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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XVII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

 


 

Fifth Khandhaka

Rules For Foot-Clothing, Seats, Vehicles, Etc.

 


 

1.

 

1.1 At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at Râgagaha at the Vulture's Peak.

Now at that time Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, held rule and sovranty over eighty thousand townships[1]. And at that time there was at Kampâ a Setthi's son named Sona Kolivisa[2], delicately nurtured, on the soles of whose feet hair had grown.

Now when Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, was holding an assembly of the eighty thousand overseers over those townships, he sent a message to Sona Kolivisa on some matter of business, saying, 'Let Sona come hither. I desire Sona's presence!'

1.2 Then spake the parents of Sona Kolivisa to him thus: 'The king, dear Sona, wishes to see thy feet. But stretch not out thy feet, dear Sona, towards the [2] king. Take thy seat cross-legged before the king, that the king may see thy feet as thou sittest there.' And they carried Sona Kolivisa in a palankeen (to Râgagaha).

And Sona Kolivisa went to the place where Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, was. And when he had come there, and had bowed down before Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, he took his seat cross-legged before the king. And Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, saw that hair had grown on the soles of the feet of Sona Kolivisa.

1.3 Now after Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, had instructed the eighty thousand overseers over those townships in the things of this world he exhorted them, saying, 'Ye have now received from me instruction in the things of this world. Go now, and wait upon the Blessed One. The Blessed One himself shall instruct you in the things of eternity.'

Then the eighty thousand overseers over those townships went on to the Vulture's Peak.

1.4 Now at that time the venerable Sâgata was the attendant on the Blessed One. And the eighty thousand overseers over those townships went to the place where the venerable Sâgata was. And when they were come there they spake thus to the venerable Sâgata:

The eighty thousand overseers over the townships are come here, Sir, to visit the Blessed One. It were well, Sir, that we should be granted an audience of the Blessed One.'

Then do you, Sirs, stay here yet a moment, while I let the Blessed One know.'

1.5 [3] Then the venerable Sâgata disappeared down the steps[3] from before the very eyes of the eighty thousand overseers over those townships, and appeared before the Blessed One, and spake to the Blessed One, and said:

'Lord, the eighty thousand overseers over the townships are come here to visit the Blessed One. Let the Blessed One do as seemeth to him fit.'

Do thou then, Sâgata, make a seat ready in the shade of the house[4].'

1.6 'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Sâgata, in assent, to the Blessed One. And taking a chair, he disappeared from before the Blessed One, and reappeared up the steps before the very eyes of those eighty thousand overseers over those townships, and made ready a seat in the shade of the house.

And the Blessed One came out of the house and sat down on the seat made ready in the shade thereof.

1.7 Then those eighty thousand overseers over the townships went up to the place where the Blessed One was. And when they had come there they bowed down before the Blessed One and took their seats on one side. But those eighty thousand overseers over the townships paid more respect in their hearts to the venerable Sâgata than to the Blessed One[5].

And the Blessed One perceived by his mind the thoughts of the minds of those eighty thousand [4]. overseers over the townships; and he addressed the venerable Sâgata, and said: 'Show them now, Sâgata, a still greater wonder, beyond the power of men.'

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Sâgata, in assent, to the Blessed One. And rising up into the air he walked, and stood, and sat, and lay down, and gave forth smoke and fire, and disappeared in the sky.

1.8 Then the venerable Sâgata, when he had shown in the open sky wonders of various kinds beyond the power of men, fell down with his head at the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One:

My teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One; and I am the disciple. My teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One; and I am the disciple.'

Then those eighty thousand overseers over the townships thinking, 'Wonderful is it, most marvellous! If even the pupil be so mighty and so powerful, how much more then the master!' paid more respect in their hearts to the Blessed One than to the venerable Sâgata.

1.9 Then the Blessed One perceived by his mind the thoughts of the minds of those eighty thousand overseers over the townships, and held to them a discourse in due order; that is to say, he spake to them of giving, of righteousness, of heaven, of the danger, the worthlessness, the depravity of lusts, and of the advantages of renunciation. And when the Blessed One perceived that they had become pliant, softened, unprejudiced, upraised and believing in heart, then he proclaimed that which is the special doctrine of the Buddhas; (that is to say), Suffering, its Origin, its Cessation, and the Path.

[5] Just as a clean cloth, from which all stain has been washed away, would readily take the dye, just even so did those eighty thousand overseers over the townships obtain, even while sitting there, the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth; (that is to say, the knowledge that) whatsoever has a beginning, in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution.

1.10 And having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth, having understood the Truth, having penetrated the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, they said to the Blessed One: 'Glorious, Lord! glorious, Lord! Just as if one should set up, Lord, what had been overturned, or should reveal what had been hidden, or should point out the way to one who had lost his way, or should bring a lamp into the darkness, in order that those who had eyes might see visible things, thus has the Blessed One preached the doctrine in many ways. We take our refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkhus; may the Blessed One receive us from this day forth while our life lasts as his disciples who have taken their refuge in Him.'

