Vinaya


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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XIII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

Reverence to the blessed one, the holy one, the fully enlightened one

 


 

First Khandhaka

1.[1] The Admission To The Order Of Bhikkhus

1. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at p. 74 Uruvelā, on the bank of the river Nerañgarā[2] at the foot of the Bodhi tree (tree of wisdom), just after he had become SamBuddha. And the blessed Buddha sat cross-legged at the foot of the Bodhi tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of emancipation[3].

2. Then the Blessed One (at the end of these seven days) during the first watch of the night fixed his mind upon the Chain of Causation[4], in direct and in reverse order: 'From Ignorance[5] spring the [76] samkhāras[6], from the samkhāras springs Consciousness, from Consciousness spring Name-and-Form, from Name-and-Form spring the six Provinces (of the [77] six senses[7]), from the six Provinces springs Contact, from Contact springs Sensation, from Sensation springs Thirst (or Desire), from Thirst springs Attachment, from Attachment springs Existence, from Existence springs Birth, from Birth spring Old Age and Death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair. Such is the origination of this whole mass of suffering. Again, by the destruction of Ignorance, which consists in the complete absence of lust, the samkhāras are destroyed, by the destruction of the samkhāras Consciousness is destroyed, by the destruction of Consciousness Name-and-Form are destroyed, by the destruction of Name-and-Form the six Provinces are destroyed, by the destruction of the six Provinces Contact is destroyed, by the destruction of Contact Sensation is destroyed, by the destruction of Sensation Thirst is destroyed, by the destruction of Thirst Attachment is destroyed, by the destruction of Attachment Existence is destroyed, by the destruction of Existence Birth is destroyed, by the destruction of Birth Old Age and Death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair are [78] destroyed. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'

3. Knowing this the Blessed One then on that occasion pronounced this solemn utterance: 'When the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent, meditating Brāhmana, then all his doubts fade away, since he realises what is that nature and what its cause.'

4. Then the Blessed One during the middle watch of the night fixed his mind upon the Chain of Causation, in direct and reverse order: 'From Ignorance spring the samkhāras, &c. Such is the origination of this whole mass of suffering, &c. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'

5. Knowing this the Blessed One then on that occasion pronounced this solemn utterance: 'When the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent, meditating Brāhmana, then all his doubts fade away, since he has understood the cessation of causation.'

6. Then the Blessed One during the third watch of the night fixed his mind, &c.

7. Knowing this the Blessed One then on that occasion pronounced this solemn utterance: 'When the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent, meditating Brāhmana, he stands, dispelling the hosts of Māra, like the sun that illuminates the sky.'

Here ends the account of what passed under the Bodhi tree.

 


 

2.

 

2.1 Then the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and went from the foot of the Bodhi tree to the Agapāla banyan tree (banyan tree of the goat-herds[8]). And when he had reached it, he sat cross-legged at the foot of the Agapāla banyan tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of emancipation.

2. Now a certain Brāhmana, who was of a haughty disposition[9], went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he exchanged greeting with the Blessed One; having exchanged with him greeting and complaisant words, he stationed himself near him; then standing near him that Brāhmana thus spoke to the Blessed One: 'By what, Gotama; does one become a Brāhmana, and what are the characteristics that make a man a Brāhmana?'

3. And the Blessed One, having heard that, on this occasion pronounced this solemn utterance: 'That Brāhmana who has removed (from himself) all sinfulness, who is free from haughtiness, free from impurity, self-restrained, who is an accomplished master of knowledge (or, of the Veda), who has fulfilled the duties of holiness, such a Brāhmana may p. 80 justly call himself a Brāhmana, whose behaviour is uneven to nothing in the world.'

Here ends the account of what passed under the Agapāla tree.

 


 

3

 

3.1 Then the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and went from the foot of the Agapāla banyan tree to the Mukalinda tree. And when he had reached it, he sat cross-legged at the foot of the Mukalinda tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of emancipation.

2. At that time a great cloud appeared out of season, rainy weather which lasted seven days, cold weather, storms, and darkness. And the Nāga (or Serpent) king Mukalinda came out from his abode, and seven times encircled the body of the Blessed One with his windings, and kept extending his large hood over the Blessed One's head, thinking to himself: 'May no coldness (touch) the Blessed One! May no heat (touch) the Blessed One! May no vexation by gadflies and gnats, by storms and sunheat and reptiles (touch) the Blessed One!'

3. And at the end of those seven days, when the Nāga king Mukalinda saw the open, cloudless sky, he loosened his windings from the body of the Blessed One, made his own appearance disappear, created the appearance of a youth, and stationed himself in front of the Blessed One, raising his clasped hands, and paying reverence to the Blessed One.

4. And the Blessed One, perceiving that, on this occasion, pronounced this solemn utterance: 'Happy is the solitude of him who is full of joy, who has learnt the Truth, who sees (the Truth). Happy is freedom from malice in this world, (self-)restraint towards all beings that have life. Happy is freedom from lust in this world, getting beyond all desires; the putting away of that pride which comes from the thought "I am!" This truly is the highest happiness!'

Here ends the account of what passed under the Mukalinda tree.

 


 

4

 

4.1 Then the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and went from the foot of the Mukalinda tree to the Rāgāyatana (tree[10]); when he had reached it, he sat cross-legged at the foot of the Rāgāyatana tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of emancipation.

2. At that time Tapussa and Bhallika, two merchants, came travelling on the road from Ukkala (Orissa) to that place. Then a deity who had been (in a former life) a blood-relatian of the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika, thus spoke to the merchants [82] Tapussa and Bhallika: 'Here, my noble friends, at the foot of the Rāgāyatana tree, is staying the Blessed One, who has just become SamBuddha. Go and show your reverence to him, the Blessed One, by (offering him) rice-cakes and lumps of honey. Long will this be to you for a good and for a blessing.'

3. And the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika took rice-cakes and lumps of honey, and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they stationed themselves near him; standing near him, the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika thus addressed the Blessed One: 'May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept from us these rice-cakes and lumps of honey, that that may long be to us for a good and for a blessing!

4. Then the Blessed One thought: 'The Tathāgatas[11] do not accept (food) with their hands. Now p. 83 with what shall I accept the rice-cakes and lumps of honey?' Then the four Mahārāga gods[12], understanding by the power of their minds the reflection which had arisen in the mind of the Blessed One, offered to the Blessed One from the four quarters (of the horizon) four bowls made of stone (saying), 'May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept herewith the rice-cakes and the lumps of honey!' The Blessed One accepted those new stone bowls; and therein be received the rice-cakes and honey lumps, and those, when he had received, he ate.

5. And Tapussa and Bhallika, the merchants, when they saw that the Blessed One had cleansed[13] his bowl and his hands, bowed down in reverence [84] at the feet of the Blessed One and thus addressed the Blessed One: 'We take our refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One and in the Dhamma; may the Blessed One receive us as disciples who, from this day forth while our life lasts, have taken their refuge (in him).' These were the first in the world to become lay-disciples (of the Buddha) by the formula which contained (only) the dyad[14].

Here ends the account of what passed under the Rāgāyatana tree.

 


 

5

 

5.1 Then the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and went from the foot of the Rāgāyatana tree to the Agapāla banyan tree. And when he had reached it, the Blessed One stayed there at the foot of the Agapāla banyan tree.

2. Then in the mind of the Blessed One, who was alone, and had retired into solitude, the following thought arose: 'I have penetrated this doctrine which is profound, difficult to perceive and to understand, which brings quietude of heart, which is exalted, which is unattainable by reasoning, abstruse, intelligible (only) to the wise. This people, on the other hand, is given to desire, intent upon desire, delighting in desire. To this people, therefore, who [85] are given to desire, intent upon desire, delighting in desire, the law of causality and the chain of causation will be a matter difficult to understand; most difficult for them to understand will be also the extinction of all samkhāras, the getting rid of all the substrata (of existence[15]), the destruction of desire, the absence of passion, quietude of heart, Nirvāna! Now if I proclaim the doctrine, and other men are not able to understand my preaching, there would result but weariness and annoyance to me.'

3. And then the following . . . .[16] stanzas, unheard before, occurred to the Blessed One: 'With great pains have I acquired it. Enough! why should I now proclaim it? This doctrine will not be easy to understand to beings that are lost in lust and hatred.

'Given to lust, surrounded with thick darkness, they will not see what is repugnant (to their minds), abstruse, profound, difficult to perceive, and subtle.'

4. When the Blessed One pondered over this matter, his mind became inclined to remain in quiet, and not to preach the doctrine. Then Brahmā [86] Sahampati[17], understanding by the power of his mind the reflection which had arisen in the mind of the Blessed One, thought: 'Alas! the world perishes! Alas! the world is destroyed! if the mind of the Tathāgata, of the holy, of the absolute SamBuddha inclines itself to remain in quiet, and not to preach the doctrine.'

5. Then Brahmā Sahampati disappeared from Brahma's world, and appeared before the Blessed One (as quickly) as a strong man might stretch his bent arm out, or draw back his out-stretched arm.

6. And Brahmā Sahampati adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, and putting his right knee on the ground, raised his joined hands towards the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, may the Blessed One preach the doctrine! may the perfect One preach the doctrine! there are beings whose mental eyes are darkened by scarcely any dust; but if they do not hear the doctrine, they cannot attain salvation. These will understand the doctrine.'

7. Thus spoke Brahmā Sahampati; and when he had thus spoken, he further said: 'The Dhamma hitherto manifested in the country of Magadha has been impure, thought out by contaminated men. But do thou now open the door of the Immortal[18]; let them hear the doctrine discovered by the spotless One!

'As a man standing on a rock, on mountain's [87] top, might overlook the people all around, thus, O wise One, ascending to the highest palace of Truth, look down, all-seeing One, upon the people lost in suffering, overcome by birth and decay, — thou, who hast freed thyself from suffering!

'Arise, O hero; O victorious One! Wander through the world, O leader of the pilgrim band, who thyself art free from debt. May the Blessed One preach the doctrine; there will be people who can understand it!'

8. When he had spoken thus, the Blessed One said to Brahmā Sahampati: 'The following thought, Brahmā, has occurred to me: "I have penetrated this doctrine, . . . . (&c., down to end of Ī 2)." And also, Brahmā, the following . . . .[19] stanzas have presented themselves to my mind, which had not been heard (by me) before: "With great pains, . . . . (&c., down to end of Ī 3)." When I pondered over this matter, Brahmā, my mind became inclined to remain in quiet, and not to preach the doctrine.'

9. And a second time Brahmā Sahampati said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, may the Blessed One preach the doctrine, . . . . (&c., as in ĪĪ 6, 7).' And for the second time the Blessed One said to Brahmā Sahampati: 'The following thought . . . . (&c., as before).'

10. And a third time Brahmā Sahampati said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, may the Blessed One preach the doctrine, . . . . (&c., as before).'

Then the Blessed One, when he had heard Brahmā's solicitation, looked, full of compassion towards sentient beings, over the world, with his (all-perceiving) eye of a Buddha. And the Blessed One, looking over the world with his eye of a Buddha, [88] saw beings whose mental eyes were darkened by scarcely any dust, and beings whose eyes were covered by much dust, beings sharp of sense and blunt of sense, of good disposition and of bad disposition, easy to instruct and difficult to instruct, some of them seeing the dangers of future life and of sin.

11. As, in a pond of blue lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, some blue lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, born in the water, grown up in the water, do not emerge over the water, but thrive hidden under the water; and other blue lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, born in the water, grown up in the water, reach to the surface of the water; and other blue lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, born in the water, grown up in the water, stand emerging out of the water, and the water does not touch them, —

12. Thus the Blessed One, looking over the world with his eye of a Buddha, saw beings whose mental eyes were darkened, . . . . (&c., the text repeats Ī 10); and when he had thus seen them, he addressed Brahmā Sahampati in the following stanza: 'Wide opened is the door of the Immortal to all who have ears to hear; let them send forth faith to meet it. The Dhamma sweet and good I spake not, Brahmā, despairing of the weary task, to men.'

13. Then Brahmā Sahampati understood: 'The Blessed One grants my request that He should preach the doctrine.' And he bowed down before the Blessed One, and passed round him with his right side towards him; and then he straightway disappeared.

Here ends the story of Brahmā's request.

 


 

6

 

6.1 Now the Blessed One thought: 'To whom shall I preach the doctrine first? Who will understand this doctrine easily?' And the Blessed One thought: 'There is Ālāra Kālāma[20]; he is clever, wise, and learned; long since have the eye of his mind been darkened by scarcely any dust. What if I were to preach the doctrine first to Ālāra Kālāma? He will easily understand this doctrine.'

2. Then an invisible deity said to the Blessed One: 'Ālāra Kālāma has died, Lord, seven days ago.' And knowledge sprang up in the Blessed One's mind that Ālāra Kālāma had died seven days ago. And the Blessed One thought: 'Highly noble was Ālāra Kālāma. If he had heard my doctrine, he would easily have understood it.'

3. Then the Blessed One thought: 'To whom shall I preach the doctrine first? Who will understand this doctrine easily?' And the Blessed One thought: 'There is Uddaka Rāmaputta[20]; he is clever, wise, and learned; long since have the eye or his mind been darkened by scarcely any dust. What if I were to preach the doctrine first to Uddaka Rāmaputta? He will easily understand this doctrine.'

4. Then an invisible deity said to the Blessed One: 'Uddaka Rāmaputta has died, Lord, yesterday evening.' And knowledge arose in the Blessed One's mind that Uddaka Rāmaputta had died the previous evening. And the Blessed One thought: [90] 'Highly noble was Uddaka Rāmaputta. If he had heard my doctrine, he would easily have understood it.'

5. Then the Blessed One thought: 'To whom shall I preach the doctrine first? Who will understand this doctrine easily?' And the Blessed One thought: 'The five Bhikkhus[21] have done many services to me[22]; they attended on me during the time of my exertions (to attain sanctification by undergoing austerities). What if I were to preach the doctrine first to the five Bhikkhus?'

6. Now the Blessed One thought: 'Where do the five Bhikkhus dwell now?' And the Blessed One saw by the power of his divine, clear vision, surpassing that of men, that the five Bhikkhus were living at Benares, in the deer park Isipatana[23]. And the Blessed One, after having remained at Uruvelā as long as he thought fit, went forth to Benares.

7. Now Upaka, a man belonging to the Āgîvaka sect (i.e. the sect of naked ascetics), saw the Blessed One travelling on the road, between Gayā and the Bodhi tree; and when he saw him, he said to the Blessed One: 'Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. In whose [91] name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess?'

8. When Upaka the Āgîvaka had spoken thus, the Blessed One addressed him in the following stanzas: 'I have overcome all foes; I am all-wise; I am free from stains in every way; I have left everything; and have obtained emancipation by the destruction of desire. Having myself gained knowledge, whom should I call my master? I have no teacher; no one is equal to me; in the world of men and of gods no being is like me. I am the holy One in this world, I am the highest teacher, I alone am the absolute SamBuddha; I have gained coolness (by the extinction of all passion) and have obtained Nirvāna. To found the Kingdom of Truth I go to the city of the Kāsis (Benares); I will beat the drum of the Immortal in the darkness of this world.'

9. (Upaka replied): 'You profess then, friend, to be the holy, absolute Gina[24].'

(Buddha said): 'Like me are all Ginas who have reached extinction of the āsavas[25]; I have overcome (gitā me) all states of sinfulness; therefore, Upaka, am I the Gina.'

When he had spoken thus, Upaka the Āgîvaka replied: 'It may be so, friend;' shook his head, took another road, and went away.

10. And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Benares, to the deer park Isipatana, to the place where the five Bhikkhus were. And [92] the five Bhikkhus saw the Blessed One coming from afar; when they saw him, they concerted with each other, saying, 'Friends, there comes the samana Gotama, who lives in abundance, who has given up his exertions, and who has turned to an abundant life. Let us not salute him; nor rise from our seats when he approaches; nor take his bowl and his robe from his hands. But let us put there a seat; if he likes, let him sit down.'

11. But when the Blessed One gradually approached near unto those five Bhikkhus, the five Bhikkhus kept not their agreement. They went forth to meet the Blessed One; one took his bowl and his robe, another prepared a seat, a third one brought water for the washing of the feet, a foot-stool, and a towel[26]. Then the Blessed One sat down on the seat they had prepared; and when he was seated, the Blessed One washed his feet. Now they addressed the Blessed One by his name, and with the appellation 'Friend.'

12. When they spoke to him thus, the Blessed One said to the five Bhikkhus: 'Do not address, O Bhikkhus, the Tathāgata by his name, and with the appellation "Friend." The Tathāgata, O Bhikkhus, is the holy, absolute SamBuddha. Give ear, O Bhikkhus! The immortal (Amata) has been won (by me); I will teach you; to you I preach the doctrine. If you walk in the way I show you, you will, ere long, have penetrated to the truth, having yourselves known it and seen it face-to-face; and you [93] will live in the possession of that highest goal of the holy life, for the sake of which noble youths fully give up the world and go forth into the houseless state.

13. When he had spoken thus, the five monks said to the Blessed One: 'By those observances, friend Gotama, by those practices, by those austerities, you have not been able to obtain power surpassing that of men, nor the superiority of full and holy knowledge and insight. How will you now, living in abundance, having given up your exertions, having turned to an abundant life, be able to obtain power surpassing that of men, and the superiority of full and holy knowledge and insight?'

14. When they had spoken thus, the Blessed One said to the five Bhikkhus: 'The Tathāgata, O Bhikkhus, does not live in abundance, he has not given up exertion, he has not turned to an abundant life. The Tathāgata, O Bhikkhus, is the holy, absolute SamBuddha. Give ear, O Bhikkhus; the immortal has been won (by me); I will teach you, to you I will preach the doctrine. If you walk in the way I show you, you will, ere long, have penetrated to the truth, having yourselves known it and seen it face-to-face; and you will live in the possession of that highest goal of the holy life, for the sake of which noble youths fully give up the world and go forth into the houseless state.'

15. And the five Bhikkhus said to the Blessed One a second time (as above). And the Blessed One said to the five Bhikkhus a second time (as above). And the five Bhikkhus said to the Blessed One a third time (as above).

16. When they had spoken thus, the Blessed One p. 94 said to the five Bhikkhus: 'Do you admit, O Bhikkhus, that I have never spoken to you in this way before this day?'

'You have never spoken so, Lord.'

'The Tathāgata, O Bhikkhus, is the holy, absolute SamBuddha. Give ear, O Bhikkhus, &c. (as above).'

And the Blessed One was able to convince the five Bhikkhus; and the five Bhikkhus again[27] listened willingly to the Blessed One; they gave ear, and fixed their mind on the knowledge (which the Buddha imparted to them).

17. And the Blessed One thus addressed the five Bhikkhus[28]: 'There are two extrernes, O Bhikkhus, which he who has given up the world, ought to avoid. What are these two extremes? A life given to pleasures, devoted to pleasures and lusts: this is degrading, sensual, vulgar, ignoble, and profitless; and a life given to mortifications: this is painful, ignoble, and profitless. By avoiding these two extrernes, O Bhikkhus, the Tathāgata has gained the knowledge of the Middle Path which leads to insight, which leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm, to knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to Nirvāna.

18. 'Which, O Bhikkhus, is this Middle Path the knowledge of which the Tathāgata has gained, which leads to insight, which leads to wisdom, which conduces [95] to calm, to knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to Nirvāna? It is the holy eightfold Path, namely, Right Belief, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Means of Livelihood, Right Endeavour, Right Mernory, Right Meditation. This, O Bhikkhus, is the Middle Path the knowledge of which the Tathāgata has gained, which leads to insight, which leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm, to knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to Nirvāna.

19. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of Suffering: Birth is suffering; decay is suffering; illness is suffering; death is suffering. Presence of objects we hate, is suffering; Separation from objects we love, is suffering; not to obtain what we desire, is suffering. Briefly, the fivefold clinging to existence[29] is suffering.

20. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cause of suffering: Thirst, that leads to re-birth, accornpanied by pleasure and lust, finding its delight here and there. (This thirst is threefold), namely, thirst for pleasure, thirst for existence, thirst for prosperity.

21. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of suffering: (It ceases with) the complete cessation of this thirst, — a cessation which consists in the absence of every passion, — with the abandoning of this thirst, with the doing away with it, with the deliverance from it, with the destruction of desire.

22. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering: [96] that holy eightfold Path, that is to say, Right Belief, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Means of Livelihood, Right Endeavour, Right Memory, Right Meditation.

23. '"This is the Noble Truth of Suffering;" — thus, O Bhikkhus, of this doctrine, which formerly had not been heard of, have I obtained insight, knowledge, understanding, wisdom, intuition. "This Noble Truth of Suffering must be understood," thus, O Bhikkhus, of this doctrine, . . . . (&c., down to intuition). "This Noble Truth of Suffering I have understood," thus, O Bhikkhus, of this doctrine, . . . . (&c.,down to intuition).

24. '"This is the Noble Truth of the Cause of suffering," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.) "This Noble Truth of the Cause of suffering must be abandoned[30] has been abandoned by me," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.)

25. '"This is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of suffering," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.) "This Noble Truth of the Cessation of suffering must be seen face-to-face . . . . has been seen by me face-to-face," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.)

26. '"This is the Noble Truth of the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.) "This Noble Truth of the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering, must be realised has been realised by me," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.)

27. 'As long, O Bhikkhus, as I did not possess with perfect purity this true knowledge and insight into these four Noble Truths, with its three modifications [97] and its twelve constituent parts[31]; so long, O Bhikkhus, I knew that I had not yet obtained the highest, absolute Sambodhi in the world of men and gods, in Māra's and Brahma's world, among all beings, Samanas and Brāhmanas, gods and men.

28. 'But since I possessed, O Bhikkhus, with perfect purity this true knowledge and insight into these four Noble Truths, with its three modifications and its twelve constituent parts, then I knew, O Bhikkhus, that I had obtained the highest, universal Sambodhi in the world of men and gods, . . . . (&c., as in Ī 27).

29. 'And this knowledge and insight arose in my mind: "The emancipation of my mind cannot be lost; this is my last birth; hence I shall not be born again!"'

Thus the Blessed One spoke. The five Bhikkhus were delighted, and they rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One. And when this exposition was propounded, the venerable Kondañña obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is to say, the following knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination, is subject also to the condition of cessation.'

30. And as the Blessed One had founded the Kingdom of Truth (by propounding the four Noble Truths), the earth-inhabiting devas shouted: 'Truly the Blessed One has founded at Benares, in the deer park Isipatana, the highest kingdom of Truth, which may be opposed neither by a Samana nor by a Brāhmana, neither by a deva, nor by Māra, nor by Brahma, nor by any being in the world.'

Hearing the shout of the earth-inhabiting devas, the Kātumahārāgika devas (gods belonging to the world of the four divine mahārāgas) shouted, . . . . (&c., as above). Hearing the shout of the Kātumahārāgika devas, the tĀvatimsa devas[32], the Yāma devas, the Tusita devas, the Nimmānarati devas, the Paranimmitavasavatti devas, the Brahmakāyika devas shouted: 'Truly the Blessed One, . . . .' (&c., as above).

31. Thus in that moment, in that instant, in that second the shout reached the Brahma world; and this whole system of ten thousand worlds quaked, was shaken, and trembled; and an infinite, mighty light was seen through the world, which surpassed the light that can be produced by the divine power of the devas.

And the Blessed One pronounced this solemn utterance: 'Truly Kondañña has perceived it ("aññāsi"), truly Kondañña has perceived it!' Hence the venerable Kondañña received the name Aññātakondañña (Kondañña who has perceived the doctrine).

32. And the venerable Aññātakondañña, having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth, having understood the Truth, having penetrated the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on nobody else for knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, thus spoke to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let me receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations from the Blessed One.'

'Come, O Bhikkhu,' said the Blessed One, 'well taught is the doctrine; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.' Thus this venerable person received the upasampadā ordination.

33. And the Blessed One administered to the other Bhikkhus exhortation and instruction by discourses relating to the Dhamma. And the venerable Vappa, and the venerable Bhaddiya, when they received from the Blessed One such exhortation and instruction by discourses relating to the Dhamma, obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is to say, the following knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.'

34. And having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth, . . . . (&c., as in Ī 32), they thus spoke to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let us receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations from the Blessed One.'

'Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, 'well taught is the doctrine; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.' Thus these venerable persons received the upasampadā ordination.

35. And the Blessed One, living on what the Bhikkhus brought him, administered to the other Bhikkhus exhortation and instruction by discourse relating to the Dhamma; in this way the six persons lived on what the three Bhikkhus[33] brought home from their alms pilgrimage.

36, 37. And the venerable Mahānāma and the venerable Assagi, when they received from the Blessed One, . . . . (&c., as in ĪĪ 33, 34, down to:). Thus these venerable persons received the upasampadā ordination.

38. And the Blessed One thus spoke to the five Bhikkhus: 'The body (Rûpa), O Bhikkhus, is not the self. If the body, O Bhikkhus, were the self, the body would not be subject to disease, and we should be able to say: "Let my body be such and such a one, let my body not be such and such a one." But since the body, O Bhikkhus, is not the self, therefore the body is subject to disease, and we are not able to say: "Let my body be such and such a one, let my body not be such and such a one."

39-41. 'Sensation (Vedanā), O Bhikkhus, is not the self, . . . . (&c.[34]) Perception (Saññā) is not the self, . . . . The Samkhāras[35] are not the self, . . . . Consciousness (Viññāna) is not the self, . . . . (&c.[34])

42. 'Now what do you think, O Bhikkhus, is the body permanent or perishable?'

'It is perishable, Lord.'

'And that which isperishable, does that cause pain or joy?'

'It causes pain, Lord.'

'And that which is perishable, painful, subject to change, is it possible to regard that in this way: 'This is mine, this am I, this is my self?'

'That is impossible, Lord.'

