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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XIII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

 


 

Fourth Khandhaka

Ceremony At The End Of The Rainy Season, Vassa

 


 

1. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at Sāvatthi, in the Getavana, the garden of Anāthapindika. At that time a number of Bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other, entered upon Vassa in a certain district of the Kosala country. Now those Bhikkhus thought: 'What shall we do in order that we may keep Vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and that we may not suffer from want of food?'

2. Then those Bhikkhus thought: 'If we do not speak to or converse with each other, if he who comes back first from the village, from his alms-pilgrimage, prepares seats, gets water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, and a towel[1], cleans the slop-basin and gets it ready, and puts there (water to) drink and food,--

3. 'And if he who comes back last from the village, from his alms-pilgrimage, eats, if there is any food left (from the dinner of the other Bhikkhus) and if he desires to do so; and if he does not desire (to eat), throws it away at a place free from grass, or pours it away into water in which no living things are; puts away the water for washing the feet, the foot-stool, and the towel[2]; cleans the slop-basin and p. 326 puts it away, puts the water and the food away, and sweeps the dining-room,--

4. 'And if he, who sees a water-pot, or a bowl for food, or a vessel for evacuations, empty and void, puts it (into its proper place), and if he is not able to do so single-handed, calls some one else and puts it away with their united effort[3] without uttering a word on that account,--thus shall we keep Vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and not suffer from want of food[4].'

5-7. And those Bhikkhus did not speak to or converse with each other. He who came back from the village from his alms-pilgrimage first, prepared seats (&c., as above, Ī 4, down to) without uttering a word on that account.

8. Now it is the custom of the Bhikkhus who have finished their Vassa residence, to go to see the Blessed One. Thus those Bhikkhus, when they had finished their Vassa residence and when the three months (of Vassa) had elapsed, set their places of rest in order, took their alms-bowls and robes, and went on their way to Sāvatthi. Wandering from place to place, they came to Sāvatthi, to the Getavana, the garden of Anāthapindika, to the Blessed One; having approached the Blessed One and respectfully saluted him, they sat down near him.

9. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas p. 327 to exchange greeting with incoming Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to those Bhikkhus: 'Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhus? Do you get enough to support yourselves with? Have you kept Vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel? and have you not suffered from want of food?'

'Things go tolerably well with us, Lord; we get enough, Lord, wherewith to support ourselves; we have kept Vassa well, in unity, in concord, and without quarrel; and have not suffered from want of food.'

10. The Tathāgatas sometimes ask about what they know; sometimes they do not ask about what they know. They understand the right time when to ask, and they understand the right time when not to ask. The Tathāgatas put questions full of sense, not void of sense; to what is void of sense the bridge is pulled down for the Tathāgatas. For two purposes the blessed Buddhas put questions to the Bhikkhus, when they intend to preach the doctrine. or when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to their disciples.

11. And the Blessed One said to those Bhikkhus: 'In what way, O Bhikkhus, have you kept Vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and not suffered from want of food?'

'We have entered upon Vassa, Lord, a number of Bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other. in a certain district of the Kosala country. Now, Lord, we thought: "What shall we do (&c., as in Ī 1)?" Then we thought, Lord: "If we do not speak (&c., as in ĪĪ 2-4)." Thus, Lord, we did not speak to or converse with each other (&c., down to:) without uttering a word on that account. In that p. 328 way, Lord, we have kept Vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel; and have not suffered from want of food.'

12. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Indeed, O Bhikkhus, these foolish men who profess to have kept Vassa well, have kept it badly; indeed, O Bhikkhus, these foolish men who profess to have kept Vassa well, have kept it like a herd of cattle; indeed have kept it like a herd of rams; indeed have kept it like a company of indolent people. How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, take upon themselves the vow of silence, as the Titthiyas do?

13. 'This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted (&c., as in Book III, chapter 14, Ī 3).' And when he bad rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, take upon himself the vow of silence, as the Titthiyas do. He who does, I commits a dukkata offence.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Bhikkhus, when they have finished their Vassa residence, hold Pavāranā with each other[5] in these three ways: by what has been seen, or by what has been heard, or by what is suspected. Hence it will result that you live in accord with each other, that you atone for the offences (you have committed), and that you keep the rules of discipline before your eyes.

14. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to hold Pavāranā in this way:

p. 329 'Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. To-day is the Pavāranā day. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pavāranā."

'Then let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "I pronounce my Pavāranā, friends, before the Samgha, by what has been seen, or by what has been heard, or by what is suspected[6]; may you speak to me, Sirs, out of compassion towards me; if I see (an offence), I will atone for it. And for the second time, &c. And for the third time I pronounce my Pavāranā (&c., down to) if I see (an offence), I will atone for it."

