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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XIII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

Third Khandhaka

Residence During The Rainy Season, Vassa

1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Rāgagaha, in the Veluvana, in the Kalandakanivāpa[1]. At that time the retreat during the rainy season had not yet been instituted by the Blessed One for the Bhikkhus. Thus the Bhikkhus went on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season.

2. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season? They crush the green herbs, they hurt vegetable life[2], they destroy the life of many small living things. Shall the ascetics who belong to Titthiya schools, whose doctrine is ill preached, retire during the rainy season and arrange places for themselves to live in[3]? shall the birds make their nests on the summits of the trees, and retire during p. 299 the rainy season, and arrange themselves places to live in; and yet the Sakyaputtiya Samanas go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season, crushing the green herbs, hurting vegetable life, and destroying the life of many small things?'

3. Now some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you enter upon Vassa[4].'

 


 

2.

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'When are we to enter upon Vassa?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you enter upon Vassa in the rainy season.'

2. Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'How many periods are there for entering upon Vassa?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'There are two periods, O Bhikkhus, for entering upon Vassa, the earlier and the later. The earlier time for entering (upon Vassa) is the day after the p. 300 full moon of āsālha (June-July); the later, a month after the full moon of āsālha[5]. These, O Bhikkhus, are the two periods for entering upon Vassa..'

 


 

3.

1. At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, having entered upon Vassa, went on their travels during the period of Vassa. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season, . . . (&c., as in chap. 1. 2, down to:) and destroy the life of many small living things?'

2. Now some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, having entered upon Vassa, go on their travels during the period of Vassa?'

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

p. 301In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who has entered upon Vassa, go on his travels before he has kept Vassa during the earlier or during the later three months. He who does so, commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

4.

1. At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus were not willing to enter upon Vassā.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, forbear to enter upon Vassa. He who does not enter upon Vassa, commits a dukkata offence.'

2. At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, who were not willing to enter upon Vassa on the prescribed day, purposely left the district (where they were living).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, purposely leave the district (where he is living), because he is not willing to enter upon Vassa on the prescribed day. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

3. At that time the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisāra, who wished that the Vassa period might be postponed, sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus: 'What if their reverences were to enter upon Vassa on the next full moon day?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you obey kings.'

 


 

5.

1. And the Blessed One, after having resided at Rāgagaha as long as he thought fit, went forth to Sāvatthi. Wandering from place to place he came to Sāvatthi. There, at Sāvatthi, the Blessed One dwelt in the Getavana, the garden of Anāthapindika.

At that time an upāsaka (lay devotee) named Udena, in the Kosala country, had a Vihāra built for the Samgha. He sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), 'Might their reverences come hither; I desire to bestow gifts (on the Samgha) and to hear the Dhamma and to see the Bhikkhus.'

2. The Bhikkhus replied: 'The Blessed One has prescribed, friend, that no one who has entered upon Vassa, may go on a journey before he has kept Vassa during the earlier or during the later three months. Let the upāsaka Udena wait so long as the Bhikkhus keep their Vassa residence; when they have finished Vassa, they will go. But if there is any urgent necessity, let him dedicate the Vihāra in presence of the Bhikkhus who reside there.'

3. The upāsaka Udena was annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can their reverences, when I send for them, refuse to come? I am a giver and a doer (of good works), and do service to the fraternity.' Some Bhikkhus heard the upāsaka Udena, who was annoyed, &c.

These Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

4. In consequence of that the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go (even during p. 303 the rainy season), if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent for, but not if you are not sent for, by a person of one of the following seven classes: Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunîs, sikkharnānās[6]. sāmaneras, sāmanerîs, lay devotees, female lay devotees. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go, if the thing (you go for) can be accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent for, but not if you are not sent for, by a person of one of these seven classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

5. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built a Vihāra for the Samgha. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), "Might their reverences come hither; I desire to bestow gifts (on them) and to hear the Dhamma and to see the Bhikkhus," you ought to go, O Bhikkhus, if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, and if he sends for you, but not if he does not send for you. Within seven days you ought to return.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for the Samgha an addhayoga[7]. has built a storied house, has built an attic, has constructed a cave, a cell, a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a warehouse[8], a privy, a place to walk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantāghara[9], a gantāghara room[10], a lotus-pond, a pavilion, a park, or p. 304 has prepared the site for a park. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus, . . . . (&c., as in Ī 5, down to the end of the section).