43. 'Is sensation permanent or perishable?' . . . . (&c.[36])

44. 'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, whatever body has been, will be, and is now, belonging or not belonging to sentient beings, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, distant or near, all that body is not mine, is not me, is not my self: thus it should be considered by right knowledge according to the truth.

45. 'Whatever sensation, . . . . (&c.[37])

46. 'Considering this, O Bhikkhus, a learned, noble hearer of the word becomes weary of body, weary of sensation, weary of perception, weary of the Samkhāras, weary of consciousness. Becoming weary of all that, he divests himself of passion; by absence of passion he is made free; when he is free, he becomes aware that he is free; and he realises that re-birth is exhausted; that holiness is completed; that duty is fulfilled; and that there is no further return to this world[38].'

47. Thus the Blessed One spoke; the five Bhikkhus were delighted, and rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One. And when this exposition had been p. 102 propounded, the minds of the five Bhikkhus became free from attachment to the world, and were released from the āsavas[39].

At that time there were six Arahats (persons who had reached absolute holiness) in the world.

End of the first Bhānavāra.

 


 

7

 

7.1[40] At that time there was in Benares a noble youth, Yasa by name, the son of a setthi (or treasurer[41]) and delicately nurtured. He had three palaces, one for winter, one for summer, one for the rainy season. In the palace for the rainy season he lived during the four months (of that season), surrounded with female musicians among whom no p. 103 man was, and he did not descend from that palace (all that time). Now one day Yasa, the noble youth, who was endowed with, and possessed of the five pleasures of sense[42], while he was attended (by those female musicians), fell asleep sooner than usual; and after him his attendants also fell asleep. Now an oil lamp was burning through the whole night.

2. And Yasa, the noble youth, awoke sooner than usual; and he saw his attendants sleeping; one had her lute leaning against her arm-pit; one had her tabor leaning against her neck; one had her drum leaning against her arm-pit; one had dishevelled hair; one had saliva flowing from her mouth; and they were muttering in their sleep. One would think it was a cemetery one had fallen into[43]. When he saw that, the evils (of the life he led) manifested themselves to him; his mind became weary (of worldly pleasures). And Yasa, the noble youth, gave utterance to this solemn exclamation: 'Alas! what distress; alas! what danger!'

3. And Yasa, the noble youth, put on his gilt slippers, and went to the gate of his house. Non-human beings opened the gate, in order that no being might prevent Yasa the noble youth's leaving the world, and going forth into the houseless state. And Yasa, the noble youth, went to the gate of the city. Non-human beings opened the gate, in order that no being might prevent Yasa the noble youth's leaving the world, and going forth into the houseless state. And Yasa, the noble youth, went to the deer park Isipatana.

4. At that time the Blessed One, having arisen in the night, at dawn was walking up and down in the open air. And the Blessed One saw Yasa, the noble youth, coming from afar. And when he saw him, he left the place where he was walking, and sat down on a seat laid out (for him). And Yasa, the noble youth, gave utterance near the Blessed One to that solemn exclamation: 'Alas! what distress; alas! what danger!' And the Blessed One said to Yasa, the noble youth: 'Here is no distress, Yasa, here is no danger. Come here, Yasa, sit down; I will teach you the Truth (Dhamma).'

5. And Yasa, the noble youth, when he heard that there was no distress, and that there was no danger, became glad and joyful; and he put off his gilt slippers, and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. When Yasa, the noble youth, was sitting near him, the Blessed One preached to him in due course: that is to say, he talked about the merits obtained by alms-giving, about the duties of morality, about heaven, about the evils, the vanity, and the sinfulness of desires, and about the blessings of the abandonment of desire[44].

6. When the Blessed One saw that the mind of Yasa, the noble youth, was prepared, impressible, free from obstacles (to understanding the Truth), elated, and believing, then he preached what is the principal doctrine of the Buddhas, namely, Suffering, p. 105 the Cause of stiffering, the Cessation of suffering, the Path. Just as a clean cloth free from black specks properly takes the dye, thus Yasa, the noble youth, even while sitting there, obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.'

7. Now the mother of Yasa, the noble youth, having gone up to his palace, did not see Yasa, the noble youth, and she went to the setthi, the householder (her husband), and having approached him, she said to the setthi, the householder: 'Your son Yasa, O householder, has disappeared.' Then the setthi, the householder, sent messengers on horseback to the four quarters of the horizon; and he went himself to the deer park Isipatana. Then the setthi, the householder, saw on the ground the marks of the gilt slippers; and when he saw them, he followed them up.

8. And the Blessed One saw the setthi, the householder, coming from afar. On seeing him, he thought: 'What if I were to effect such an exercise of miraculous power, that the setthi, the householder, sitting here, should not see Yasa, the noble youth, who is sitting here also.' And the Blessed One effected such an exercise of his miraculous power.

9. And the setthi, the householder, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he said to the Blessed One: 'Pray, Lord, has the Blessed One seen Yasa, the noble youth?'

'Well, householder, sit down. Perhaps, sitting here, you may see Yasa, the noble youth, sitting here also.'

And the setthi, the householder, who thought: 'Indeed, sitting here I shall see Yasa, the noble youth, sitting here also I became glad and joyful, and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him.

10. When the setthi, the householder, was sitting near him, the Blessed One preached to him in due course; that is to say, he talked about the merits obtained by alms-giving, . . . . (&c., as at end of Ī 5). And the setthi, the householder, having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth, having penetrated the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, said to the Blessed One: 'Glorious, Lord! glorious, Lord! Just as if one should set up, Lord, what had been overturned, or should reveal what had been hidden, or should point out the way to one who had lost his way, or should bring a lamp into the darkness, in order that those who had eyes might see visible things, thus has the Blessed One preached the doctrine in many ways. I take my refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkhus; may the Blessed One receive me from this day forth while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his refuge in Him.'

This was the first person in the world who became a lay-disciple by the formula of the holy triad

11. And Yasa, the noble youth, while instruction was administered (by the Buddha) to his father, contemplated the stage of knowledge which he had seen with his mind and understood; and his mind became free from attachment to the world, and was p. 107 released from the āsavas. Then the Blessed One thought: 'Yasa, the noble youth, while instruction was administered to his father, has contemplated the stage of knowledge which he had seen with his mind and understood; and his mind has become free from attachment to the world, and has become released from the āsavas. It is impossible that Yasa, the noble youth, should return to the world and enjoy pleasures, as he did before, when he lived in his house. What if I were now to put an end to that exertion of my miraculous power.' And the Blessed One put an end to that exertion of his miraculous Power.

12. Then the setthi, the householder, saw Yasa, the noble youth, sitting there. On seeing him he said to Yasa, the noble youth: 'My son Yasa, your mother is absorbed in lamentation and grief; restore your mother to life.'

13. Then Yasa, the noble youth, looked at the Blessed One. And the Blessed One said to the setthi, the householder: 'What do you think then, O householder? That Yasa has (first) won only an imperfect[45] degree of knowledge and insight into the Truth, as you have yourself? Or that rather he was contemplating the stage of knowledge which he had seen with his mind and understood; and that his mind has thus become free from attachment to the world, and has become released from the āsavas? Now would it then be possible, O householder, that Yasa should return to the world and enjoy pleasures as he did before, when he lived in his house?'

'Not so, Lord.' p. 108 'Yasa, the noble youth, O householder, had (first) won, like yourself, an imperfect degree of knowledge and insight into the Truth. But when he was contemplating the stage of knowledge which he had seen with his mind and understood, his mind has become free from attachment to the world, and has become released from the āsavas. It is impossible, O householder, that Yasa, the noble youth, should return to the world and enjoy pleasures as he did before, when he lived in his house.'

14. 'It is all gain, Lord, to Yasa, the noble youth, it is high bliss, Lord, for Yasa, the noble youth, that the mind of Yasa, the noble youth, has become free from attachment to the world, and has become released from the āsavas. Might, Lord, the Blessed One consent to take his meal with me to-day together with Yasa, the noble youth, as his attendant?'

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent. Then the setthi, the householder, when he understood that the Blessed One had accepted his invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing round him with his right side towards him, departed thence.

15. And Vasā, the noble youth, soon after the setthi, the householder, was gone, said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let me receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations from the Blessed One.'

'Come, O Bhikkhu,' said the Blessed One, 'well taught is the doctrine; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.'

Thus this venerable person received the upasampadā ordination. At that time there were seven Arahats in the world.

End of the story of Yasa's pabbaggā.

 


 

8

 

8.1 And in the forenoon the blessed One, having put on his under-robes[46], took his alms-bowl, and, with his kîvara on, went with the venerable Yasa as his attendant to the house of the setthi, the householder. When he had arrived there, he sat down on a seat laid out for him. Then the mother and the former wife of the venerable Yasa went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One. they sat down near him.

2. Then the Blessed One preached to them in due course; that is to say, he talked about the merits obtained by alms-giving, . . . . (&c., as in chap. 7. 5, 6, down to:); thus they obtained, while sitting there, the pure and spotless Eye of theTruth (that is, the knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.'

3. And having seen the Truth, . . . . (&c., as above, ĪĪ 5, 6, down to:), dependent on nobody else for knowledge of the Teacher's doctrine, they thus spoke to the Blessed One: 'Glorious, Lord! glorious Lord! Just as if one should set up' (&c., as in chap. 7. 10, down to:). We take our refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkhus; may the Blessed One receive us from this day forth, while our life lasts, as disciples who have taken their refuge in Him.'

These were the first females in the world who became lay-disciples by the formula of the holy triad.

4. And the mother and the father and the former wife of the venerable Yasa with their own hands served and offered[47] excellent food, both hard and soft, to the Blessed One and to the venerable Yasa; and when the Blessed One had finished his meal, and cleansed his bowl and his hands, they sat down near him. Then the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the mother, and father, and the former wife of the venerable Yasa by religious discourse; and then he rose from his seat and went away.

 


 

9.

1. Now four lay persons, friends of the venerable Yasa, belonging to the setthi families of Benares, and to the highest after the setthi families, by name Vimala, Subāhu, Punnagi, and Gavampati, heard: 'Yasa, the noble youth, has cut off his hair and beard, and has put on yellow robes, and has given up the world, and gone forth into the houseless state.' When they had heard that, they thought: 'Surely that cannot be a common doctrine and discipline, that cannot be a common renunciation of the world, if Yasa, the noble youth, has cut off his hair and beard, and has put on yellow robes, and has given up the world, and gone forth into the houseless state.'

2. Those four persons went to the place where the venerable Yasa was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the venerable Yasa, they stood by his side. And the venerable Yasa went with his four lay-friends to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the venerable Yasa said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, here are four lay-friends of mine, belonging to the setthi families of Benares and to the highest after the setthi families; their names are Vimala, Subāhu, Punnagi, and Gavampati. May the Blessed One administer exhortation and. instruction to these four persons.

3. Then the Blessed One preached to them, . . . . (&c., as in chap. 8. 2).

4. And having seen the Truth, . . . . (&c., down to:) dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the Teacher's doctrine, they thus spoke to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let us receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations from the Blessed One.'

'Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, 'well taught is the doctrine; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.'

Thus these venerable persons received the upasampadā ordination. And the Blessed One administered to these Bhikkhus exhortation and instruction by discourse relating to the Dhamma. While they received exhortation and instruction from the Blessed One by discourse relating to the Dhamma. their minds became free from attachment to the world, and were released from the āsavas.

At that time there were eleven Arahats in the world.

Here ends the story of the ordination of the four laymen.

 


 

10.

Now fifty lay persons, friends of the venerable Yasa, belonging to the highest families in the country and to those next to the highest, heard, . . . . ( &c., as in chap. 9, ĪĪ 1, 2, 3, 4, down to:). While they received exhortation and instruction from the Blessed One by discourse relating to the Dhamma, their minds became free from attachment to the world, and were released from the āsavas.

At that time there were sixty-one Arahats in the world.

 


 

11.

1. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 'I am delivered, O Bhikkhus, from all fetters, human and divine. You, O Bhikkhus, are also delivered from all fetters, human and divine. Go ye now, O Bhikkhus, and wander, for the gain of the many, for the welfare of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, for the gain, and for the welfare of gods and men, Let not two of you go the same way[48], Preach, O Bhikkhus, the doctrine p. 113 which is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the middle, glorious at the end, in the spirit and in the letter; proclaim a consummate, perfect, and pure life of holiness. There are beings whose mental eyes are covered by scarcely any dust, but if the doctrine is not preached to them, they cannot attain salvation. They will understand the doctrine. And I will go also, O Bhikkhus, to Uruvelā, to Senāninigama[49], in order to preach the doctrine.'

2. And Māra the wicked One went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he addressed the Blessed One in the following stanza: 'Thou art bound by all fetters, human and divine. Thou art bound by strong fetters. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samana.'

Buddha replied: 'I am delivered from all fetters, human and divine. I am delivered from the strong fetters. Thou art struck down, O Death.'

(Māra said): 'The fetter which pervades the sky, with which mind is bound, with that fetter I will bind thee. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samana.'

(Buddha replied): 'Whatever forms, sounds, odours, flavours, or contacts there are which please the p. 114 senses, in me desire for them has ceased. Thou art struck down, O Death.'

Then Māra the wicked One understood: 'The Blessed One knows me, the perfect One knows me,' and, sad and afflicted, he vanished away.

Here ends the story of Māra.

 


 

12.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus brought (to Buddha), from different regions and different countries, persons who desired to obtain the pabbaggā andupasampadā ordinations, thinking: 'The Blessed One will confer on them the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations.' Thus both the Bhikkhus became tired (from the journey), and also those who desired to obtain the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations. Now when the Blessed One was alone and had retired into solitude, the following consideration presented itself to his mind: 'The Bhikkhus now bring to me from different regions and different countries persons who desire to obtain the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations, thinking: "The Blessed One will confer on them the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations." Now both the Bhikkhus become tired, and also those who desire to obtain the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations. What if I were to grant permission to the Bhikkhus, saying: "Confer henceforth, O Bhikkhus, in the different regions, and in the different countries, the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations yourselves (on those who desire to receive them)."'

2. And the Blessed One, having left the solitude p. 115 in the evening, in consequence of that, and on this occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'When I was alone, a Bhikkhus, and had retired into solitude, the following consideration, &c. What if I were to permit, . . . .' (&c., as in Ī 1).

3. 'I grant you, O Bhikkhus, this permission: Confer henceforth in the different regions and in the different countries the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations yourselves (on those who desire to receive them). And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations in this way: Let him (who desires to receive the ordination), first have his hair and beard cut off; let him put on yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus (with his head), and sit down squatting; then let him raise his joined hands and tell him to say:

4. '"I take my refuge in the Buddha, I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the Samgha. And for the second time I take (&c. . . . . Samgha). And for the third time I take my refuge in the Buddha, and for the third time I take my refuge in the Dhamma, and for the third time I take my refuge in the Samgha."

'I prescribe, a Bhikkhus, the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations consisting in the three times repeated declaration of taking refuge (in the holy triad).'

End of the account of the upasampadā ordination by the threefold declaration of taking refuge[50].

 


 

13.

1. And the Blessed One, after having kept the vassa residence[51], thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'By wise contemplation, O Bhikkhus, and by wise firmness of exertion have I attained the highest emancipation, have I realised the highest emancipation. Attain ye also, O Bhikkhus, the highest emancipation, realise the highest emancipation, by wise contemplation and by wise firmness of exertion.'

2. And Māra the wicked One went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he addressed the Blessed One by the following stanza: 'Thou art bound by Māra's fetters, human and divine. Thou art bound by strong fetters. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samana.'

(Buddha replied): 'I am delivered from Māra's fetters, human and divine. I am delivered from the strong fetters. Thou art struck down; O Death.'

Then Māra the wicked One understood: 'The Blessed One knows me, the perfect One knows me;' and, sad and afflicted, he vanished away.

 


 

14.

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Benares as long as he thought fit, went forth to Uruvelā. And the Blessed One left the road and went to a certain grove; having gone there, and having entered it, he sat down at the foot of a tree. At that time there was a party of thirty friends, rich young men, who were sporting in that same grove p. 117 together with their wives. One of them had no wife; for him they had procured a harlot. Now while they did not pay attention, and were indulging in their sports, that harlot took up the articles belonging to them, and ran away.

2. Then those companions, doing service to their friend, went in search of that woman; and, roaming about that grove, they saw the Blessed One sitting at the foot of a tree. Seeing him they went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, they said to the Blessed One: 'Pray, Lord, has the Blessed One seen a woman passing by?'

'What have you to do, young men, with the woman?'

'We were sporting, Lord, in this grove, thirty friends, rich young men, together with our wives. One of us had no wife; for him we had procured a harlot. Now, Lord, while we did not pay attention, and were indulging in our sports, that harlot has taken up the articles belonging to us, and has run away. Therefore, Lord, we companions, doing service to our friend, go in search of that woman, and roam about this grove.'

3. 'Now what think you, young men? Which would be the better for you; that you should go in search of a woman, or that you should go in search of yourselves?'

'That, Lord, would be the better for us, that we should go in search of ourselves.'

'If so, young men, sit down, I will preach to you the Truth (Dhamma).'

The rich young companions replied: 'Yes, Lord,' and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and sat down near him.

4. Then the Blessed One preached to them, . . . . (&c., as in chap. 8. 2, or 9. 3).

5. And having seen the Truth, . . . . (&c., as in chap. 9. 4 down to:). Thus these venerable persons received the upasampadā ordination.

Here ends the story of the thirty rich young companions.

End of the second Bhānavāra.

 


 

15.

1. And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Uruvelā. At that time there lived in Uruvelā three Gatilas[52], Uruvelā Kassapa, Nadî Kassapa (Kassapa of the River, i.e. the Nerañgarā), and Gayā Kassapa (Kassapa of the village Gayā.). Of these the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa was chief, leader, foremost, first, and highest over five hundred Gatilas; Nadî Kassapa was chief . . . . (&c., down to highest over) three hundred Gatilas, Gayā Kassapa was chief (&c., down to highest over) two hundred Gatilas.

2. And the Blessed One went to the hermitage of p. 119 the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa; having gone there, he said to the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa: 'If it is not disagreeable to you, Kassapa, let me spend one night in the room where your (sacred) fire is kept.'

'It is not disagreeable to me, great Samana, but there is a savage Nāga (or Serpent) king of great magical power[53], a dreadfully venomous serpent; let him do no harm to you.'

And a second time the Blessed One said to the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa: 'If it is not disagreeable,' &c. . . . .

'It is not disagreeable,' &c.

And a third time the Blessed One said: 'If it not disagreeable,' &c. . . . .

'It is not disagreeable,' &c. . . . .

'He is not likely to do any harm to me. Pray, Kassapa, allow me a place in the room where your fire is kept.'

'Stay there, great Samana, as you wish it.'

3. Then the Blessed One entered the room where the fire was kept, made himself a couch of grass, and sat down cross-legged, keeping the body erect and surrounding himself with watchfulness of mind[54]. And the Nāga saw that the Blessed One had entered; when he saw that, he became annoyed, and irritated, and sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then the Blessed One thought: 'What if I were to leave intact the skin, and hide, and flesh, and ligaments, and bones, p. 120 and marrow of this Nāga; but were to conquer the fire, which he will send forth, by my fire.'

4. And the Blessed One effected the appropriate exercise of miraculous power and sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then the Nāga, who could not master his rage[55], sent forth flames. And the Blessed One, converting his body into fire[56], sent forth flames. When they both shone forth with their flames, the fire room looked as if it were burning and blazing, as if it were all in flames. And the Gatilas, surrounding the fire room, said: 'Truly, the countenance of the great Samana is beautiful, but the Nāga will do harm to him[57].'

5. That night having elapsed, the Blessed One, leaving intact the skin and hide and flesh and ligaments and bones and marrow of that Nāga, and conquering the Nāga's fire by his fire, threw him into his alms-bowl, and showed him to the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa (saying), 'Here you see the Nāga, Kassapa; his fire has been conquered by my fire.' Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, in that he is able to conquer by his fire the fire of that savage Nāga king, who is possessed of magical power, that dreadfully venomous serpent. He is not, however, holy (arahā) as I am.'

6.[58]. Near the Nerañgarā river the Blessed One p. 121 said to the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa: 'If it is not disagreeable to you, Kassapa, let me dwell this moonlight night in your fire room.'

'It is not disagreeable to me, great Samana, but in your own behalf I warn you off. There is a savage Snake king there possessed of magical power, a dreadfully venomous serpent; let him do no harm to you.'

'He is not likely to do any harm to me; pray, Kassapa, allow me a place in your fire room.'

When he saw that Kassapa had given his permission, fearlessly He, who had overcome all fear, entered. When the chief of Serpents saw that the Sage had entered, he became irritated, and sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then the chief of men[59], joyful and unperplexed, also sent forth a cloud of smoke. Unable to master his rage, the chief of Serpents sent forth flames like a burning fire. Then the chief of men[59], the perfect master of the element of fire, also sent forth flames. When they shone forth both with their flames, the Gatilas looked at the fire room (saying), 'Truly the countenance of the great Samana is beautiful, but the Nāga will do harm to him.'

7. And when that night had elapsed, the flames of the Nāga were extinguished, but the various-coloured flames of Him who is possessed of magical powers remained. Dark blue and red, light red, yellow, and crystal-coloured flames of various colours p. 122 appeared on the Angirasa's[60] body. Having put the chief of Serpents into his alms-bowl, he showed him to the Brāhmana (saying), 'Here you see the Nāga, Kassapa; his fire has been conquered by my fire.'

And the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa, having conceived an affection for the Blessed One in consequence of this wonder, said to the Blessed One: 'Stay with me, great Samana, I will daily provide you with food.'

End of the first Wonder.

 


 

16.

1. And the Blessed One resided in a certain grove near the hermitage of the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa. And on a beautiful night the four Mahārāgas[61], filling the whole grove with light by the brilliancy of their complexion, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they stood in the four directions like great firebrands.

2. And when that night had elapsed, the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he said to the Blessed One: 'It is time, great Samana, the meal is ready. Who were they, great Samana, who came, this beautiful night, filling the whole grove with light by the brilliancy of their complexion, to p. 123 the place where you were, and having approached you and respectfully saluted you, stood in the four directions like great firebrands?'

'They were the four Mahārāgas, Kassapa, who came to me in order to hearmy preaching.'

Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since even the four Mahārāgas come to hear his preaching. He is not, however, holy like me.'

And the Blessed One ate the food offered by the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa, and continued to stay in that same grove.

End of the second Wonder.

 


 

17.

1. And on a beautiful night Sakka (Sakra or Indra) the king of the devas, filling the whole grove with light by the brilliancy of his complexion, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he stood near him like a great firebrand, surpassing in beauty and brilliancy the splendour of the former appearances.

2. And when that night had elapsed (&c., as in chap. 16. 2).

End of the third Wonder.

 


 

18.

And on a beautiful night Brahmā Sahampati (&c., as in chap. 17).

End of the fourth Wonder.

 


 

19.

1. At that time a great sacrifice which the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa used to celebrate was approaching, and all the people of Anga and Magadha wished to go to that sacrifice carrying abundant food, both hard and soft. Now the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Presently my great sacrifice is approaching, and all the people of Anga and Magadha will come and bring with them abundant food, both hard and soft. If the great Samana should perform a wonder before that great assembly, gain and honour would increase to the great Samana, and my gain and honour would diminish. Well, the great Samana shall not appear here to-morrow.'

2. Then the Blessed One, understanding by the power of his mind this reflection which had arisen in the mind of the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa, went to Uttara Kuru; having begged alms there, he took the food (he had received) to the Anotatta lake[62]; there he took his meal and rested during the heat of the day at the same place.

And when the night had elapsed, the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he said to the p. 125 Blessed One: 'It is time, great Samana, the meal is ready. Why did you not come yesterday, great Samana? We have thought of you: "Why does the great Samana not come?" and your portions of food, both hard and soft, were served up for you.'

3. (Buddha replied): 'Did you not think, Kassapa: "Presently my great sacrifice (&c., as above down to:). Well, the great Samana shall not appear here tomorrow?"

4. 'Now I understood, Kassapa, by the power of my mind this reflection which had arisen in your mind, and I went to Uttara Kuru; having begged alms there, I took the food to the Anotatta lake; there I took my meal and rested during the heat of the day at the same place.'

Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since he is able to understand by the power of his mind the thoughts of other people. He is not, however, holy like me.' And the Blessed One ate (&c., as in chap. 16, 2).

End of the fifth Wonder.

 


 

20.

1. At that time the Blessed One had rags taken from a dust heap (of which he was going to make himiself a dress). Now the Blessed One thought: 'Where shall I wash these rags?' Then Sakka the king of the devas, understanding in his mind the thought which had arisen in the mind of the Blessed One, dug a tank with his own hand, p. 126 and said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, might the Blessed One wash the rags here.'

And the Blessed One thought: 'What shall I rub the rags upon?' Then Sakka the king of the devas, understanding, &c., put there a great stone and said: 'Lord, might the Blessed One rob the rags upon this stone.'

2. And the Blessed One thought: 'What shall I take hold of when going up (from the tank)?' Then a deity that resided in a Kakudha tree, understanding, &c., bent down a branch and said: 'Lord, might the Blessed One take hold of this branch when going up (from the tank).'

And the Blessed One thought: 'What shall I lay the rags upon (in order to dry them)?' Then Sakka the king of the devas, understanding, &c., put there a great stone and sald: 'Lord, might the Blessed One lay the rags upon this stone.'

3. And when that night had elapsed, the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he said to the Blessed One: 'It is time, great Samana, the meal is ready. What is this, great Samana? Formerly there was here no tank, and now here is this tank. Formerly no stone was put here; by whom has this stone been put here? Formerly this Kakudha tree did not bend down its branch, and now this branch is bent down.'