'Then let (each) younger Bhikkhu adjust his upper robe . . . . (&c.)[7]'

 


 

2.

1. At. that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, while the senior Bhikkhus were crouching down and were performing their Pavāranā, remained on their seats. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus remain on their seats, while the senior p. 330 Bhikkhus crouch down, and perform their Pavāranā?'

Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, &c.?'

'It is true, O Lord.'

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked them: 'How can these foolish men, O Bhikkhus, remain on their seats (&c., as above)? This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted (&c., as in chap. 1, Ī 13).'

Having rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, remain on his seat, while the senior Bhikkhus crouch down, and perform their Pavāranā. He who does, commits a dukkata. offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that all of you crouch down while Pavāranā is being performed.'

2. At that time a certain Bhikkhu weak from age, who waited crouching till all had finished their Pavāranā, fell down fainting.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (every Bhikkhu) crouches down the whole while till he has performed his Pavāranā, and sits down on his seat when he has performed it.'

 


 

3.

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'How many Pavāranā (days) are there?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'There are the two following Pavāranā (days), p. 331 O Bhikkhus: the fourteenth and the fifteenth (of the half month)[8]; these are the two Pavāranā (days), O Bhikkhus.'

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'How many Pavāranā services are there?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'There are the four followingPavāranā services. O Bhikkhus, &c.[9]'

3. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the Samgha will hold Pavāranā.' When he had spoken thus, a certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: 'There is a sick Bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.'

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a sick Bhikkhu shall declare (lit. give) his Pavāranā. And let him declare it, O Bhikkhus, in this way: Let that sick Bhikkhu go to some Bhikkhu, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "I declare my Pavāranā, take my Pavāranā, perform the Pavāranā for me." If he expresses this by gesture, or by word, or by gesture and word, the Pavāranā has been declared. If he does not express this by gesture, &c., the Pavāranā has not been declared.

4-5. 'If (the sick Bhikkhu) succeeds in doing so, well and good. If he do es not succeed, let them take that sick Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, on his bed or his chair to the assembly, &c.[10]

p. 332 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus. that on the day of Pavāranā he who declares his Pavāranā, is to declare also his consent[11] (to acts to be performed eventually by the Order), for (both declarations) are required for the Samgha (and for the validity of its acts)[12].'

 


 

4.

At that time relations of a certain Bhikkhu kept him back on the day of Pavāranā, &c.[13]

 


 

5.

1. At that time five Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain district (or, in a certain residence of Bhikkhus) on the day of Pavāranā.

Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed the holding of Pavāranā by the Samgha, and we are (only) five persons[14]. Well, how are we to hold Pavāranā?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe,O Bhikkhus, that five Bhikkhus should . hold Pavāranā in a (regular) chapter[15].'

2. At that time four Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain p. 333 district on the day of Pavāranā. Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed that five Bhikkhus shall hold Pavāranā in a (regular) chapter, and we, are (only) four persons. Well, how are we to hold Pavāranā?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that four Bhikkhus should hold Pavāranā with each other.

3. 'And let them hold Pavāranā, O Bhikkhus, in this way: Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti hefore those Bhikkhus:

"Hear me, Sirs. To-day is Pavāranā day. If you are ready, Sirs, let us hold Pavāranā with each other."

'Then let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper rohe, &c., and say to those Bhikkhus: "I pronounce my Pavāranā, friends, hefore you, by what has heen seen, or by what has heen heard, or by what is suspected; may you speak to me, Sirs, out of compassion towards me; if I see (an offence), I will atone for it. And for the second time, &c.; and for the third time, &c."

'Then let each younger Bhikkhu, &c.'

4. At that time three Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain district on the day of Pavāranā. Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescrihed that five Bhikkhus shail hold Pavāranā in a (regular) chapter, that four Bhikkhus shall hold Pavāranā with each other, and we are (only) three persons. Well, how are we to hold Pavāranā?'

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that three Bhikkhus should hold Pavāranā with each other. And let them hold Pavāranā (&c., see Ī.3).'

5. At that time two Bhiklthus dwelt in a certain p. 334 district on the day of Pavāranā. Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescrihed that five Bhikkhus, &c., that four Bhikkhus, &c., that three Bhikkhus, &c., and we are (only) two persons. Well, how are we to hold Pavāranā?'

'I prescrihe, O Bhikkhus, that two Bhikkhus should hold Pavāranā with each other.

6. 'And let them hold Pavāranā, O Bhikkhus, in this way: Let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper rohe, &c., and say to the junior Bhikkhu: "I pronounce my Pavāranā, friend, &c."

