser wins abuse, th' annoyer, fret.
Thus by the evolution of the deed,[23]
A man who spoils is spoiled in his turn.

 


 

Sutta 16

The Daughter

 


 

[16.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

When the Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park and the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi, had come to visit him, one of the [111] king's men arrived and, approaching the king, announced to his private ear that Queen Mallikā had given birth to a daughter. And the king was not pleased.

Thereupon the Exalted One, discerning the matter, uttered on that occasion these verses: —

A woman child, 0 lord of men, may prove
Even a better[24] offspring than a male.
For she may grow up wise and virtuous,
Her husband's mother reverencing, true wife.
The boy that she may bear may do great deeds,
And rule great realms, yea, such a son
Of noble wife becomes his country's guide.

 


 

Sutta 17

Diligence (1)

 


 

[17.1][ati][bd] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he said to the Exalted One: —

'Is there now, lord, any one quality by which we may acquire and keep both kinds of welfare, welfare in this life and in life to come?[25]

'Yes, sire, there is such a quality.'

'But what quality, lord, is that?

'Diligence,[26] sire, is the one quality by which you can acquire and keep welfare both in this life and in life to come.

As the elephant,
of such creatures as can walk,
combines all pedal characters in its foot,
and as the elephant's foot[27] in [112] point of size
is the chief among all kinds of feet,
even so, sire, this one quality
acquires and keeps welfare
both in this life and in life to come.'

Whoso to length of days aspires, to health,
To beauty, or to heaven, or to the joys
Of the highborn, if he in virtuous deeds
Show diligence, he wins the wise men's praise.
He that is wise and diligent doth win
Twofold advantage: wins that which is good
In this life and wins good in life to come.
The strong in mind doth win the name of Wise,
Because he grasps wherein his vantage lies.[28]

 


 

Sutta 18

Diligence (2)

 


 

[18.1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, came into the presence of the Exalted One, and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side. So seated he said to the Exalted One: —

'These, lord, were the thoughts that arose in my heart while I was privately meditating: —

Well is the Norm proclaimed by the Exalted One, and it is to him that is a friend to, an intimate of, an associate with, that which is righteous,[29] that he has proclaimed it, not to him that is a friend, an intimate, an associate of that which is wicked.'

'That is so, sire, that is so.

Well hath the Norm been proclaimed by me, and it is to him that is a friend, an intimate, an associate of that which is righteous, that I have proclaimed [113] it, not to him that is a friend, an intimate, an associate of that which is wicked.'

'As to that, sire, I was once staying with the Sākyans in one of their townships.[30] And Ānanda, the bhikkhu, came to me, saluted, and took his seat at one side, and said to me:

"About the half, lord, of this life in religion consists in righteous friendship, righteous intimacy, righteous association."[31]

'To Ānanda, saying this, sire, I replied:

"Not so, Ānanda,! verily not so, Ānanda,!

Verily the whole of this life in religion consists in righteous friendship, righteous intimacy, righteous association.

From a bhikkhu, Ānanda,, who is a friend to righteousness, we expect that he will develop[32] and expand the Ariyan eightfold path of one who is a friend, an intimate, an associate of that which is righteous.

'And how, Ānanda,, does a bhikkhu who is a friend, an intimate, an associate of that which is righteous, expand the Ariyan eightfold path?

He is taught, Ananda, to develop right views based on detachment,[33] based on passionlessness, based on cessation, involving maturity of surrender[34];
to develop in the same way,
right plans,
right speech,
action and livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness,
and right concentration.

It is thus, Ānanda,, that a bhikkhu who is a friend, an intimate, [114] an associate of that which is righteous, develops and expands the Ariyan eightfold path.

And it is in just this way, Ānanda,, that thou must understand how the whole of this life in religion is concerned with friendship, intimacy, association with whatsoever is lovely and righteous.

'Verily, Ānanda,, it is because[35] I am a friend of what is lovely and righteous that beings liable to rebirth are delivered from rebirth,
that beings liable to grow old are delivered from old age,
that beings liable to sickness are delivered from sickness,
that beings liable to death are delivered from death,
that beings liable to grief and mourning,v
sorrow and suffering,
and despair,
are released from grief and mourning,
sorrow and suffering,
and despair.