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for a number of Bhikkhus an addhayoga . . . . (&c., as in Ī 6 to the end of the section), . . . . for one Bhikkhu a Vihāra, an addhayoga, a storied bouse. . . . (&c., as in Ī 6 to the end).

8. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for the sisterhood of Bhikkhunîs, &c., for a number of Bhikkhunîs, for one Bhikkhunî, for a number of sikkhamānās, for one sikkhamānā, for a number of sāmaneras, for one sāmanera, for a number of sāmanerîs, for one sāmanerî a Vihāra, &c.[11] If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus, &c.

9. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for his own use a residence, a sleeping room, a stable[12], a tower, a one-peaked building[13], a shop, a boutique, a storied house, an attic, a cave, a cell, a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a kitchen, a privy, a place to waIk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantāghara, a gantāghara room, a lotus-pond, a pavilion, a park, or has prepared the site for a park; or that his son is to choose a consort; or that his daughter is to choose a consort; or that he is sick; or that he knows how p. 305 to recite a celebrated suttanta. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), "Might their reverences come and learn this suttanta; otherwise this suttanta will fall into oblivion;"--or if he has any other business or any work to be done; and if he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), "Might their reverences come hither" (&c.) then you ought to go (&c., as in Ī 5, down to:) you ought to return.

10-12. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsikā has built a Vihāra for the Samgha (&c., as in ĪĪ 5-9[14]).

13. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has built, &c., a Bhikkhunî, a sikkharnānā, a sāmanera, a sāmanerî has built for the Samgha, for a number of Bhikkhus, for one Bhikkhu, for the sisterhood of Bhikkhunîs, for one sāmanerî, for his own use, a Vihāra (&c., as in Ī 8).'

 


 

6.

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick. He sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), 'I am sick; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go (even during the rainy season), if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a p. 306 person of one of the following five classes: Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunîs, sikkhamānās, sāmaneras, and sāmanerîs. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go, if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of one of these five classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

2. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is sick. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), "I am sick; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go, O Bhikkhus, if the thing can be accomplished in seven days, even if he had not sent for you, much more when he has sent (saying to yourselves): "I will try to get food for the sick, or food for the tender of the sick, or medicine for the sick, or I will ask him (questions referring to the Dhamma), or nurse him." Within seven days you ought to retum.

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, inward struggles have befallen a Bhikkhu. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus: "Inward struggles have befallen me; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go . . . . (&c., as in Ī 2, down to); (saying to yourselves): "I will try to appease those struggles, or cause them to be appeased (by another), or compose him by religious conversation." Within seven days you ought to retum.

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu in whose mind doubts of conscience have arisen sends . . . . (&c., as in Ī 3, down to): (saying to yourselves): "I will try to dispel those doubts, or cause p. 307 them to be dispelled) or compose him by religious conversation." Within seven days you ought to return.

5. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu takes to a false doctrine. If he sends . . . . (&c., down to): (saying to yourselves): "I will discuss that false doctrine, or cause another to discuss it, or compose (that Bhikkhu) by religious conversation." Within seven days you ought to return.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to parivāsa discipline. If he sends . . . . (&c., down to): (saying to yourselves): "I will take care that he may be sentenced to parivāsa discipline, or I will propose the resolution (to the assembly), or I will help to complete the quorum (required for passing the sentence of parivāsa):' Within seven days you ought to return.

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu ought to be sentenced to recommence penal discipline. If he sends . . . . (&c., as in Ī 6, down to the end of the section ).

8. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu ought to have the mānatta discipline imposed upon him. If he sends . . . . (&c.) as in Ī 6, down to the end of the section).

9. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (having duly undergone penal discipline) ought to be rehabilitated. If he sends . . . . (&c., as in Ī 6).