'Then let the junior Bhikkhu, &c.'

7. At that time there dwelt a single Bhikkhu in a certain district on the day of Pavāranā. Now this Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed that five Bhikkhus, &c., &c., and I am only one person. Well, how am I to hold Pavāranā?'

8. 'In case there dwell, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of Pavāranā, a single Bhikkhu: Let that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, sweep the place which the Bhikkhus use to frequent,--the refectory, or hall, or place at the foot of a tree; let him (then) provide water and food, prepare seats, put a lamp there, and sit down. If other Bhikkhus come, let him hold Pavāranā with them; if they do not come, let him fix his mind upon the thought: "To-day is my Pavāranā." If he does not fix his mind upon this thought, he commits a dukkata offence.

9. 'Now, O Bhikkhus, where five Bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey the Pavāranā[16] of one (to their assemhly) and hold Pavāranā by p. 335 four (as) in a (regular) chapter. If they do, they commit a dukkata offence.

'Now, O Bhikkhus, where four Bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey the Pavāranā of one (to their assembly) and hold Pavāranā with each other by three. If they do, they commit a dukkata offence.

'Now, O Bhikkhus, where three Bhikkhus (&c., as in the last clause).

'Now, O Bhikkhus, where two Bhikkhus dwen, one of them must not convey the Pavāranā of the other one, and fix (only) his thoughts (upon the Pavāranā). If he does, he commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

6.

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu was guilty of an offence on the day of Pavāranā. Now this Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed: "Pavāranā is not to be held by a Bhikkhu who is guilty of an offence[17]." Now I am guilty of a an offence. What am I to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu be guilty of an offence on the day of Pavāranā (&c., as in II, 27. 1, 2, down to:) "When I shall feel no doubt, then I will atone for that offence." Having spoken thus, let him hold Pavāranā. But in no case must there any hindrance arise to holding Pavāranā from such a cause.'

2-3. At that time a certain Bhikkhu remembered p. 336 an offence, while Pavāranā was being held (&c., see II, 27. 4-8).

End of the first Bhānavāra.

 


 

7.

1. At that time there assembled in a certain residence (or district) on the day of Pavāranā a number of resident Bhikkhus, five or more. They did not know that there were other resident Bhikkhus absent. Intending to act according to Dhamma and Vinaya, thinking themselves to be complete while (really) incomplete, they held Pavāranā. While they were holding Pavāranā, other resident Bhikkhus, a greater number (than the first ones), arrived.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. 'In case there assemble, O Bhikkhus, in a certain residence on the day of Pavāranā (&c., as in Ī 1, down to) they hold Pavāranā. While they are holding Pavāranā, other resident Bhikkhus, a greater number, arrive. Let (all) those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā again; they who have held Pavāranā, are free from guilt

3. 'In case there assemble, &c. While they are holding Pavāranā, other resident Bhikkhus, exactly the same number (as the first ones), arrive. Those who have held Pavāranā, have held it correctly; let the other ones hold Pavāranā; they who have held Pavāranā, are free from guilt.'

8-13.[18]

 


 

14.

p. 337 1-3. 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā in a seated assembly (of Bhikkhus) before a Bhikkhunî, (&c,[19])

4. 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā by (accepting) the Pavāranā declaration of a pārivāsika[20], except if the assembly has not yet risen (at the time when the Pavāranā is declared). And let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā on another day than the Pavāranā day, except for the sake of (preserving) concord among the Samgha[21].'

 


 

15.

1. At that time a certain residence (of Bhikkhus) in the Kosala country was menaced on the day of Pavāranā by savage people. The Bhikkhus were not able to perform Pavāranā with the threefold formula.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

p. 338 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to perform Pavāranā with the twofold formula[22].'

The danger from savage people became still more urgent. The Bhikkhus were not able to perform Pavāranā with the twofold formula.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to perform Pavāranā with the onefold formula[23].'

The danger from savage people became still more urgent. The Bhikkhus were not able to perform Pavāranā with the onefold formula.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, that all the Bhikkhus who have kept Vassa together, perform Pavāranā (by one common declaration).'

2. At that time in a certain district on the day of Pavāranā the greater part of the night had passed away while (lay-)people were offering gifts (to the Bhikkhus). Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'The greater part of the night has passed away while the people were offering gifts. If the Samgha performs Pavāranā with the threefold formula, it will not have finished the Pavāranā when day breaks. Well, what are we to do?'

They told this thingto the Blessed One.