1.11 And Sona Kolivisa thought: As I understand the Dhamma proclaimed by the Blessed One, it is not easy to a person living as a layman to lead a wholly perfect and pure and altogether consummate[6] life of holiness. What if I were to cut off my hair and beard, and to put on yellow robes, and give up the world, and go forth into the houseless state.'

[6] And those eighty thousand overseers over the townships, having expressed their joy and delight at the words of the Blessed One, rose from their seats, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing round him with their right sides towards him, went away.

1.12 And Sona Kolivisa, soon after those eighty thousand overseers over the townships had departed, went to the place where the Blessed One was. And when he had come there he bowed down before the Blessed One and took his seat on one side. Sitting on one side Sona Kolivisa said to the Blessed One: 'As I understand the Dhamma proclaimed by the Blessed One (&c., as in Ī11, down to:) and go forth into the houseless state. I desire, Lord, to cut off my hair and beard, and to put on yellow robes, and to give up the world, and to go forth into the houseless state. May the Blessed One, Lord, ordain me.'

Thus Sona Kolivisa received from the Blessed One the pabbaggâ and upasampadâ ordinations. And the venerable Sona, soon after his upasampadâ, dwelt in the Sîtavana grove.

1.13 As he, with eager determination, was walking up and down there, his feet were injured, and the place in which he walked became covered with blood, like a slaughter-house for oxen. Then in the mind of the venerable Sona, who had gone apart and was plunged in meditation, there sprung up this thought:

'Though I have become one of those disciples of the Blessed One who live in the exercise of strenuous determination, yet my heart has not been set free from the Âsavas through absence of craving. And there is much wealth laid up for me at home. It is possible both to enjoy that wealth, and to do good [7] deeds. Let me now, then, returning to the lower state[7], enjoy my wealth and do good deeds.'

1.14 Now the Blessed One perceived in his mind the thought of the heart of the venerable Sona; and as quickly as a strong man can stretch forth his arm, or can draw it back again when it has been stretched forth, he disappeared from the hill of the Vulture's Peak, and appeared in the Sîtavana grove. And the Blessed One, as he was passing through the sleeping-places (of the Bhikkhus), came up, with a multitude of Bhikkhus, to the place where the venerable Sona had walked up and down.

When the Blessed One saw that the place where the venerable Sona had walked up and down was covered with blood, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Whose walking-place[8] is this, O Bhikkhus, which is covered with blood, like a slaughter-house for oxen?'

'As the venerable Sona, Lord, was walking up and down here with eager determination, his feet were injured; and so this place has become covered with blood, like a slaughter-house for oxen.'

1.15 Then the Blessed One went on to the house in which the venerable Sona was living, and sat down there on a seat made ready for him. And the venerable Sona bowed down before the Blessed [8] One, and took his seat on one side. And when he was thus seated, the Blessed One addressed the venerable Soma, and said: 'Is it not true, Sona, that in your mind, when you had gone apart and were plunged in meditation, there sprung up this thought: "Though I have become (&c., as in Ī13, down to the end)?"'

'Even so, Lord!'

'Now what think you, Sona,--you were skilled, were you not, when you formerly lived in the world, in the music of the lute?'

'That was so, Lord!'

'Now what think you, Sona,--when the strings of your lute[9] were too much stretched, had your lute then any sound, was it in a fit state to be played upon?'

'Not so, Lord!'

1.16 'Now what think you, Sona,--when the strings of your lute were too loose, had your lute then any sound[10], was it in a fit state to be played upon?' 'Not so, Lord!'

Now what think you, Sona,--when the strings of your lute were neither too much stretched nor too loose, but fixed in even proportion, had your lute sound then, was it then in a fit state to be played upon?'

Yes, Lord!'

'And just so, Sona, does too eager a determination conduce to self-righteousness, and too weak a determination [9] to sloth.

1.17 Do thou, therefore, O Sona, be steadfast in evenness of determination, press through to harmony of your mental powers. Let that be the object of your thought[11]!'

Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Sona, and hearkened to the word of the Blessed One.

And when the Blessed One had exhorted the venerable Sona with this exhortation, then, as quickly as a strong man can stretch forth his arm, or can draw it back again when it has been stretched forth, he vanished from the presence of the venerable Sona in the Sîtavana grove, and reappeared on the hill of the Vulture's Peak.

1.18 Thenceforward the venerable Sona was stead-fast in evenness of determination, he pressed through to harmony of his mental powers, that did he take as the object of his thought. And the venerable Sona remaining alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and resolved, attained ere long to that supreme goal of the higher life for the sake of which noble youths go out from all and every household gain and comfort to become houseless wanderers--yea, that supreme goal did he, by himself, and while yet in this visible world, bring himself to the knowledge of, and continue to realise, and to see face to face! And he became conscious that rebirth was at an end, that the higher life had been fulfilled, that all that should be done had been accomplished, and that after this present life there would be no beyond!

[10] So the venerable Sona became yet another among the Arahats.

1.19 Now when the venerable Sona had attained to Arahatship there occurred to him the thought: 'Let me now make known my Insight in the presence of the Blessed One[12]!'

