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Saɱyutta Nikāya:
V. Mahā-Vagga
46. Bojjhaŋga Saɱyuttaa
Chapter VI: Bojjangasakaccam

Kindred Sayings on the Limbs of Wisdom
V. The Great Chapter
46. Kindred Sayings on the Limbs of Wisdom
VI. Perseverance in the Limbs of Wisdom

Sutta 52

Pariyāya Suttaɱ

U-N-A-B-B-R-E-V-I-A-T-E-D

The Method

Translated by F. L. Woodward

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[1][bodh] Thus have I heard:

Once the Exalted One was dwelling near Sāvatthī.

Now a number[1] of monks,
robing themselves in the forenoon,
and taking bowl and outer robe,
set off for Sāvatthī to beg for food.

And it occurred to those monks:

'It is full early to go to Sāvatthī to beg.

Suppose we pay a visit
to the Park of the Wanderers[2] who hold other views.'

[91] So those monks went there
and on coming to them
courteously greeted the Wanderers of other views,
and after the exchange of greetings and civilities,
sat down at one side.

As they thus sat
the Wanderers of other views said this
to those monks:

'Friends, Gotama the recluse
teaches his disciples doctrine
thus:

"Come ye, monks,
Abandoning the five hindrances,
the corruptions of the heart,
which cause weakening of insight,
do ye cultivate the seven limbs of wisdom."

Now, friends, we also thus teach doctrine
to our disciples, saying:

"Come ye, friends!

Abandoning the five hindrances,
the corruptions of the heart
which cause weakening of insight,
do ye cultivate the seven limbs of wisdom."[3]

Now herein, friends,
what is the distinction,[4]
what the peculiarity[5] of,
what is the difference between
Gotama the recluse's teaching of doctrine
and our teaching,
between his instruction
and our instruction?

Thereupon those monks made no reply,
either of approval or of disapproval
to those Wanderers holding other views;
but, without expressing either approval or disapproval,
they rose up and went away,
saying:

'We will learn the meaning of this saying
from the Exalted One.'

 

 

So those monks, after wandering through Sāvatthī for alms, on returning from their alms-round and eating their meal, went to visit the Exalted One, and on coming to him saluted him and sat down at one side.

So seated those monks said this to the Exalted One:

'Lord, here in the forenoon we robed, and taking bowl and [92] outer robe we set off for Sāvatthī to gather alms.

Then, lord, it occurred to us thus.

"It is full early to go to Sāvatthī to beg.

Suppose we pay a visit
to the Park of the Wanderers who hold other views.'

So we went there
and on coming to them
courteously greeted the Wanderers of other views,
and after the exchange of greetings and civilities,
sat down at one side.

As they we sat
the Wanderers of other views said this
to us:

'Friends, Gotama the recluse
teaches his disciples doctrine
thus:

"Come ye, monks,
Abandoning the five hindrances,
the corruptions of the heart,
which cause weakening of insight,
do ye cultivate the seven limbs of wisdom."

Now, friends, we also thus teach doctrine
to our disciples, saying:

"Come ye, friends!

Abandoning the five hindrances,
the corruptions of the heart
which cause weakening of insight,
do ye cultivate the seven limbs of wisdom."

Now herein, friends,
what is the distinction,
what the peculiarity of,
what is the difference between
Gotama the recluse's teaching of doctrine
and our teaching,
between his instruction
and our instruction?

So, lord, we made no reply to those Wanderers holding other views, either of approval or of disapproval, but without expressing approval or disapproval, we rose up and came away, saying:

"We will learn the meaning of this saying from the Exalted One."'

 

 

"Monks, when the Wanderers of other views say this, they should be answered thus:

"But there is a method, friends,
following which the five hindrances are ten in number,
and the seven limbs of wisdom fourteen."

When questioned as to this, monks,
the Wanderers of other views
will be unable to explain themselves,
and further will come to an ill pass.[6]

Why so?

Because, monks, it is beyond their scope.

For I behold not, monks,
anyone in the world,
with its devas and its Māras, its Brahmās,
with its host of recluses and brahmins,
with its devas and mankind,
who could satisfy the mind[7]
with an answer to these questions,
save only a Tathāgata
or a Tathāgata's disciples,
or at any rate after hearing it of them.[8]

I. The Five are Ten

"And what, monks, is the method of explanation
according to which the five hindrances are ten?

Sensual lust of the personal,[9] monks, -
that is a hindrance.

Sensual lust of the external, monks, -
that is a hindrance.

So when we speak of the hindrance of personal lust,
that is what is meant.[10]

Therefore, according to this method it is twofold.

 

 

[93] One's own personal malevolence, monks, -
that is a hindrance.

The malevolence of others, -
that is a hindrance.

When we speak of the hindrance of malevolence,
that is what is meant.

Therefore, according to this method it is twofold.

 

 

Sloth, monks, is a hindrance.

Torpor is a hindrance.

So when we speak of the hindrance
of sloth and torpor,
that is what is meant.

By this method it is twofold.

 

 

Excitement,[11] monks,
is a hindrance.

Flurry is a hindrance.

So when we speak of the hindrance
of excitement and flurry
that is what is meant.

By this method it is twofold.

 

 

Doubt and wavering
in one's own conditions,[12] monks,
is a hindrance.

Doubt and wavering
as to externals[13]
is a hindrance.