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of Pavāranā the greater part of the night has passed away while people were offering gifts (to the Bhikkhus). Now if those Bhikkhus think: "The greater part (&c., down to:) when day breaks," p. 339 let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. While people were offering gifts, the greater part of the night has passed away. If the Samgha performs Pavāranā with the threefold formula, it will not have finished the Pavāranā when day breaks. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pavāranā with the twofold formula, or with the onefold formula, or by common declaration of all the Bhikkhus who have kept Vassa together."

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of Pavāranā the greater part of the night has passed away while the Bhikkhus were in confusion: the Bhikkhus were reciting the Dhamma, those versed in the Suttantas were propounding the Suttantas, those versed in the Vinaya were discussing the Vinaya, the Dhamma preachers were talking about the Dhamma. Now if those Bhikkhus think: "The greater part of the night has passed away while the Bhikkhus were in confusion. If the Samgha performs Pavāranā with the threefold formula, it will not have finished the Pavāranā when day breaks," let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, &c. The greater part of the night has passed away while the Bhikkhus were in confusion. If the Samgha performs Pavāranā (&c. as in Ī 3)"'

5. At that time in a certain district in the Kosala country a great assembly of Bhikkhus had come together on the day of Pavāranā, and there was but a small place protected from rain, and a great cloud was in the sky. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'A great assembly of Bhikkhus has come together p. 340 here, and there is but a small place protected from rain, and a great cloud is in the sky. If the Samgha performs Pavāranā with the threefold formula, it will not have finished the Pavāranā when this cloud will begin to rain. Well, what are we to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district a great assembly of Bhikkhus has come together on the day ofPavāranā, and there is but a small place protected from rain, and a great cloud is in the sky. Now if those Bhikkhus think . . . . (&c., as in Ī 3 to the end).

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of Pavāranā danger arises from kings, danger from robbers, danger from fire, danger from water, danger from human beings, danger from non-human beings, danger from beasts of prey, danger from creeping things, danger of life, danger against chastity. Now if those Bhikkhus think: "Here is danger for our chastity. If the Samgha performs Pavāranā with the threefold formula, it will not have finished the Pavāranā when this danger for chastity will arise," let a learned, competent Bhikkhu . . . .' (&c., as in Ī 3 to the end).

 


 

16.

1. At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus held Pavāranā being guilty of an offence.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā who is guilty of an offence. He who does, commits a p. 341 dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you ask a Bhikkhu who holds Pavāranā being guilty of an offence. for his leave[24] and reprove him for that offence.'

2. At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, when asked for leave, were not willing to give leave (to Bhikkhus who were going to reprove them for an offence).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you inhibit the Pavāranā of a Bhikkhu who does not give leave. And you ought to inhibit it, O Bhikkhus, in this way: Let (a Bhikkhu) say on the day of Pavāranā, on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth day (of the half month), in presence of that person, before the assembled Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Such and such a person is guilty of an offence; I inhibit his Pavāranā; Pavāranā must not be held in his presence." Thus his Pavāranā is inhibited.'

3. At that time the Khabbagiya Bhikkhus, who thought: 'Otherwise good Bhikkhus might inhibit our Pavāranā,' themselves inhibited beforehand, without object and reason, the Pavāranā of pure Bhikkhus who had committed no offence, and they also inhibited the Pavāranā of Bhikkhus who had already performed their Pavāranā.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, inhibit, without object and reason, the Pavāranā of pure Bhikkhus who have committed no offence. He who does, commits a dukkata offence. And further, O Bhikkhus, let no p. 342 one inhibit the Pavāranā of Bhikkhus who have already performed their Pavāranā. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.

4. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, (you may discern whether) the Pavāranā is (duly) inhibited or not inhibited.

'In what cases is the Pavāranā, O Bhikkhus, not inhibited? When Pavāranā, O Bhikkhus, is pronounced, dedared, and finished with the threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits the Pavāranā (of another Bhikkhu), the Pavāranā is not inhibited. When Pavāranā, O Bhikkhus, is pronounced, declared, and finished with the twofold formula, with the onefold formula, by common declaration of all Bhikkhus who have kept Vassa together, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits, (&c., as before). In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the Pavāranā is not inhibited.

5. 'And in what cases, O Bhikkhus, is the Pavāranā inhibited? When Pavāranā, O Bhikkhus, is pronounced, declared, but not finished[25] with the threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits the Pavāranā (of another Bhikkhu), the Pavāranā is inhibited, (&c.[26]). In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the Pavāranā is inhibited.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, one Bhikkhu, on the day of Pavāranā, inhibits the Pavāranā of another Bhikkhu: then if the other Bhikkhus know with regard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu: "This venerable p. 343 brother is not of a pure conduct in his deeds, nor in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood, he is ignorant, unlearned, unable to give explanation when he is questioned," (let them say to him): "Nay, friend, let not quarrel arise, nor strife, nor discord, nor dispute," and having thus put him to silence, let the Samgha hold Pavāranā.