Then the venerable Sona went to the place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down before the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side. And when he was thus seated, the venerable Sona said to the Blessed One:

1.20 'Whatsoever Bhikkhu, Lord, is an Arahat whose Âsavas are rooted out, who has lived the life, who has accomplished the task, who has laid aside every burden, who has gained the end he had in view, who has quite broken the fetter of a craving for (future) existence, who is completely set free by insight, six things doth he reach up unto[13]--unto renunciation, unto the love of solitude, unto kindness of heart, unto the destruction of craving, unto the destruction of thirst, unto the getting free from delusions.

1.21 'Now it may be, Lord, that it might occur, regarding this matter, to some brother, thus: "For the sake of faith merely[14] hath this brother attained [11] unto renunciation." But not thus, Lord, should this matter be regarded. For the Bhikkhu in whom the Âsavas are rooted out, who has lived the life, who has accomplished the task, he looks not upon himself as one who has anything yet to do, or to gather up, of (the fruit of his past) labour; but he attaineth to renunciation by the destruction of lust, by the very condition of the absence of lust; he attaineth to renunciation by the destruction of ill-will, by the very condition of the absence of ill-will; he attaineth to renunciation by the destruction of delusions, by the very condition of the absence of delusions.

1.22 'Now it may, be, Lord, that it might occur, regarding this matter, to some brother, thus: "Seeking after gain, hospitality, and fame bath this brother attained to the love of solitude." But not thus (&c., as in Ī21, down to the end, substituting "love of solitude" for "renunciation").

1.23 'Now it may be, Lord, that it might occur, regarding this matter, to some brother, thus: "Returning, verily, to the dependence upon works, as if that were the true essence (of spiritual welfare), hath this brother attained to kindness of heart." But not thus (&c., as in Ī21, down to the end, substituting "kindness of heart" for "renunciation").

1.24 'He attaineth to the destruction of craving by the destruction of lust (&c., as in Ī21, down to the end, substituting "absence of craving" for "renunciation"). He attaineth to the absence of thirst (&c., as in Ī21). He attaineth to the absence of delusions (&c., as in Ī21, down to the end).

1.25 'When a Bhikkhu, Lord, has thus become fully emancipated in heart, even though many objects [12] visible to the sight should enter the path of his eye[15], yet they take not possession of his mind: undefiled is his mind, firm, immovable; and he sees into the (manner which that impression) passes away[16]--even though many objects audible to the ear, smellable to the nostrils, tastable to the tongue, feelable by the body, sensible to the intellect should enter the path of the ear, the nose, the tongue, the skin, the intellect, yet they take not possession of his mind: undefiled is his mind, firm, immovable, and he sees into the (manner in which that impression) passes away.

1.26 'Just, Lord, as if there be a mountain of rock, undivided, solid, one mass, and much wind and rain should fall upon it from the direction of the East, or of the West, or of the North, or of the South, yet they would not make it shake, or tremble, or quake; just so, Lord, when a Bhikkhu has thus become fully emancipated in heart (&c., as in Ī25, down to the end).

1.27 'He who has attained to renunciation, to solitude of heart, who has attained to kindness, and to the rooting out of craving,

'He who has attained to the rooting out of thirst, to the absence of delusions from the mind, he sees the source of sensations, his mind is quite set free.

'To such a Bhikkhu, so emancipated, and with calmness in his heart, there is no gathering up of what is done, nothing to be done still remains.

'As a rock, all of one mass, is not shaken by [13] the breezes[17], just so never can shapes and tastes, and sounds, and smells, and touch--the whole of them

Things wished for, things unwished--make tremble such a one. Firm is his mind, set free. He sees into the end thereof.'

1.28 And the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Thus, brethren, do young men of worth make their insight known. The truth is spoken, and the self is not obtruded. But herein some foolish ones, methinks, make known their insight to be a thing ridiculous, and they, thereafter, fall into defeat!'

1.29 Then the Blessed One said to the venerable Sona, 'You, Sona, have been delicately nurtured. I enjoin upon you, Sona, the use of shoes with one lining[18].'

I have gone out from the world, Lord, into the houseless state, abandoning eighty cart-loads of gold[19], and a retinue of seven elephants[20]. It will be said against me for this matter: "Sona Kolivisa went out from the world into the houseless state, abandoning eighty cart-loads of gold, and a retinue of seven elephants; but the very same man now accustoms himself to the use of shoes with a lining [14] to them." [30.] If the Blessed One will enjoin their use upon the Order of Bhikkhus, I will also use them. If the Blessed One will not enjoin their use upon the Order of Bhikkhus, neither will I use them.'

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion, having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, the use of shoes with one lining to them. Doubly lined shoes, Bhikkhus, are not to be worn, nor trebly lined ones, nor shoes with many linings[21]. Whosoever shall wear such, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

2.

 

2.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus were in the habit of wearing slippers all of a blue, yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or yellowish colour[22]. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, '(These act) like those who still enjoy the pleasures of the world[23].' The brethren told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Do not wear, O Bhikkhus, shoes that are all of [15] a blue, yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or yellowish colour. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

2.2 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus were in the habit of wearing shoes with edges of a blue, yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or yellowish colour.