It is in just this way, Ānanda,, that thou must understand how the whole of this life in religion is concerned with friendship, intimacy, association with whatsoever is lovely and righteous.[36]

'Wherefore it behoves you too, sire, to train yourself thus:

"I will become a friend, an intimate, an associate of that which is righteous."

To become this, you must take into your life diligence in good things.

'If you, sire, lead a diligent life, your court ladies will say:

'The diligent king lives in habitual diligence.

Come, then, let us live likewise!"

And your court nobles, and your subjects in town and country will say the same.

And you, sire, living thus in habitual diligence,
yourself will be guarded and preserved,
the house of your women will be guarded and preserved,
and your treasury and your storehouses also.'

As one who doth aspire to win good things,
A noble store in never-failing flow,
Wise men do praise his diligence in deeds
Of merit. He that's wise and diligent
Twofold advantage wins: — that which is good
in this life, and the good in life to come.
[115] The strong in mind doth win the name of Wise
Because he grasps wherein his vantage lies.

 


 

Sutta 19

Childless (1)

 


 

[19.1][ati] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, once visited the Exalted One, at noonday[37] and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side.

And the Exalted One said to him:

'How now, sire, whence come you at this hour of the day?'

'See here, lord: at Sāvatthī there has just died a burgess who was a wealthy man.

He died intestate, and I come from seeing that his moneyed property was conveyed to my palace — eight millions in gold, lord, to say nothing of the silver.

And yet that burgess's food consisted of sour husk-gruel left over from the day before.[38]

And his clothing — hempen garments in three lengths.[39]

And his carriage — he drove about in a rotten little chariot rigged up with a leaf-awning!'

'Even so, sire, even so.

A mean man[40] who has acquired a great fortune
cheers and pleases (therewith) neither himself nor his parents,
nor his wife and children,
nor his slaves,
craftsmen and servants,
nor his friends and colleagues;
nor does he institute for recluses and brahmins any offering stimulating spiritual growth,
productive of future bliss,
fruitful in happiness,
conducive to celestial attainment.

Those riches of his,
not being rightly utilized,
are either confiscated by kings or by robbers,[41]
or are burnt by fire,
or carried away by flood,
or are appropriated by heirs for whom he hath no affection.

That being so, sire,
riches that are not rightly utilized run to waste,
not to enjoyment.

'It is like a lake, sire„ of clear, cold, delicious, crystalline[42] [116] water, with good shores and most lovely, but lying in a savage region.

None could come to draw or drink from it, bathe in it, or make any use of it whatever.

Even so are the riches of a mean man who has acquired a great fortune
cheers and pleases (therewith) neither himself nor his parents,
nor his wife and children,
nor his slaves,
craftsmen and servants,
nor his friends and colleagues;
nor does he institute for recluses and brahmins any offering stimulating spiritual growth,
productive of future bliss,
fruitful in happiness,
conducive to celestial attainment.

Those riches of his,
not being rightly utilized,
are either confiscated by kings or by robbers,
or are burnt by fire,
or carried away by flood,
or are appropriated by heirs for whom he hath no affection.

That being so, sire,
riches that are not rightly utilized run to waste,
not to enjoyment.

'But if a.generous man have acquired a great fortune,
he cheers and pleases (therewith) not only himself but also his parents,
his wife and children,
his slaves,
craftsmen and servants,
his friends and colleagues.

He institutes offerings for recluses and brahmins stimulating spiritual growth,
productive of future bliss,
fruitful in happiness,
conducive to celestial attainment.[43]

'It is like a lake, sire„ of clear, cold, delicious, crystalline water, with good shores and most lovely,
which lies near to village or township,
where folk can draw and drink from it,
bathe in it,
and use it for any other purpose.

Such riches go to enjoyment and not to waste.

Like waters fresh lying in savage region[44]
Where none can drink, running to waste, and barren,
Such is the wealth gained by a man of base mind.
On self he spends nothing, nor aught he giveth.

The wise, the strong-minded, who hath won riches
He useth them, thereby fulfils his duties.
His troop of kin fostering, noble-hearted,[45]
Blameless, at death faring to heav'nly mansion.[46]

 


 

Sutta 20

Childless (2)

 


 

[20.1][ati] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

2. Now the King, the Kosalan Pasenadi, once visited the Exalted One, at noonday and after exchanging greetings with him and compliments of friendship and courtesy, sat down at one side.