7-9. 'In case; O Bhikkhus, &c.[27]

10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, one Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāranā inhibits the Pavāranā of another Bhikkhu: then if the other Bhikkhus know with regard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu: "This venerable brother is of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his words and with regard to his means of livelihood, he is clever, learned, and able to give explanation when he is questioned," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu, on what account do you inhibit it, on account of a moral transgression, or on account of a transgression against the rules of conduct or on account of heresy?"

11. ' If he replies: "I inhibit it on account of a moral transgression, I inhibit it on account of a transgression against the rules of conduct. I inhibit it on account of heresy," let them say to him: "Well, do you know, Sir, what a moral transgression is, what a transgression against the rules of conduct is, what heresy is?" If he replies. "I p. 344 know, friends, what a moral transgression is, &c.," let them say to him: "And what is, friend, a moral transgression, &c.?"

12. 'If he replies: "The four pārāgika offences and the thirteen samghādisesa offences are the moral transgressions; thullakkaya offences, pākittiya offences, pātidesanîya offences, dukkata offences, and wicked language are the transgressions against the rules of conduct; false doctrine and . . . . doctrine[28] are heresy," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu, do you inhibit it on account of what you have seen, or of what you have heard, or of what you suspect?"

13. 'If he replies: "I inhibit it on account of what I have seen, or on account of what I have heard, or on account of what I suspect," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu on account of what you have seen, what have you seen? What is it that you have seen? When have you seen it? Where have you seen it? Have you seen him committing a pārāgika offence? Have you seen him committing a samghādisesa offence? Have you seen him committing a thullakka ya offence, a pākittiya offence, a pātidesanîya offence, a dukkata offence, or making himself guilty of wicked language? And where were you? And where was this Bhikkhu? And what did you do? And what did this Bhikkhu do?"

p. 345 14. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit, friends, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu on account of what I have seen, but I inhibit it on account of what I have heard," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu on account of what you have heard, what have you heard? What is it that you have heard? When have you heard it? Where have you heard it? Have you heard that he has committed a pārāgika offence, (&c., down to) or that he has made himself guilty of wicked language? Have you heard it from a Bhikkhu? Have you heard it from a Bhikkhunî? Have you heard it from a sikkhamānā, from a sāmanera, from a sāmanerî, from an upāsaka, from an upāsikā, from kings, from royal officers, from Titthiyas, from Titthiya disciples?"

15. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit, friends, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu on account of what I have heard, but I inhibit it on account of what I suspect," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu on account of what you suspect, what do you suspect? What is it that you suspect? When do you suspect it? Where do you suspect it? Do you suspect that he has committed a pārāgika offence, (&c., down to) wicked language? Does your suspicion come from what you have heard from a Bhikkhu, (&c., down to) from Titthiya disciples?"

16. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit. friends, the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu on account of what I suspect; I do not know the reason why I inhibit the Pavāranā of this Bhikkhu," and if that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (the other one), being questioned by intelligent fellow Bhikkhus, is not able p. 346 to convince tbeir minds, you are right in saying that in such case the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is blameless. But if that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (the other one), being questioned by intelligent fellow Bhikkhus, is able to convince their minds, you are right in saying that in such case the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is blamable.

17. 'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that be has charged him unfoundedly with a pārāgika offence, let the Samgha enter upon the samghādisesa proceedings[29] (against the accuser) and then hold Pavāranā.

'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that he has charged him unfoundedly with a samghādisesa offence, let the Samgha treat (the accuser) according to the law[30] and then hold Pavāranā.

'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that he has charged him unfoundedly with a thullakkaya offence, or with a pākittiya offence, or with a pātidesanîya offence, or with a dukkata offence, or with having used wicked language, let the Samgha treat (the accuser) according to the law[31] and then hold Pavāranā.

18. 'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who has been reproved, admits that be has committed a pārāgika offence, let the Samgha expel him and then bold Pavāranā.

'If that Bhikkhu, &c., admits that be has committed p. 347 a samghādisesa offence, let the Samgha enter upon the samghādisesa proceedings (against him) and then hold Pavāranā.

'If that Bhikkhu, &c., admits that he has committed a thullakkaya offence, or a pākittiya offence, . . . . (&c., down to) . . . . wicked language, let the Samgha treat him according to the law and then hold Pavāranā.

19. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāranā is guilty of a thullakkaya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullakkaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a samghādisesa offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus, let those Bhikkhus who take it for a thullakkaya offence, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, aside, treat him according to the law, go back to the Samgha, and say: "The offence, friends, which this Bhikkhu has committed, he has atoned for according to the law. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pavāranā.

20. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāranā is guilty of a thullakkaya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullakkaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a pākittiya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullakkaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a pātidesanîya offence; a thullakkaya offence; a dukkata offence; a thullakkaya offence, an offence by wicked language. In that case (&c., as in Ī 19, down to the end).

21, 22. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāranā is guilty of a pākittiya offence, of a pātidesanîya offence, or a dukkata offence, of an offence by wicked language. Some Bhikkhus believe p. 348 that it is an offence by wicked language, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a samghādisesa offence, &c. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is an offence by wicked language, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a dukkata offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus, let those Bhikkhus who take it for an offence by wicked language, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, aside (&c., see Ī 19).

23. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavāranā: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here this deed is known (to me), but not the (guilty) person. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pavāranā excluding this deed," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavāranā, ought to be pure. If a deed is known, but not the (guilty) person, report it (to us) now."

24. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavāranā: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a person is known (to me as guilty), but not his deed. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pavāranā excluding this person," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavāranā, ought to be complete. If a person is known to you (as guilty), but not his deed, report it (to us) now."

25. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavāranā: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a deed is known (to me) as well as the (guilty) person. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pavāranā excluding this deed and this person," (the p. 349 Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavāranā, ought to be pure as well as complete. If the deed and the (guilty) person are known to you, report it (to us) now."

26. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a deed becomes known before the Pavāranā, and the (guilty) person afterwards (i.e. after the Pavāranā), it is right to bring it forward (then)[32].

'If, O Bhikkhus, the (guilty) person becomes known before the Pavāranā, and his deed afterwards, it is right to bring it forward (then).

'If, O Bhikkhus, the deed as well as the (guilty) person becomes known before the Pavāranā, and if (a Bhikkhu) raises up that matter again after the Pavāranā, he makes himsef guilty of a pākittiya offence for raising up (a matter that has been settled)[33].'

 


 

17.

1. At that time a number of Bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other, entered upon Vassa in a certain district of the Kosala country. In their neighbourhood other Bhikkhus, litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious persons, who used to raise questions before the Samgha, entered upon Vassa with the intention of inhibiting, on the Pavāranā day, the Pavāranā of those Bhikkhus when p. 350 they should have finished their Vassa residence. Now those Bhikkhus heard: 'In our neighbourhood other Bhikkhus, &c. Well, what are we to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a number of Bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other, enter upon Vassa in a certain district. In their neighbourhood other Bhikkhus, . . . . (&c., Ī 1). I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that those Bhikkhus hold Uposatha twice or thrice on the fourteenth day (of the half-month)[34] in order that they may be able to hold Pavāranā before those (other) Bhikkhus. If those litigious, contentious, . . . . (&c., Ī 1) Bhikkhus approach that district, let the resident Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, quickly assemble and hold Pavāranā; having held Pavāranā, let them say to them: "We have held our Pavāranā, friends; do you do, Sirs, as you think fit."

3. 'If those litigious, . . . . (&c., Ī 1) Bhikkhus come to that residence unexpectedly, let the resident Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, prepare seats (for them), get water for the washing of their feet, foot-stools, and towels[35], then let them go to meet them, take their bowls and their robes, and offer them (water) to drink; having thus looked after those Bhikkhus, let them go outside the boundary and hold Pavāranā; having held Pavāranā, let p. 351 them say: "We have held our Pavāranā, friends, do you do, Sirs, as you think fit."

4. 'If they succeed in tbis way, well and good; if they do not succeed, let a learned, competent, resident Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the resident Bhikkhus: "Let the resident Bhikkhus hear me, Sirs. If you are ready, Sirs, let us now bold Uposatha and recite the Pātimokkha, and let us hold Pavāranā on the next new-moon day." If, O Bhikkhus, the litigious, . . . . (&c., Ī 1) Bhikkhus say to those Bhikkhus: "Well, friends, hold Pavāranā with us now," let them reply: "You are not masters, friends, of our Pavāranā; we will not hold Pavāranā now."

5. 'If, O Bhikkhus, those litigious, (&c., Ī 1) Bhikkhus stay there till that new-moon day, let a learned, competent, resident Bhikkhu, . . . .[36]

6. 'If, O Bhikkhus, those litigious, . . . . (&c., Ī 1) Bhikkhus stay there still till that full-moon day, those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, ought to hold Pavāranā all of them, no matter whether they like it or not, on the next full-moon day, on the day of the komudî kātumāsinî[37].