People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'These act like those who still enjoy the pleasures of the world.' The brethren told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Do not wear, O Bhikkhus, shoes that have edges of a blue, yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or yellowish colour. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

2.3 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus were in the habit of wearing shoes with heel-coverings (?[24]); mocassins[25]; laced boots[26]; boots lined with cotton[27]; boots of various hues, like the wings of partridges[28]; boots pointed with rams' horns, and with goats' horns[29]; ornamented with scorpions' [16] tails[30]; sewn round with peacocks' feathers[31]; or shoes of all kinds of colours[32].

People were annoyed (&c., as in Ī2, down to:) told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Do not wear, O Bhikkhus, shoes with heel-coverings (&c., as in Ī3, down to:) shoes of all kinds of colours. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

2.4 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus were in the habit of wearing shoes adorned with lion-skins[33], tiger-skins, panther-skins, antelope-skins, otter-skins[34], cat-skins, squirrel-skins, and owl-skins[35].

People were annoyed (&c., as in Ī3, down to the end, substituting 'shoes adorned with lion-skins, &c.,' for 'shoes with heel-coverings, &c.')

 


 

3.

 

3.1 Now the Blessed One, having dressed early in the morning, went into Râgagaha, duly bowled and robed, for alms, with a certain Bhikkhu as his companion. And that Bhikkhu followed limping step by step behind the Blessed One.

[17] Now a certain lay-disciple who had put on a pair of shoes with many linings, saw the Blessed One approaching from afar. And when he saw him, he took off that pair of shoes and went up to the Blessed One, and saluted him; and went on to that Bhikkhu, and saluted him, and said:

3.2 'Why does your reverence limp?'

My feet, friend, are blistered.'

'But here, Sir, are shoes.'

'Enough, good friend! shoes with linings have been forbidden by the Blessed One.'

'Take the shoes, O Bhikkhu[36]!'

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of shoes with linings, when they have been cast off by others[37]. But new shoes with linings are not to be worn. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

4.

 

4.1 Now at that time the Blessed One walked up and down in the open air[38] unshod. Noticing that, 'The Master walks unshod,' the Elders (the Thera Bhikkhus) also went unshod when they were walking up and down[38]. But though the Master and the Thera Bhikkhus went unshod, the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus walked up and down with coverings on their feet.

[18] The temperate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can these Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus walk shod, when the Master and the Thera Bhikkhus walk unshod?'

4.2 Then those Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, what they say, O Bhikkhus, that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus walk shod, though the Master and the Elders walk unshod?'

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying,

'How, O Bhikkhus, can these foolish persons walk shod, though (&c., as in §Ī1, 2). For even the lay-men, O Bhikkhus, who are clad in white, for the sake of some handicraft that may procure them a living, will be respectful, affectionate, hospitable to their teachers.

4.3 Do you, therefore, O Bhikkhus, so let (your light) shine forth, that you having left the world (to enter into) so well taught a doctrine and discipline may be respectful, affectionate, hospitable to your teachers (âkariyas), or those who rank as teachers[39], and to your superiors (upagghâyas), or those who rank as superiors[40]. This will not conduce, O Bhikkhus, to the conversion of the unconverted, and to the augmentation of the number of the converted: [19] but it will result, O Bhikkhus, in the unconverted being repulsed (from the faith), and in many of the converted becoming estranged.' Having thus rebuked them, and having delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

None of you, O Bhikkhus, is to walk shod, when your teachers or those who rank as teachers, or your superiors, or those who rank as superiors, are walking unshod. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.

'And no one of you, O Bhikkhus, is to wear shoes in the open Ârâma. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

5.

 

5.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had an eruption[41] on his feet. They used to carry that Bhikkhu out when he wanted to ease himself. The Blessed One as he was passing through the sleeping places (of the Bhikkhus) saw them (doing so), and going up to them, he said:

5.2 'What is the disease, O Bhikkhus, from which this Bhikkhu suffers?'

This venerable brother has an eruption on his feet, Lord, and we are carrying him out to ease himself.'

Then, on that occasion, the Blessed One, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I enjoin, O Bhikkhus, the use of foot coverings [20] by one whose feet hurt him, or are blistered, or who has an eruption on his feet.'

 


 

6.

 

6.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to get up on to couches or chairs with unwashen feet; and the robes and seats became soiled.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I enjoin, O Bhikkhus, the use of foot coverings when one of you wishes to get up on to couches or chairs.'

6.2 Now at that time when the Bhikkhus were going to the Uposatha Hall or to the assembly in the dark, they trod upon stakes or thorns, and their feet were hurt.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I enjoin, O Bhikkhus, the use of foot coverings in the open Ârâma, and of a torch, or lamp, and a walking stick[42].'

6.3 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to rise up in the night towards dawn; and, putting on wooden shoes, walked up and down in the open air talking, in tones high, loud, and harsh, of all kinds of worldly things--such as tales of kings, of robbers, of ministers of state; tales of armies, of terror, of war; conversation respecting meats, drinks, clothes, couches, garlands, perfumes, relationships, equipages, villages, towns, cities, provinces, women, warriors, and streets; tales about buried treasures, ghost stories; various tales; discussions [21] on the world; disasters by sea; things which are, and things which are not[43]. And so doing they both trod upon and slew all kinds of insects, and disturbed the Bhikkhus in their meditations.

