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Saɱyutta Nikāya
II. Nidāna Vagga
XII. Nidāna Saɱyutta
IV. Kaḷarakhattiyo Vagga

The Book of the Kindred Sayings
Part II. The Book Called the Nidāna-Vagga
Containing Kindred sayings on Cause
and Other Subjects
12. The Kindred Sayings on Cause
4. Kaḷāra the Nobleman

Sutta 33

Paṭhama Ñāṇassa Vatthuatthūṇi Suttaṃ

The Bases of Knowledge (1)

Translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids
Assisted by F. L. Woodward

Originally Published by
The Pali Text Society
Public Domain

 


[56] [41]

[1][bodh] Thus have I heard:

The Exalted One was once staying near Sāvatthī
at the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

And there the Exalted One addressed the brethren, saying:

'Brethren!'

'Master!' responded those brethren.

The Exalted One said:

"I will teach you, brethren,
the four and forty bases of knowledge.

Listen to this,
give your minds thoroughly,
and I will speak.

"Even so, lord",
responded the brethren.

The Exalted One spake this:

"What, brethren, are the four and forty bases of knowledge?

Knowledge[ed1] of decay-and-death,
knowledge of the uprising of decay-and-death,
knowledge of the ceasing of decay-and-death
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of decay-and-death.

Knowledge of birth,
knowledge of the uprising of birth,
knowledge of the ceasing of birth
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of birth.

Knowledge of becoming,
knowledge of the uprising of becoming,
knowledge of the ceasing of becoming
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of becoming.

Knowledge of grasping,
knowledge of the uprising of grasping,
knowledge of the ceasing of grasping
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of grasping.

Knowledge of craving,
knowledge of the uprising of craving,
knowledge of the ceasing of craving
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of craving.

Knowledge of feeling,
knowledge of the uprising of feeling,
knowledge of the ceasing of feeling
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of feeling.

Knowledge of contact,
knowledge of the uprising of contact,
knowledge of the ceasing of contact
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of contact.

Knowledge of sense,
knowledge of the uprising of sense,
knowledge of the ceasing of sense
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of sense.

Knowledge of name-and-shape,
knowledge of the uprising of name-and-shape,
knowledge of the ceasing of name-and-shape
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of name-and-shape.

Knowledge of consciousness,
knowledge of the uprising of consciousness,
knowledge of the ceasing of consciousness
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of consciousness.

Knowledge of activities,
knowledge of the uprising of activities,
knowledge of the ceasing of activities
knowledge of the the way going to the ceasing of activities.

These, brethren, are what we call
the four and forty bases of knowledge.

 


 

And what, brethren, is old age-and-death?[1]

That which, of this and that being,
in this and that group,
is decay,
decrepitude,
breaking up,
hoariness,
wrinkling of the skin,
shrinkage of a life-span,
overripeness of faculties:
this is called old age.

That which of this and that being,
from this or that group,
is falling or decease,
separation,
disappearance,
mortality or dying,
accomplishment of time,
separation of component factors,
laying down of the carcase:
this is called death.

Thus it is
this old age and this death
that is called old age-and-death.

From the uprising of birth
uprising of old age-and-death.

From the ceasing of birth
ceasing of old age-and-death.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of old age-and-death,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows decay-and-death thus,
knows the uprising of decay-and-death thus,
knows the ceasing of decay-and-death thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of decay-and-death thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,[2]
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known decay-and-death,
have thoroughly known the uprising of decay-and-death,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of decay-and-death,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of decay-and-death,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know decay-and-death,
will thoroughly know the uprising of decay-and-death,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of decay-and-death,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of decay-and-death,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.[3]

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.[4]

And what, brethren, is birth?

That which, of this and that being
in this and that group,
is birth,
continuous birth,
descent,
reproduction,
appearance of component factors,
acquiring of sense-spheres.

This is called birth.

From the uprising of becoming
uprising of birth.

From the ceasing of becoming
ceasing of birth.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of birth,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows birth thus,
knows the uprising of birth thus,
knows the ceasing of birth thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of birth thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known birth,
have thoroughly known the uprising of birth,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of birth,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of birth,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know birth,
will thoroughly know the uprising of birth,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of birth,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of birth,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what, brethren, is becoming?

Three are these becomings:
becoming in Kāma-[worlds],
becoming in Rūpa-[worlds],
becomng in Arūpa-[worlds].

This is called becoming.

From the uprising of grasping
uprising of becoming.

From the ceasing of grasping
ceasing of becoming.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of becoming,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows becoming thus,
knows the uprising of becoming thus,
knows the ceasing of becoming thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of becoming thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known becoming,
have thoroughly known the uprising of becoming,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of becoming,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of becoming,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know becoming,
will thoroughly know the uprising of becoming,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of becoming,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of becoming,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what, brethren, is grasping?

There are these four graspings:
grasping of desires,
grasping of opinion,
grasping of rule and ritual,
grasping of soul-theory.

This is called grasping.

From the uprising of craving
uprising of grasping.

From the ceasing of craving
ceasing of grasping.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of grasping,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows grasping thus,
knows the uprising of grasping thus,
knows the ceasing of grasping thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of grasping thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known grasping,
have thoroughly known the uprising of grasping,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of grasping,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of grasping,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know grasping,
will thoroughly know the uprising of grasping,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of grasping,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of grasping,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what, brethren, is craving?

There are these six groups of craving:
craving for things seen,
for things heard,
for odours,
for tastes,
for things tangible,
for ideas.

This is called craving.

From the uprising of feeling
uprising of craving.