And the Exalted One said to him:

'How now, sire, whence come you at this hour of the day?'

'See here, lord: at Sāvatthī there has just died a burgess who was a wealthy man.

He died intestate, and I come from seeing that his moneyed property was conveyed to my palace — eight millions in gold, lord, to say nothing of the silver.

And yet that burgess's food consisted of sour husk-gruel left over from the day before.

And his clothing — hempen garments in three lengths.

And his carriage — he drove about in a rotten little chariot rigged up with a leaf-awning!'

[117] 'Even so, sire, even so.

This wealthy burgess in a former birth bestowed alms on a Silent Buddha named Tagarasikkhi.[47]

Saying: 'Give ye alms to the recluse!' he rose up and went away.

But afterwards he repented of his gift, saying: "It were better that the slaves and workmen had eaten it."

Moreover he slew the only son of his brother because of his fortune.

'Now, sire, by the effect of his action in bestowing alms on the Silent Buddha, Tagarasikkhi, he was reborn seven times to a happy destiny in heavenly worlds,
and by the residual result he has seven times caused this Savatthi to make him eminently rich.

'By the effect of his action in repenting afterwards of that gift, thinking
"it were better that the slaves and workmen had eaten it,"
he inclined his heart to denying himself excellent food, clothes, carriages, and enjoyment of his sense-desires.

'By the effect of his action in slaying his brother's only son because of his fortune,
he has [already] been punished many years, many hundred, many thousand, many hundred thousand years in purgatory.

And by the residual result he has caused this seventh intestate property to enter the royal treasury.[48]

'Of this wealthy burgess, sire, the ancient merit is used up, and fresh merit is not accumulated.

To-day, sire, the burgess is suffering in the Great Roruva purgatory.'[49]

'Even so, lord, he is there reborn.'

'Even so, sire, he is there reborn.'

Grain-store and hoarded wealth, silver and gold,
Or whatsoever property there be,
[118] Or all whose living doth on him depend:
His slaves, his craftsmen and hired menials —
All this he hath to leave, naught can he take;
All this is matter for abandonment.
But what he doth, by act or word or thought:
That is the thing he owns; that takes he hence;
That dogs his steps like shadow in pursuit.
Hence let him make good store for life elsewhere.
Sure platform in some other future world,
Rewards of virtue on good beings wait.[50]

 


[1] 2 I.e. Visākhā, the great lay-patroness of the young Order. B. gives her story briefly. The Sutta, but with a different stanza, occurs Udāna, vi, 2. The Buddha's prose remarks are developed in a sermon: A. ii, 89 f.

[2] The Comy. directs that we read pāsādadvāra-koṭṭhakassa bahi, and that one of the gates in the wall that surrounded the Vihāra is not meant. Shaded at this east door from the westering sun, the Master was surveying the eastern landscape; and from where he sat the ascetics 'passing along the road near by towards the town' could be seen.

[3] It is said that the Nigaṇṭhas, or Jains, wore only loin-cloths, the Eka-sāṭakas (One-robers) wearing a longer waist-cloth reaching to the knee or lower.

[4] I.e. firesticks, a waterpot, needles, and, of course, the alms-bowl. See Dialogues i. 125.

[5] Why did the king, seated near the greatest man in all the world, do so? To conciliate them, ... in case he should ever leave the worldly life ... also to learn the Exalted One's sentiments.' Comy. One of the Anthology Theras, Brahmadatta, is said to have been 'a son of the king of Kosala.' See Pss. of the Brethren, p. 223.v

[6] The story in Udāna VI, 2, is made to give point to a quite different stanza. In both versions the readings of 'thieves' give either carā or corā, but in Majjhima i, 129, 186, Trenckner gives only corā. That the (well-organized) trade of the corā should be employed as part of the King's 'secret service' is quite intelligible. Ocarakā is discussed in Vinaya iii, 52 (Sutta-vibhanga, Pārājika II.).