6.4 The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus [do so]?'

And those Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true' (&c., comp. chap. 4. 2)?

'It is true, Lord.'

He rebuked them, and having delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: Wooden shoes, O Bhikkhus, are not to be worn. Whosoever wears them, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

7.

 

7.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, he set out on his journey towards Benares. And wandering from place to place, he came to Benares, and there at Benares the Blessed One stayed in the deer-park Isipatana.

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, since the Blessed One had forbidden wooden shoes, used to break off young palmyra palms, and wear shoes made of the talipat leaves[44]. The young palmyra plants withered. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can [22] the Sakyaputtiya Samanas break off young palmyra palms, and wear shoes made of the talipat leaves? The young palmyra plants wither. (By so doing), the Sakyaputtiya Samanas destroy vegetable life.'

7.2 The Bhikkhus heard those people murmuring in annoyance and indignation; and they told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true' (&c., as in chap. 4. 2)?

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 'How can those foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, [act thus]? For people believe, O Bhikkhus, that life dwells in a tree. Such conduct will not conduce (&c., as in chap. 4. 2, down to:) becoming estranged.

Foot coverings made of talipat leaves, O Bhikkhus, are not to be worn. Whosoever wears them, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

7.3 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, since the Blessed One had forbidden talipat shoes, used to break off young bambus, and wear shoes made of the bambu leaves (&c., as in last section down to the end, substituting bambu for palmyra).

 


 

8.

 

8.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Benares as long as he thought fit, he set out on his journey towards Bhaddiya. And wandering from place to place he came to Bhaddiya: and there, at Bhaddiya, he stayed in the Gâtiyâ Grove.

Now at that time the Bhikkhus at Bhaddiya were accustomed to the use of various kinds of foot coverings for the sake of ornament. They made, [23] or had made for themselves foot coverings of tina-grass, of muñga-grass, of babbaga-grass, of the leaves of the date-palm[45], of kamala-grass[46], and of wool[47]. And they neglected[48] instruction, enquiry, morality, self-concentration, and wisdom[49].

8.2 The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, thinking, 'How can they [do so]?' And those Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true' (&c., as in chap. 4. 2)?

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 'How can they [do so]?' This will not conduce (&c., as in chap. 4. 2, down to:) becoming estranged.

8.3 Having thus rebuked them, and having delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Shoes, O Bhikkhus, made of tina-grass are not to be worn, or made of muñga-grass, or of babbaga-grass, or of leaves of the date-palm, or of kamala-grass, or of wool, nor [ornamented with] gold, or silver, or pearls, or beryls, or crystal, or copper, or glass, or tin, or lead, or bronze. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.

[24] 'And clogs, O Bhikkhus, that are taken away[50], are not to be worn. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of three kinds of clogs, that are fixed to the ground, and are not taken away[51], privy-clogs, urinal-clogs, and rinsing-clogs[52].'

 


 

9.

 

9.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Bhaddiya as long as he thought fit, he set out on a journey towards Sâvatthi. And walking from place to place he arrived at Sâvatthi. There the Blessed One dwelt at Sâvatthi at the Getavana, Anâtha-pindika's Grove.

9.2 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to catch hold of the heifers crossing on the Akiravatî River by their horns, or ears, or dewlaps, or tails[53], or spring up upon their backs, or touch with lustful [25] thoughts their privy parts: and they used to duck the young calves and so kill them. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas [act thus]? it is like men still enjoying the pleasures of the world.'

And Bhikkhus heard them murmuring in annoyance and indignation: and those Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true' (&c., see chap. 4. 2)?

'It is true, Lord.'

He rebuked them, and having delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'Heifers are not to be caught hold of, O Bhikkhus, by their horns, or their ears, or their dewlaps, or their tails. You are not to get up on their backs. Whosoever gets up on their backs, is guilty of a dukkata offence. And their privy parts, O Bhikkhus, are not to be touched with lustful thoughts. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a thullakkaya offence. And calves ought not to be killed. Whosoever kills them, let him be dealt with according to law[54].'

9.3 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to have themselves carried in vehicles to which cows were yoked with a bull between them, or bulls were yoked with a cow between them[55]. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'That is as is done at the Feast of the Gaṅgâ and the Mahî[56].'

[26]They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Do not have yourselves carried in vehicles, O Bhikkhus. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

10.[57]

 

10.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, as he was passing through the Kosala country to Sâvatthi, to visit the Blessed One, was taken ill on the way. And that Bhikkhu went aside out of the road, and sat down at the foot of a certain tree.

When people saw him sitting there, they said: 'Whither is your reverence going?'

'I am going, friends, to Sâvatthi to visit the Blessed One.'

10.2 'Come along, Sir; let us go together.'

'I cannot, friends. I am sick.'

'Well then, Sir, get up into the cart.'

'Enough, friends! The Blessed One has forbidden the use of vehicles.' And fearing to offend, he refused to get up into the cart.