10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Samgha is going to proceed against a Bhikkhu by the tagganiyakamma, or the nissaya, or the pabbāganiyakamma) or the patisāraniyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakamma. If that Bhikkhu sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), "The Samgha p. 308 is going to proceed against me; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go . . . . (&c., as in Ī 2, down to): (saying to yourselves): "What can be done in order that the Samgha may not proceed (against that Bhikkhu) or may mitigate the proceeding?" Within seven days you ought to return.

11. 'Or the Samgha has instituted a proceeding against him, the tagganiyakamma . . . . (&c., down to): . . . . or the ukkhepaniyakamma; if he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus: "The Samgha has instituted a proceeding against me; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go . . . . (&c., as in Ī 3, down to): (saying to yourselves): "What can be done in order that this Bhikkhu may behave himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance, and that the Samgha may revoke its sentence?" Within seven days you ought to return.

12-15. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunî is sick, &c.[15]

16. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunî is guilty of a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to mānatta discipline[16]. If she sends . . . . (as in Ī 3, down to): . . . . (saying to yourselves): "I will take care that she may be sentenced to mānatta discipline[17]." Within seven days you ought to return.

p. 30917. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunî ought to be sentenced to recommence penal discipline . . . . (&c., as in Ī 7).

18. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunî who is to be rehabilitated . . . . (&c., as in Ī 9).

19. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Samgha is going to proceed against a Bhikkhunî by the tagganiyakamma . . . . (&c., as in Ī 10).

20. 'Or the Samgha has instituted a proceeding against her . . . . (&c. , as in Ī 11).

21, 22. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamānā is sick . . . . (&c., see ĪĪ 2-5).

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamānā has violated[18] the precepts (in which she is trained). If she sends . . . . (&c., as in Ī 3, down to): (saying to yourselves): "I will take care that she may take upon herself the precepts (again)." Within seven days you ought to return.

23. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamānā desires to receive the upasampadā ordination. If she sends, &c., . . . . you ought to go (saying to yourselves): "I will take care that she may receive the upasampadā ordination, or I will proclaim the formula (of ordination before the assembly), or I will help to complete the quorum." Within seven days you ought to return.

24, 25. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmanera is sick (&c., as in ĪĪ 2-5) . . . . , a sāmanera desires p. 310 to ask concerning Vassa[19]. If he sends . . . . (saying to yourselves): "I will ask him or I will tell it to him." Within seven days you ought to return.

26. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmanera who desires to receive the upasampadā ordination (&c., see Ī 23).

27, 28. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmanerî is sick (&c., see ĪĪ 24-25).

29. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmanerî desires to take upon herself the precepts. If she sends . . . . &c., you should go (saying to yourselves): "I will take care that she may take upon herself the precepts." Within seven days you ought to return.'

 


 

7.

1. At that time the mother of a Bhikkhu was sick. She sent a messenger to her son (saying), 'I am sick; might my son come to me; I long for my son's coming.' Now that Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has allowed (a Bhikkhu) to go, if the affair for which he goes can be accomplished within seven days, and if he is sent for, but not if he is not sent for, by a person of any one of the seven classes; (and he has also allowed to go), if the thing he goes for can be accomplished within seven days, even if he is not sent for, and much more if he is sent for, by a person of any one of the five classes. Now my mother is sick; she is not a lay-devotee (upasikā). What am I, therefore, to do?'

p. 311 They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go (even during the rainy season), if the thing you go for can be accomplished within seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of any one of the following seven classes: Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunîs, sikkhamānās, sāmaneras, sāmanerîs, the mother, and the father. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go, if the thing you go for can be accomplished within seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of any one of these seven classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's mother is sick. If she sends a messenger to her son (saying), "I am sick; might my son come to me; I long for my son's coming (&c., see chap. 6. 2)."

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's father is sick . . . . (&c., as in Ī 3).

5. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's brother is sick. If he sends a messenger to his brother (saying), "I am sick; might my brother come to me; I long for my brother's coming," he ought to go, O Bhikkhus, if the affair can be accomplished within seven days, and if he sends for him, but not if he does not send for him. Within seven days he ought to return.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's sister is sick . . . . (&c., see Ī 5).

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a relation of a Bhikkhu is sick. If he sends a messenger to that Bhikkhu (saying), "I am sick; might his reverence come to me" . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 5).

8. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a person that used to p. 312 live with the Bhikkhus[20] is sick. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), "I am sick; might the Bhikkhus come to me" . . . . ( &c.. as in Ī 5).'

 


 

8.

At that time a Vihāra belonging to the Samgha went to ruin. A certain upāsaka had a quantity of wood cut in the forest. He sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), 'If their reverences will fetch that wood, I will give it to them.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go out on the Samgha's business. Within seven days you ought to return.

 


 

End of the first Bhānavāra about the Vassa residence.

 


 

9.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala country who had entered upon Vassal were troubled[21] by beasts of prey; the beasts carried them off and killed them.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are troubled by beasts of prey, and the beasts carry them off and kill them: this is p. 313 to be considered as a case of danger, and they ought to leave that residence. They are not guilty of interruption of Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are infested by snakes; they bite them and kill them. This is to be considered as a case of danger, . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

2. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are troubled by robbers; the robbers plunder them and beat them. This is to be considered . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are troubled by demons; the demons enter into them and take their power from them. This is to be considered . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the village near which the Bhikkhus have entered upon Vassa, is destroyed by fire; the Bhikkhus suffer from want of food. This is to be considered . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the places of rest of the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are destroyed by fire; the Bhikkhus suffer from having no place of rest. This is to be considered . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the village near which the Bhikkhus have entered upon Vassa, is destroyed by water; the Bhikkhus suffer from want of food, . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the places of rest of the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are destroyed by water; the Bhikkhus suffer from having no place of rest, . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.'

 


 

10.

p. 314 At that time the village near which the Bhikkhus of a certain district had entered upon Vassa, was transferred to another place through (fear of) robbers.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe. O Bhikkhus, that you go where the village is.'

The village (people) divided themselves in two parts.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the greater part is.

The greater part were unbelieving, unconverted people.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the believing, converted people are.'

 


 

11.

1. At that time the Bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala countly who had entered upon Vassa, could get (there) neither coarse nor fine food sufficiently as required.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, can get neither coarse nor fine food sufficiently as required. This is to be considered as a case of danger, and theyought to leave that residence. They are not guilty of interruption of Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, get food coarse or fine sufficiently p. 315 as required, but they cannot get sustaining food. This is to be considered . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

2. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, get food coarse or fine sufficiently as required, they get sustaining food, but they cannot get proper medicine. This is to be considered . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus . . . . (&c., as Ī 1, down to) . . . . sustaining food, and they can get profitable medicine, but they cannot find suitable laymen to do service to them. This is to be considered . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 1 down to) . . . . Vassa.

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, to a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, a woman makes an offer (in these words): "Come, venerable Sir, I give you gold, or I give you bullion[22], or I give you a field, or I give you a site (for a house or a garden), or I give you an ox, or I give you a cow, or I give you a slave, or I give you a female slave, or I give you my daughter as your wife, or I will be your wife, or I get another wife for you." In that case, if the Bhikkhu thinks: "The Blessed One has said that the mind of men is easily changeable; danger might arise to the purity of my life," he ought to go away from that place. He is not guilty of interruption of Vassa.

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, to a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, a harlot makes an offer, &c., an adult girl makes an offer, &c., a eunuch makes an offer, &c., relations make an offer, &c., kings make p. 316 an offer, &c., robbers make an offer, &c., rascals make an offer (in these words): "Come, venerable Sir, we give you gold, . . . . (&c., down to) . . . . or we give you our daughter as your wife, or we get another wife for you." In that case, . . . . (&c., as in Ī 3 down to) . . . . Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, finds an ownerless treasure. In that case, . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 3 down to) . . . . Vassa.

5. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, sees a number of Bhikkhus who strive to cause divisions in the Samgha. In that case, if that Bhikkhu thinks: "The Blessed One has said that it is a grievous sin to cause divisions in the Samgha; may no divsion arise in the Samgha in my presence," let him go away. He is not guilty of interruption of Vassa.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, hears: "A number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the Samgha." In that case, . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 5 down to) . . . . Vassa.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a district a number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the Samgha." If that Bhikkhu thinks: "Those Bhikkhus are friends of mine; I will say to them: 'The Blessed One, my friends, has said that it is a grievous sin to cause divisions in the Samgha; let not divisions in the Samgha please you, Sirs;' then they will do what I say, they will obey me and give ear," in that case let him go (to that place). He is not guilty of interruption of Vassa.