4. 'I had rags, Kassapa, taken from a dust heap; and I thought, Kassapa: "Where shall I wash these rags?" Then, Kassapa, Sakka the king of the devas, understanciing in his mind the thought which had arisen in my mind, dug a tank with his hand and said to me: "Lord, might the Blessed One wash the p. 127 rags here." Thus this tank has been dug by the hand of a non-human being.

'And I thought, Kassapa: "What shall I rub the rags upon?" Then, Kassapa, Sakka, &c. Thus this stone has been put here by a non-human being.

5. 'And I thought, Kassapa: "What shall I take hold of when going up (from the tank)?" Then, Kassapa, a deity, &c. Thus this Kakudha tree has served me as a hold for my hand.

'And I thought, Kassapa: "Where shall I lay the rags upon (in order to dry them)?" Then, Kassapa, Sakka, &c. Thus this stone has been put here by a non-human being.'

6. Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since Sakka the king of the devas does service to him. He is not, however, holy like me.'

And the Blessed One ate (&c., as in chap. 16. 2 ).

7. And when that night had elapsed, the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he announced to the Blessed One that it was time, by saying, 'It is time, great Samana, the meal is ready.'

(Buddha replied): 'Go you, Kassapa; I will follow you.'

Having thus sent away the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa, he went to pluck a fruit from the gambu tree after which this continent of Gambudîpa (the Gambu Island, or India) is named[63]; then arriving before p. 128 Kassapa he sat down in the room where Kassapa's (sacred) fire was kept[64].

8. Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa saw the Blessed One sitting in the fire room; seeing him he said to the Blessed One: 'By what way have you come, great Samana? I have departed before you, and you have arrived before me and are sitting in the fire room.'

9. 'When I had sent you away, Kassapa, I went to pluck a fruit from the garnbu tree after which this continent of Gambudîpa is named; then I arrived before you and sat down in the fire room. Here is the gambu fruit, Kassapa, it is beautiful, fragrant, and full of flavour; you may eat it, if you like.'

'Nay, great Samana, to you alone it is becoming to eat it; eat it yourself.'

And the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since he is able, having sent me away before him, to go and pluck a fruit from the gambu tree after which this continent of Gambudîpa is named, and then to arrive before me and to sit down in the fire room. He is not however, holy like me.'

And the Blessed One ate (&c., as in chap. 16. 2).

10. And when that night had elapsed (&c., as in Ī 7, down to:). Having thus sent away the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa, he went to pluck a fruit from a mango tree growing near the gambu tree after which this continent of Gambudîpa is named, &c. He p. 129 went to pluck a fruit from an emblic myrobalan tree, &c., from a yellow myrobalan tree growing near the gambu tree, &c. He went to the Tāvatimsa heaven to pluck a pārikkhattaka (or pārigātaka) flower; then arriving before Kassapa he sat down in the fire room. Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa saw (&c., as in Ī 8).

11. 'When I had sent you away, Kassapa, I went to the Tāvatimsa heaven to pluck a pārikkhattaka flower; then I arrived before you and sat down in the fire room. Here is the pārikkhattaka flower, Kassapa; it is beautiful and fragrant; you may take it, if you like.'

'Nay, great Samana, to you alone it is becoming to keep it; keep it yourself.'

And the Gatila (&c., as in Ī 9). 'He is not, however, holy as I am.'

 


 

12. At that time one day the Gatilas, who wished to attend on their sacred fires, could not succeed in splitting fire-wood. Now these Gatilas thought:

'Doubtless this is the magical power and the high faculty of the great Samana that we cannot succeed in splitting fire-wood.' Then the Blessed One said to the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa: 'Shall the fire-wood be split, Kassapa?'

'Let it be split, great Samana.'

Then in a moment the five hundred pieces of fire-wood[65] were split. And the Gatila Uruvelā p. 130 Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since even the fire-wood splits itself (at his command). He is not, however, holy like me.'

13. At that time the Gatilas who wished to attend on their sacred fires, could not succeed in lighting up the fires (&c., as in the preceding story).

14. At that time the Gatilas, after having attended on their sacred fires, could not succeed in extinguishing the fires (&c., as above).

15. At that time in the cold winter nights, in the time between the ashtakā festivals[66], when snow falls, the Gatilas plunged into the river Nerañgarā, and emerged again, and repeatedly plunged into the water and emerged. And the Blessed One created five hundred vessels with burning fire[67]; at those the Gatilas coming out of the river warmed themselves. And the Gatilas thought: 'Doubtless this is the magical power and the high faculty of the great Samana that these vessels with fire have been caused to appear here.' And the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since he can create such great vessels with fire. He is not, however, holy like me.'

16. At that time a great rain fell out of season; and a great inundation arose. The place where the Blessed One livcd was covered with water. Then p. 131 the Blessed One thought: 'What if I were to cause the water to recede round about, and if I were to walk up and down in the midst of the water on a dust-covered spot.' And the Blessed One caused the water to recede round about, and he walked up and down in the midst of the water on a dust-covered spot.

And the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa, who was afraid that the water might have carried away the great Samana, went with a boat together with many Gatilas to the place where the Blessed One lived. Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa saw the Blessed One, who had caused the water to recede round about, walking up and down in the midst of the water on a dust-covered spot. Seeing him, he said to the Blessed One: 'Are you there, great Samana?'

'Here I am, Kassapa,' replied the Blessed One, and he rose in the air and stationed himself in the boat.

And the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa thought: 'Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since the water does not carry him away. He is not, however, holy like me.'

17. Then the Blessed One thought: 'This foolish man will still for a long time think thus: "Truly the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great faculties; he is not, however, holy like me." What if I were to move the mind of this Gatila (in order to show him my superiority).'

And the Blessed One said to the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa: 'You are not holy (arahā), Kassapa, nor have you entered the path of Arahatship, nor do you walk in such a practice as will lead you to Arahatship. or to entering the path of Arahatship.'

Then the Gatila Uruvelā. Kassapa prostrated himself, inclining his head to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let me receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations from the Blessed One.'

18. (Buddha replied): 'You, Kassapa, are chief, leader, foremost, first, and highest of five hundred Gatilas; go first and inform them of your intention, and let them do what they think fit.'

Then the Gatila Uruvelā Kassapa went to those Gatilas; having gone to them, he said to those Gatilas: 'I wish, Sirs, to lead a religious life under the direction of the great Samana; you may do, Sirs, what you think fit.'

(The Gatilas replied): 'We have conceived, Sir, an affection for the great Samana long since; if you will lead. Sir, a religious life under the great Samana' s direction; we will all lead a religious life under the great Samana's direction.'

19. Then the Gatilas flung their hair[68], their braids, their provisions[69], and the things for the agnihotra sacrifice into the river, and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and prostrated themselves before him, inclining their heads to the feet of the Blessed One, they said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let us receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations from the Blessed One.'

'Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, 'well taught is the doctrine; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.'

Thus these venerable persons received the upasampadā ordination.

20. And the Gatila Nadî Kassapa saw the hair, the braids, the provisions, the things for the agnihotra sacrifice, which were carried down by the river; when he saw that, he became afraid that some misfortune might have befallen his brother. He sent some Gatilas, saying, 'Go and look after my brother,' and went himself with his three hundred Gatilas to the venerable Uruvelā Kassapa; having approached him, he said to the venerable Uruvelā Kassapa: 'Now, Kassapa, is this bliss?'

(Uruvelā Kassapa replied): 'Yes, friend, this is bliss.'

21. And the Gatilas (who had come with Nadî Kassapa) (&c., as in Ī 19).

22. And the Gatila Gayā Kassapa saw (&c., as in Ī 20); when he saw that, he became afraid that some misfortune might have befallen his brothers. He sent some Gatilas, saying, 'Go and look after my brothers,' and went himself with his two hundred Gatilas to the venerable Uruvelā Kassapa (&c., as above).

23. And the Gatilas (who had come with Gayā Kassapa) (&c., as in Ī 19).

24. [70]At the command of the Blessed One the five hundred pieces of fire-wood could not be split and were split, the fires could not be lit up and p. 134 were lit up, could not be extinguished and were extinguished; besides he created five hundred vessels with fire. Thus the number of these miracles amounts to three thousand five hundred.

 


 

21.

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Uruvelā as long as he thought fit, went forth to Gayāsîsa[71], accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been Gatilas before. There near Gayā, at Gayāsîsa, the Blessed One dwelt together with those thousand Bhikkhus.

2. There the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Everything, O Bhikkhus, is burning. And how, O Bhikkhus, is everything burning?

'The eye, O Bhikkhus, is burning; visible things are burning; the mental impressions based on the eye are burning; the contact of the eye (with visible things) is burning; the sensation produced by the contact of the eye (with visible things), be it pleasant, be it painful, be it neither pleasant nor painful, that also is burning. With what fire is it burning? I declare unto you that it is burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of anger, with the fire of ignorance; it is burning with (the anxieties of) birth, decay, death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair.

3. 'The ear is burning, sounds are burning, &c. . . . . The nose is burning, odours are burning, &c. p. 135 . . . . The tongue is burning, tastes are burning, &c. . . . . The body is burning, objects of contact are burning, &c. . . . . The mind is burning, thoughts are burning, &c. . . . .[72]

4. 'Considering this, O Bhikkhus, a disciple learned (in the scriptures), walking in the Noble Path, becomes weary of the eye, weary of visible things, weary of the mental impressions based on the eye, weary of the contact of the eye (with visible things), weary also of the sensation produced by the contact of the eye (with visible things), be it pleasant, be it painful, be it neither pleasant nor painful. He becomes weary of the ear (&c. . . . . , down to . . . . thoughts[72]). Becoming weary of all that, he divests himself of passion; by absence of passion he is made free; when he is free, he becomes aware that he is free; and he realises that re-birth is exhausted; that holiness is completed; that duty is fulfilled; and that there is no further return to this world.'

When this exposition was propounded, the minds of those thousand Bhikkhus became free from attachment to the world, and were released from the āsavas.

Here ends the sermon on 'The Burning.'

End of the third Bhānavāra concerning the Wonders done at Uruvelā.

 


 

22.

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Gayāsisa as long as he thought fit, went forth to Rāgaha, accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been Gatilas before. And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Rāgagaha. There the Blessed One dwelt near Rāgagaha, in the Latthivana pleasure garden, near the sacred shrine of Supatittha[73].

2. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra heard: 'The Samana Gotama Sakyaputta, an ascetic of the Sakya tribe, has just arrived at Rāgagaha and is staying near Rāgagaha, in the Latthivana pleasure garden, near the sacred shrine of Supatittha. Of Him the blessed Gotama such a glorious fame is spread abroad: "Truly he is the blessed, holy, absolute SamBuddha, endowed with knowledge and conduct, the most happy One, who understands all worlds, the highest One, who guides men as a driver curbs a bullock, the teacher of gods and men, the blessed Buddha. He makes known the Truth, which he has understood himself and seen face-to-face, to this world system with its devas, its Māras, and its Brahmās; to all beings, Samanas and Brāhmanas, p. 137 gods and men; he preaches that Truth (Dhamma) which is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the middle, glorious at the end, in the spirit and in the letter; he proclaims a consummate, perfect, and pure life." It is good to obtain the sight of holy men (Arahats) like that.'

3. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra, surrounded by twelve myriads of Magadha Brāhmanas and householders[74], went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. And of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brāhmanas and householders some also respectfully saluted the Blessed One and sat down near him; some exchanged greeting with the Blessed One, having exchanged with him greeting and complaisant words, they sat down near him; some bent their clasped hands towards the Blessed One and sat down near him; some shouted out their name and their family name before the Blessed One and sat down near him; some silently sat down near him.

4. Now those twelve myriads of Magadha Brāhmanas and householders thought: 'How now is this? has the great Samana placed himself under the spiritual direction of Uruvelā Kassapa, or has Uruvelā Kassapa placed himself under the spiritual direction of the great Samana?'

And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind the reflection which had arisen in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brāhmanas and householders, addressed the venerable Uruvelā Kassapa p. 138 in this stanza: 'What knowledge have you gained, O inhabitant of Uruvelā, that has induced you, who were renowned for your penances[75], to forsake your sacred fire? I ask you, Kassapa, this question: How is it that your fire sacrifice has become deserted?'

(Kassapa replied): 'It is visible things and sounds, and also tastes, pleasures and woman that the sacrifices speak of[76]; because I understood that whatever belongs to existence[77] is filth, therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and offerings[78].'

5. 'But if your mind, Kassapa (said the Blessed One[79]), found there no more delight, — either in visible things, or sounds, or tastes, — what is it in the world of men or gods in which[80] your mind, Kassapa, now finds delight? Tell me that.'

(Kassapa replied): 'I have seen the state of peace (i.e. Nirvāna) in which the basis of existence (upadhi[77]) and the obstacles to perfection p. 139 (kiñkana[81]) have ceased, which is free from attachment to sensual existence, which cannot pass over into another state, which cannot be led to another state; therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and offerings.'

6. Then the venerable Uruvelā Kassapa rose from his seat, adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, prostrated himself, inclining his head to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'My teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One, I am his pupil; my teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One, I am his pupil.' Then those twelve myriads of Magadha Brāhmanas and householders understood: 'Uruvelā Kassapa has placed himself under the spiritual direction of the great Samana.'

7., 8. And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind the reflection that had arisen in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brāhmanas and householders, preached to them in due course (&c., as in chap. 7, ĪĪ 5, 6, down to:). Just as a clean cloth free from black specks properly takes the dye, thus eleven myriads of those Magadha Brāhmanas and householders with Bimbisāra at their head, while sitting there, obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject p. 140 also to the condition of cessation.' One myriad announced their having become lay-pupils.

9. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra, having seen the Truth (&c. . . . . down to) dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the Teacher's doctrine, said to the Blessed One: 'In former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I entertained five wishes; these are fulfilled now. In former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I wished: "O that I might be inaugurated as king." This was my first wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. "And might then the holy, absolute SamBuddha come into my kingdom." This was my second wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now.

10. '"And might I pay my respects to Him, the Blessed One." This was my third wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. "And might He the Blessed One preach his doctrine (Dhamma) to me." This was my fourth wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. "And might I understand His, the Blessed One's doctrine." This was my fifth wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. These were the five wishes, Lord, which I entertalned in former days when I was a prince; these are fulfilled now.

11. 'Glorious, Lord! (&c., as in chap. 7. 10, down to:) who has taken his refuge in Him. And might the Blessed One, Lord, consent to take his meal with me to-morrow together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.'

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent.

12. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra, when he understood that the Blessed One had accepted his invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and, passing round him with his right side towards him, went away. p. 141 And when the night had elapsed, the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra ordered excellent food, both hard and soft, to be prepared, and had dinner-time announced to the Blessed One in the words: 'It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.' And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl, and with his kîvara on entered the city of Rāgagaha accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been Gatilas before.

13. At that time Sakka the king of the devas, assuming the appearance of a young Brāhman, walked in front of the Bhikkhu fraternity with Buddha at its head, singing the following stanzas: 'The self-controlled One with the self-controlled, with the former Gatilas, the released One with the released, the Blessed One, gold-coloured like an ornament of singî gold[82], has entered Rāgagaha.

'The emancipated One with the emancipated, with the former Gatilas, &c.

'He who has crossed (the ocean of passion) with them who have crossed (it), with the former Gatilas, the released One with the released, the Blessed One, gold-coloured like an ornament of singi go1d, has entered Rāgagaha.

'He who is possessed of the ten Noble States[83] p. 142 and of the ten Powers[84], who understands the ten Paths of Kamma[85] and possesses the ten (attributes of Arahatship)[86], the Blessed One, surrounded by ten hundred of followers, has entered Rāgagaha.'

14. The people when they saw Sakka the king of the devas, said: 'This youth indeed is handsome; this youth indeed has a lovely appearance; this youth indeed is pleasing. Whose attendant may this youth be?'

When they talked thus, Sakka the king of the devas addressed those people in this stanza: 'He who is wise, entirely self-controlled, the unrivalled Buddha, tie Arahat, the most happy upon earth: his attendant am I.'

15. And the Blessed One went to the palace of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra. Having gone there, he sat down with the Bhikkhus who followed him, on seats laid out for them. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra with his own hands served and offered excellent food, both hard and soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at p. 143 its head; and when the Blessed One had finished his meal and cleansed his bowl and his hands, he sat down near him.

16. Sitting near him the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra thought: 'Where may I find a place for the Blessed One to live in, not too far from the town and not too near, suitable for going and coming, easily accessible for all people who want (to see him), by day not too crowded, at night not exposed to much noise and alarm, clean of the smell of people, hidden from men, well fitted for a retired life?'

17. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra thought: 'There is the Veluvana[87], my pleasure garden, which is not too far from the town and not too near, suitable for going and coming, . . . . (&c., down to a retired life). What if I were to make an offering of the Veluvana pleasure garden to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head?'

18. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra took a golden vessel (with water in it, to be poured over the Buddha's hand); and dedicated (the garden) to the Blessed One (by saying), 'I give up this Veluvana pleasure garden, Lord, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head.' The Blessed One accepted the ārāma (park). Then the Blessed One, after having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Magadha king Seniya p. 144 Bimbisāra by religious discourse, rose from his seat and went away.

And in consequence of this event the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to receive the donation of an ārāma (a park).'

 


 

23.

1. At that time Sañgaya, a paribbāgaka (wandering ascetic), resided at Rāgagaha with a great retinue of paribbāgakas, with two hundred and fifty paribbāgakas. At that time Sāriputta and Moggallāna (two young Brāhmanas) led a religious life as followers of Sañgaya the paribbāgaka; these had given their word to each other: 'He who first attains to the immortal (amata, i.e. Nirvāna) shall tell the other one.'

2. Now one day the venerable Assagi in the forenoon, having put on his under-robes, and having taken his alms-bowl, and with his kîvara on, entered the city of Rāgagaha for alms; his walking, turning back, regarding, looking, drawing (his arms) back, and stretching (them) out was decorous; he turned his eyes to the ground, and was dignified in deportment. Now the paribbāgaka Sāriputta saw the venerable Assagi, who went through Rāgagaha for alms, whose walking, &c., was docorous, who kept his eyes on the ground, and was dignified in deportment. Seeing him he thought: 'Indeed this person is one of those Bhikkhus who are the worthy ones (Arahats) in the world, or who have entered the path of Arahatship. What if I were to approach this Bhikkhu and p. 145 to ask him: "In whose name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess?"'

3. Now the paribbāgaka Sāriputta thought: 'This is not the time to ask this Bhikkhu; he has entered the interior yard of a house, walking for alms. What if I were to follow this Bhikkhu step by step, according to the course recognised by those who want something[88].'

And the venerable Assagi, having finished his alms-pilgrimage through Rāgagaha, went back with the food he had received. Then the paribbāgaka Sāriputta went to the place where the venerable Assagi was; having approached him, he exchanged greeting with the venerable Assagi; having exchanged with him greeting and complaisant words, he stationed himself at his side; standing at his side the paribbāgaka Sāriputta said to the venerable Assagi: 'Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. In whose name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess[89]?'

4. (Assagi replied): 'There is, friend, the great Samana Sakyaputta, an ascetic of the Sakya tribe; in His, the Blessed One's, name have I retired from the world; He, the Blessed One, is my teacher; and His, the Blessed One's, doctrine do I profess.'

'And what is the doctrine, Sir, which your teacher holds, and preaches to you?'

'I am only a young disciple, friend; I have but recently received the ordination; and I have newly adopted this doctrine and discipline. I cannot explain to you the doctrine in detail; but I will tell you in short what it means.'

Then the paribbāgaka Sāriputta said to the venerable Assagi: 'Well, friend, tell me much or little as you like, but be sure to tell me the spirit (of the doctrine); I want but the spirit; why do you make so much of the letter?'

5. Then the venerable Assagi pronounced to the paribbāgaka Sāriputta the following text of the Dhamma: 'Of all objects which proceed from a cause, the Tathāgata has explained the cause, and He has explained theîr cessation also; this is the doctrine of the 'great Samana[90].'

And the paribbāgaka 'Sāriputta after having heard this text obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the following knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.' (And he said): 'If this alone be the Doctrine (the Dhamma), now you have reached up to the state where all sorrow ceases (i.e. Nirvāna), (the state) which has remained unseen p. 147 through many myriads of Kappas (world-ages) of the past.'

6. Then the paribbāgaka Sāriputta went to the place where the paribbāgaka Moggallāna was. And the paribbāgaka Moggallāna saw the paribbāgaka Sāriputta coming from afar; seeing him he said to the paribbāgaka Sāriputta: 'Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. Have you then really reached the immortal, friend?'

'Yes, friend, I have attained to the immortal.'

'And how, friend, have you done so?'

7-9. 'I saw, friend, the Bhikkhu Assagi who went through Rāgagaha for alms (&c.[91], down to:); "But I will tell you in short what it means."

'"Tell me much or little as you like, but be sure to tell me the spirit (of the doctrine); I want but the spirit; why do you make so much of the letter?"

10. 'Then, friend, the Bhikkhu Assagi pronounced the following Dhamma sentence: "Of all objects which proceed from a cause, the Tathāgata has explained the cause, and He has explained their cessation also; this is the doctrine of the great Samana."'

And the paribbāgaka Moggallāna, after having heard (&c., as in Ī 5, down to the end).

 


 

24.

1. Then the paribbāgaka Moggallāna said to the paribbāgaka Sāriputta: 'Let us go, friend, and join p. 148 the Blessed One; that He, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.'

(Sāriputta replied): 'It is on our account, friend; that these two hundred and fifty paribbāgakas live here (as followers of Sañgaya), and it is we whom they regard; let us first inform them also of our intention; then they may do what they think fit.'

Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna went to the place where those paribbāgakas were; having approached them, they said to the paribbāgakas: 'Friends, we are going to join the Blessed One; that He, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.'

(The paribbāgakas replied): 'It is on your account, Sirs, that we live here, and it is you whom we regard; if you, Sirs, are about to place yourselves under the spiritual direction of the great Samana, we all will place ourselves also under the spiritual direction of the great Samana.'

2. Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna went to the place where the paribbāgaka Sañgaya was; having approached him, they said to the paribbāgaka Sañgaya: 'Friend, we are going to join the Blessed One; that He, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.'

(Sañgaya replied): 'Nay, friends, do not go; let us all three share in the leadership of this body (of disciples).'

And a second time Sāriputta and Moggallāna said, &c. And a third time Sāriputta and Moggallāna said, &c. (And a third time he replied): 'Nay, friends, do not go; let us all three share in the leadership of this body (of disciples).'

3. But Sāriputta and Moggallāna took with them those two hundred and fifty paribbāgakas and went to the Veluvana. But the paribbāgaka Sañgaya p. 149 began, on the spot, to vomit hot blood from his mouth[92].

And the Blessed One saw them, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, coming from afar; on seeing them he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'There, O Bhikkhus, two companions arrive, Kolita and U patissa[93]; these will be a pair of (true) pupils, a most distinguished, auspicious pair.

When[94] (Sāriputta and Moggallāna), who had reached emancipation in the perfect destruction of the substrata (of existence), which is a profound subject accessible only to knowledge, came to the Veluvana, the Teacher, who saw them, foretold about p. 150 them: 'These two companions who are now coming — Kolita and Upatissa — these will be a pair of (true) pupils, a most distinguished, auspicious pair.'

4. Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, they prostrated thernselves, inclining their heads to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let us receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations from the Blessed One.'

'Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, 'well taught is the doctrine; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.' Thus these venerable persons received the upasampadā ordination.

5. At that time many distinguished young Magadha noblemen led a religious life under the direction of the Blessed One. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'The Samana Gotama causes fathers to beget no sons; the Samana Gotama causes wives to become widows; the Samana Gotama causes families to become extinct. Now he has ordained one thousand Gatilas, and he has ordained these two hundred and fifty paribbāgakas who were followers of Sañgaya; and these many distingtiished young Magadha noblemen are now leading a religious life under the direction of the Samana Gotama.' And moreover, when they saw the Bhikkhus, they reviled them in the following stanza: 'The great Samana has come to Giribbaga (i.e. Rāgagaha) of the Magadha people, leading with hi in all the follawers of Sañgaya; who will be the next to be led by him?'

6. Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were p. 151 annoyed, murmured, and had hecome angry; these Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. (He replied): 'This noise, O Bhikkhus, will not last long; it will last only seven days; after seven days it will he over. And if they revile you, O Bhikkhus, in this stanza: "The great Samana has come, &c.," you should reply to the revilers in the following stanza: "It is by means of the true doctrine that the great heroes, the Tathāgatas, lead men. Who will murmur at the wise, who lead men by the power of the Truth?"'

7. At that time the people, when seeing the Bhikkhus, reviled them in the following stanza: 'The great Samana has come, &c.' Then the Bhikkhus replied to the revilers in the following stanza: 'It is by means of the true doctrine, &c.'

Then the people understood: 'It is by truth, and not by wrong, that the Sakyaputtiya Samanas lead men;' and thus that noise lasted only seven days, and after seven days it was over.

Here ends the narration of the ordination of Sāriputta and Moggallāna.

End of the fourth Bhānavāra.

 


 

25.[95].

1. At that time some Bhikkhus, as they had no upagghāyas (preceptors) and received no exhortation p. 152 and instruction, went on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments (or, wearing their under and upper garments improperly), and in an improper attire. While people were eating, they held out their alms-bowls in which were leavings of food[96], over the hard food (which the people were eating), and held them out over soft food, and held them out over savoury food, and held them out over drinks. They asked for soup and boiled rice themselves, and ate it; in the dining halls they made a great and loud noise.

2. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments, . . . . (&c., as in Ī 1, down to drinks)? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls? They behave like Brāhmanas at the dinners given to them.'

3. Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, frugal, modest, conscientious, p. 153 anxious for training, were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Bhikkhus go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments, &c.? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls?'

4. These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus: 'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that some Bhikkhus go on their rounds, . . . . (&c., down to), that they make a great and loud noise in the dining halls?'