And when that Bhikkhu had come to Sâvatthi, he told this thing to the Bhikkhus, and they told it to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if you are sick, to use a cart.'

Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'Should the carts be yoked with cows or bulls?'

[27] They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a cart drawn by bullocks, or by hand[58].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was exceedingly distressed by the jolting of a cart.

I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a litter or a sedan-chair.'

10.3 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus were in the habit of using lofty and large things to recline upon, that is to say: large cushions[59]; divans; coverlets with long fleece; counterpanes of many colours, woollen coverlets[60], white or marked with thick flowers; mattresses; cotton coverlets, dyed with figures of animals; rugs with long hair on one or both sides; carpets inwrought with gold, or with silk; large woollen carpets such as the nautch girls dance upon[61]; rich elephant housings, horse-rugs, or carriage rugs; panther or antelope skins; couches covered with canopies, or with crimson cushions at both ends[62].

[28] When people, who went to visit the Vihâras, saw these things, they were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, thinking, 'This is as if they were still enjoying the pleasures of the world.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

10.4 'Lofty and large things to recline upon, such as large cushions (&c., as in Ī3, down to:) cushions crimson at both ends, are not, O Bhikkhus, to be

used. Whosoever uses them, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

10.5 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, since the use of lofty and large things to recline upon had been forbidden by the Blessed One, used to use fine skins, such as lion, tiger, and panther skins. These skins were cut to fit the couches, and to fit the chairs; and were spread inside or outside the couches or the chairs.

When people, who went to visit the Vihâras, saw these things, they were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, thinking, 'This is as if they were still enjoying the pleasures of the world.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

10.6 'Fine skins, such as lion, tiger, and panther skins, are not, O Bhikkhus, to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

10.7 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, since fine skins had been forbidden by the Blessed

[29] One, began to use the skins of oxen. These skins were cut to fit the couches, or the chairs; and were spread inside or outside the couches, or the chairs.

Now a certain Bhikkhu of bad character was a friend of the family of a certain lay-disciple of a bad character. And that bad Bhikkhu, early one morning, dressed himself, and with his robe on and his bowl in his hand, went to the dwelling-place of that bad disciple, and sat down on a seat made ready for him. And the bad disciple went up to the place where the bad Bhikkhu was, and saluted him, and took his seat beside him.

10.8 Now at that time that bad disciple had a young bull beautiful to behold, quiet, and varied in colour like a panther's cub. And the bad Bhikkhu gazed with longing at the bull. And that bad disciple said to that bad Bhikkhu: 'Why does your reverence gaze so with longing at that bull?'

'My friend,' said he, 'I want that bull's skin.'

Then that bad disciple slew that bull, and skinned it, and gave it to that bad Bhikkhu. And that bad Bhikkhu, hiding that skin under his robe, went away.

10.9 Now the cow, greedy for her calf, followed that bad Bhikkhu, keeping behind him. The Bhikkhus said:

'How is it, friend, that this cow keeps following so behind you?'

'I don't know, friends, why it should keep following me.'

But that bad Bhikkhu's robe was soiled with blood; and the Bhikkhus asked him,

'How has this robe of yours got marked with blood?'

Then he told them the whole matter.

[30] 'How is that, Sir? You have been causing another to deprive a living thing of life!' 'That is so, friends.'

The modest among the Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can this Bhikkhu induce a man to deprive a living thing of life? Has not the taking of life been censured, and the abstinence therefrom been praised in many a discourse by the Blessed One?'

And the Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One held because of this, and on that occasion, an assembly of the community of Bhikkhus, and asked that wicked Bhikkhu,

'Is it true, as they say, that you, O Bhikkhu, have been inducing another to deprive a living thing of life?'

'It is true, Lord.'

'But how can you be so foolish as to do so? Have I not censured in many a discourse the taking of life, O foolish one, and praised the abstinence therefrom? Such conduct, thou foolish one, will not conduce to the conversion of the unconverted!'

And having thus rebuked him, and delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

Bhikkhus! No one shall cause a living thing to be deprived of life. Whosoever does so shall be dealt with according to the Laws[63]. Ox-skins are not to be worn, O Bhikkhus. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence. And neither, O Bhikkhus, is any skin to be made use of at all. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

11.

 

11.1 Now at that time men had couches and chairs covered or bound with skins. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not sit down upon them.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down on seats arranged by laymen, but not to lie down upon them.'

Now at that time the Vihâras were bound together by thongs made of skin[64]. The Bhikkhus fearing to offend, would not sit down upon them.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down upon (skins when they are) only used for binding things together.'

 


 

12.

 

12.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to go into the villages with their shoes on. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, That is how those behave who are still enjoying the pleasures of the world!'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'You are not to go into the villages, O Bhikkhus, with your shoes on. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and unable to go into the village without shoes on. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow a sick Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, to go into the village with his shoes on.'

 


[32]

13.[65].

 

13.1 Now at that time the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana was staying in Avanti on the hill called the Precipice, near Kuraraghara[66]. And at that time the lay-disciple named Sona Kutikanna[67] was the personal attendant upon the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana.