[7] Rāja is not necessarily a king in our sense of the word, e.g. the Sākya nobles were all of them alluded to as rājas. (Cf. Buddhist India, p. 12). Pasenadi may have been, as mahārāja, overlord, or feudal chief to the nobles in this Sutta.

[8] The phrase: 'pleasures of sense' is in Pali kāmānaɱ. Kāmas are not exactly objects of sense, but (1) the feeling connected with them in (2) one desiring them. See this ambiguity discussed in Compendium, 81, n. 2. Cf. above, I, 4, Ī 4.

[9] Yato.

[10] This is a good instance of the Vibhajjavāda method associated with Buddhism, of breaking up superficial generalizations by analysing the particularity, or personal equation, in one or both terms. B. has some interesting comments.

[11] I have not met with him elsewhere in the canon. Pron. Chandanangal'ika: little plough of the moon.

[12] Kahapana. On this coin see Bud. India, 100 f. It is the monetary unit in Pali literature. Fractional coins are also mentioned.

[13] Attha, a word of many meanings: matter, meaning, advantage, good, higher, or lower, etc.

[14] A fuller version than is here given in text, or in the Comy., occurs in Dhammapada Comy. iii, 264 f., on verse 204 (cf. M. i, 508), and the verse on gross feeding in Theragāthā, 17, 101, is introduced. Sudassana is called the king's bhagineyya (nephew), and the reduction in diet is given as 3/4, viz. from a doṇa to a nāḷika, the prescribed bhikkhu rations. (Cf. Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins, etc.). Other factors contributing to the King's complacency are said to have been the treaty with Ajātasattu, and the recovery of his turban-jewel (III, 1, Ī 10).

[15] Vedehiputta. Vedehi means, more obviously, 'of Videha.' Bud- dhaghosa resolves it also into veda-iha, vedena ihati, or intellectual effort. Here, he says, 'there can be no question of Videha; the second meaning is right.' Ajātasattu's mother was a sister of the King of Kosala (see Thusa and Tacchasūkara Jātakas, Comy. iii, 121, iv, 342), not a Videhan. Elsewhere the alternative meaning is allowed, namely in Comy. on Dīgha i, 47, on Majjhima 1, 125 (Kakacūpama S.) and on Saŋyutta ii, 215 (Kassapa-Saŋyutta 10). Buddhaghosa's etymology is here, as often, not very plausible. But, assuming the Kosalan connection is historical, can we more plausibly derive Vedehi?

[16] Lit. an army of 4 parts: — enumerated in Ī 5.

[17] Why? asks B., and explains, much in the terms employed by Rh. Davids' Bud. India, p. 3.

[18] He was, inter alia, a parricide, and a supporter of Devadatta, the great schismatic.

[19] Reading ajj'eva for ajja tañ ca. The Commentary passes it over.

[20] The fourth campaign between these two. Comy.

[21] Jīvagāhaɱ.

[22] This may be read vilumpate'va or vilumpat(i) eva. Either way the meaning is clear: — it may seem expedient prima facie to exact a great war indemnity from the fallen foe, but the latter will not rest till he can exact it in return. Hence it only breeds more war.

[23] Kamma-vivaṭṭena.

[24] Reading seyyā, with the Comy., which, again, paraphrases posā by posehi. It reads subhaviyā for subhariyā.

[25] We should say 'temporal and eternal welfare.' The Buddhist never gave future life the monopofy of eternity.

[26] Appamāda is a negative term, meaning not-delay, not-dalliance, non-infatuation, from the root, or roots, mad, mand, 'to be exhilarated.' (See Whitney, Sanskrit Roots, 118.) From this source we get both the terms for such a state and those for its results and by-products: — intoxication, obsession, insanity, want of concentration and earnestness, etc. Cf. below, VI, 2, Ī 5. B. qualifies the term by the (unusual) word kārāpaka-: diligence in making [others] do their work.

[27] A favourite simile, applied also to insight. Saŋy. V, 231, and to the Four Truths among doctrines, Majjhima, i, 184.

[28] The verses recur in Anguttara, iii, 48. The last gāthā illustrates, in Sumañgala Vilāsinī (i, 32) one meaning of abhisamaya (grasp) as paṭilābha (acquiring).