'It is true, Lord.'

5. Then the Blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'It is improper, O Bhikkhus, what these foolish persons are doing, it is unbecoming, indecent, un worthy of Samanas, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, go on their rounds, &c.? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls? This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted, and for augmenting the number of the converted; but it will result, O Bhikkhus, in the unconverted being repulsed (from the faith), and in many of the converted being estranged.'

6. And the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus in many ways, spoke against unfrugality, ill-nature, immoderation, insatiableness, delighting in society, and indolence; spoke in many ways in praise of frugality, good-nature, of the moderate, contented, who have eradicated (sin), who have shaken off (sin), of the gracious, of the reverent, and of the energetic. And having delivered beforethe Bhikkhus a religious p. 154 discourse in accordance to, and in conformity with these subjects, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, (that young Bhikkhus choose) an upagghāya (or preceptor).

'The upagghāya, O Bhikkhus, ought to consider the saddhivihārika (i.e. pupil) as a son; the saddhivihārika ought to consider the upagghāya as a father. Thus these two, united by mutual reverence, confidence, and communion of life, will progress, advance, and reach a high stage in this doctrine and discipline.

7. 'And let them choose, O Bhikkhus, an upagghāya in this way: Let him (who is going to choose an upagghāya) adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet (of the intended upagghāya), sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "Venerable Sir, be my upagghāya; venerable Sir, be my upagghāya; venerable Sir, be my upagghāya." (If the other answer): "Well," or, "Certainly," or, "Good," or, "All right," or, "Carry on (your work) with friendliness (towards me)," or should he express this by gesture (lit. by his body). or by word, or by gesture and word, then the upagghāya has been chosen. If he does not express this by gesture, nor by word, nor by gesture and word, the upagghāya has not been chosen.

8. 'The saddhivihārika, O Bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his upagghāya. And these are the rules for his conduct: Let him arise betimes, and having taken off his shoes[97] and adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, p. 155 let him give (to the upagghāya) the teeth-cleanser and water to rinse his mouth with. Then let him prepare a seat (for the upagghāya). If there is rice-milk, let him rinse the jug and offer the rice-milk (to the upagghāya). When he has drunk it, let him give water (to the upagghāya), take the jug, hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) rubbing, and put it away. When the upagghāya has risen, let him take away the seat. If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

9. 'If the upagghāya wishes to go into the village, let (the saddhivihārika) give (to the upagghāya) his under garment, take (from him) his second under garment (i.e. his house-dress ?), give him his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon each other[98] and give them (to the upagghāya), rinse the alms-bowl, and give it him with some water in it. If the upagghāya wishes (to go with) an attendant Bhikkhu, let him put on his under garment so as to conceal the three circles (viz. the navel and the two knees) and as to cover the body all around; then let him put on his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon each other and put them on, tie the knots, take his alms-bowl, after having it rinsed, and follow the upagghāya as his attendant. Let him not go too far (from the upagghāya) nor too near. Let him take (from the upagghāya) what has been put into his alms-bowl[99].

10. 'When the upagghāya speaks, let (the saddhivihārika) p. 156 not interrupt him. If the upagghāya is in danger of committing an offence by the words he says, let (the saddhivihārika) keep him back. When (the upagghāya) turns back (from his alms-pilgrimage), let the saddhivihārika go back (to the Vihāra) before (the upagghāya), prepares seat, get water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel[100]; then let him go to meet the upagghāya, take his bowl and his robe, give him his second under garment (his house-dress ?), and take his under garment. If the robe (of the upagghāya) is wet with perspiration, let him dry it a while in a hot place, but let him not leave the robe in a hot place. Let him fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, let him fold it up so as to leave (every day) four inches (more than the day before) hanging over at the corners, in order that no fold may arise in the middle of it[101]. Let him the girdle[102]. If there is any food received in the alms-bowl, and the upagghāya desires to eat it, let him give water (to the upagghāya) and then offer him the food.

11. 'Let him offer to the upagghāya (water) to drink. When the upagghāya has finished his meal, let (the saddhivihārika) give him water, take his alms-bowl, hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) rubbing, pour the water out, and dry (the bowl) a while in some hot place, but let p. 157 him not leave the bowl in the hot place. Let him put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts away the alms-bowl, let him do so holding the alms-bowl with one hand, and first feeling with the other hand under the bed or under the chair (where he is going to put the bowl), and let him not put the bowl on the bare ground. When he hangs up the robe, let him take the robe with one hand and stroke with the other hand along the bambu peg or rope on which the robe is to be hung up, and hang up the robe so that the border is turned away from him (and turned to the wall), and the fold is turned towards him. When the upagghāya has risen, let him take away the seat and put away the water for the washing of the feet, the foot-stool, and the towel[103]. If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

12. 'If the upagghāya wishes to bathe, let him prepare a bath. If he wants cold water, let him get cold water; if he wants hot water, let him get hot water. If the upagghāya wishes to go to the gantāghara[104], let (the saddhivihārika) knead the powder[105], moisten the clay[106], take up the chair belonging to the gantāghara, follow the upagghāya from behind, give him the chair, take his p. 158 robe and put it aside, give him the powder and the clay. If he is able[107], let him also enter the gantāghara. When he is going to enter the gantāghara, let him besmear his face with clay, cover himself from before and behind, and thus enter the gantāghara.

13. 'Let him not sit down so as to encroach on senior Bhikkhus, nor let him dislodge junior Bhikkhus from their seats. Let him wait upon the upagghāya in thegantāghara. When he is going to leave thegantāghara, let him take up the chair belonging to the gantāghara, cover himself from before and behind, and thus leave the gantāghara. Let him wait upon the upagghāya also in the water. When he has bathed, let (the saddhivihārika) go out of the water first, let him dry his own body, put on his dress, then wipe off the water from his upagghāya's body, give him his under garment and his upper garment, take the chair belonging to the gantāghara, go before the upagghāya, prepare a seat for him, and get water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel[108]. Let him offer to the upagghāya (water) to drink.

14. 'If (the upagghāya) likes being called upon to deliver a discourse, let him call upon (the upagghāya to do so). If (the upagghāya) likes questions being put to him, let him put questions (to the upagghāya).

'If the Vihāra, in which the upagghāya dwells, is dirty, let him clean that Vihāra, if he is able to do so. When cleaning the Vihāra, let him first take away the alms-bowl and the robe (of the upagghāya) p. 159 and lay them aside. Let him take away the mat and the sheet[109] and lay them aside. Let him take away the mattress and the pillow and lay them aside.

15. 'Let him turn down the bed, take it away properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door or doorpost, and put it aside. Let him turn down the chair, take it away properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door or doorpost, and put it aside. Let him take away the supporters of the bed[110] and put them aside. Let him take away the spitting-box and put it aside. Let him take away the board to recline on[111] and put it aside. Let him take away the carpet, after having noticed how it was spread out, and put it aside. If there are cobwebs in the Vihāra, let him remove them as soon as he sees them. Let him wipe off the casements[112] and the corners of the room. If a wall which is coated with red chalk, is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring it out, and scour the wall. If the floor is coated black and is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring it out, and scour the floor. If the floor is not blacked, let him sprinkle it with water and scrub it in order that the Vihāra may not become dusty. Let him heap up the sweepings and cast them aside.

16. 'Let him bask the carpet in the sunshine, clean it, dust it by beating, take it back, and spread it out as it was spread before. Let him put the supporters of the bed in the sunshine, wipe them p. 160 take them back, and put them in their place. Let him put the bed in the sunshine, dean it, dust it by beating, turn it down, take it back properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door and doorpost, and put it in its place. Let him put the chair in the sunshine, &c.[113] Let him put mattress and pillow in the sunshine, clean them, dust them by beating, take them back, and lay them out as they were laid out before. Let him put the mat and sheet in the sunshine, &c.[113] Let him put the spittoon in the sunshine, wipe it, take it back, and put it in its place. Let him put in the sunshine the board to recline on, &c.[113]

17. 'Let him put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts them away (&c., as in Ī 11, down to:), and hang up the robe so that the border is turned away from him and the fold is turned towards him.

18. 'If dusty winds blow from the East, let him shut the windows on the East. If dusty winds blow from the West, let him shut the windows on the West, &c.[114] If it is cold weather, let him open the windows by day and shut them at night. If it is hot weather, let him shut the windows by day and open them at night.

19. 'If the cell is dirty, let him sweep the cell. If the store-room is dirty, let him sweep the store-room. If the refectory, &c. If the fire room, &c. If the privy is dirty, let him sweep the privy. If there is no drinkable water, let him provide drinkable water. If there is no food, let him provide food. If there is no water in the waterpot for rinsing the mouth with, let him pour water into the pot.

20. 'If discontent has arisen within the upagghāya's heart, let the saddhivihārika appease him[115], or cause him to be appeased (by another), by compose him by religious conversation. If indecision has arisen in the upagghāya's mind, let the saddhivihārika dispel it, or cause it to be dispelled, or compose him by religious conversation. If the upagghāya takes to a false doctrine, let the saddhivihārika discuss it, or cause another to discuss it, or compose (the upagghāya) by religious conversation.

21. 'If the upagghāya is guilty of a grave offence, and ought to be sentenced to parivāsa discipline[116], let the saddhivihārika take care that the Samgha sentence the upagghāya to parivāsa discipline. If the upagghāya ought to be sentenced to recommence his penal discipline, let the saddhivihārika take care that the Samgha may order the upagghāya to recommence his penal discipline. If the mānatta discipline ought to be imposed on the upagghāya, let the saddhivihārika take care that the Samgha impose the mānatta discipline on the upagghāya. If the upagghāya is to be rehabilitated (when his penal discipline has been duly undergone), let the saddhivihārika take care that the Samgha rehabilitate the upagghāya.

22. 'If the Samgha wishes to proceed against the upagghāya by the tagganiyakamma[117], or the nissaya, or the pabbāganiyakamma, or the patisāraniyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakamma, let the saddhivihārika do what he can in order that the Samgha may not proceed against the upagghāya or may mitigate the proceeding. Or if thc Samgha has instituted a proceeding against him, the tagganiyakamma, &c., or the ukkhepaniyakamma, let the saddhivihārika do what he can in order that the upagghāya may behave himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance, and that the Samgha may revoke its sentence.

23. 'If the robe of the upagghāya must be washed, let the saddhivihārika wash it or take care that the upagghāya's robe is washed. If a robe must be made for the upagghāya, let the saddhivihārika make it or take care that the upagghāya's robe is made. If dye must be boiled for the upagghāya, &c. If the robe of the upagghāya must be dyed, &c. When he dyes the robe, let him dye it properly and turn it whenever required, and let him not go away before the dye has ceased to drop.

24. 'Let him not give his alms-bowl to any one without the permission of his upagghāya. Let him not accept an alms-bowl from any one else without the permission of his upagghāya. Let him not give his robe to any one else, &c. Let him not accept a robe from any one else; let him not give articles p. 163 (required for a Bhikkhu) to any one else; let him not receive (such) articles from anyone else; let him not shave the hair of any one else; let him not have his hair shaven by any one else; let him not wait upon any one else; let him not have done service by any one else; let him not execute commissions for any one else; let him not have commissions executed by anyone else; let him not go with anyone else as his attendant; let him not take any one else with him as his attendant; let him not carry any one's food received by him in alms (to the Vihāra); let him not have the food received by himself in alms carried by any one (to the Vihāra) without the permission of his upagghāya. Let him not enter the village, or go to a cemetery, or go abroad on journeys without the permission of his upagghāya. If his upagghāya is sick, let him nurse him as long as his life lasts, and wait until he has recovered.'

End of the duties towards an upagghāya.

 


 

26.

1. 'The upagghāya, O Bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his saddhivihārika. And these are the rules for his conduct: Let the upagghāya, O Bhikkhus, afford (spiritual) help and furtherance to the saddhivihārika by teaching by putting questions to him, by exhortation, by instruction. If the upagghāya has an alms-bowl and the saddhivihārika has not, let the upagghāya give the alms-bowl to the saddhivihārika or take care p. 164 that the saddhivihārika gets an alms-bowl. If the upagghāya has a robe and the saddhivihārika has not, let the upagghāya give the robe, &c. If the upagghāya has the articles (required for a Bhikkhu) and the saddhivihārika has not, &c.

2-6. 'If the saddhivihārika is sick, let (the upagghāya) arise betimes and give him the teeth-cleanser and water to rinse his mouth with. Then let him prepare a seat (for the saddhivihārika). If there is rice-milk (&c., as in chap. 25. 8, 9, down to:), and give it him with some water in it. When he expects: "Now he must be about to return," let him prepare a seat, get water for the washing of his feet (&c., as in chap. 25. 10-13[118], down to:). Let him offer to the saddhivihārika water to drink.

7-10. 'If the Vihāra in which the saddhivihārika dwells, is dirty . . . . (&c., as in chap. 25. 14-22).

11. 'If the robe of the saddhivihārika must be washed, let the upagghāya tell the saddhivihārika: "Thus must you wash your robe," or let him take care that the saddhivihārika's robe is washed. If a robe must be made for the saddhivihārika, let the upagghāya tell the saddhivihārika: "Thus must you make the robe," or let him take care that the saddhivihārika's robe is made. If dye must be boiled for the saddhivihārika, &c. If the robe of the saddhivihārika must be dyed, let the upagghāya tell, &c. When he dyes the robe, let him dye it properly, and turn it whenever required, and let him not go away before the dye has ceased to drop. If the saddhivihārika p. 165 is sick, let him nurse him as long as his life lasts and wait until he has recovered.'

End of the duties towards a saddhivihārika.

 


 

27.

1. At that time the saddhivihārikas did not observe a proper conduct towards their upagghāyas. The moderate Bhikkhus[119] were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can the saddhivihārikas not observe a proper conduct towards their upagghāyas?' These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

(Then Buddha questioned the Bhikkhus): 'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the saddhivihārikas do not observe a proper conduct towards their upagghāyas?' (They replied): 'It is true, Lord.' Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'How can the saddhivihārikas, O Bhikkhus, not observe a proper conduct towards their upagghāyas?' Having rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus[120]: 'Let a saddhivihārika, O Bhikkhus, not forbear to observe a proper conduct towards p. 166 his upagghāya. He who does not observe it, is guilty of a dukkata[121] offence.'

2. Notwithstanding this, they did not observe a proper conduct. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I ordain, O Bhikkhus, to turn away (a saddhivihārika) who does not observe a proper conduct. And he ought, O Bhikkhus, to be turned away in this way: (The upagghāya is to say): "I turn you away," or, " Do not come back hither," or, "Take away your alms-bowl and robe," or, "I am not to be attended by you any more." Whether he express this by gesture, or by word, or by gesture and word, the saddhivihārika has then been turned away. If he does not express this by gesture, nor by word, nor by gesture and word, the saddhivihārika has not been turned away.'

3. At that time saddhivihārikas who had been turned away did not beg pardon (of their upagghāyas). They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (a saddhivihārika who has been turned away) should, beg pardon (of his upagghāya).'

They did not beg pardon notwithstanding. They told, &c.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (a saddhivihārika) who has been turned away shall not forbear to beg pardon (of his upagghāya). If he does not beg pardon, it is a dukkata offence.'

4. At that time upagghāyas, when the saddhivihārikas begged their pardon, would not forgive them. They told, &c.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, forgiving.'

Notwithstanding this they did not forgive. The saddhivihārikas went away, or returned to the world, or went over to other schools. They told, &c.

'Let him who is asked for his pardon, not withhold it. He who does not forgive, is guilty of a dukkata offence:

5. At that time upagghāyas turned away (a saddhivihārika) who observed a proper conduct, and did not turn awayone who did not observe it. They told, &c.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who observes a proper conduct, be turned away. He who turns him away is guilty of a dukkata offence. And let no one, O Bhikkhus, who dues not observe a proper conduct, not be turned away. (An upagghāya) who does not turn him away is guilty of a dukkata offence.

6. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a saddhivihārika ought to be turned away: when he does not feel great affection for his upagghāya, nor great inclination (towards him), nor much shame, nor great reverence, nor great devotion (towards the upagghāya). In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a saddhivihārika ought to be turned away.

'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a saddhivihārika ought not to be turned away: when he feels great affection for his upagghāya, great inclination (towards him), &c. In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a saddhivihārika ought not to be turned away.

7. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, it is right to turn away a saddhivihārika: when he does not feel p. 168 great affection, &c. In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, it is right to turn away a saddhivihārika.

'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, it is not right, &c.

8. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, an upagghāya who does not turn away a saddhivihārika, trespasses (against the law), and an upagghāya who turns him away, does not trespass: when he does not feel great affection, &c. In these five cases, &c.

'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, an upagghāya who turns away a saddhivihārika, trespasses (against the law), and an upagghāya who does not turn him away, does not trespass, &c.'

 


 

28.

1. At that time a certain Brāhmana came to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination. The Bhikkhus were not willing to ordain him. As he did not obtain the pabbaggā ordination from the Bhikkhus, he became emaciated, lean, discoloured, more and more livid, and the veins became visible all over his body.

And the Blessed One saw this Brāhmana, who had become emaciated, &c. When he had seen him, he said to the Bhikkhus: 'How is it, O Bhikkhus, that this Brāhmana has become emaciated, &c.'

'This Brāhmana, Lord, came to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination (&c., as above, down to:), and the veins became visible all over his body.'

2. Then the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 'Now, O Bhikkhus, who remembers anything about this Brāhmana?'

When he had spoken thus, the venerabIe Sāriputta said to the Blessed One: 'I remember something, Lord, about this Brāhmana.'

'And what is it you remember, Sāriputta, about this Brāhmana?'

'This Brāhmana, Lord, one day, when I went through Rāgagaha for alms, ordered a spoonfuI of food to be given to me; this is what I remember, Lord, about this Brāhmana.'

3. 'Good, good, Sāriputta; pious men, Sāriputta, are gratefuI and remember what has been done to them. Therefore, Sāriputta, confer you the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations on that Brāhmana.'

'Lord, how shall I confer the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations on this Brāhmana?'

Then the Blessed One on this occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I abolish, O Bhikkhus, from this day the upasampadā ordination by the threefoId declaration of taking refuge[122], which I had prescribed. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you confer the upasampadā ordination by a formal act of the Order in which the announcement (ñatti) is followed by three questions[123].

4. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer the p. 170 upasampadā ordination in this way: Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha:

'Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N. N., desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N. (i.e. with the venerable N. N. as his upagghāya). If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha confer on N. N. the upasampadā ordination with N. N. as upagghāya. This is the ñatti.

5, 6. 'Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N. N. desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N. The Samgha confers on N. N. the upasampadā ordination with N. N. as upagghāya. Let any one of the venerable brethren who is in favour of the upasampadā ordination of N. N. with N. N. as upagghāya, be silent, and any one who is not in favour of it, speak.

'And for the second time I thus speak to you: Let the Samgha (&c., as before).

'And for the third time I thus speak to you: Let the Samgha, &c.

'N. N. has received the upasampadā ordination from the Samgha with N. N. as upagghāya. The Samgha is in favour of it, therefore it is silent. Thus I understand[124].'

 


 

29.

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu shortly after having received the upasampadā ordination, abandoned p. 171 himself to bad conduct. The Bhikkhus said to him: 'You ought not to do so, friend; it is not becoming.'

He replied: 'I never asked you, Sirs, saying, "Confer on me the upasampadā ordination." Why have you ordained me without your being asked?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, ordain a person unless he has been asked to do so. He who does, commits a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you ordain only after having been asked.

2. 'And (a Bhikkhu) ought to be asked in this way: Let him who desires to receive the upasampadā ordination, go to the Samgha, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus with his head, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "I ask the Samgha, reverend Sirs, for the upasampadā ordination; might the Samgha, reverend Sirs, draw me out (of the sinful world) out of compassion towards me." And for the second time, &c.; and for the third time let him ask, &c.

3. 'Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N. N. desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N.; N. N. asks the Samgha for the upasampadā ordination with N. N. as upagghāya. If the Samgha is ready, &c,[125]"'

 


 

30.

1. At that time an arrangement had been made at Rāgagaha that the Bhikkhus were to receive excellent meals successively (in the houses of different rich upāsakas). Now (one day) a certain Brāhmana thought: 'Indeed the precepts which these Sakyaputtiya Samanas keep and the life they live are commodious; they have good meals and lie down on beds protected from the wind[126]. What if I were to embrace the religious life among the Sakyaputtiya Samanas?' Then this Brāhmana went to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination; the Bhikkhus conferred the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations on him.

2. When he had been ordained, the arrangement of successive meals (with the rich upāsakas) came to an end. The Bhikkhus said to him: 'Come, friend, let us now go on our rounds for alms.'

He replied: 'I have not embraced the religious life for that purpose — to going about for alms; if you give me (food), I will eat; if you do not, I will return to the world.'

(The Bhikkhus said): 'What, friend! have you indeed embraced the religious life for your belly's sake?'

'Yes, friends.'

3. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can a Bhikkhu embrace the religious life in so well-taught a doctrine and discipline for his belly's sake?'

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

(The Buddha said): 'Is it true, O Bhikkhu, that you have embraced the religious life for your belly's sake?'

(He replied): 'It is true, Lord.'

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked that Bhikkhu: 'How can you, foolish person that you are, embrace the religious life in so well-taught a doctrine and discipline for your belly's sake? This will not do, O foolish one, for converting the unconverted and for augmenting the number of the converted.'

Having rebuked him and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

4. 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that he who confers the upasampadā ordination (on a Bhikkhu), tell him the four Resources.

'The religious life has morsels of food given in alms for its resource. Thus you must endeavour to live all your life. Meals given to the Samgha, to certain persons, invitations, food distributed by ticket, meals given each fortnight, each uposatha day (i.e. the last day of each fortnight), or the first day of each fortnight, are extra allowances.

'The religious life has the robe made of rags taken from a dust heap for its resource. Thus you must endeavour to live all your life. Linen, cotton, silk, woollen garments, coarse cloth, hempen cloth are extra allowances.

'The religious life has dwelling at the foot of a tree for its resource. Thus you must endeavour to live all your life. Vihāras, addhayogas, storied dwellings, attics, caves[127] are extra allowances.

'The religious life has decomposing urine as medicine[128] for its resource. Thus you must endeavour to live all your life. Ghee, butter, oil, honey, and molasses are extra allowances.'

Here ends the fifth Bhānavāra, which contains the duties towards upagghāyas.

 


 

31.

1. At that time a certain youth came to the Bhikkhus and asked them to be ordained. The Bhikkhus told him the (four) Resources before his ordination. Then he said: 'If you had told me the Resources, venerable Sirs, after my ordination, I should have persisted (in the religious life); but now, venerable Sirs, I will not be ordained; the Resources are repulsive and loathsome to me.'

The Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to tell the Resources (to the candidates) before their ordination. He who does, is guilty of a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you tell the Resources (to the newly-ordained Bhikkhus) immediately after their upasampadā.'

2. At that time some Bhikkhus performed the upasampadā service with a chapter of two or three Bhikkhus.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, receive the upasampadā ordination before a chapter of less than ten Bhikkhus. He who performs the upasampadā service (with a smaller number of Bhikkhus), is guilty of a dukkata offence. I prescribe you, O Bhikkhus, the holding of upasampadā services with a chapter of ten Bhikkhus or more than ten.'

3. At that time some Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination on their saddhivihārikas one or two years after their own upasampadā. [129]Thus also the venerable Upasena Vangantaputta conferred the upasampadā ordination on a saddhivihārika of his one year after his own upasampadā. When he had concluded the vassa residence, after two years from his own upasampadā had elapsed, he went with his saddhivihārika, who had completed the first year after his upasampadā, to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him.

4. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas to exchange greeting with incoming Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to the venerable Upasena Vangantaputta: 'Do things go well with you, Bhikkhu? Do you get enough to support your life? Have you made your journey with not too great fatigue?'

'Things go pretty well with us, Lord; we get p. 176 enough, Lord, to support our life, and we have made our journey, Lord, with not too great fatigue.' The Tathāgatas sometimes ask about what they know; sometimes they do not ask about what they know. They understand the right time when to ask, and they understand the right time when not to ask. The Tathāgatas put questions full of sense, not void of sense; to what is void of sense the bridge is pulled down for the Tathāgatas. For two purposes the blessed Buddhas put questions to the Bhikkhus, when they intend to preach the doctrine or when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to their disciples.

5. And the Blessed One said to the venerable Upananda Vangantaputta: 'How many years have you completed, O Bhikkhu, since your upasampadā?'

'Two years, Lord.'

'And how many years has this Bhikkhu completed?'

'One year, Lord.'

'In what relation does this Bhikkhu stand to you?'

'He is my saddhivihārika, Lord.'

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked him: 'This is improper, O foolish one, unbecoming, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samana, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can you, O foolish one, who ought to receive exhortation and instruction from others, think yourself fit for administering exhortation and instruction to another Bhikkhu? Too quickly, O foolish one, have you abandoned yourself to the ambition of collecting followers. This will not do (&c.: as in chap. 30. 3). Let no one, O Bhikkhus, confer the upasampadā ordination who has not p. 177 completed ten years. He who does, is guilty of a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that only he who has completed ten years or more than ten years, may confer the upasampadā ordination.'

6. At that time ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus (who said), 'We have completed ten years (since our upasampadā), we have completed ten years,' conferred the upasampadā ordination; (thus) ignorant upagghāyas were found and clever saddhivihārikas; unlearned upagghāyas were found and learned saddhivihārikas; upagghāyas were found who had small knowledge, and saddhivihārikas who had great knowledge; foolish upagghāyas were found and wise saddhivihārikas. And a certain Bhikkhu who had formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, when his upagghāya remonstrated with him (on certain offences) according to the Dhamma, brought his upagghāya (by reasoning) to silence and went back to that same Titthiya school[130].

7. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can those ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus confer the upasampadā ordination (saying); "We have completed ten years, we have completed ten years?" (Thus) ignorant upagghāyas are found and clever saddhivihārikas (&c., down to:), foolish upagghāyas are found and wise saddhivihārikas.'

These Bhikkhus told, &c.

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, &c.?'

'It is true, Lord.'

8. Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, p. 178 confer the upasampadā ordination (saying), "We have, &c?" (Thus) ignorant upagghāyas are found, &c. This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted and for augmenting the number of the converted.'

Having rebuked those Bhikkhus and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, confer the upasampadā ordination. If he does, he is guilty of a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that only a learned, competent Bhikkhu who has completed ten years, or more than ten years, may confer the upasampadā ordination.'

 


 

32.

1. At that time some Bhikkhus whose upagghāyas were gone away, or had returned to the world, or had died, or were gone over to a (schismatic) faction[131], as they had no ākariyas and received no exhortation and instruction, went on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments (&c., as in chap. 25. 1-6, down to:), he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, (that young Bhikkhus choose) an ākariya[132].

'The ākariya, O Bhikkhus, ought to consider the antevāsika (i.e. disciple) as a son; the antevāsika ought to consider the ākariya as a father. Thus these two, united by mutual reverence, confidence, and communion of life, will progress, advance, and reach a high stage in this doctrine and discipline.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you live (the first) ten years in dependence (on an ākariya); he who has completed his tenth year may give a nissaya[133] himself.

2. 'And let (the antevāsika), O Bhikkhus, choose his ākariya in this way: Let him adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet (of the ākariya), sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "Venerable Sir, be my ākariya, I will live in dependence on you, Sir."' (This formula is repeated thrice.)

'(If the other answers): "Well" (&c., as in chap. 25. 7).

3. 'The antevāsika, O Bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his ākariya' (&c., as in chap. 25. 8-24).

End of the duties towards an ākariya.

 


 

33.

'The ākariya, O Bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his antevāsika' (&c., as in chap. 26).

End of the duties towards an antevāsika.

End of the sixth Bhānavāra.

 


 

34.

At that time the antevāsikas did not observe a proper conduct towards their ākariyas (&c., as in chap. 27. 1-8).

 


 

35.

1, 2. At that time ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus (who said), 'We have completed ten years (since our upasampadā), we have completed ten years,' gave a nissaya (i.e. they received young Bhikkhus as their antevāsikas); (thus) ignorant ākariyas were found and clever antevāsikas; unlearned ākariyas were found and learned antevāsikas; ākariyas were found who had small knowIedge, and antevāsikas who had great knowledgc; foolish ākariyas were found and wise antevāsikas. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed (&c., as in chap. 31, 7, 8).

'Let no ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, give a nissaya. If he does, he is guilty of a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that only a learned, competent Bhikkhu who has completed ten years, or more than ten years, may give a nissaya.

 


 

36.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus whose ākariyas and upagghāyas were gone away, or had returned to the worId, or had died, or were gone over to a (schismatic) faction, were not acquainted with (the rules about) the cessation of their nissayas[134]. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'There are five cases of cessation of a nissaya, O Bhikkhus, between (saddhivihārika and) upagghāya: p. 182 When the upagghāya is gone away, or he has returned to the world, or has died, or is gone over to a (schismatic) faction; the fifth case is that of order (given by the upagghāya to the saddhivihārika[135]). These, O Bhikkhu's, are the five cases of the cessation of a nissaya between (saddhivihārika and) upagghāya.

'There are six cases of cessation of a nissaya, O Bhikkhus, between (antevāsika and) ākariya: When the ākariya is gone away, &c.; the fifth case is that of order (given by the ākariya to the antevāsika); or (sixthly) when the ākariya and the upagghāya have come together at the same place[136]. These, O Bhikkhus, are the six cases of cessation of a nissaya between (antevāsika and) ākariya.

2. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer the upasampadā ordination, nor give a nissaya, nor ordain a novice[137]: When he does not possess full perfection in what belongs to moral practices; or does not possess full perfection in what belongs to self-concentration; or does not possess full perfection in what belongs to wisdom; or does p. 183 not possess full perfection in what belongs to emancipation; or does not possess full perfection in what belongs to knowledge and insight into emancipation. In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer the upasampadā ordination, nor give a nissaya, nor ordain a novice.

3. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer the upasampadā ordination, give a nissaya, and ordain a novice: When he possesses full perfection in what belongs to moral practices, &c. In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may, &c.

4. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c.: When he does not possess for himself full perfection in what belongs to moral practices and is not able to help others to full perfection in what belongs to moral practices; or does not possess for himself full perfection in what belongs to self-concentration, and is not able to help others to full perfection in what belongs to self-concentration, &c.

5. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he possesses for himself full perfection in what belongs to moral practices, and is able to help others to full perfection, &c.

6. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c.: When he is unbelieving, shameless, fearless of sinning, indolent, forgetful. In these five cases, &c.

7. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he is believing, modest, fearful of sinning, strenuous, of ready memory. In these five cases, &c.

8. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer , &c.: When as regards p. 184 moral practices he is guilty of moral transgressions; or when as regards the rules of conduct[138] he is guilty of transgressions in his conduct; or when as regards belief he is guilty of heresy; or when he is unlearned; or when he is foolish. In these five cases, &c.

9. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When as regards moral practices he is not guilty of moral transgressions, &c.; when he is learned; and when he is wise. In these five cases, &c.

10. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c.: When he is not able to nurse or to get nursed an antevāsika or a saddhivihārika when he is sick, to appease him or to cause him to be appeased when discontent with religious life has sprung up within him, to dispel or to cause to be dispelled according to the Dhamma doubts of conscience which have arisen in his mind; when he does not know what is an offence; or does not know how to atone for an offence. In these five cases, &c.

11. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he is able (&c., down to:); when he knows what is an offence; and knows how to atone for an offence. In these five cases, &c.

12. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c.: When he is not able to train an antevāsika or a saddhivihārika in the precepts of proper conduct[139], to educate him p. 185 in the elements of morality[140], to instruct him in what pertains to the Dhamma, to instruct him in what pertains to the Vinaya, to discuss or to make another discuss according to the Dhamma a false doctrine that might arise. In these:fÏve cases, &c.

13. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he is able, &c.

14. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c.: When he does not know what is an offence; or does not know what is no offence; or does not know what is a light offence; or does not know what is a grave offence; when the two Pātimokkhas are not perfectly known to him in their entirety, with all their divisions and their whole course, and with the entire discussion according to the single rules and to the single parts of each rule. In these five cases, &c.

15. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he knows, &c.

16. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c.: When he does not know what is an offence; or does not know what is no offence; or does not know what is a light offence; or does not know what is a grave offence; p. 186 or when he has not completed the tenth year (after his upasampadā). In these five cases, &c.

17. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he knows (&c., down to:); when he has completed ten years or more than ten years (after his upasampadā). In these five cases, &c.'

End of the sixteen times five cases concerning the admissibility of upasampadā.

 


 

37.

'In six cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c.[141]'

End of the sixteen times[142] six cases concerning the admissibility of upasampadā.

 


 

38.

1. At that time that Bhikkhu who, having formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, had (by reasoning) put to silence his upagghāya, when he remonstrated with him according to the Dhamma, and had returned to that same Titthiya school[143], came back again and asked the Bhikkhus for the upasampadā ordination. The Bhikkhus told, &c.

'That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who having formerly p. 187 belonged to a Titthiya school, has put to silence his upagghāya when he remonstrated with him according to the Dhamma, and has returned to that same Titthiya school, must not receive the upasampadā ordination, if he comes back. On other persons, O Bhikkhus, who have formerly belonged to Titthiya schools and desire to receive the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations in this doctrine and discipline, you ought to impose a parivāsa (a probation-time) of four months.

2. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to impose it in this way: Let him (who desires to receive the ordination) first cut off his hair and beard; let him put on yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus (with his head), and sit down squatting; then let him raise his joined hands, and tell him to say: "I take my refuge in the Buddha, I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the Samgha. And for the second time, &c. And for the third time take I my refuge in the Buddha, and for the third time take I my refuge in the Dhamma, and for the third time take I my refuge in the Samgha."

3. 'Let that person, O Bhikkhus, who has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, approach the Samgha, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus (with his head), sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "I, N. N., reverend Sirs,who have formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, desire to receive the upasampadā ordination in this doctrine and discipline, and ask the Samgha, reverend Sirs, for a parivāsa of four months." Let him ask thus a second time. Let him ask thus a third time.

'Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me, This person N, N ., who has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, desires to receive the upasampadā ordination in this doctrine and discipline, He asks the Samgha for a parivāsa of four months. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha impose on N. N., who has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, a parivās-a of four months, This is the ñatti,

4. '"Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me, This person N. N., who has, &c. He asks the Samgha for a parivāsa of four months, The Samgha imposes on N. N., who has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, a parivāsa of four months. Let any one of the venerable brethren who is in favour of imposing a parivāsa of four months on N. N., who has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, be silent, and any one who is not in favour of it, speak, A parivāsa of four months has been imposed by the Samgha on N. N., who has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, The Samgha is in favour of it, therefore it is silent. Thus I understand."

5. 'And this, O Bhikkhus, is the way in which a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, succeeds or fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus and obtaining upasampadā when the probation-time is over),

'What is the way, a Bhikkhus, in which a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus)?

'In case, O.Bhikkhus, the person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, enters the village p. 189 too early, and comes back (to the Vihāra) too late, thus, O Bhikkhus, a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus).

'And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, frequents the society of harlots, or of widows, or of adult girls, or of eunuchs, or of Bhikkhunîs, thus also, O Bhikkhus, a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus).

6. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, does not show himself skilled in the various things his fellow Bhikkhus have to do, not diligent, not able to consider how those things are to be done, not able to do things himself, not able to give directions to others, thus also, O Bhikkhus, &c.

'And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, does not show keen zeal, when the doctrine is preached to him or when questions are put, in what belongs to morality, to contemplation, and to wisdom, thus also, O Bhikkhus, &c.

7. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerIy belonged to a Titthiya school, becomes angry, displeased, and dissatisfied, when people speak against the teacher, the belief, the opinions, the persuasion, the creed of the school he formerly belonged to; and is pleased, glad, and satisfied, when people speak against the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Samgha; or he is pleased, glad, and satisfied, when people speak in praise of the teacher, &c.; and becomes angry, displeased, dissatisfied, when people speak in praise of the Buddha, the p. 190 Dhamma, and the Samgha; this, O Bhikkhus, is a decisive moment for the failure of a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school (in obtaining admission to the Samgha).

'Thus, O Bhikkhus, a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus). When a person comes, O Bhikkhus, that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, and has thus failed in satisfying (the Bhikkhus), the upasampadā ordination should not be conferred on him.

8-10. 'And what is the way, O Bhikkhus, in which a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, succeeds in satisfying (the Bhikkhus)?

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, does not enter the village too early (&c., point by point the contrary of the preceding).

'When a person comes, O Bhikkhus, that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, and has thus succeeded in satisfying (the Bhikkhus), the upasampadā ordination ought to be conferred on him.

11. 'If a person, O Bhikkhus, that has formerly beIonged to a Titthiya school, comes (to the Bhikkhus) naked, it is incumbent on his upagghāya to get a robe for him. If he comes with unshaven hair, the Samgha's permission ought to be asked for having his hair shaved[144].

'If fire-worshippers and Gatilas come to you, O Bhikkhus, they are to receive the upasampadā ordination (directly), and no parivāsa is to be imposed on them. And for what reason? These, O Bhikkhus, hold the doctrine that actions receive their p. 191 reward, and that our deeds have their result (according to their moral merit).

'If a Sakya by birth, O Bhikkhus, who has belonged to a Titthiya school, comes to you, he is to receive the upasampadā ordination (directly), and no parivāsa is to be imposed on him. This exceptional privilege, O Bhikkhus, I grant to my kinsmen.'

Here ends the exposition on the ordination of persons that have formerly belonged to Titthiya schools.

End of the seventh Bhānavāra.

 


 

39.

1. At that time these five diseases prevailed among the people of Magadha: — leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, and fits. The people who were affected with these five diseases went to Gîvaka Komārabhakka[145] and said: 'pray, doctor, cure us.'

'I have too many duties', Sirs, and am too occupied. I have to treat the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra, and the royal seraglio, and the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at their head. I cannot cure you.

'All that we possess shall be yours, doctor, and we will be your slaves; pray, doctor, cure us.'

'I have too many duties, Sirs, &c.; I cannot cure you.'

2. Now those people thought: 'Indeed the precepts which these Sakyaputtiya Samanas keep and p. 192 the life they live are commodious; they have good meals and lie down on beds protected from the wind. What if we were to embrace the religious life among the Sakyaputtiya Samanas: then the Bhikkhus will nurse us, and Gîvaka Komārabhakka, will cure us.'

Thus these persons went to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination; the Bhikkhus conferred on them the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations; and the Bhikkhus nursed them, and Gîvaka Komārabhakka cured them.

3. At that time the Bhikkhus, who had to nurse many sick Bhikkhus, began to solicit (lay people) with many demands and many requests: 'Give us food for the sick; give us food for the tenders of the sick; give us medicine for the sick.' And also Gîvaka Komārabhakka, who had to treat many sick Bhikkhus, neglected some of his duties to the king.

4. Now one day a man who was affected with the five diseases went to Gîvaka Komārabhakka and said:'Pray, doctor, cure me.'

'I have too many duties, Sir, and am too occupied; I have to treat the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra, and the royal seraglio, and the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at their head; I cannot cure you.'

'All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and I will be your slave; pray doctor, cure me.'

'I have too many duties, Sir, &c.; I cannot cure you.

5. Now that man thought: 'Indeed the precepts which these Sakyaputtiya Samanas keep (&c., down to:): then the Bhikkhus will nurse me, and Gîvaka Komārabhakka will cure me. When I have become free from sickness, then I will return to the world.'

Thus that man went to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination; the Bhikkhus p. 193 conferred on him the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations; and the Bhikkhus nursed him, and Gîvaka Komārabhakka cured him. When he had become free from sickness, he returned to the world. Now Gîvaka Komārabhakka saw this person that had returned to the world; and when he saw him he asked that person: 'Had you not embraced the religious life, Sir, among the Bhikkhus?'

'Yes, doctor.'

'And why have you adopted such a course, Sir?'

Then that man told Gîvaka Komārabhakka the whole matter .

6. Then Gîvaka Komārabhakka was annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the venerable brethren confer the pabbaggā ordination on a person affected with the five diseases?'

And Gîvaka Komārabhakka went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him, Gîvaka Komārabhakka said to the Blessed One: 'Pray, Lord, let their reverences not confer the pabbaggā ordination on persons affected with the five diseases.'

7. Then the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened Gîvaka Komārabhakka by religious discourse; and Gîvaka Komārabhakka, having been taught . . . . and gladdened by the Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing round him with his right side towards him, went away.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, p. 194 O Bhikkhus, who is affected with the five diseases, receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination ( on such a person), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

40.

1. At that time the border provinces (of the kingdom) of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra were agitated. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra gave order to the officers who were at the head of the army: 'Well now, go and search through the border provinces[146]: The officers who were at the head of the army accepted the order of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty.'

2. Now many distinguished warriors thought: 'We who go (to war) and find our delight in fighting, do evil and produce great demerit. Now what shall we do that we may desist from evil-doing and may do good?'

Then these warriors thought: 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas lead indeed a virtuous, tranquil, holy life; they speak the truth; they keep the precepts of morality, and are endowed with all virtues. If we could obtain pabbaggā with the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, we should desist from evil-doing and do good.'

Thus these warriors went to the Bhikkhus and p. 195 asked them for the pabbaggā ordination; the Bhikkhus conferred on them: the pabbaggā and upasanipadā ordinations.

3. The officers at the head of the army asked the royal soldiers: 'Why, how is it that the warriors N. N. and N. N. are nowhere to be seen?'

'The warriors N. N. and N. N., Lords, have embraced religious life among the Bhikkhus.'

Then the officers at the head of the army were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas ordain persons in the royal service?'

The officers who were at the head of the army told the thing to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra asked the officers of justice: 'Tell me, my good Sirs, what punishment does he deserve who ordains a person in the royal service?'

'The upagghāya, Your Majesty, should be beheaded; to him who recites (the kammavākā), the tongue should be torn out; to those who form the chapter, half of their ribs should be broken.'

4. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, there are unbelieving kings who are disinclined (to the faith); these might harass the Bhikkhus even on trifling occasions. Pray, Lord, let their reverences not confer the pabbaggā ordination on persons in royal service.'

Then the Blessed One taught (&c., see chap. 39. 7, p. 196 down to:), thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who is in the royal service, receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on such a person), is guilty of a dukkata offence:

 


 

41.

At that time the robber Angulimāla[147] had embraced religious life among the Bhikkhus. When the people saw that, they became alarmed and terrified; they fled away, went elsewhere, turned away their heads, and shut their doors. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas ordain a robber who openly wears the emblems (of his deeds)?'

Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry; these Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

The Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no robber, O Bhikkhus, who wears the emblems (of his deeds), receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on such a person), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

42.

1. At that time the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra had issued the following decree: 'No one is to do any harm to those who are ordained among the Sakyaputtiya Samanas; well taught is their doctrine; let them lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.'

Now at that time a certain person who had committed robbery was imprisoned in the jail. He broke out of the jail, ran away, and received the pabbaggā ordination with the Bhikkhus.

2. The people who saw him, said: 'Here is the robber who has broken out of jail; come, let us bring him (before the authorities).'

But some people replied: 'Do not say so, Sirs. A decree has been issued by the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra: 'No one is to do any harm to those who are ordained, &c.'

People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, thinking: 'Indeed these Sakyaputtiya Samanas are secure from anything; it is not allowed to do any harm to them. How can they ordain a robber who has broken out of jail?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no robber, O Bhikkhus, who has broken out of jail, receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on such a person), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

43.

At that time a certain person who had committed robbery had run away and had become ordained with the Bhikkhus. At the royal palace a proclamation was written: 'Wherever he is seen, he is to be killed.'

The people who saw him, said: 'Here is the proclaimed robber; come, let us kill him' (&c., as in chap. 42).

'Let no proclaimed robber, O Bhikkhus, receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on such a robber), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

44.

At that time a certain person who had been punished by scourging had been ordained with the Bhikkhus. People were annoyed, &c.: 'How can these Sakyaputtiya Samanas ordain a person that has been punished by scourging?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who has been punished by scourging, receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on such a person), is guilty of dukkata offence.'

 


 

45.

At that time a certain person who had been punished by branding (&c., as in chap. 44, down to the end).

 


 

46.

At that time a certain person who was in debt, ran away and was ordained with the Bhikkhus. When his creditors saw him, they said: 'There is our debtor; come, let us lead him (to prison).' But some people replied: 'Do not say so, Sirs. A decree has been issued by the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra: 'No one is to do any harm to those who are ordained with the Sakyaputtiya Samanas; well taught is their doctrine; let them lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.'

People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'Indeed these Sakyaputtiya Samanas are secure from anything; it is not allowed to do anything to them. How can they ordain a debtor?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no debtor, O Bhikkhus, receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on a debtor), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

47.

At that time a slave ran away and was ordained with the Bhikkhus. When his masters saw him, they said: 'There is our slave; come, let us lead him away (back to our house),' (&c., as in chap. 46).

'Let no slave, O Bhikkhus, receive the pabbaggā ordination. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on a slave), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

48.

1. At that time a certain smith[148] who was bald-headed, having had a quarrel with his father and mother, had gone to the ārāma and received pabbaggā with the Bhikkhus. Now the father and mother of that bald-headed smith, searching after that bald-headed smith, came to the ārāma and asked the Bhikkhus: 'Pray, reverend Sirs, have you seen such and such a boy?'

The Bhikkhus, who did not know him, said: 'We do not know him;' having not seen him, they said: 'We have not seen him.'

2. Now the father and mother of that bald-headed smith, searching after that bald-headed smith, found him ordained with the Bhikkhus; they were annoyed, &c.: 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas are shameless, wicked, and liars. They knew him and said: "We do not know him;" they had seen him and said: "We have not seen him." This boy has been ordained with the Bhikkhus.'

Now some Bhikkhus heard the father and mother of that bald-headed smith, who were annoyed, &c. Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Samgha's permission is asked for having (the new coming Bhikkhus) shaved.'

 


 

49.

1. At that time there was in Rāgagaha a company of seventeen boys, friends of each other; young Upāli[149] was first among them. Now Upāli's father and mother thought: 'How will Upāli after our death live a life of ease and without pain?' Then Upāli's father and mother said to themselves: 'If Upāli could learn writing, he would after our death live a life of ease and without pain.' But then Upāli's father and mother thought again: 'If Upāli learns writing, his fingers will become sore. But if Upāli could learn arithmetic, he would after our death live a life of ease and without pain.'

2. But then Upāli's father and mother thought again: 'If Upāli learns arithmetic, his breast will become diseased[150]. But if Upāli could learn money-changing[151], he would after our death live a life of ease and comfort, and without pain.' But then Upāli's father and mother said to themselves: 'If Upāli learns money-changing, his eyes will suffer. Now here are the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, who keep commodious precepts and live a commodious life; they have good meals and lie down on beds protected from the wind. If Upāli could be ordained with the p. 202 Sakyaputtiya Samanas, he would after our death live a life of ease and without pain.'

3. Now young Upāli heard his father and mother talking thus. Then young Upāli went to the other boys; having approached them, he said to those boys: 'Come, Sirs, let us get ordained with the Sakyaputtiya Samanas.' (They replied): 'If you will get ordained, Sir, we will be ordained also.' Then those boys went each to his father and mother and said to them: 'Give me your consent for leaving the world and going forth into the houseless state.' Then the parents of those boys, who thought, 'It is a good thing what all these boys are wishing so unanimously for, gave their consent. They went to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination. The Bhikkhus conferred the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations on them.

4. In the night, at dawn, they rose and began to cry: 'Give us rice-milk, give us soft food, give us hard food!' The Bhikkhus said: 'Wait, friends, till day-time. If there is rice-milk, you shall drink; if there is food, soft or hard, you shall eat; if there is no rice-milk and no food, soft or hard, you must go out for alms, and then you will eat.'

But those Bhikkhus, when they were thus spoken to by the other Bhikkhus, threw their bedding about and made it wet, calling out: 'Give us rice-milk, give us soft food, give us hard food!'

5. Then the Blessed One, having arisen in the night, at dawn, heard the noise which those boys made; hearing it he said to the venerable ānanda: 'Now, ānanda, what noise of boys is that?'

Then the venerable ānanda told the thing to the Blessed One.

p. 203

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the Bhikkhus knowingly confer the upasampadā ordination on persons under twenty years of age?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Then the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'How can those foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, knowingly confer the upasampadā ordination on persons under twenty years of age?

6. 'A person under twenty years, O Bhikkhus, cannot endure coldness and heat, hunger and thirst, vexation by gadflies and gnats, by storms and sun-heat, and by reptiles; (he cannot endure) abusive, offensive language; he is not able to bear bodily pains which are severe, sharp, grievous, disagreeable, unpleasant, and destructive to life; whilst a person that has twenty years of age, O Bhikkhus, can endure coldness, &c. This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted and for augmenting the number of the converted.'

Having rebuked those Bhikkhus and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, knowingly confer the upasampadā ordination on a person under twenty years of age. He who does, is to be treated according to the law[152].'

 


 

50.

At that time a certain family had died of pestilence[153]; only a father and his son were left; they received the pabbaggā ordination with the Bhikkhus and went together on their rounds for alms. Now that boy, when food was given to his father, ran up to him and said: 'Give some to me too, father; give some to me too, father.'

People were annoyed, &c.: 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas live an impure life; this boy is a Bhikkhunî's son.'

Some Bhikkhus heard, &c.

They told this thing to the Blessed One, &c. 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, confer the pabbaggā ordination on a boy under fifteen years of age. He who does, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

51.

 


 

At that time a believing, pious family, who devoted themselves to the (especial) service of the venerable ānanda, had died of pestilence. Only two boys were left; these, when seeing Bhikkhus, ran up to them according to their old custom, but the Bhikkhus turned them away. When they were turned away by the Bhikkhus, they cried. Now the venerable ānanda thought: 'The Blessed One has forbidden us to confer the pabbaggā ordination p. 205 on a boy under fifteen years of age, and these boys are under fifteen years of age. What can be done in order that these boys may not perish?' And the venerable ānanda told this thing to the. Blessed One.

'Are these boys able, ānanda, to scare crows?'

'They are, Lord.'

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to confer the pabbaggā ordination on crow-keeper boys even under fifteen years of age.'

 


 

52.

At that time the venerable Upananda, of the Sakya tribe, had two novices, Kandaka and Mahaka; these committed sodomy with each other. The Bhikkhus were annoyed, &c.: 'How can novices abandon themselves to such bad conduct?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One, &c.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, ordain two novices. He who does, is guilty of a dukkata offence[154].'

 


 

53.

1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Rāgagaha during the rainy season, and remained at the same place during winter and summer. The people were annoyed, &c.: 'The (four) regions are[155] . . . . and p. 206 covered by darkness to the Sakyaputtiya Samanas; they cannot discern the (four) regions.' Some Bhikkhus heard, &c.

2. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable ānanda: 'Go, ānanda, take a key and tell the Bhikkhus in every cell: "Friends, the Blessed One wishes to go forth to Dakkhināgiri. Let any one of the venerable brethren who thinks fit, come to him."'

The venerable ānanda accepted this order of the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' took a key, and said to the Bhikkhus in every cell: 'Friends, the Blessed One,' &c.