And the disciple Sona Kutikanna went to the place where the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana was, and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. And when he was thus seated, he said to the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana:

'As I understand the doctrine laid down by the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana, it is difficult for the man who dwells at home to live the higher life in all its fulness, in all its purity, in all its bright perfection. I wish therefore to cut off my hair and beard, to clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes, and to go forth from the household life into the houseless state[68]. May the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana receive me into the Order of those who have renounced the world!'

13.2 'Hard is it, Sona, your life long to live the [33] higher life using only one bed, and with but one meal a day. Do you, therefore, Sona, remain in the state of a householder, and practise only for a time the higher life, the precepts of the Buddhas, using only one bed, and with but one meal a day.'

Then the desire for renunciation[69] which had arisen in the disciple Sona Kutikanna abated in him.

A second time the disciple Sona Kutikanna [made the same request, and received the same reply with the same result].

And a third time Sona Kutikanna made the same request. Then the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana conferred the pabbaggâ (ordination) on the disciple Sona Kutikanna.

Now at that time in the Southern country and in Avanti there were but few Bhikkhus. And it was only after the lapse of three years that the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana was able, with difficulty, and with trouble, to get together a meeting of the Order in which ten Bhikkhus were present[70]. And then he admitted the venerable Sona into the higher rank of the Order.

13.3 Now when the venerable Sona had passed the rainy season there sprang up in his mind, when he was meditating alone, this thought:

'I have heard indeed that the Blessed One is such and such a one. But I have not as yet seen him face to face. I should like to go and visit the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha, if my superior would allow me.'

And in the evening the venerable Sona, leaving his solitude, went to the place where the venerable [34] Mahâ Kakkâyana was, and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. And when he was thus seated, he said to the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana:

13.4 'When I was meditating alone, venerable Sir, the following thought occurred to my mind, "I have heard (&c., as above)." Now I would go and visit the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha, if you, as my superior, allow it.'

'That is good, that is good, Sona! Go then, Sona, to visit the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha.

13.5 You shall see, Sona, how the Blessed One arouses faith, is worthy of faith, calm in his senses, calm in his mind, gifted with the highest self-control and quietude, an elephant among men, subdued, guarded, with his senses in subjection to himself. Do you therefore, Soma, bow down in my name at the feet of the Blessed One, and say, "Lord! my superior, the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana, bows down in salutation at the feet of the Blessed One!" and add, "In the Southern country and in Avanti there are, Lord, but few Bhikkhus. And it was only after the lapse of three years that with difficulty and with trouble an assembly of the Order was got together, in which ten members were present, and I could be received into the higher rank of the Order. May the Blessed One be pleased, therefore, to allow the higher ordination in the Southern country and in Avanti before a meeting of a lesser number.

13.6 In the Southern country and in Avanti, Lord, the soil is black on the surface[71], rough, and trampled by the feet of cattle[72].

[35] May the Blessed One be pleased, therefore, to allow the use, in the Southern country and in Avanti, of shoes with thick linings. In the Southern country and in Avanti, Lord, men attach great importance to bathing, and are pure by use of water. May the Blessed One be pleased to allow, in the Southern country and in Avanti, the constant use of the bath[73]. In the Southern country and in Avanti, Lord, skins, such as sheep-skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins, are used as coverlets. Just as in the Middle country[74] the eragu, moragu, magghâru, and gantu grasses[75] are used for coverlets, so are sheep-skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins in the Southern country and in Avanti. May the Blessed One be pleased to allow the use of such coverlets there.

13.7 At present, Lord, people are in the habit of giving a set of robes to Bhikkhus, who have left the district, saying, 'We give this set of robes to (a Bhikkhu) of such and such a name.' When they return, the Bhikkhus tell them, 'A set of robes has been given to you by a person of such and such a name.' But they, fearing to offend, do not accept it, saying, 'Let us not be guilty of a Nissaggiya.' May the Blessed One be pleased to make a detailed statement in the matter of robes."

[36] 'Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Sona in assent to the venerable Mahâ Kakkâyana, and, rising from his seat, he departed thence, keeping his right side towards him. And taking up his bed, he went on with his robe on, and his bowl in his hand to Sâvatthi.

13.8 And wandering from place to place he arrived at the place where the Blessed One was, at Sâvatthi in the Getavana, Anâtha-pindika's park. And when he had come there he saluted the Blessed One, and took his seat beside him.

Then the Blessed One said to the venerable Ânanda: 'Make ready a sleeping-place, Ânanda, for this Bhikkhu who has just arrived.' And the venerable Ânanda thought:

'Inasmuch as the Blessed One commands me to make ready a sleeping-place for the Bhikkhu who has just arrived, the Blessed One evidently desires to dwell in the same Vihâra with that Bhikkhu, he desires to dwell in the same Vihâra with the venerable Sona.' And he made ready a sleeping-place for the .venerable Sona at the place where the Blessed One was staying.