From the ceasing of feeling
ceasing of craving.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of craving,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows craving thus,
knows the uprising of craving thus,
knows the ceasing of craving thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of craving thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known craving,
have thoroughly known the uprising of craving,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of craving,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of craving,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know craving,
will thoroughly know the uprising of craving,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of craving,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of craving,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what, brethren, is feeling?

There are these six groups of feeling:
feeling that is born of eye-contact,
feeling that is born of ear-contact,
feeling that is born of nose-contact,
feeling that is born of tongue-contact,
feeling that is born of body-contact,
feeling that is born of mind-contact.

This is called feeling.

From the uprising of contact
uprising of feeling.

From the ceasing of contact
ceasing of feeling.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of feeling,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows feeling thus,
knows the uprising of feeling thus,
knows the ceasing of feeling thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of feeling thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known feeling,
have thoroughly known the uprising of feeling,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of feeling,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of feeling,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know feeling,
will thoroughly know the uprising of feeling,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of feeling,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of feeling,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what, brethren, is contact?

There are these six groups of contact:
eye-contact,
ear-contact,
nose-contact,
tongue-contact,
body-contact,
mind-contact.

This is called contact.

From the uprising of sixfold sense
uprising of contact.

From the ceasing of sixfold sense
ceasing of contact.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of contact,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows contact thus,
knows the uprising of contact thus,
knows the ceasing of contact thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of contact thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known contact,
have thoroughly known the uprising of contact,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of contact,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of contact,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know contact,
will thoroughly know the uprising of contact,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of contact,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of contact,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what, brethren, is sixfold sense?

The sense of eye,
ear,
nose,
tongue,
body,
mind.

This is called sixfold sense.

From the uprising of name-and-shape
uprising of sixfold sense.

From the ceasing of name-and-shape
ceasing of sixfold sense.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of sixfold sense,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows sixfold sense thus,
knows the uprising of sixfold sense thus,
knows the ceasing of sixfold sense thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of sixfold sense thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known sixfold sense,
have thoroughly known the uprising of sixfold sense,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of sixfold sense,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of sixfold sense,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know sixfold sense,
will thoroughly know the uprising of sixfold sense,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of sixfold sense,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of sixfold sense,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what, brethren, is name-and-shape?

Feeling,
perception,
will,
contact,
work of mind.

This is called name.

The four great elements
and the shape derived from them.

This is called shape.

This is the name,
this is the shape
called name-and-shape.

From the uprising of consciousness
uprising of name-and-shape.

From the ceasing of consciousness
ceasing of name-and-shape.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of name-and-shape,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows name-and-shape thus,
knows the uprising of name-and-shape thus,
knows the ceasing of name-and-shape thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of name-and-shape thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known name-and-shape,
have thoroughly known the uprising of name-and-shape,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of name-and-shape,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of name-and-shape,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know name-and-shape,
will thoroughly know the uprising of name-and-shape,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of name-and-shape,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of name-and-shape,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what is consciousness?

These are the six groups of consciousness:
— eye-consciousness,
ear-consciousness,
smell-consciousness,
taste-consciousness,
touch-consciousness,
and mind-consciousness.

This is called consciousness.

From the uprising of activities
uprising of consciousness.

From the ceasing of activities
ceasing of consciousness.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of consciousness,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows consciousness thus,
knows the uprising of consciousness thus,
knows the ceasing of consciousness thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of consciousness thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known consciousness,
have thoroughly known the uprising of consciousness,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of consciousness,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of consciousness,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know consciousness,
will thoroughly know the uprising of consciousness,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of consciousness,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of consciousness,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

And what are activities?

These are the three activities:
— those of deed,
speech
and mind.

These are activities.

From the uprising of ignorance
uprising of activities.

From the ceasing of ignorance
ceasing of activities.

Just this Ariyan eightfold path
is the way going to the ceasing of activities,
to wit,
right view,
right aim,
right energy,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right mindfulness,
right concentration.

Now inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple knows activities thus,
knows the uprising of activities thus,
knows the ceasing of activities thus,
knows the way going to the ceasing of activities thus,
herein has he knowledge in the doctrine.

He by this doctrine which is seen,
discerned,
not a matter of time,
won,
plunged into,
shapes his way of thought
both as to the past
and the future,
thus:

'Any recluses and brahmins
who in bygone times
have thoroughly known activities,
have thoroughly known the uprising of activities,
have thoroughly known the ceasing of activities,
have thoroughly known the way going to the ceasing of activities,
they all of them have thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

And any recluses and brahmins
who in the days to come
will thoroughly know activities,
will thoroughly know the uprising of activities,
will thoroughly know the ceasing of activities,
will thoroughly know the way going to the ceasing of activities,
they all of them will thoroughly known it even thus,
even as I do now.

This is his retrospective knowledge.

Inasmuch, brethren, as the Ariyan disciple
has well cleansed,
well purified
these two knowledges -
knowledge in doctrine
and retrospective knowledge -
he is called an Ariyan disciple who has won the view,
who has won vision,
who has arrived at this this gospel,
who sees this this gospel,
who possesses the knowledge of the trained man,
who possesses the wisdom of the trained man,
who has won to the stream of the Norm,
who has the Ariyan insight of revulsion,
who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.

 


[1] Cf. ĪĪ 2, 28..

[2] 'Instant in fruition,' Vis. M. 216.

[3] Anvaye ñāṇaḍṃ, lit. knowledge in the succession, series. According to the Comy. the reflective thought on the course of training ending in mastery (paccavekkhana-ñāṇaṃ: lit. re-down-looking knowledge). Cf. much of the Commentary to the Anthologies, where such retrospect stimulates to metric utterance.

[4] Cf. above, ĪĪ 27, 28.

 


[ed1] Mrs. Rhys Davids qualifies 'in the nature of', but this is not in the Pali; later she abandons this.


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