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a p. 317 district a number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the Samgha." If that Bhikkhu thinks: "Those Bhikkhus are not friends of mine, but their friends are friends of mine; to these I will say, and they will say to their friends: 'The Blessed One, . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 6 down to) . . . . Vassa.

8. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a district divisions in the Samgha have been caused by a number of Bhikkhus." If that Bhikkhu . . . . ( &c., as in Ī 6 down to) . . . . Vassa.

9. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a district divisions in the Samgha have been caused by a number of Bhikkhus." If that Bhikkhu . . . . (&c., as in Ī 7 down to) . . . . Vassa.

10-13. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a district a number of Bhikkhunîs strive to cause divisions in the Samgha . . . . (&c.[23])"'

 


 

12.

1. At that time a Bhikkhu desired to enter upon Vassa in a cattle-pen.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon Vassa in a cattle-pen: The cattle-pen was moved from its place.

p. 318 They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go with the cattle-pen.'

2. At that time a Bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon Vassa approached, desired to go on a journey with a caravan.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon Vassa in a caravan.'

At that time a Bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon Vassa approached desired to go on a journey in a ship.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon Vassa in a ship.'

3. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon Vassa in a hollow tree. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: '(These Bhikkhus behave) like goblins[24].'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa in a hollow tree. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

4. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon Vassa on a branch of a tree. People were annoyed, &c.: '(These Bhikkhus behave) like huntsmen.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa on a branch of a tree. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

5. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon Vassa in the open air. When it began to rain, p. 319 they ran up to the foot of a tree, or to the hollow of a Nimba tree.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa in the open air. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

6. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon Vassa without having a place of rest. They suffered from coldness and heat.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa without having a place of rest. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

7. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon Vassa in a house for keeping dead bodies in. People were annoyed, &c.: '(These Bhikkhus are) like those who burn corpses.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa in a house for keeping dead bodies. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

8. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon Vassa under a sun-shade. People were annoyed, &c.: 'Like cowherds.'

They told this thilig to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa under a sun-shade. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

9. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon Vassa under an earthenware vessel. People were annoyed, &c.: 'Like Titthiyas.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa under an earthenware vessel. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

13.

p. 320 1. At that time the Samgha at Sāvatthi had made an agreement that nobody should receive the pabbaggā ordination during the rainy season. A grandson of Visākhā Migāramātā[25] went to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbaggā ordination. The Bhikkhus said to him: 'The Samgha, friend, has made an agreement that nobody shall receive the pabbaggā ordination during the rainy season. Wait, friend, as long as the Bhikkhus keep Vassa; when they have concluded the Vassa residence, they will confer on you the pabbaggā ordination.

When those Bhikkhus had concluded the Vassa residence, they said to the grandson of Visākhā Migāramātā: 'Come now, friend, you may receive the pabbaggā ordination.' He replied: 'If I had received the pabbaggā ordination before, reverend Sirs, I should remain (in the religious life), but now, reverend Sirs, I will not receive the pabbaggā ordination.'

2. Visākhā Migāramātā was annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the noble ones make such an agreement. that nobody shall receive the pabbaggā ordination during the rainy season? At what time ought the duties of the Dhamma not to be performed?'

Some Bhikkhus heard Visākhā Migāramātā, who was annoyed, murmured, and had become angry.

p. 321 Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One. 'Such an agreement, O Bhikkhus, ought not to be made--that nobody shall receive the pabbaggā ordination during the rainy season. He who makes (an agreement like this), commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

14.

1. At that time the venerable Upananda Sakyaputta had promised to king Pasenadi of Kosala to take up his Vassa residence (with him) at the earlier period[26]. When he was going to the district (where he had consented to go to), he saw on his way two districts in which there were plenty of robes, and he thought: 'What if I were to keep Vassa in these two districts; thus shall I obtain many robes.' And he kept Vassa in those two districts. King Pasenadi of Kosala was annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the noble, Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has promised us to take up his Vassa residence (with us), break his word? Has not falsehood been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by the Blessed One in many ways?'