3. The Bhikkhus replied: 'Friend ānanda, the Blessed One has prescribed[156] that Bhikkhus are to live (the first) ten years in dependence (on their ākariyas and upagghāyas), and that he who has completed his tenth year, may give a nissaya himself. Now if we go there, we shall be obliged to take a nissaya there; then we shall stay there for a short time, then we must go back again and take a new nissaya. If our ākariyas and upagghāyas go, we will go also; if our ākariyas and upagghāyas do not go, we will not go either. Otherwise our light-mindedness, friend ānanda, will become manifest.'

4. Thus the Blessed One went forth to Dakkhināgiri fonowed only by a few Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Dakkhināgiri as long as he thought fit, went back to Rāgagaha again.

Then the Blessed One said to the venerable ānanda: 'How is it, ānanda, that the perfect p. 207 One has gone forth to Dakkhināgiri with so few Bhikkhus?'

Then the venerable ānanda told the thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a learned, competent Bhikkhu lives five years in dependence (on his ākariya and upagghāya), an unlearned one all his life.

5. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not live without a nissaya (i.e. independent of ākariya and upagghāya): when he does not possess full perfection in what belongs to moral practices (&c., as in chap. 36. 2). In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not live without a nlssaya.

'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may live without a nissaya: when he possesses full perfection in what belongs to moral practices (&c., as in chap. 36. 3). In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may live without a nissaya.

6-13. 'And also in other five cases, &c.[157]'

End of the eighth Bhānavāra, which is called the Abhayûvara Bhānavāra[158].

 


 

54.

1. Then the Blessed One, after having resided at Rāgagaha as long as he thought fit, went forth to p. 208 Kapilavatthu. Wandering from place to place he came to Kapilavatthu. There the Blessed One dwelt in the Sakka country, near Kapilavatthu, in the Nigrodhārāma (Banyan Grove).

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl and with his kîvara on went to the residence of the Sakka Suddhodana (his father). Having gone there, he sat down on a seat laid out for him.

Then the princess, who was the mother of Rāhula[159], said to young Rāhula: 'This is your father, Rāhula; go and ask him for your inheritance.'

2. Then young Rāhula went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he stationed himself before the Blessed One (and said): 'Your shadow, Samana, is a place of bliss.'

Then the Blessed One rose from his seat and went away, and young Rāhula followed the Blessed One from behind and said: 'Give me my inheritance, Samana; give me my inheritance, Samana.'

Then the Blessed One said to the venerable Sāriputta: 'Well, Sāriputta, confer the pabbaggā. ordination on young Rāhula.' (Sāriputta replied): 'How shall I confer, Lord, the pabbaggā ordination on young Rāhula?'

3. In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I prescribe, p. 209 O Bhikkhus, the pabbaggā ordination of novices by the threefold declaration of taking refuge.

'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer the pabbaggā ordination (on a novice) in this way: Let him first have his hair and beard cut off; let him put on yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus (with his head), and sit down squatting; then let him raise his joined hands and tell him to say: "I take my refuge in the Buddha, I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the Samgha. And for the second time, &c. And for the third time, &c."

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the pabbaggā ordination of novices by this threefold declaration of taking refuge.'

Thus the venerable Sāriputta conferred the pabbaggā ordination on young Rāhula.

4. Then the Sakka Suddhodana went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the Sakka Suddhodana said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, I ask one boon of the Blessed One.' (The Buddha replied): 'The perfect Ones, Gotama, are above granting boons (before they know what they are[160]).' (Suddhodana said): 'Lord, it is a proper and unobjectionable demand.' 'Speak, Gotama.'

5. 'Lord, when the Blessed One gave up the p. 210 world, it was a great pain to me; so it was when Nanda[161] did the same; my pain was excessive when Rāhula too did so. The love for a son, Lord, cuts into the skin; having cut into the skin, it cuts into the hide; having cut into the hide, it cuts into the flesh, . . . . the ligaments, . . . . the bones; having cut into the bones, it reaches the marrow and dwells in the marrow. Pray, Lord, let their reverences not confer the pabbaggā ordination on a son without his father's and mother's permission.'

Then the Blessed One taught the Sakka Suddhodana (&c., see chap. 39. 7).

'Let no son, O Bhikkhus, receive the pabbaggā ordination without his father's and mother's permission. He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on a son without that permission), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

55.

Then the Blessed One, after having resided at Kapilavatthu as long as he thought fit, went forth to Sāvatthi. Wandering from place to place he came to Sāvatthi. There the Blessed One dwelt at Sāvatthi, in the Getavana, the ārāma of Anāthapindika.

At that time a family who devoted themselves to the (especial) service of the venerable Sāriputta sent a boy to the venerable Sāriputta (with this message): p. 211 'Might the Thera confer the pabbaggā ordination on this boy.' Now the venerable Sāriputta thought: 'The Blessed One has established the rule[162] that no one may ordain two novices, and I have already one novice, Rāhula. Now what am I to do?' He told the thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a learned, competent Bhikkhu to ordain two novices, or to ordain as many novices as he is able to administer exhortation and instruction to.'

 


 

56.

Now the novices thought: 'How many precepts[163] are there for us, and in what (precepts) are we to exercise ourselves?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, ten precepts for the novices, and the exercise of the novices in these (ten precepts), viz. abstinence from destroying life; abstinence from stealing; abstinence from impurity; abstinence from lying; abstinence from arrack and strong drink and intoxicating liquors, which cause indifference (to religion); abstinence from eating at forbidden times; abstinence from dancing, singing, music, and seeing spectacles; abstinence from garlands, scents, unguents, ornaments, and finery; abstinence from (the use of) high or broad beds; abstinence from accepting gold or silver. I prescribe, p. 212 O Bhikkhus, these ten precepts for the novices, and the exercise of the novices in these (ten precepts).'

 


 

57.

1. At that time novices did not show reverence and confidence towards the Bhikkhus, and did not live in harmony with them. The Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the novices not show reverence and confidence towards the Bhikkhus, and not live in harmony with them?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you inflict punishment upon a novice in five cases: When he is intent on the Bhikkhus' receiving no alms; when he is intent on the Bhikkhus' meeting with misfortune; when he is intent on the Bhikkhus' finding no residence; when he abuses and reviles the Bhikkhus; when he causes divisions between Bhikkhus and Bhikkhus. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that in these five cases you inflict punishment upon a novice.'

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'What punishment are we to inflict?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you forbid them (certain places, for instance, their own residences).'

At that time Bhikkhus forbad novices the whole Samghārāma. The novices, who were not admitted to the Samghārāma, went away, or retumed to the world, or went over to Titthiya schools.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

p. 213

'Let them not, O Bhikkhus, forbid (novices) the whole Samghārāma. He who does so, commits a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (the Bhikkhus) forbid (a novice) the place where he lives or which he uses to frequent.'

3. At that time Bhikkhus forbad the novices the use of (certain kinds of) food that is taken with the mouth. People, when they prepared rice-milk to drink or meals for the Samgha, said to the novices:

'Come, reverend Sirs, drink rice-milk; come, reverend Sirs, take food.' The novices replied: 'It is impossible, friends; the Bhikkhus have issued a forewarning (against us).' The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, thinking: 'How can their reverences forbid novices the use of all food that is taken with the mouth?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let them not, O Bhikkhus, forbid (novices) food that is taken with the mouth. He who does so, commits a dukkata offence.'

End of the section about punishment (of novices).

 


 

58.

At that time the Khabbaggiya[164] Bhikkhus laid a ban upon novices without the consent of the upagghāyas (of those novices). The upagghāyas p. 214 searched after them, thinking: 'How is it that our novices have disappeared?' The Bhikkhus said: 'TheKhabbaggiya Bhikkhus, friends, have laid a ban upon them.' The upagghāyas were annoyed, &c.: 'How can the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus lay a ban upon our novices without having obtained our consent?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkh us, lay a ban (upon novices) without consent of the upagghāyas. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

59.

At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus drew the novices of senior Bhikkhus over (to themselves). The Theras, who were obliged to get themselves teeth-cleansers and water to rinse their mouths with, became tired.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, draw the followers of another Bhikkhu over to himself. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

60.

At that time a novice, Kandaka by name, who was a follower of the venerable Upananda Sakyaputto, had sexual intercourse with a Bhikkhunî, Kandakā by name. The Bhikkhus were annoyed, &c.: 'How can a novice abandon himself to such conduct?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you expel a novice (from the fraternity) in the following ten cases: When he destroys life; when he commits theft; when he commits impurity; when he is a liar; when he drinks strong drinks; when he speaks against the Buddha; when he speaks against the Dhamma; when he speaks against the Samgha; when he holds false doctrines; when he has sexual intercourse with Bhikkhunîs[165]. In these ten cases I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you expel the novice (from the fraternity).'

 


 

61.

At that time, &c.[166]

'Let a eunuch, O Bhikkhus, who has not received the upasampadā ordination, not receive it; if he has received it, let him be expelled (from the fraternity).'

 


 

62.

1. At that time there was a certain person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away; he was delicately nurtured. Now this person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away, thought: 'I am delicately nurtured; I am not able to acquire new riches or to augment the riches which I possess. What shall I do in order that I may live a life of ease and without pain?'

Then this person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away, gave himself the following answer: 'There are the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, who keep commodious precepts and live a commodious life; they have good meals and lie down on beds protected from wind. What if I were to procure myself an alms-bowl and robes on my own account, and were to have my hair and beard cut off, to put on yellow robes, to go to the ārāma, and to live there with the Bhikkhus.'

2. Then that person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away, procured himself an alms-bowl and robes on his own account, had his hair and beard cut off, put on yellow robes, went to the ārāma, and respectfully saluted the Bhikkhus. The p. 217 Bhikkhus said to him: 'How many years, friend, have elapsed since your upasampadā?'

'What does that mean, friends, "years elapsed since the upasampadā?"'

'And who is your upagghāya, friend?'

'What does that word upagghāya mean, friends?'

The Bhikkhus said to the venerable Upāli: 'Pray, friend Upāli, examine this ascetic.'

3. Then that person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away, when being examined by the venerable Upāli, told him the whole matter. The venerable Upāli told this thing to the Bhikkhus; the Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, who has furtively attached himself to the Samgha, if he has not received the upasampadā ordination, not receive it; if he has received it, let him be expelled (from the fraternity).

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, who has gone over to the Titthiyas' ( &c., as in chap. 61).

 


 

63.

1. At that time there was a serpent who was aggrieved at, ashamed of, and conceived aversion for his having been born as a serpent. Now this serpent thought: 'What am I to do in order to become released from being a serpent, and quickly to obtain human nature?' Then this serpent gave himself the following answer: 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas lead indeed a virtuous, tranquil, holy life; they speak the truth; they keep the precepts of morality, and are endowed with all virtues. If p. 218 I could obtain pabbaggā with the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, I should be released from bcing a serpent and quickly obtain human nature,'

2. Then that serpent, in the shape of a youth, went to the Bhikkhus, and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination; the Bhikkhus conferred on him the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations.

At that time that serpent dwelt together with a certain Bhikkhu in the last Vihāra (near the boundary wall of the Getavana). Now that Bhikkhu, having arisen in the night, at dawn, was walking up and down in the open air. When that Bhikkhu had left (the Vihāra), that serpent, who thought himself safe (from discovery), fell asleep (in his natural shape). The whole Vihāra was filled with the snake's body; his windings jutted out of the window.

3. Then that Bhikkhu thought: 'I will go back to the Vihāra,' opened the door, and saw the whole Vihāra filled with the snake's body, the windings jutting out of the window. Seeing that he was terrified and cried out. The Bhikkhus ran up, and said to that Bhikkhu: 'Why did you cry out, friend?' 'This whole Vihāra, friends, is filled with a snake's body; the windings jut out of the window.'

Then that serpent awoke from that noise and sat down on his seat. The Bhikkhus said to him: 'Who are you, friend?' 'I am a serpent, reverend Sirs.' 'And why have you done such a thing, friend?' Then that Nāga told the whole matter to the Bhikkhus; the Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One.

4. In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of p. 219 Bhikkhus to assemble, said to that serpent: 'You serpents are not capable of (spiritual) growth in this doctrine and discipline. However, serpent, go and observe fast on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month; thus will you be released from being a serpent and quickly obtain human nature.'

Then that serpent, who thought, 'I am not capable of (spiritual) growth in this doctrine and discipline,' became sad and sorrowful, shed tears, made an outcry, and went away.

5. Then the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus:

'There are two occasions, O Bhikkhus, on which a serpent (who has assumed human shape) manifests his true nature: when he has sexual intercourse with a female of his species, and if he thinks himself safe (from discovery) and falls asleep. These, O Bhikkhus, are the two occasions on which a serpent manifests his true nature.

'Let an animal, O Bhikkhus, that has not received the upasampadā ordination, not receive it; if it has received it, let it be expelled (from the fraternity).'

 


 

64.

1. At that time a certain young man deprived his mother of life. He was grieved, ashamed, and loathed this sinful deed. Now this young man thought: 'What am I to do to get rid of my sinful deed?' Then this young man gave himself this answer: 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas lead indeed a virtuous, tranquil, holy life, &c. If I could obtain p. 220 pabbaggā with the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, I might get rid of my sinful deed.'

2. Then that young man went to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination. The Bhikkhus said to the venerable Upāli: 'Formerly , friend Upāli, a serpent in the shape of a youth received the pabbaggā ordination with the Bhikkhus; pray, friend Upāli, examine this young man.' Then that young man, when examined by the venerable Upāli, told him the whole matter. The venerable Upāli told it to the Bhikkhus; the Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One.

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that is guilty of matricide, if he has not received the upasampadā ordination, not receive it; if he has received it, let him be expelled (from the fraternity).'

 


 

65.

At that time a certain young man deprived his father of life (&c., as in chap.64).

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that is guilty of parricide, &c.'

 


 

66.

1. At that time a number of Bhikkhus were travelling on the road from Sāketa to Sāvatthi. On the road robbers broke forth, robbed some of the Bhikkhus, and killed some of them. Then royal soldiers came from Sāvatthi and caught some of the robbers; others of them escaped. Those who had escaped, received pabbaggā with the Bhikkhus; those who had been caught, were led to death.

p. 221

2. Then those who had been ordained, saw those robbers who were being led to death; seeing them they said: 'It is well that we have escaped; had we been caught, we should also be killed thus.' The Bhikkhus said to them: 'Why, what have you done, friends?' Then those (robbers) who had been ordained, told the whole matter to the Bhikkhus. The Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, were Arahats. Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has murdered an Arahat, if this person has not received the upasampadā ordination, not receive it; if he has received it, let him be expelled (from the fraternity).'

 


 

67.

At that time a number of Bhikkhunîs were travelling on the road from Sāketa to Sāvatthi. On the road robbers broke forth, robbed some of the Bhikkhunîs, and violated some of them. Then royal soldiers (&c., as in chap. 66).

The Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has violated a Bhikkhunî (or, that has had sexual intercourse with a Bhikkhunî), (&c., as in chap. 66).

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has caused a schism among the Samgha, &c.

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has shed (a Buddha's) blood,' &c.

 


 

68.

At that time a certain hermaphrodite had received pabbaggā with the Bhikkhus; so karoti pi kārāpeti pi.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let a hermaphrodite, O Bhikkhus,' &c.

 


 

69.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred, the upasampadā ordination on a person that had no upagghāya.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who has no upagghāya, receive the upasampadā ordination. He who confers the upasampadā ordination (on such a person), commits a dukkata offence.'

2. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination with the Samgha as upagghāya.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one receive the upasampadā ordination with the Samgha as upagghāya. He who confers the upasampadā ordination (in such a way), commits a dukkata offence.'

3. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination with a number of Bhikkhus[167] as upagghāya (&c., as before).

4. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā p. 223 ordination with a eunuch as upagghāya, &c.; with a person that had furtively attached himself (to the Samgha) as upagghāya; with a person that was gone over to the Titthiyas as upagghāya; with an animal as upagghāya; with a person that was guilty of matricide as upagghāya; with a person that was guilty of parricide as upagghāya; with a person that had murdered an Arahat as upagghāya; with a person that had violated a Bhikkhunî as upagghāya; with a person that had caused a schism among the Samgha as upagghāya; with a person that had shed (a Buddha's) blood as upagghāya; with a hermaphrodite as upagghāya.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one,' &c. (as in the first clause).

 


 

70.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination on persons that had no alms-bowl. They received alms with their hands. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'Like the Titthiyas.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, receive the upasampadā ordination without having an alms-bowl. He who confers the upasampadā ordination (on a person that has not), commits a dukkata offence.'

2. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination on persons that had no robes. They went out for alms naked. People were annoyed (&c., as in Ī 1).

3. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā p. 224 ordination on persons that had neither alms-bowl nor robes. They went out for alms naked and (received alms) with their hands. People were annoyed (&c., as in Ī 1).

4. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination on persons that had borrowed alms-bowls. After the ordination (the owners) took their alms-bowls back; (the Bhikkhus) received alms with their hands. People were annoyed (&c. . . . . down to): 'Like the Titthiyas.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, receive the upasampadā ordination who has borrowed the alms-bowl. He who confers,' &c. (as in the first clause).

5. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination on persons that had borrowed robes. After the ordination (the owners) took their robes back; (the Bhikkhus) went out for alms naked. People were annoyed (&c., as in Ī 1 to the end).

6. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upasampadā ordination on persons that had borrowed alms-bowls and robes, &c.

Here end the twenty cases in which upasampadā is forbidden.

 


 

71.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the pabbaggā ordination on a person whose hands were cut off, on a person whose feet were cut off, whose hands and feet were cut off, whose ears were cut off, whose nose was cut off, whose ears and nose were cut off, whose fingers were cut off, whose p. 225 thumbs were cut off, whose tendons (of the feet) were cut, who had hands like a snake's hood[168], who was a hump-back, or a dwarf, or a person that had a goitre, that had been branded, that had been scourged, on a proclaimed robber, on a person that had elephantiasis, that was afflicted with bad illness, that gave offence (by any deformity) to those who saw him, on a one-eyed person, on a person with a crooked limb, on a lame person, on a person that was paralysed on one side, on a cripple[169], on a person weak from age, on a blind man, on a dumb man, on a deaf man, on a blind and dumb man, on a blind and deaf man, on a deaf and dumb man, on a blind, deaf and dumb man.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no person, O Bhikkhus, whose hands are cut off, receive the pabbaggā ordination. Let no person whose feet are cut off, receive the pabbaggā ordination, &c. (each of the above cases being here repeated). He who confers the pabbaggā ordination (on such persons), is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

Here end the thirty-two cases in which pabbaggā. is forbidden.

End of the ninth Bhānavāra.

 


 

72.

1. At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus gave a nissaya to shameless Bhikkhus.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, give a nissaya to shameless Bhikkhus. He who does, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

At that time some Bhikkhus lived in dependence on shameless Bhikkhus (i.e. they received a nissaya from them, they chose them for their upagghāyas or ākariyas); ere long they became also shameless, bad Bhikkhus.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, live in dependence on shameless Bhikkhus. He who does, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed that we shall not give a nissaya to shameless Bhikkhus, nor live in dependence on shameless Bhikkhus. Now how are we to discern modest and shameless persons?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you wait first four or five days until you have seen how a Bhikkhu behaves to the other Bhikkhus.'

 


 

73.

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu was travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Now this Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed that we shall not live without a nissaya (of an ākariya and p. 227 an upagghāya); now I want a nissaya, but I am travelling. What am I to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a travelling Bhikkhu who can get no nissaya, to live without a nissaya.'

2. At that time two Bhikkhus were travelling on the road in the Kosala country. They came to a certain residence; there one of the two Bhikkhus was taken ill. Now that sick Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed that we shall not live without a nissaya; now I want a nissaya, but I am sick. What am I to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a sick Bhikkhu who can get no nissaya, to live without a nissaya.'

3. Now the other Bhikkhu, who nursed that sick Bhikkhu, thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed, &c.; now I want a nissaya, but this Bhikkhu is sick. What am I to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is nursing a sick Bhikkhu, if he can get no nissaya and the sick asks him (to remain with him), to live without a nissaya.'

4. At that time a certain Bhikkhu lived in the forest; he had a dwelling-place where he lived pleasantly. Now this Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed, &c.; now I want a nissaya, but I live in the forest and have a dwelling-place where I live pleasantly. What am I to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu living in the forest who finds a place where he may live pleasantly, p. 228 and who can get (there) no nissaya, to live without a nissaya (saying to himself): "If a proper person to give me nissaya comes hither, I will take nissaya of that person."

 


 

74.

1. At that time there was a person that desired to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable Mahākassapa. Then the venerable Mahākassapa sent a messenger to the venerable ānanda: 'Come, ānanda, and recite the upasampadā proclamation for this person.' The venerable ānanda said: 'I cannot pronounce the Thera's (i.e. Mahākassapa's) name; the Thera is too venerable compared with me.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use also the family name (of the upagghāya, instead of his proper name) in the proclamation.'

2. At that time there were two persons that desired to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable Mahākassapa. They quarrelled with each other. (One said): 'I will receive the upasampadā ordination first. ' (The other said): 'Nay, I will receive it first.' . They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to ordain two persons by one proclamation.'

3. At that time there were persons who desired to receive the upasampadā ordination from different Theras. They quarrelled with each other. (One said); , 1 will receive the upasampadā ordination p. 229 first.' (The other said): 'Nay, I will receive it first.' The Theras said: 'Well, friends, let us ordain them altogether by one proclamation.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to ordain two or three persons by one proclamation, provided they have the same upagghāya, but not if they have different upagghāyas.'

 


 

75.

At that time the venerable Kumārakassapa had received the upasampadā ordination when he had completed the twentieth year from his conception (but not from his birth). Now the venerable Kumārakassapa thought: 'The Blessed One has forbidden us to confer the upasampadā ordination on persons under twenty years of age[170], and I have completed my twentieth year (only) from my conception. Have I, therefore, received the upasampadā ordination, or have I not received it?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'When, O Bhikkhus, in the womb the first thought rises up (in the nascent being), the first consciousness manifests itself, according to this the (true) birth should be reckoned. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to confer the upasampadā ordination on persons that have completed the twentieth year from their conception (only).'

 


 

76.

1. At that time ordained Bhikkhus were seen who were afflicted with leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, and fits.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that he who confers the upasampadā ordination, ask (the person to be ordained) about the Disqualifications (for receiving the ordination). And let him ask, O Bhikkhus, in this way:

'Are you afflicted with the following diseases, leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, and fits?

'Are you a man?

'Are you a male?

'Are you a freeman?

'Have you no debts?

'Are you not in the royal service?

'Have your father and mother given their consent?

'Are you full twenty years old?

'Are your alms-bowl and your robes in due state?

'What is your name?

'What is your upagghāya's name?'

2. At that time the Bhikkhus asked the persons who desired to receive the upasampadā ordination about the Disqualifications, without having them instructed beforehand (how to answer). The persons that desired to be ordained, became disconcerted, perplexed, and could not answer.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you first instruct (the persons desirous of being ordained), and then ask them about the Disqualifications.'

3. Then they instructed (the candidates) in the midst of the assembly; the persons desirous of being ordained became disconcerted, perplexed, and could not answer nevertheless.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you instruct them aside, and ask them about the Disqualifications before the assembly. And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to instruct them in this way: You ought first to cause them to choose an upagghāya; when they have chosen an upagghāya, their alms-bowl and robes must be shown to them, "This is your alms-bowl, this is your samghāti, this is your upper robe, this is your under garment; come and place yourself here."'

4. Ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus instructed them; the persons desirous of being ordained, though they had been instructed, became disconcerted, perplexed, and could not answer.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, instruct them. If they do, they commit a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a learned, competent Bhikkhu instruct them.'

5. At. that time persons instructed them who were not appointed thereto.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, instruct them without being appointed thereto. He who so instructs, commits a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that an appointed Bhikkhu is to instruct them. And (this Bhikkhu), O Bhikkhus, is to be appointed in this way: One may either appoint himself, or one may appoint another person. And how is (a Bhikkhu) to p. 232 appoint himself? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N. If the Samgha is ready, I will instruct N. N." Thus one may appoint himself.

6. 'And how is (a Bhikkhu) to appoint another person? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, &c. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N. If the Samgha is ready let N. N. instruct N. N." Thus one may appoint another person.

7. 'Then let that appointed Bhikkhu go to the person who desires to be ordained, and thus address him: "Do you hear, N. N.? This is the time for you to speak the truth, and to say that which is. When I ask you before the assembly about that which is, you ought, if it is so, to answer: 'It is;' if it is not so, you ought to answer: 'It is not.' Be not disconcerted, be not perplexed. I shall ask you thus: 'Are you afflicted with the following diseases, &c?'"'

8. (After the instruction, the instructor and the candidate) appeared together before the assembly.

'Let them not appear together. Let the instructor come first and proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N.; he has been instructed by me. If the Samgha is ready, let N. N. come." Then let him be told: "Come on." Let him be told to adjust his upper robe (&c., see chap. 29. 2 ), to raise his joined hands, and to ask (the Samgha) for the upasampadā ordination (by saying), p. 233 "I ask the Samgha, reverend Sirs, for the upasampadā ordination; might the Samgha, reverend Sirs, draw me out (of the sinful world) out of compassion towards me. And for the second time, reverend Sirs, I ask, &c. And for the third time, reverend Sirs, I ask, &c."

9. 'Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N. N. desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N. If the Samgha is ready, let me ask N. N. about the Disqualifications.

'"Do you hear, N. N.? This is the time for you (&c., see Ī 7, down to:) you ought to answer: 'It is not.'"

'"Are you afflicted with the following diseases, &c.?"

10. 'Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N. N. desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N. N.; he is free from the Disqualifications; his alms-bowl and robes are in due state. N. N. asks the Samgha for the upasampadā ordination with N. N. as upagghāya. If the Samgha is ready, &c.[171]"'

End of the regulations for the upasampadā ordination[172].

 


 

77.

'Then let them measure the shadow, tell (the newly-ordained Bhikkhu) what season and what date it is, tell him what part of the day it is, tell him the whole formula[173], and tell him the four Resources: "The religious life has the morsels of food given in alms for its resource (&c., as in chap. 30. 4)."'