Thus when we speak of the hindrance
of doubt and wavering,
that is what is meant.

By this method it is twofold.

This, monks, is the method of explanation
according to which
the five hindrances are ten.

II. The Seven are Fourteen

"And what, monks, is the method of explanation
according to which
the seven limbs of wisdom are fourteen?

Mindfulness, monks, as to one's own personal conditions -
that is the limb of wisdom that is mindfulness.

Mindfulness, monks, as to external conditions, -
that is the limb of wisdom that is mindfulness.

So in speaking of the limb of wisdom which is mindfulness,
that is what is meant.

So by this method it is twofold.

 

 

The limb of wisdom that is Norm-investigation,[14]
in the sense of searching,
investigation,
scrutinizing,
for insight into one's own personal conditions,
that is the limb of wisdom that is Norm-investigation.

The limb of wisdom that is Norm-investigation,
in the sense of searching,
investigation,
scrutinizing,
for insight into externals conditions,
that is the limb of wisdom that is Norm-investigation.

So when we speak of the limb of wisdom that is Norm-investigation,
that is what is meant.

Thus by this method it is twofold.

 

 

[94] Now, monks, that which is bodily[15] energy,
is energy as a limb of wisdom.

That which is mental[16] energy,
that also is energy as a limb of wisdom.

So when we speak of the limb of wisdom which is energy,
that is what is meant.

So by this method it is twofold.[17]

 

 

Now, monks, zest
that is accompanied by thought directed and sustained,[18] -
that is zest as a limb of wisdom.

Zest unaccompanied by thought directed and sustained, -
that also is zest as a limb of wisdom.

So when we speak of the limb of wisdom that is zest,
that is what is meant.

Thus by this method it is twofold.

 

 

Now, monks, tranquillity of body, -
that is a limb of wisdom that is tranquillity.

Tranquillity of mind, -
that also is a limb of wisdom that is tranquillity.

So when we speak of the limb of wisdom that is tranquillity,
that is what is meant.

Thus by this method it is twofold.[19]

 

 

Again, monks, concentration
accompanied by thought directed and sustained, -
that is concentration as a limb of wisdom.

Concentration
unaccompanied by thought directed and sustained, -
that also is a limb of wisdom that is concentration.

Thus when we speak of the limb of wisdom that is concentration,
that is what is meant.

Thus by this method it is twofold.

 

 

Now, monks, equanimity
as to one's own personal conditions, -
that is equanimity as a limb of wisdom.

Equanimity
as to external conditions, -
that also is equanimity as a limb of wisdom.

So when we speak of the limb of wisdom that is equanimity,
that is what is meant.

Thus by this method it is twofold.

So, monks, this is the method of explanation
according to which the seven limbs of wisdom
are fourteen.'

 


[1] Sambahulā. Comy. as at VinA. i, 1 says: According to the Vinaya method three folk are called 'a number'; more than that is a company. According to the Suttanta method three is just 'three'; above that, 'a number.' Here we are to understand it according to the latter.

[2] Not far from Jeta Grove. Comy.

[3] Comy. thinks these Wanderers hung about gatherings when the Buddha was teaching and, while pretending to be otherwise engaged, picked up these doctrines and put them into practice in their own teachings. I am of opinion, however, that similar doctrines prevailed among other teachers than the Buddha. For this subject see Mrs. Rhys Davids's article in J.R.A.S., April, 1927, entitled The Unknown Co-founders of Buddhism, and Indian Hist. Quarterly, December, 1927, Dhyana in Early Buddhism.

[4] Cf. K.S. ii, 19, iii, 58, iv, 141. Viseso = moreness.

[5] Adhippāyo = extra practice.

[6] They would fail miserably. Cf. K.S. iv, 8, 39. Comy. as at DA. l, 117, sampādetvā kathetuɱ na sakkhissanti ... asampāyanato uttarim pi dukkhaɱ āpajjanti. DA. adds (of vighātaɱ) 'trouble of dryness of lip, palate, tongue and throat.'

[7] Cf. D. l, 118, veyyākaraṇena cittam ārādheyya. (Comy. = parito-seyya).

[8] Ito vā pana sutvā.

[9] As usual, Comy. explains 'personal' as one's own pañca-kkhandhā; 'external' as that of others.

[10] Cf. Asḷ. 145; Expos. i, 192, uddesaɱ (= gaṇanaɱ) āgacchati.

[11] Cf. Buddh. Psych. Eth., 120 n.

[12] Ajjhatta-dhammesu vicikicchā = attano khandhesu vimati. Comy.

[13] Bahiddhā dhammesu vicikiccā = bahiddhā aṭṭhasu ṭhānesu mahāv. Cf. VM. ii, 431 (aṭṭhasu ārammanesu); Expos. ii, 457.

[14] Cf. Expos. 195; vicaya = search; pavicaya = research.

[15] Comy. kāyikaɱ = bodily energy which comes to one who practises walking up and down. Tranquillity of the kāya (the three aggregates of feeling, perception and activities) is the calming of the three groups of mental factors.

[16] Cetasikaɱ. Comy. 'I will not abandon this sitting posture till my mind be absolved from the āsavas without grasping.' Tranquillity of consciousness (citta) is the calming of mind.

[17] Expos. 192.

[18] Savitakka-savicāra pitī.

[19] Expos. 171-2.


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