2. Some Bhikkhus heard king Pasenadi of Kosala. who was annoyed, &c. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying). 'How can the venerable Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has promised to king Pasenadi of Kosala, &c.? Has not falsehood . . . . (&c., as in Ī I)?'

3. Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

p. 322 In consequence of that, the Blessed One, after having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assemble, asked the venerable Upananda Sakyaputta: 'Is it true, Upananda, that you have broken your word, having promised to king Pasenadi of Kosala to take up your Vassa residence (with him)?'

'It is true, Lord?'

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked him: 'How can you, O foolish one, break your word, having promised, &c.? Has not falsehood, O foolish one, been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by me in many ways? This will not do, O foolish one, for converting the unconverted, and for augmenting the number of the converted, but it will result, O foolish one, in the unconverted being repulsed (from the faith) and many of the converted being estranged.'

Having reproved him and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to take up his Vassa residence (with him) at the earlier period, and when he goes to that district, he sees on his way two districts in which there are plenty of robes, and he thinks: "What if I were to keep Vassa in these two districts; thus shall I obtain many robes;" and he keeps Vassa in those two districts. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Vassa), O Bhikkhus, (at the) earlier period is not valid, and as to his promise he has committed a dukkata offence.

5. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to take up his Vassa residence (with him) at the earlier period, and when going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside (on the last p. 323 day of the half month), and on the first day (of the next half month) he goes to the Vihāra, prepares himself a place of rest, gets (water to) drink and food, sweeps the cell, and goes away that. same day without having any business. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Vassa) . . . . (&c., as in Ī 4, down to) . . . . offence.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised (&c., as in the preceding case, down to:) and goes away that same day, having business. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Vassa) . . . . (&c., as in Ī 4, down to) offence.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, &c., and having resided there two or three days, he goes away without having any business, &c.; he goes away having business. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Vassa) . . . . (&c, as in Ī 4, down to) . . . . offence.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, &c., and having resided there two or three days, he goes away having a business which can be accomplished within seven days[27]; he is absent above those seven days. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Vassa) . . . . (&c, as in Ī 4, down to) . . . . offence.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, &c., he returns within those seven days. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Vassa), O Bhikkhus, (at the) earlier period is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no offence.

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, &c., and goes away seven days before the Pavāranā[28] having business. No matter, O Bhikkhus, whether that Bhikkhu comes back to that district or p. 324 does not come batk, this Bhikkhu's entering, &c., is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no offence.

8-10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, &c., and having gone to that district, he holds Uposatha there (on the last day of the half month), and on the first day (of the next half month) he goes to the Vihāra, &c.[29]

11. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to take up his Vassa residence (with him) at the later period, and when going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside, &c.[30]'

End of the third Khandhaka, which treats of entering upon Vassa.

 


 

Next: Mahāvagga - Fourth Khandaka

 


[1] See the note on I, 22, 17. About the name of Kalandakanivāpa (seeds of Kalandaka? feeding ground for squirrels?), see the story related in Beal, Romantic Legend, &c., p. 315, where this place is said to be the gift of a merchant named Kalandaka. A different account is given by Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 194.

[2] Literally, living creatures which have but one organ of sense; that is, which have only the organ of feeling, viz. the outward form (kāya).

[3] Samkāpayissanti = samkappafissanti? Buddhaghosa: appossukka-nibaddha-vāsam vasissanti.

[4] I.e. enter upon the retreat prescribed for the rainy season. Buddhaghosa: 'They are to look after their Vihāra (if it is in a proper state), to provide food and water for themselves, to fulfil all due ceremonies, such as paying reverence to sacred shrines, &c., and to say loudly once, or twice, or thrice: "I enter upon Vassa in this Vihāra for these three months." Thus they are to enter upon Vassa.'

[5] Very probably this double period stands in connection with the double period prescribed in the Brāhmanas and Sûtras for most of the Vedic festivals. Thus the sacrifice of the varunapraghāsās, with which the Brahmans began the rainy season, was to be held either on the full moon day of āshādha or on the full moon day of the following month, Srāvana, quite in accordance with the Buddhistical rules about the vassupanāyikā. The Brāhmana texts begin the year with the full moon day of the (uttarā) Phālgunî; the Sûtras mention, besides the Phālguni, another new-year's day, the Kaitri paurnamāsî, which falls one month later. It was in connection with this dislocation of the beginning of the year that the annual festivals could be postponed accordingly. See Weber, Die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, p. 329 seq.