End of the four Resources.

 


 

78.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus, after having conferred the upasampadā ordination on a certain Bhikkhu, left him alone and went away. Afterwards, as he went alone (to the ārāma), he met on the way his former wife. She said to him: 'Have you now embraced the religious life?' (He replied): 'Yes, I have embraced the religious life.' 'It is difficult for persons who have embraced religious life to obtain sexual intercourse; come, let us have intercourse.' He practised intercourse with her, and, in consequence, came late (to the Arāma). The Bhikkhus said: 'How is it, friend, that you are so late?'

2. Then that Bhikkhu told the whole matter to the Bhikkhus. The Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a companion to a newly-ordained Bhikkhu, and that you tell him the four Interdictions:

'"A Bhikkhu who has received the upasampadā ordination ought to abstain from all sexual intercourse even with an animal. A Bhikkhu who practises sexual intercourse is no Samana and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a man whose head is cut off, cannot live any longer with his trunk alone, thus a Bhikkhu who practises sexual intercourse is no Samana and no follower of the Sakyaputta. Abstain from doing so as long as your life lasts.

3. '"A Bhikkhu who has received the upasampadā ordination, ought to abstain from taking what is not given to him, and from theft, even of a blade of grass. A Bhikkhu who takes what is not given to him, or steals it, if it is a pāda (i.e. a quarter of a kārshāpana), or of the value of a pāda or worth more than a pāda, is no Samana and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a sear leaf loosed from its stalk cannot become green again, thus a Bhikkhu who takes, &c. Abstain from doing so as long as your life lasts.

4. '"A Bhikkhu who has received the upasampadā ordination, ought not intentionally to destroy the life of any being down to a worm or an ant. A Bhikkhu who intentionally kills a human being, down to procuring abortion, is no Samana and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a great stone which is broken in two, cannot be reunited, thus a Bhikkhu who intentionally, &c. Abstain from doing so as long as your life lasts.

5. '"A Bhikkhu who has received the upasampadā ordination, ought not to attribute to p. 236 himself any superhuman condition, and not to say even: 'I find delight in sojourning in an empty place.' A Bhikkhu who with bad intention and out of covetousness attributes to himself a superhuman condition, which he has not, and which he is not possessed of, a state of ghāna (mystic meditation), or one of the vimokkhas[174], or one of the samādhis (states of self-concentration), or one of the samāpattis (the attainment of the four ghānas and four of the eight vimokkhas), or one of the Paths (of sanctification), or one of the Fruits thereof, is no Samana and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a palm tree of which the top sprout has been cut off, cannot grow again, thus a Bhikkhu who with bad intention, &c. Abstain from doing so as long as your life lasts."'

End of the four Interdicts.

 


 

79.

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu against whom expulsion[175] had been pronounced for his refusal to see an offence (committed by himself), returned to p. 237 the world. Afterwards he came back to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the upasampadā ordination.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu against whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal to see an offence (committed by himself), returns to the world, and afterwards comes back to the Bhikkhus and asks them for the upasampadā ordination, let them say to him: "Will you see that offence?" If he replies: "I will see it," let him be admitted to the pabbaggā ordination; if he replies: "I will not see it," let him not be admitted to the pabbaggā ordination.

2. 'When he has received the pabbaggā ordination let them say to him: "Will you see that offence?" If he says: "I will see it," let him be admitted to the upasampadā ordination; if he says: "I will not see it," let him not be admitted to the upasampadā ordination.

'When he has received the upasampadā ordination (&c., as before). If he says: "I will see it," let him be restored[176]; if he says: "I will not see it," let him not be restored.

'When he has been restored, let them say to him: "Do you see that offence?" If he sees it, well and good; if he does not see it, let them expel him again, if it is possible to bring about unanimity (of the fraternity for the sentence of expulsion); if that is impossible, it is no offence to live and to dwell together (with such a Bhikkhu).

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu against whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal p. 238 to atone for an offence (committed by himself), &c.[177] When he has been restored, let them say to him: "Atone now for that offence." If he atones for it, well and good, &c.

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu against whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal to renounce a false doctrine, &c.[178] When he has been restored, let them say to him: "Renounce now that false doctrine." If he renounces it, well and good, &c.'

End of the first Khandhaka, which is called the Great Khandhaka[179].

 


 

Next: Mahāvagga - Second Khandaka

 


[1] To this book is prefixed, as introduction, an account of the first events after Gotama's attaining Buddhahood, down to the conversion of his two chief disciples, Sāriputta and Moggallāna (chaps. 1-24). Among the elements of historical or legendary character with which, in the Vinaya Pitaka, the discussion of the monastic discipline is interwoven, this account occupies by far the first place, both in extent and in importance. For it contains the oldest version accessible to us now and, most probably, for ever, of what the Buddhist fraternity deemed to be the history of their Master's life in its most important period.

The connection in which this legendary narration stands with the main subject of the first Khandhaka is not difficult to account for. The regulations regarding the admission to the fraternity, which are discussed in this Khandhaka, could not but present themselves to the redactors of the Pitaka as being the very basis of their religious discipline and monastic life. It was possible to fancy the existence of the Samgha without the Pātimokkha rules, or without the regulations about the Pavāranā festival, but it was impossible to realise the idea of a Samgha without rules showing who was to be regarded as a duly admitted member of the fraternity, and who was not. It is quite natural, therefore, that the stories or legends concerning the ordination of Bhikkhus were put in connection with the record of the very first events of the history of the Samgha. Nor is it difficult to account for the theory formulated by the historians of the Buddhist ecclesiastical law, of different successive forms in which the ordination of Bhikkhus had been performed. In the beginning, of course, there was nobody but the Buddha himself who could ordain Bhikkhus; to him those who desired to be received, expressed their wish, and he conferred on them the pabbaggā and upasampadā ordinations by the formula: 'Ehi bhikkhu,' &c. (see I, 6, 32, 34, &c.) It was a very natural conception that afterwards, as the Samgha grew larger, the Buddha should have transferred the power of admitting new members to the Bhikkhus themselves, and should have instituted that form of ordination which the redactors of the Pitaka found valid at their own time.

The transition, however, from the supposed oldest form of ordination (the so-called ehi-bhikkhu-upasampadā) to that latter form is in the Vinaya legends not represented as immediate. There is described an intermediate stage between the two, the ordination by the three saranagamanas, or by the candidate's three times repeated declaration of his taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Samgha (see Mahāvagga I, 12). The reason which has led the redactors of the Vinaya Pitaka to this construction, was most probably the important part which in the upasampadā service of the later time devolved upon the preceptor (upagghāya) of the candidate. As only learned Bhikkhus, who had completed the tenth year after their own upasampadā, could perform the function of upagghāya at the upasampadā ordination of other Bhikkhus (Mahāvagga I, 31, 8), it was natural that the redactors of the Vinaya found it impossible to ascribe this form of upasampadā service to the first times of Buddha's teaching. For these times, therefore, they recorded another form, the upasampadā by the three saranagamanas, the introduction of which they assigned, very naturally, to the time soon after the conversion of Yasa's friends, by which event the number of Bhikkhus had been augmented at once from seven to sixty-one.

[2] The Lilayan or Phalgu river in Behar; see General Cunningham's map, Archaeological Reports, vol. i. plate iii.

[3] After having reached the sambodhi and before preaching to the world the truth he has acquired, the Buddha remains, according to the tradition, during some weeks at Uruvelā, 'enjoying the bliss of emancipation.' The Mahāvagga, which contains these legends in their oldest forms, assigns to this stay a period of four times seven days; the later tradition is unanimous in extending it to seven times seven days (Buddhaghosa in the commentary on the Mahāvagga; Gātaka Atthav. vol. i. p. 77 seq.; Dîpavamsa I, 29, 30; Lalita Vistara, p. 488 seq.; Beal, Romantic Legend, p. 236 seq., &c.)

[4] The Chain of Causation, or the doctrine of the twelve nidānas (causes of existence), contains, as has often been observed, in a more developed form an answer to the same problem to which the second and third of the four Noble Truths (ariyasakka) also try to give a solution, viz. the problem of the origin and destruction of suffering. The Noble Truths simply reduce the origin of suffering to Thirst, or Desire (Tanhā), in its threefold form, thirst for pleasure, thirst for existence, thirst for prosperity (see I, 6, 20). In the system of the twelve nidānas Thirst also has found its place among the causes of suffering, but it is not considered as the immediate cause. A concatenation of other categories is inserted between tonhā and its ultimate effect; and on the other hand, the investigation of causes is carried on further beyond tonhā. The question is here asked, What does tonhā come from? and thus the series of causes and effects is led back to aviggā (Ignorance), as its deepest root. We may add that the redactors of the Pitakas, who of course could not but observe this parallelity between the second and third ariyasakkas and the system of the twelve nidānas, go so far, in one instance (Anguttara-Nikāya, Tika-Nipāta, fol. ke of the Phayre MS.), as to directly replace, in giving the text of the four ariyasakkas, the second and third of them by the twelve nidānas, in direct and reverse order respectively. Professor Childers has furnished a valuable note on the nidānas; see Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays (second edition), II, 453 seq.

[5] In the Sammāditthisuttanta (Magghima-Nikāya, fol. khû of Turnour's MS.) we find the following explanation of what Ignorance is: 'Not to know Suffering, not to know the Cause of suffering, not to know the Cessation of suffering, not to know the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering, this is called Ignorance.' The same is repeated in the explanation of the nidāna formula, which is given in the Vibhanga (Abhidhamma-Pitaka, Patikkasamuppāda-vibhanga, fol. ki of the Phayre MS.), and we must accept it, therefore, as the authentic expression of Buddhistical belief. It is obvious, however, that this explanation leaves room for another question. Ignorance, we are told, is the source of all evil and of all suffering, and the subject ignored is stated to be the four Truths. But who is the subject that ignores them? All attributes (as the viññāna, &c.), that constitute sentient beings and enable them to know or to ignore, are said to be first produced by Ignorance, and we shou1d conclude, therefore, that they cannot exist before Ignorance has begun to act. Or are we to understand that it is the Ignorance incurred by a sentient being in a preceding existence, that causes the samkhāras and Consciousness, the connecting links between the different existences, to act and to bring about the birth of a new being?

As is well known, this Ignorance (Avidyā) plays a great part also in the Brahmanical philosophy of the Upanishads; and the Buddhist belief is, no doubt, founded to a considerable extent on older theories. But we cannot venture in a note to touch upon one of the most difficult and interesting questions which await the research of Indianists.

[6] It is very frequently stated that there are three samkhāras or productions: kāyasamkhāra, vakisamkhāra, and kittasamkhāra, or, productions of body, of speech, and of thought (see, for instance, the Sammāditthisuttanta, Magghima-Nikāya, fol. khû of Turnour's MS.) The kāyasamkhāra consists, according to the Samkhāra-Yamaka (Abhidhamma-Pitaka), in inhalation and expiration (assāsapassāsā); the vakîsamkhāra in attention and investigation (vitakkavikārā); the kittasamkhāra in ideas, sensations, and all attributes of mind except attention and investigation (saññā ka vedanā ka thapetvā vitakkavikāre sabbe pi kittasampayuttakā dhammā). The Vibhanga (Abhidhamma-Pitaka, Patikkasamuppādavibhanga, I.I.{sic. ?}) gives, when discussing the samkhāras, six categories instead of the three: 'Now which are the samkhāras that are produced by Ignorance? Samkhāras (or, productions) that lead to righteousness, samkhāras that lead to sinfulness, samkhāras that lead to immovability, productions of body, of speech, and of thought.' The Pāli words are: 'Tattha katame aviggāpakkayā samkhārā? puññābhisamkhāro apuññābhisamkhāro ānañgābhisamkhāro kāyasamkhāro vakisamkhāro kittasamkhāro.' The list of fifty-five categories belonging to the samkhāra-khandha, which Sp. Hardy gives in his Manual (p. 404 seq.; comp. also Rh. D., 'Buddhism,' p. 91 seq., and 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pāli,' p. 242), is not founded, as far as we know, on the authority of the Pitakas themselves, but on later compendia and commentaries.

[7] I.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (or the faculty of touch), and mind.

[8] Buddhaghosa: 'The goat-herds used to go to the shadow of that banyan tree and to sit there; therefore it was called the banyan tree of the goat-herds.' The northern Buddhists say that this tree had been planted by a shepherd boy, during the Bodhisatta's six years' penance, in order to shelter him; see Beal, Rom. Legend, pp. 192, 238, and the Mahāvastu.

[9] 'Huhunkagātiko.' Buddhaghosa: 'Because he was ditthamangalika, he became filled with haughtiness and wrath, and went about uttering the sound "huhum."' Ditthamangalika (having seen something auspicious ?) is obscure to us.

[10] Buddhaghosa says that Rāgāyatana (lit. a royal apartment) was the name of a tree. It is the same tree which in the Lalita Vistara (p. 493, ed. Calcutta) is called Tārāyana, and in the Dipavamsa (II, 50) Khîrapāla. The place where the two merchants met Buddha, is thus described in the Mahāvastu: kshîri-kāvanashande bahudevatake ketiye.

[11] The term Tathāgata is, in the Buddhistical literature, exclusively applied to SammāsamBuddhas, and it is more especially used in the Pitakas when the Buddha is represented as speaking of himself in the third person as 'the Tathāgata.' The meaning 'sentient being,' which is given to the word in the Abhidhānappadîpikā, and in Childers's Dictionary, is not confirmed, as far as we know, by any passage of the Pitakas. This translation of the word is very possibly based merely on a misunderstanding of the phrase often repeated in the Sutta Pitaka: hoti tathāgato param maranā, which means, of course, 'does a Buddha exist after death?' In the Gaina books we sometimes find the term tatthagaya (tatragata), 'he who has attained that world, i.e. emancipation,' applied to the Ginas as opposed to other beings who are called ihagaya (idhagata), 'living in this world.' See, for instance, the Ginakaritra, Ī 16. Considering the close relation in which most of the dogmatical terms of the Gainas stand to those of the Bauddhas, it is difficult to believe that tathāgata and tatthagaya should not originally have conveyed very similar ideas. We think that on the long way from the original Māgadhî to the Pāli and Sanskrit, the term tatthagata or tatthāgata (tatra + āgata), 'he who has arrived there, i.e. at emancipation,' may very easily have undergone the change into tathāgata, which would have made it unintelligible, were we not able to compare its unaltered form as preserved by the Gainas.

[12] The four guardian gods of the quarters of the world; see Hardy's Manual, p. 24. Their Pāli names, as given in the Abhidhānappadîpikā, vv. 31, 32, the Dîpavamsa XVI, 12, &c., were, Dhatarattha, VirûIhaka, Virûpakkha, and Vessavana or Kuvera.

[13] Onîtapattapāni, which is said very frequently of a person who has finished his meal, is translated by Childers, 'whose hand is removed from the bowl' (comp. also Trenckner, Pali Miscellany, p. 66). We do not think this explanation right, though it agrees with, or probably is based on, a note of Buddhaghosa ('pattato ka apanîtapānim'). Onîta, i.e. avanita, is not apanîta, and the end of the dinner was marked, not by the Bhikkhu's removing his hand from the bowl, but by his washing the bowl (see Kullavagga VIII, 4, 6), and, of course, his hands. In Sanskrit the meaning of ava-nî is, to pour (water) upon something; see the Petershurg Dictionary. We have translated, therefore, onîtapattapāni accordingly.

[14] Because there was no Samgha at that time, their declaration of taking refuge, by which they became upāsakas, could refer only to the dyad (the Buddha and the Dhamma), instead of to the triad of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Samgha.

[15] The upadhis (substrata of existence) are specified in the commentary on the Sutta-Nipāta, ap. Dhammapada, p. 433: 'sabbûpadhinam parikkhayā 'ti sabbesam khandhakāmagunakilesābhisamkhārabhedānam upadhînam parikkhînattā.' Probably abhisamkhāra is not co-ordinate with the other members of the compound, but is determined by them, comp. pabbaggābhisamkhāra, iddhābhisamkhāra, gamikābhisamkhāra. The upadhis, therefore, according to this passage, consist: firstly, in the actions of mind that are directed towards the khandhas (i.e. that have the effect of propagating and augmenting the dominion of the khandhas); secondly, in the actions tending to the fivefold pleasures of sense; and thirdly, in those connected with kilesa (evil passion).

[16] Buddhaghosa explains anakkhariya by anuakkhariya, which is alike unintelligible to us. The Lalita Vistara (p. 515, ed. Calcutta) has abhîkshnam ('repeatedly').

[17] It is difficult to believe that the Pāli name of Brahmā Sahampati, the ruler of the Brahma worlds (see Spence Hardy's Manual, pp. 43, 56), is not connected with the Brahman svayambhû of the Brahmanical literature. Perhaps the Sanskrit equivalent of sahampati might be svayampati.

[18] Amata, an epithet of Arahatship, which may perhaps mean simply ambrosia. See Rh. D., Buddhism, pp. 60, 111, 184.

[19] See Ī 3 with our note for this omitted word.

[20] Ālāra Kālāma and Uddaka Rāmaputta were the two teachers to whom Gotama had attached himself first after his pabbaggā See Faushöl1's Gātaka, vol. i. p. 66; Rh. D., Buddhism, p. 34.

[21] See about the five companions of Buddha's self-mortification, in the time before the sambodhi, the Gātaka, vol. i. p. 67; Hardy, Manual, p. 165; Rh. D., Buddhism, p. 35. The names of the five Bhikkhus were, Kondañña, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahānāma, Assagi.

[22] Perhaps instead of kho 'me ( = kho ime) we should read kho me.

[23] 'The Mrigadāwa, or Deer Park, is represented by a fine wood, which still covers an area of about half a mile, and extends from the great tower of Dhamek on the north, to the Chaukundi mound on the south.' Cunningham, Arch. Reports, I, p. 107.

[24] Gina, or the victorious One, is one of the many appellations common to the founders of the Bauddha and Gaina sects.

[25] Sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance (Kāma, Bhava, Ditthi, and Aviggā).

[26] Buddhaghosa, in a note on Kullavagga II, 1, 1, says that pādapîtha is a stool to put the washed foot on, pādakathalika (or pādakathalikā?), a stool to put the unwashed foot on, or a cloth to rub the feet with (pādaghamsana).

[27] As they had done before when they underwent austerities together with the Bodhisatta at Uruvelā.

[28] Of the literature that exists referring to the discourse which follows now (the Dhammakakkappavattana Sutta), it will suffice to quote M. Feer's Études Bouddhiques, I, p. 189 seq., and Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pāli,' pp. 137-155, and in the Fortnightly Review for December 1879.

[29] Clinging to the five elements of existence, rûpa, vedanā, saññā, samkhārā, viññāna. See Ī 38 seq.

[30] I.e. the thirst (tanhā), which is declared in this Noble Truth to be the cause of suffering, must be abandoned.

[31] The three modifications and twelve constituent parts are those specified in ĪĪ 23-26.

[32] The thirty-three devas of the Vedic mythology. This enumeration gives the gods who reside in the different worlds, beginning from the lowest (the bhummā devā, who inhabit the earth), and gradually ascending to the higher devalokas. See Hardy, Manual, p. 25

[33] Those three Bhikkhus of the five, who had been converted, went about for alms; while the Buddha remained with their two companions, and instructed them.

[34] This is shown exactly in the same way and with the same words that are used in Ī 38 with regard to the body. Body, sensations, perceptions, samkhāras, and consciousness are the well-known five classes (khandha) of bodily and mental parts and powers; see Rh. D., 'Buddhism,' p. 90 seq. The self (attā), which, if it exists at all, must be permanent and imperishable, is not to be found in any one of these five classes, which are all subject to origin and decay. This discourse of the Buddha's, which is frequently called the Anattalakkhana Sutta (Sutta of the not having the signs of self), shows the perishable nature of the five khandhas, and that the khandhas are not the self. But it does not deal with the question, whether the self exists or not, in any other way.

[35]See the note on chap. 1. 2.

[36] Here follow the same questions, answers, and rejoinders, with regard to sensation, perception, the samkhāras, and consciousness.

[37] The same with regard to the other four khandhas.

[38] See the note on Ī 9.

[39] Compare Burnouf, 'Lotus de la bonne Loi,' p. 481.

[40] A well-known scene in the life of the Bodhisatta has evidently been represented after the model of this story. See Gātaka I, p. 61; Lalita Vistara, p. 251; Bigandet, Life of Gaudama, p. 55. Nowhere in the Pāli Pitakas is the story told about the Bodhisatta himself.

[41] This was a position of honour among the merchants. In the later literature we hear of an office of setthi (setthi-tthāna) in a city, to which any one with the requisite wealth and talent was eligible (Gātaka I, 120-122); and, according to the Mahāvamsa, the king appointed to an office called setthitā, apparently at his court (Mah. p. 69). The Gahapati, or Treasurer, one of the seven jewels of a king, is explained by Buddhaghosa to be setthi-gahapati (see Rh. D.'s note on Mahā-sudassana Sutta I, 41). 'The Setthi,' standing alone, or 'the Mahā-setthi,' means Anātha Pindika (Gātaka I, 95, 227-230; Dhammapada Commentary, p. 395). Below, in chapter 9, Ī 1, it would seem that the rank of setthi was hereditary, and this is confirmed by the later literature; but this applies to the social rank only, and not to the office.

[42] Pleasures of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, and touch.

[43] Hatthappattam susānam maññe, literally, 'one would think a cernetery had (suddenly) come to one's hand.'

[44] Nekkhamma is neither naishkramya nor naishkarmya, but naishkāmya. Itivuttaka, fol. khi (Phayre MS.): kāmānam etam nissaranam yad idam nekkhammam, rûpānam etam nissaranam yad idam aruppam.

[45] The stage of a sekha, i.e. a person who has attained to any stage in the Noble Eightfold Path (such as sotāpattiphala, &c.) inferior to the highest (Arahatship).

[46] The rules about the dress of a Bhikkhu who is going to the village are given in the Kullavagga VIII, 4, 3; 5, 2. Compare Rh. D.'s note on the Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta V, 45.

[47] According to Subhûti (in Childers's Dictionary) sampavāreti means that the host hands dishes to the guest until the latter says, 'I have had enough.' Childers accordingly translates sampavāreti, 'to cause to refuse.' But as pavāreti means, 'to cause to accept,' it is impossible that sampavāreti should have exactly the opposite meaning. We prefer, therefore, to take it as an emphatic synonym of pavāreti.

[48] This cannot be understood as a general rule, for it is repeated nowhere where precepts for wandering Bhikkhus are given, and, on the contrary, numerous instances occur in the Sacred Texts in which two or more Bhikkhus are mentioned as wandering together, without any expression of disapproval being added. The precept given here evidently is intended to refer only to the earliest period in the spread of the new doctrine; just as in chap. 12 a form of upasampadā is introduced by Buddha which was regarded as inadmissible in later times.

[49] The correct spelling of this name appears to be Senāninigama ('the General's Town'), and not Senānigama ('the Army's Town'); the Gātaka Atthavannanā (vol. i. p. 68) and the Paris MS. of the Mahāvagga (manu seCunda) read Senāninigama. The Lalita Vistara has Senāpatigrāma.

[50] On this ceremony, which is still gone through before the regular ordination, see the remarks in the note on chapter 1, Ī

[51] See about the vassa residence the rules given in Book III.

[52] The Gatilas (i.e. ascetics wearing matted hair) are Brahmanical vānaprasthas. The description of their ascetic life given in many passages of the Gātaka Atthavannanā and of the Apadāna exactly agrees with the picture of the forest life of the {Greek: ulóbioi} which so frequently occurs in the Mahābhārata. In the Mahāvagga (VI, 35, 2) it is expressly stated that the Gatilas recognised the authority of the Veda, and it is in keeping with this that the usual term for adopting the state of a Gatila is 'isipabbaggam pabbaga' ti.(frequently in the Gāt. Atth.), i.e. leaving the world and becoming a Rishi.

[53] Iddhi. compare the passages referred to by Rh. D. in. Buddhist Suttas from the Pāli,' pp. 2, 40, 259; and further Mahāvagga VI, 15, 8, and Kullavagga Vll, 1, 4, and VII, 2, 1.

[54] Satim upatthāpetvā. Sati is here a more precise idea than memory.

[55] Buddhaghosa explains makkha by kodha.

[56] Compare Kullavagga IV, 4, 4, where Dabba also tegodhatum samāpaggati, that is, his finger is on fire.

[57] Compare the Editor's corrections at Kullavagga, p. 363.

[58] In ĪĪ 6, 7 (excepting the last clause of Ī 7) the story related in ĪĪ 1-5 is repeated in a more popular style. This appears to us to be a more archaic redaction than the preceding. We do not know any other instance in the Pāli Pitakas of a similar repetition, excepting a short passage at the end of chap. 24. 3; and one other in the Mahā-padhāna Sutta.

[59] Literally, 'the Snake among men,' or 'the Elephant among men' (manussanāgo).

[60] According to Vedic tradition the Gautamas, as is well known. belong to the āngirasa tribe.

[61]See chap. 4. 4.

[62] One of the supposed seven great lakes in the Himavant.

[63] Very probably it is this story in which a similar legend has originated that the Ceylonese tell about Mahinda, the converter of their island; see Dîpavamsa XII, 75.

[64] Bigandet (Life of Gaudama, p. 135) translates this passage from the Burmese version: 'Gaudama split it in a moment, in five hundred pieces.' Doubtless the true meaning is, that there were five hundred pieces of wood, one for each of the five hundred Gatilas over whom was Kassapa chief. In the following two stories (ĪĪ 13, 14) we have five hundred sacred fires.

[65] The ashtakā festivals, about which accurate details are given in the Grihya Sûtras, were celebrated about the wane of the moon of the winter months mārgasîrsha, taisha, and māgha; see Weber, Die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II. p. 337, and H. O.'s note on the Sānkhāyana Grihya, 3, 12, ap. lndische Studien, XV, p. 145.