[29] See above, Ī 4. I have chosen 'righteous' as the more usual antithesis in English religious terms to 'wicked' — the less ambiguous pāpa. But the Pali here — kalyāṇa — implies beauty, physical and moral, and hence approximates to our 'lovely,' as, used in our Jacobeah Bible for [[email protected]] prosfilh5 (Phil, iv, 8). The more classical kaloka)gafov — beautiful, good—is its equivalent. 'The Dhamma,' wrote B., 'was well proclaimed to all, but fulfils its object only in the hearers specified, like medicine in those who take it.' Cf. Ī 4, p. 109 with Dial i, 67 f.; 94 f.

[30] Nigaime. It is not quite clear what distinguished the nigama from the gāma, rural unit, and the nagara, walled town. It sometimes from the context, appears to have been a suburb.

[31] According to the Commentary, Ānanda, is supposed to have put this proposition as a question to test his own knowledge. His view put forward is that the recluse's régime yielded a result, a life, which had two parts: good friends and the shaping of individual character (paccatta-purisakāra). But just as no line can be drawn, in a child's character, etc., between that which it derives from either parent, so with life lived according to the Eightfold Path. The total result, as with all vital evolution, is no sum, but a product. B.'s note deserves investigation; it gives the salient 'marks' of each of the eight factors.

[32] Bhāveti.

[33] Viveko.

[34] Surrender, writes B., is twofold: the ejection of all lower passions (kilesas) and the forward leap, or élan, to Nibbāna. See * vossagga-pariṇāmi.

[35] Āgammā.

[36] This interpolated Sutta on Ānanda's proposition is given detached in S. v, 2. It is scarcely in place here.

[37] Divādivassa. See Jāt. ii, 1; Vin. Texts iii, 241.

[38] Kanājakaɱ. Cf. Vin. Texts iii, 9; Jāt. i, 228.

[39] Sewn together in two seams. Comy.

[40] Asappuriso.

[41] There is irony in the same verb being used for the act of king and robber by one conversing with a king, a king who had just been conveying away millions. Cf. I, 5, Ī 1.

[42] Setaka: 'the appearance of the water when broken by waves.' Comy.

[43] These three terms occur with a similar context, in D. i, 51; iii, 66 B.'s comments in Sum. Vil. i, 157 f. and in this work are verbally different. E.g. in that work the second phrase is paraphrased: saggaɱ arahatīti, here: saggassa hitā tatr'appatti jananato.

[44] This line can only scan (in tri.sṭhubh metre) if we read, for vasitaɱ va sitaɱ.

[45] Nisabha. Cf. above, I, 4, Ī 8.

[46] See above, I, 5, Ī 1. This and the following Sutta together form the Mayhaka Jātaka (iii, 299 No. 390), where a more graphic and detailed account is given. Some of the details are supplied in our Comy.

[47] This treatment of the 'Paceheka-Buddha' is also the occasion for an Udāna episode (v, 3; cf. Dhp. Comy. ii, 36). By 'silent' I mean 'with no mission to proclaim.' Pacc(h)eka is lit. individualist, as contrasted with the altruistic work of a Saviour Buddha.

[48] The Jātaka account mentions no seven rebirths with this Savatthi episode, but simply states that the treasures took seven days to be removed. Thus Pasenadi had just seen the completion of the work when he called.

[49] Cf. p. 41, n. 1.

[50] The last five lines = III, 1, § 4. See also below, III, 3, § 2.

 


[ed1] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates. Here it is expanded in her words according to the Pali.

[ed2] Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates without so noting. King Pasanadi explains the situation in precise details from the time of the gathering of the kings to amuse themselves. To expand this properly I would have had to guess at Mrs. Rhys Davids likely translation and feel that this would be going further than is reasonably permitted.

[ed3] Here also Mrs. Rhys Davids abbreviates without noting and in a way it is not reasonable for me to expand. The initial formula is repeated for each of the senses. What is not reasonable for me to do is to use 'objects of hearing' for the Pali 'saddā' 'sounds' as Mrs. Rhys Davids has used 'objects of sight' for 'rupa' or 'forms', etc..

[ed4] Mrs. Rhys Davids combines this sutta with the next as does the PTS Pali Text. The BJT Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro have these as two suttas and that format is followed here.


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