[6] See the note on II, 36, I.

[7] See the note on I, 30, 4.

[8] This translation of kappiyakuti is merely conjectural; comp. kappiyabhûmî VI, 33.

[9] See the note on I, 25, 12.

[10] The enumeration of edifices is identical with that given in Ī 6, but in the cases beginning with that of the sisterhood of Bhikkhunîs (according to Buddhaghosa; we believe that the two cases referring to sāmaneras ought to be excepted) three of the edifices are left out, viz. the privy, the gantāghara, and the gantāghara room, the' use of which is forbidden to nuns; see Kullavagga X, 27, 3, 4.

[11] See Abhidhānapp. v. 213, and compare assabhanda, hatthibhanda (Mahāvagga I, 61, I).

[12] See Kullavagga V, 16, I.

[13] See Abhidhānapp. v. 309.

[14] Only it is said here of the Bhikkhus, ayyā, 'the noble ones,' instead of bhaddantā, 'their reverences.'

[15] See ĪĪ 2-5. Read here and in all cases where the messenger is sent by a woman: 'Might the noble ones (ayyā) come to me; I long for the noble ones' coming.'

[16] There is no parivāsa discipline for the Bhikkhunîs. When a Bhikkhunî has committed a Samghādisesa offence, no matter whether she has concealed it or not, she is sentenced to mānatta discipline for a fortnight. See Kullavagga X, I, 4; 25, 3.

[17] The phrases, 'Or I will propose the resolution to the assembly, or I will help to complete the quorum' (see Ī 6 seq.), of course are omitted here, because, if the proceeding is directed against a Bhikkhunî, this is to be done by a Bhikkhunî and not by a Bhikkhu. See Kullavagga X, 6, 3.

[18] This translation of sikkhi kupitā hoti is merely conjectural; Buddhaghosa has no note here. Comp. kuppa and akuppa.

[19] The technical meaning of vassam pukkhitum (to ask after Vassa?) is unknown to us.

[20] Buddhaghosa: bhikkhugatika is a person that dwells in the same Vihāra with the Bhikkhus.

[21] Compare Gātaka I, 300.

[22] See Rh. D.'s 'Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' p. 5 ('Numismata Orientalia,' vol. i).

[23] See ĪĪ 6-9. lnstead of 'A number of Bhikkhus' in these paragraphs, the subject is 'A number of Bhikkhunîs.' Instead of 'Friends ' or 'Sirs,' the address is 'Sisters.' In ĪĪ 11, 13 read: 'Those Bhikkhunîs are not friends of mine, but their (female) friends are friends of mine, &c.'

[24] This must be about the sense of pisākillika (comp. Kullavagga V, 10, 2; 27, 5), although we are nat sure how -illika ought to be explained.

[25] Visākhā was the most distinguished among the upāsikās, and occupied a place among them similar to that which Anāthapindika, with whom she is frequently mentioned together, did among the upāsakas. See Dhammapada Atthak. p. 78, &c.

[26] See chap. 2, Ī 2.

[27] See chap. 5 seq.

[28] I.e.. before the concluding ceremony of Vassa; see IV, 1, 13.

[29] Here follows an exact repetition of alI the cases given in ĪĪ 5-7; the only difference is, that in the former cases it was said: 'When going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside,' instead of which it is said now: 'Having gone to that district, he holds Uposatha there.'

[30] The cases given in ĪĪ 5-10 are repeated here; instead of 'Earlier period,' it is said here 'Later period;' instead of 'Before the Pavāranā' (Ī7), 'Before the komudi kātumāsini.' The komudi kātumāsini is the full moon day in the month Kattika, which is frequently called Kaumuda in the Epic literature; the epithet kātumāsini refers to the Vedic Kāturmāsra festival, which falls upon that day (Kātrāyana, Srautasûtra V, 6, I). For those who entered upon Vassa at the later period (in the Srāvana month), the end of Vassa fell on the Komudî day.


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