[66] See about this gambu tree, which grows in the forest of Himavant, Hardy's Manual, p. 18 seq.

[67] Buddhaghosa explains mandāmukhiyo by aggibhāganāni.

[68] Which they had cut off in order to receive the pabbaggā ordination, see chap. 12. 3.

[69] We are extremely doubtful about the meaning of khārikāga, which Buddhaghosa explains by khāribhāra. Perhaps it may mean provisions of any description of which each Gatila used to keep one khārî (a certain dry measure).

[70] This is evidently a remark added to the text by a reader or commentator.

[71] Here the same exposition which has been given relating to the eye, its objects, the sensations produced by its contact with objects, &c., is repeated with reference to the ear and the other organs of sense.

[72] Latthivana (Sansk. yashtivana), literally, 'stick forest,' means a forest consisting of bambus. General Cunningham has the following note about this bambu forest: 'In 1862, when I was at Rājgir (i.e. Rāgagaha), I heard the bambu forest always spoken of as Jaktiban; . . . I fixed the position of the bambu forest to the south-west of Rājgir on the hill lying between the hot-springs of Tapoban and old Rāgagriha.' Reports, III, 140.

[73] According to General Cunningham, Gayāsîsa (' the head of Gayā.') is the mountain of Brahmāyoni near Gayā. Arch. Rep. III, 107.

The word we have rendered sacred shrine is Ketiya.

[74] The word householder (gahapati) is used here, as is the case not unfrequently, to denote householders of the third caste. Compare Rh. D.'s' note on Mahā-sudassana Sutta, p. 260.

[75] Literally, 'who is known as emaciate.' This is said with reference to the mortifications practised by the Gatilas or Vānaprasthas. The Mahābhārata (III, 1499) uses the same adjective (krisa) of a Gatila. Vadāno we take for a participle, but it is possible also to read vadā no, 'tell us,' which Professor Jacobi (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Ges., XXXIV, p. 187) prefers. Buddhaghosa takes kisakovadāno for a compound of kisaka and ovadāna: tāpasānam ovādako anusāsako.

[76] The meaning is: The mantras which are recited at the sacrifices contain praises of visible things, &c., and the rewards that are promised to him who offers such sacrifices do not extend beyond that same sphere.

[77] The Pāli word is upadhi, which is translated by Childers, 'substratum of being.' See our note on chap. 5. 2. In this passage upadhi is said to refer to the Khandhas (Buddhaghosa).

[78] Here we have the Vedic distinction of greater and smaller sacrifices (yagatayas and guhotaras).

[79] The words 'said the Blessed One' (ti Bhagavā avoka) are probably interpolated from a gloss, as they destroy the metre.

[80] Buddhaghosa can scarcely be right in explaining pakkhasamkanta by titthiyapakkhasamkanta.

[81] Akiñkana here, and elsewhere, used as an epithet of Arahatship, refers to the state of mind in which the kiñkanas, that is, lust, malice, and delusion (so in the Samgîti Sutta of the Digha Nikāya), have ceased to be. It is literally 'being without the somethings,' which are the things that stand in the way, the obstacles to Buddhist perfection; and Buddhaghosa (in the Sumangala Vilāsinî on the passage in the Samgîti Sutta) explains accordingly kiñkana by palibodha.

[82] Gold colour is one (the 17th) of the thirty-two lakkhana which form the characteristics of Buddha as a mahāpurisa.

[83] Doubtless Buddhaghosa is right in explaining ko by kva.

[84] The ten ariyavāsas. Buddhaghosa says: dasasu ariyavāsesu vutthavāso. The Samgîti Sutta gives the ten Noble States, as follows: 1. being free from the five bad qualities (pañkanga), 2. being possessed of the six good qualities (khalanga), 3. being guarded in the one thing (ekārakkha), 4. observing four things (katurāpassena), 5. rejecting each of the four false truths (panunna pakkeka-sakka), 6. seeking right things (samavayasa-dhesana), 7. having pure aims (anāvila-samkappa), 8. being full of ease (passaddhakāya-samkhāra), 9. being emancipated in heart (suvimuttakitta), 10. being emancipated in ideas (suvimuttapañña). The Samgîti then further enlarges on the meaning of each of these ten.

[85] The ten Balas, which are ten kinds of knowledge (ñāna); see Bumouf, Lotus, p. 781 and following, and compare Gātaka I, 78.

[86] Buddhaghosa explains dasadhammavidû by dasakammapathavidû.

[87] Buddhaghosa explains dasabhi k' ûpeto by suppJying asekhehi dhammehi. The first eight of the ten asekhā dhammā consist in the full perfection of sammāditthi (right belief) and the other categories enumerated in the formula of the Noble Eightfold Path; the ninth and tenth are the perfection of sammāñāna (right knowledge) and sammāvimutti (right emancipation).

[88] The site of the Veluvana ('bambu forest') near Rāgagaha has not yet been discovered. 'It must have occupied about the position where the ancient basements, marked K. K. K. and G. in Cunningham's map of Rāgagriha (pl. xiv, Reports, vol. i), were found by him' (Rh. D., 'Buddhism,' p. 62 note).

[89] This seems to us the meaning of atthikehi upaññātam maggam. Sāriputta followed Assagi as suppliants are accustomed to follow their proposed benefactor till a convenient season arrives for preferring their request.

[90] The same words as are put in the mouth of Upaka, when addressing the Buddha, above, chap. 6, Ī 7 (and see below, Ī 6).

[91] This famous stanza doubtless alludes to the formula of the twelve Nidānas (see chap. 1. 2) which explains the origination and cessation of what are called here ' dhammā hetuppabhavā.' Hetu and pakkaya (the word so frequently used in the formula of the Nidānas) are nearly synonymous. Colebrooke (Life and Essays, vol. ii. p. 419) says that the Bauddhas distinguish between hetu, 'proximate cause,' and pakkaya (pratyaya), 'concurrent occasion;' but, in practical use, this slight difference of meaning, if it really existed, has but little weight attached to it.

[92] See ĪĪ 2-4. lnstead of 'The paribbāgaka Sāriputta,' of course, the pronoun of the first person is to be read; instead of' The venerable Assagi , read, 'The Bhikkhu Assagi;' and further, the vocative 'Friend' (āvuso), addressed to Moggallāna, is inserted three or four times in the course of this narration.

[93] The later Burmese and Chinese works translated by Bigandet (Life of Gaudama, p. 152) and by Beal (Romantic Legend, p. 330) add that he died. This is not in the Pāli text, and the Sinhalese account given by Hardy (Manual, p. 197) is directly opposed to that statement.

[94] Upatissa was called Sāriputta after his mother ('The Son of Sārî'); Kolita had the family name Moggallāna (compare Beal, Romantic Legend, pp. 324, 331). The name Upatissa occurs in Asoka's well-known edict which has been found at Bairāt. The king there quotes 'The Question of Upatissa' among the texts, the study of which he recommends to the brethren and sisters of the fraternity and to the laymen of either sex. This very probably refers to the dialogue between Assagi and Sāriputta.

[95] As to this repetition of what had been related before, comp. the note on chap. 15. 6, 7. The words from gambhîre down to upadhisamkhaye form a sloka. This is one of several instances where an older passage in verse, and probably first composed in some nearly related dialect, appears in the Pāli Pitakas in prose. It is this which explains the extraordinary grammatical construction of the first seven words. Compare Rh. D.'s note on the similar instance at Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta V, 62. The exclamation put into the mouth of Sāriputta, and afterwards of Moggallāna (above, chap. 23, ĪĪ 5, 10), ought also, perhaps, to be included in the same category.

[96] The chief object of the first book being to discuss the regulations for the upasampadā ordination, at which the preceptor (upagghāya) of the candidate has a principal part, the text now goes on to relate the institution of the office and upagghāyas, and to explain the mutual duties incumbent on upagghāyas and pupils (saddhivihārikas).

[97] Buddhaghosa has the following note on uttitthapatta: 'uttitthapattan ti pindāya karanakapattam, tasmim hi manussā u.kkitthasaññino (this word is spelt so in the Paris MS. as well as in the Berlin MS. of the Samanta Pāsādikā; the usual spelling is ukkhittha), tasmā uttitthapattan ti vuttam. athavā utthahitvā pattam upanāmentîti evam ettha attho datthabbo.' We take the word, as the former of Buddhaghosa's two explanations implies, for a composition of ukkhittha. For the conversion of palatal consonants into dentals, see E. Kuhn, Beiträge zur Pali-Grammatik, p. 36, and on the use of the word compare Trenckner's Milinda Pañho, pp. 213, 214.

[98] If he had put on shoes for having a walk early in the morning or for keeping his feet clean (Buddhaghosa).

[99] Buddhaghosa explains sagunam katvā by ekato katvā.

[100] According to Buddhaghosa the meaning of these words is: If the alms-bowl of the upagghāya has become too heavy or hot by the food put into it, the saddhivihārika ought to take it and give his own bowl to the upagghāya.

[101] See Chap. 6. 11, with the note.

[102] I.e. in order that the folds might not fall upon the same place every day, and the robe might be wom out at that place (Buddhaghosa).

[103] The Pāli text is: 'Obhoge kāyabandhanam kātabbam.' Buddhaghosa's note runs as follows: 'Kāyabandhanam samgharitvā (read samharitvā) kîvarabhoge pakkhipitvā thapetabbam.' We do not venture to offer any conjectures as to the meaning of this passage.

[104]See Chap. 6. 11, with the note.

[105] A gantāghara (Sansk. yantragriha, according to Dr. Bühler's conjecture) is a bathing-place for hot sitting baths. See Kullavagga V, 14, 3; VIII, 8; Kuhn's Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachf., XXV, 325.

[106] It is first moistened by water and then kneaded into lumps (Buddhaghosa), — no doubt to be rubbed over the person who is bathing.

[107] The face was besmeared with moistened clay in order to protect it from the heat. See Kullavagga V, 14, 3.

[108] I.e. if he is not prevented by indisposition (Buddhaghosa).

[109] See VIII, 16, 3. 4.

[110] See Chap. 6. 11, with the note.

[111] The bedstead rested on movable supporters. See Kullavagga VI, 2, 5.

[112] See Kullavagga VI, 20, 2.

[113] See the Samanta Pāsādikā, ap. Minayeff, Prātimoksha, p.87.

[114] As in the preceding clause.

[115] The same for North and South.

[116] Literally, make it (the discontentedness) clear. Buddhaghosa reads vûpakāsetabbo vûpakāsāpetabbo, which he explains thus: 'vûpakāsetabbo means, "Let (the saddhivihārika) lead him to another place;" vûpakāsāpetabbo means,"Let him tell another Bhikkhu to take the Thera and go with him elsewhere."'

[117] The second and third books of the Kullavagga contain a detailed explanation of parivāsa and of the other technical terms contained in this paragraph.

[118] The discussion about the tagganiyakamma and the other disciplinary proceedings alluded to in this paragraph is given in the first book of the Kullavagga.

[119] Instead of, 'Follow the upagghāya from behind' (chap. 25. 12), read here, 'Go (with the saddhivih~rika).'

[120] We believe that the words ' The moderate Bhikkhus' are intended here and throughout the whole work as an abbreviation of the fuller phrase, 'Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, frugal modest, conscientious, anxious for training' (chap. 25. 3).

[121] All this is an abbreviation of what has been given at full length in chap. 25. 4-6.

[122] Those slight offences which were not embodied in the Pātimokkha are called dukkata offences. They range, as to their gravity, with the pākittiya offences of the Pātimokkha. For him who had committed a dukkata offence, no further penance was required than a simple confession of his fault. See Kullavagga , XI, 1, 10.

[123] See chap. 12 and the note on chap. 1. 1.

[124] The form for bringing a formal motion before the Order is the following: The mover first announces to the assembled Bhikkhus what resolution he is going to propose; this announcement is called ñatti (see, for instance, Ī 4). After the ñatti follows the question put to the Bhikkhus present if they approve the resolution. This question is put either once or three times; in the first case we have a ñattidutiya kamma(see, for instance, II, chap. 6); in the second case, a ñattikatuttha kamma (as in this chapter).

[125] With this and the following chapters should be compared the corresponding ordinance laid down in chapters 74-76.

[126] Here follows the complete formula of a ñattikatuttha kamma, as in chap. 28. 4-6. The only difference is, that here in the ñatti, as well as in the three questions, the words 'N. N. asks the Samgha for the upasampadā ordination with N. N. as upagghāya' are inserted after the words 'desires to receive the upasampadā ordination from the venerable N.N.'

[127] On this curious expression, compare Kullavagga IV, 4, 8. It is frequently repeated below.

[128] These are the five kinds of dwellings (pañka lenāni) which are declared to be allowable, Kullavagga VI, I, 2. The single expressions are explained by Buddhaghosa in his note on Kullavagga 1. 1. as follows: 'addhayogo 'ti suvannavangageham, pāsādo 'ti dîghapāsādo, hammiyan ti upariākāsatale patitthitakûtāgāro pāsādo yeva, gubā 'ti itthakaguhā silāguhā dāruguhā pamsuguhā,' i.e. 'Addha-yoga is a gold-coloured Bengal house. Pāsāda is a long storied mansion (or, the whole of an upper storey). Hammiya is a Pāsāda, which has an upper chamber placed on the topmost storey. Gubā is a hut made of bricks, or in a rock, or of wood.'

[129]Compare Mabāvagga VI, 14, 6.

[130] This story recurs in the Gātaka Commentary II, 449.

[131]See the conclusion of this in chapter 38.

[132] ākariya as well as upagghāya means 'teacher,' or 'preceptor.' It is very difficult or rather impossible to draw a sharp line of distinction between ākariyā and upagghāya. The duties of an ākariya towards his antevāsika, and of an antevāsika towards his ākariya, as indicated in chaps. 32, 33 ( = Kullavagga VIII, 13, 14), are exactly the same as those of an upagghāya towards his saddhivihārika and vice versa (chaps. 25, 26 = Kullavagga VIII, 11, 12). The position of an upagghāya, however, was considered as the more important of the two; at the upasampadā service the upagghāya had a more prominent part than the ākariya, as we may infer from chaps. 28, 29, and from the explanations on the 65th pākittiya rule which are given in the Sutta Vibhanga. There it is said that, if the upasampadā ordination had been conferred, against the rule, on a person that has not yet attained his twentieth year, the upagghāya has made himself guilty of a pākittiya offence, the ākariya and the other present Bhikkhus only of a dukkata offence. We may add that the succession of Vinaya teachers from Upāli down to Mahinda, which is given in the Dîpavamsa (Bhānavāras IV and V), is a succession of upagghāyas and saddhivihārikas (see IV, 36, 42, 43, &c.), not of ākariyas and antevāsikas; the duty of instructing the young Bhikkhus in the holy doctrines and ordinances seems, therefore, to belong to the upagghāya rather than to the ākariya; compare also Dîpavamsa VII, 26. So among the Brāhmanas, on the contrary, the ākārya is estimated higher than the upādhyāya; see Manu II, 145; Yāavalkya I, 35. Compare also chap. 36. 1 (end of the paragraph), and Buddhaghosa's explanation of that passage.

[133] Nissaya (i.e. dependence) is the relation between ākariya and antevāsika. The antevāsika lives ' nissāya ' with regard to the ākariya, i.e. dependent on him; the ākariya gives his nissaya to the antevāsika. i.e. he receives him into his protection and care. At chap. 36. 1, 'nissaya ' is said also of the relation between upagghāya and saddhivihārika.

[134] That is, 'did not know how to decide whether their nissaya was destroyed, or not.'

[135] This refers, according to Buddhaghosa, to the panāmanā (turning away of the saddhivihārika); see chap. 27. 2.

[136] Buddhaghosa: 'Coming together may be understood either by seeing or by hearing. If a saddhivihārika who lives in dependence (nissāya) on his ākariya sees his upagghāya paying homage to a sacred shrine in the same Vihāra, or going on his rounds in the same village, cessation of the nissaya (towards the ākariya) is the consequence. If he hears the voice of his upagghāya, who preaches the Dhamma or gladdens (lay-people by religious discourse), in the Vihāra or in the interior of a house, and if he recognises that it is his upagghāya's voice, cessation of the nissaya (towards the ākariya) is the consequence.'

[137] About the ordination of novices, see chap. 54. 3.

[138] According to Buddhaghosa, moral transgression (adhisîla) is said with regard to offences against the pārāgika and samghādisesa rules, while transgressions in conduct (agghākāra) consist in offences against the minor rules of the Pātimokkha. Buddhaghosa's explanation is confirmed by the Mahāvagga IV, 16, 12.

[139] According to Buddhaghosa, this refers to instruction in the khandhakavatta (i.e. in the rules contained in the Khandhaka texts, Mahāvagga and Kullavagga?). See also Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 492.

[140] This means instructing him in the sekhapaññatti (Buddhaghosa). We cannot say what is the accurate meaning of the last term, which apparently, as its verbal meaning seems to imply, refers to ordinances for those Bhikkhus who have entered the path of sanctification, but have not yet attained Arahatship. Spence Hardy (Manual, p. 493) gives the term sekha-sîla, which he explains as the observance of precepts in order to become a sekha. See also Hardy's note on ādibrahmakariya-sila, l. l. p. 492.

[141] Chap. 37 is exactly identical with chap. 36. 2-15, but for the sixth case, which, throughout chap. 37, is added each time at the end of the five cases given in chap. 36, 'When he has not completed the tenth year (after his upasampadā);' and respectively, 'When he has completed ten years or more than ten years (after his upasampadā).'

[142] It should be, 'Fourteen times.'

[143] See chap. 31, Ī 6.

[144] Compare chap. 48.

[145] Gîvaka was physician to king Bimbisāra, and one of the chief partisans of Buddha at the court of Rāgugaha. See VIII, 1, the introduction of the Sāmaññaphala Sutta, &c.

[146] On ukkinatha, compare the use of ukkhekkhāmi at Mahāparinibbāna Sutta I, 1 (p. 1), which Buddhaghosa rightly explains by ukkhindissāmi. But we think it better to adhere here to the reading ukkinatha, in accordance with the MSS.

[147] The robber Angulimāla (i.e. he who wears a necklace of fingers), whose original name was Ahimsaka, had received this surname from his habit of cutting off the fingers of his victims and wearing them as a necklace. See Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 249 seq. {See also Majjhima Nikāya, Sutta 86, translated by Albert J. Edmunds.}

[148] Buddhaghosa explains kammārabhandu by tulātaramundako (read tulādhāram.) suvannakāraputto. At Dhammapada, v. 239, kammāra is said of a silversmith. There was probably no distinction in these early times between gold, silver, copper, and iron smiths; the same man being an artificer in all kinds of metal.

[149] This Upāli is different from the famous Upāli who belonged to the chief disciples of Buddha; the latter came not from Rāgagaha, but from the Sakya country.

[150] Buddhaghosa: 'He who learns arithmetic, must think much; therefore his breast will become diseased.'

[151] We prefer this translation of rûpa to translating it by 'painting,' on account of Buddhaghosa's note: 'He who learns the rûpa-sutta must turn over and over many kārshāpanas and look at them.'

[152] The law alluded to is the 65th pākittiya rule. Generally in the Khandhakas, which presuppose, as we have stated in our preface, the existence of the Pātimokkha, direct repetition of the rules laid down there has been avoided. If, nevertheless, in the Khandhakas a transgression alluded to in the Pātimokkha had to be mentioned again, then in most cases the Khandhakas, instead of directly indicating the penance incurred thereby, use of the guilty Bhikkhu the expression, 'yathādhammo kāretabbo,' i.e. 'he is to be treated according to the law.' See H. O.'s Introduction to his edition of the Mahāvagga, p. xx note.

[153] Buddhaghosa explains abivātakaroga by māribyādhi, and says: 'When this plague befalls a house, men and beasts in that house die; but he who breaks through wall or roof, or is "rogā mādigato (?)," may be saved.'

[154] This seems very unpractical: and the rule is accordingly practically abrogated again by chapter 55.

[155] We must leave 'āhundarikā' untranslated; Buddhaghosa says nothing about this obscure word.

[156]See chap. 32. 1.

[157] Supply these pentads and hexads, respectively, from chaps. 36. 6, 7; 8, 9; 14, 15; 16, 17; 37. 1, 2; 5, 6; 7, 8; 13, 14.

[158] Abhayûvara means, 'secure from anything.' This refers to the expression used in chap. 42, Ī 2.

[159] The Buddha's former wife. This is, as far as we know, the only passage in the Pāli Pitakas which mentions this lady, and it deserves notice that her name is not mentioned. Probably this name was unknown to the Buddhists in early times, and thus we may best account for the difference of the simply invented names given to this lady by later writers. Compare Rh. D., Buddhism, p. 50 seq.

[160] Granting a boon (vara) is a constant phrase used of princes when making an open promise to give to any one whatever they should ask. See, for instance, the Gātaka Story, No. 9, where the person to whom the boon was given laid it by for a convenient season; and then asked the king to make her son heir-apparent, in violation of all ancient law and custom.

[161] Nanda was a son of Mahāpagāpati, a half-brother of the Buddha. See the story of his conversion in Rh. D.'s Buddhist Birth Stories, p. 128 (later and fuller accounts can be seen in Hardy, Manual, p. 204 seq.; Beal, Romantic Legend, p. 369 seq.)

[162] See chap. 52.

[163]Sikkhāpadāni, literally, 'Paths of Training.' Compare chap. 60.

[164] Here first appear the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus (the company of the 'six Bhikkhus', with their attendants), the constant and indefatigable evil-doers throughout the whole Vinaya-Pitaka. Buddhaghosa (on Kullayagga I, 1) says that Panduka and Lohitaka belonged to this company, and also Assagi and Punabbasu are mentioned as Khabbaggiyas (see Childers s. v. khabbaggiyo).

[165] The case of the novice's committing sexual intercoutse with a Bhikkhunî can have found its place here only by a negligence of the redactor, as it is comprised already in the third of the ten cases (the novice's committing impurity). Buddhaghosa (who of course never admits anything like an inadvertence of the holy Theras by whom the Vinaya is compiled) says that the third case and the tenth are distinguished here, because a person that has simply committed an impurity may receive the ordination, if he is willing to refrain himself in future; whilst a bhikkhunîdûsaka cannot be ordained in any case (see chap. 67).

[166] Tena kho pana samayena aññataro pandako bhikkhûsu pabbagito hoti, so dahare dahare bhikkhû upasamkamitvā evam vadeti: etha mam āyasmanto dûsethā 'ti. Bhikkhû apasādenti: nassa pandaka, vinassa pandaka, ko tayā attho 'ti. So bhikkhûhi apasādito mahante mahante moligalle (Buddhaghosa: thûlasarîre) sāmanere upasamkamitvā evam vadeti: etha mam āvuso dûsethā 'ti. Sāmanerā apasādenti: nassa pandaka, vinassa pandaka, ko tayā at tho 'ti. So sāmanerehi apasādito hatthibhande assabhande upasamkamitvā evam vadeti: etha mam āvuso dûsethā 'ti. Hatthibhandā assabhandā dûsesum. Te ugghāyanti khiyanti vipākenti: pandakā ime samanā Sakyaputtiyā, ye pi imesam na pandakā te pi pandake dûsenti, evam ime sabbeva abrahmakārino 'ti. Assosum kho bhikkhû hatthibhandānam assabhandānam ugghāyantānam khîyantānam vipākentānam. Atha kho te bhikkhû Bhagavato etam attham ārokesum.

[167] I.e. not with the whole fraternity residing at that place, but with a part of it.

[168] 'Whose fingers are grown together, like bats' wings' (Buddhaghosa).

[169] Buddhaghosa (Berlin MS.) explains 'khinniriyāpatha' by 'pidhasappi.' We ought to read, no doubt, pîthasappî, which is Sanskrit pîthasarpin, a cripple that is moved on in a rolling chair.

[170] See chap. 49. 6.

[171] Here follows the usual complete formula of a ñattikatuttha kamma; see chaps. 28. 4-6; 29. 3, &c.

[172] With these sections compare the previous chapters 12, 28 and following, 36 and following. The ñattis prescribed in this chapter, together with the Three Refuges Formula prescribed in chap. 12, Ī 4, the whole of chap. 77, and the Four Interdictions form together the current ceremony of ordination (the upasampadā-kamma-vākā) as now still in use in the Order. See the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, VII, p. 1.

[173] I.e., according to Buddhaghosa, repeat to him all the data specified before together, in order that be might be able to give a correct answer when asked about his spiritual age.

[174] The vimokkhas (literally, deliverances) are eight stages of meditation different from the four ghānas. The characteristics of the different vimokkhas are specified by Childers s. v.

[175] This temporary expulsion (ukkhepaniyakamma), which is pronounced against Bhikkhus who refuse to see an offence committed by themselves (āpattiyā adassane), or to atone for such an offence (āpattiyā appatikamme), or to renounce a false doctrine (pāpikāya ditthiyā appatinissagge), must be distinguished from the definitive and permanent expulsion (nāsanā) which is pronounced against Bhikkhus who have committed a pārāgika offence. or in cases like those treated of in chapters 61 seq.

[176] I.e. the sentence of expulsion is abolished; compare the Samanta Pāsādikā, ap. Minayeff, Prātimoksha, p. 92.

[177] As in ĪĪ 1, 2. Instead of 'Will you see that offence?' and, 'I will see it,' read here: 'Will you atone for that offence?' and, 'I will atone for it.'

[178] As above. Read here: 'Will you renounce that false doctrine?' and, 'I will renounce it.'

[179] Here follow some Slokas, probably written in Ceylon, and an elaborate Table of Contents, both of which we leave untranslated. The Slokas are introductory to the Table of Contents (uddāna) and belong to it. A similar Table of Contents is found in the MSS. nearly after all the other Khandhakas.


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