7. 'If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā, and a sick Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavāranā of a healthy Bhikkhu, let them say (to the inhibiting Bhikkhu): "You are sick, Sir, and the Blessed One has said that a sick person cannot endure being questioned. Wait, friend, until you have recovered; p. 352 having recovered, you may reprove him, if you like." If they speak to him thus, and he reproves (that Bhikkhu) notwithstanding, he makes himself guilty of the pākittiya offence of disregard[38].

8. 'If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā, and a healthy Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavāranā of a sick Bhikkhu, let them say (to the inhibiting Bhikkhu): "This Bhikkhu is sick, friend, and the Blessed One has said that a sick person cannot endure being questioned. Wait, friend, until this Bhikkhu has recovered; when he has recovered you may reprove him, if you like." If they speak to him thus, . . . . (&c., as in Ī 7).

9. 'If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā, and a sick Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavāranā of another sick Bhikkhu, let them say (to the inhibiting Bhikkhu): "You are sick, Sirs, and the "Blessed One has said that a sick person cannot endure being questioned. Wait, friend, until you have recovered; when he has recovered[39] you may reprove him, if you like." If they speak to him thus, . . . . (&c., as in Ī 7).

10. 'If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāranā, and a healthy Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavāranā of another healthy Bhikkhu, let the Samgha question and examine them both and treat them according to the law, and then hold Pavāranā.'

 


 

18.

p. 353 1. At that time a number of Bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other, entered upon Vassa in a certain district of the Kosala country. These Bhikkhus, living in unity, and concord, and without quarrel, had found a comfortable place to dwell in. Now those Bhikkhus thought: 'Living in unity, &c., we have found a comfortable place to dwell in. If we hold Pavāranā now, (other Bhikkhus) might come on a journey, having held their Pavāranā, (and might occupy this place); thus we should lose this place which is comfortable to dwell in. Well, what are we to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a number of Bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other, have entered upon Vassa in a certain district. These Bhikkhus, . . . . (&c., Ī 1).

'If these Bhikkhus think: "Living in unity, . . . . (&c., Ī 1, down to:) thus we should lose this place which is comfortable to dwell in," I allow, O Bhikkhus, these Bhikkhus to agree upon pavāranāsamgaha[40].

3. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to agree upon it in this way: Let them all assemble together. When p. 354 they have assembled, let a leamed, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me.

Living in unity, . . . . (&c., Ī 1, down to:) thus we should lose this place which is comfortable to dwell in. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha agree upon pavāranāsamgaha; let it now hold Uposatha and recite the Pātimokkha, and let the Samgha hold Pavāranā on the next komudî kātumāsinî day. This is the ñatti."

4. '"Let the Samgha, &c.[41]"

5. 'If, O Bhikkhus, after those Bhikkhus have agreed upon pavāranāsamgaha, a Bhikkhu should say: "I wish, friends, to go on my travels through the country; I have a business in the country," let them reply to him: "Good, friend, hold Pavāranā; and go." If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, when holding Pavāranā inhibits the Pavāranā of another Bhikkhu, let (that other Bhikkhu) say to him: "You are not master of my Pavāranā, friend; I will not hold Pavāranā now."

'If, O Bhikkhus, when that Bhikkhu holds Pavāranā, another Bhikkhu inhibits his Pavāranā, let the Samgha question and examine them both and treat them according to the law.

6. 'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, has finished that business in the country and comes back to that district before the clay of komudî kātumāsinî, and if a Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, when the Bhikkhus hold Pavāranā, inhibits the Pavāranā of that Bhikkhu (who has been absent), let him say (to the p. 355 inhibiting Bhikkhu): "You are not master of my Pavāranā, friend; I have held my Pavāranā."

'If, O Bhikkhus, when the Bhikkhus hold Pavāranā, this Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavāranā of another Bhikkhu, let the Samgha question and examine them both and treat them according to the law, and then hold Pavāranā.'

 


 

End of the Pavāranā-Khandhaka.

 


[1] See the note on I, 6, 11.

[2] We are not quite sure of the meaning of the compounds hattha-vikāreha and hattha-vitanghakena. Buddhaghosa says merely hatthavilanghakenā 'ti hatthukkhepakena.

[3] For this whole passage, compare Kullavagga VIII, 5, 3. The single actions which these Bhikkhus do, are quite correct, except that they keep silence during the whole time of Vassa, and especially at the end of it, for which time Buddha, on this occasion, prescribes the Pavāranā ceremony.

[4] Literally, invite each other; i.e. every Bhikkhu present invites his companions to tell him if they believe him guilty of an offence, having seen that offence, or having heard of it, or suspecting it.

[5] I.e. I invite the Samgha to charge me with any offence they think me guilty of, which they have seen, or heard of, or which they suspect.

[6] As in the preceding sentence, except that the younger Bhikkhus do not address the Samgha,' 'Friends,' but, 'Reverend Sirs.'

[7] Comp. II, 14, 1, and the note on II, 34, 1.

[8] This passage is exactly identical with II, 14. 2. 3, replacing 'Uposatha service' by 'Pavāranā service.'

[9] This passage is a repetition of II, 22, 2-4, the words, 'Hold Uposatha,' 'Declare the Pārisuddhi,' &c., being replaced respectively by 'Hold Pavāranā,' 'Declare the Pavāranā,' &c.

[10] See II, 23.

[11] Comp. the finishing clause of II, 23.

[12] This is a repetition of II, 24, but instead of 'Uposatha' and 'Pārisuddhi' read 'Pavāranā.'

[13] As a general rule five Bhikkhus were sufficient to form the quorum; but for the performance of several among the official acts of the Order the presence of more than five members was required; see IX, 4, 1 seq.

[14]See IX, 4, 1.

[15]See chap. 3, Ī 3.

[16] Compare II, chap. 22, and chap. 26, Ī 10.

[17]See chap. 16, § 1.

[18] The following paragraphs and chapters exactly follow the course indicated by II, 28-35. The alterations to be made are obvious and sufficiently indicated by ĪĪ 1-3; instead of, 'Let them proclaim their Pārisuddhi ' (II, 28, 4, &c.), read here, 'Let them pronounce their Pavāranā.'

[19] See II, 36, 1-3.

[20] Comp. II, 36, 4, with the note.

[21] See, for instance, the cases in chap. 17. Buddhaghosa's explanation is different; he says: 'Concord among the Samgha js to be understood of such cases as that of Kosambî,' It is said in the account of the schism of Kosambî that, if concord has been re-established, the reconciled parties hold Uposatha together (X, 5, 14; comp. II, 36, 4); Buddhaghosa apparently extends this to holding Pavāranā also.

[22] This means apparently that the Bhikkhus were not obliged to pronounce the formula of Pavāranā (chap. 1, 14) thrice, but twice or once respectively.

[23] Comp. II, 16, 1.

[24] Correct in the Pāli text pariyositāya into apariyositāya.

[25] The paragraph is repeated with the phrases, 'With the twofold formula,' 'with the onefold formula,' and 'by common declaration of all the Bhikkhus who have kept Vassa together,' respectively, instead of 'with the threefold formula.'

[26] As in Ī 6. But instead of 'Not of a pure conduct in his deeds, nor in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood,' read respectively, 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds, but not in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood' (Ī 7); 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his words, but not with regard to his means of livelihood' (Ī 8); 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his words and with regard to his means of livelihood' (Ī 9).

[27] The meaning of antaggāhikā ditthi (Sanskrit āntargrahikā drishti? āntagrahikā drishti?) is unknown to us; Buddhaghosa gives no explanation. Perhaps it may mean doctrine partly false and partly correct (eclectic).

[28]

[29] See the 5th Samghādisesa rule.

[30] See the 76th Pākittiya rule.

[31] According to Buddhaghosa, the Bhikkhu who brings such an unfounded charge against a fellow Bhikkhu, is guilty of a dukkata offence.

[32] 'Because it had not been possible to decide the matter at the Pavāranā ' (Buddhaghosa).

[33] See the 63rd Pākittiya rule.

[34] In this way, when the inimical Bhikkhus are arriving about the time of Pavāranā, the resident Bhikkhus count the day which is the thirteenth or fourteenth to the other Bhikkhus, as the fifteenth, and thus they are enabled to finish their Pavāranā before they can be prevented.

[35] See I, 6, 11.

[36] As in Ī 4, down to the end of the paragraph; instead of, 'On the next new-moon day,' it is to be read here, 'On the next full-moon day.'

[37] See the note on III, 14, 11.

[38] See the 54th Pākittiya rule.

[39] Probably we should read in the Pāli text, 'ārogo ārogam ākankhamāno kodessasîti.' Then the translation would be: 'When you have recovered and he has recovered, &c.'

[40] Literally this word means, we believe, 'Keeping back one's own Pavāranā,' Buddhaghosa says: 'When the decree of pavāranāsamgaha has been issued, the Bhikkhus (who have issued it) ought to live as in the rainy season. Incoming Bhikkhus are not allowed to take possession of their places of rest. On the other side, they ought not to interrupt their Vassa residence.'

[41] Here follows the usual formula of a ñattidutiya kamma as in Book ll, chap. 6. Comp. the note on Book I, chap. 28, Ī 3.


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