13.9 Then the Blessed One, after spending the greater part of the night in the open air, entered the Vihâra. And also the venerable Sona, having spent the greater part of the night in the open air, entered the Vihâra. And the Blessed One rose up, early in the morning, towards dawn, and requested the venerable Sona, saying,

'May the Dhamma so become clear to you that you may speak.'[76]

[37] Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Sona in assent to the Blessed One; and he intoned all the verses in the Book of the Eights (Atthaka-vaggikâni[77]).

And the Blessed One, at the conclusion of the venerable Sona's recitation, expressed his pleasure, saying,

'Excellent, most excellent, O Bhikkhu! Well have the Eights been grasped by thee, well thought over, well learnt by heart: and with a fine voice art thou gifted, distinct, pleasant[78], able to make things understood. How many years is it since thou hast been ordained?'

'One year, my Lord!'

13.10 'But why have you postponed it so long?'

'’Tis long, Lord, since I saw into the danger of the passions, but life in a household is crowded with business and with cares.'

And the Blessed One, when he heard that matter, gave utterance at that time to the expression of emotion:

'When he has seen the danger of the world, when he has understood the Truth, when he has become free from Upadhi,[79] [38] 'The pilgrim finds in sin no pleasure, his delight is in the word, the pure.'

13.11 Then thought the venerable Sona: 'The Blessed One is pleased with me. This then is the time which my superior spoke of.' And rising from his seat, and arranging his robe on one shoulder, he bowed down with his head at the feet of the Blessed One, and said:

'Lord! my superior Mahâ Kakkâyana bows down in salutation at the feet of the Blessed One. In the Southern country and in Avanti there are (&c., as in §Ī4-7, down to the end of the message).'

Then the Blessed One on that occasion and in that connection, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus and said:

'The Southern country and Avanti has but few Bhikkhus. I allow the upasampadâ (ordination) in border countries to be held in a meeting of only four Bhikkhus, beside the chairman, who must be a Vinaya-dhara.'

13.12 'In this passage the following are the border countries referred to[80]. To the East is the town Kagaṅgala, and beyond it Mahâsâlâ. Beyond that is border country; this side of it is the Middle country. To the South-east is the river Salalavatî. Beyond that is border country; this side of it is the Middle country. To the South is the town Setakannika. Beyond that is border country; this side of it is the Middle country. To the West is the Brâhman district of Thûna. Beyond that is [39] border country; this side of it is the Middle country. To the North is the mountain range called Usîradhaga. Beyond that is border country; this side of it is the Middle country. In such border countries, I allow, O Bhikkhus, the upasampadâ (ordination) to be held in a meeting of only four Bhikkhus, beside the chairman, who must be a Vinaya-dhara.

13.13 'In the Southern country and in Avanti, O Bhikkhus, the soil is black on the surface and rough, and trampled by the feet of cattle. I allow the use, in all the border countries, O Bhikkhus, of shoes with thick linings.

'In the Southern country and in Avanti, O Bhikkhus, men attach great importance to bathing, and are pure by use of water. I allow the constant use of the bath, O Bhikkhus, in all the border countries.

'In the Southern country and in Avanti, O Bhikkhus, skins, such as sheep-skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins, are used as coverlets. Just as in the Middle country, Bhikkhus, the eragu, moragu, magghâru, and gantu grasses are used for coverlets, so in the Southern country and in Avanti are used skins, such as sheep-skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of skins, such as sheep-skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins, as coverlets, in all the border countries.

'There also, O Bhikkhus, people are in the habit of giving a set of robes to Bhikkhus who have left the district, saying, "We give this set of robes to (a Bhikkhu) with such and such a name." I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to accept such robes. The set of robes does not become subject to the ten-days' [40] rule, before it reaches the hand (of the person for whom it was intended)[81].'

 


[1] Gâma, which should be understood in the sense of parishes, not of villages.

[2] This Sona is the reputed author of one of the Theragâthâs. It is interesting to notice that Kampâ, the capital of Aṅga, is here included under Magadha. Compare Aṅga-magadhesu in Mahâvagga I, 29, and the beginning sentences of the Sonadanda Sutta (Digha Nikâya), in which it is said that the revenues of the town of Kampâ had been bestowed by king Bimbisâra on the Brâhmana Sonadanda.

[3]tikâya nimuggitvâ ’ti sopânassa hetthâ addhakandapâsânena nimuggitvâ (Comm.).

[4] Vihârapakkhâyâyan ti vihârapakkante khâyâyam.

[5] Samannâharantiti pasâdavasena punappunam manasikaronti (Buddhaghosa).

[6] Saṅkhalikhita. See Boehtlingk-Roth s.v. Likhita.

[7] That is to say, the state of a layman (Hînây’ âvattitvâ).

[8] Kaṅkama, for which there is no real equivalent in English. In speaking of later periods the word 'cloister' is sometimes a correct rendering, for the places in which the recluses walked up and down, thinking, were then in some cases paved and even roofed. The Chinese pilgrim I-tsing has a description of such a stone kaṅkama, which he saw at the great monastery at Nâlanda (Indian Antiquary, X, 192). In this passage it only means a narrow, open, space of ground, levelled and cleared for the purpose.

[9]nâ. On the construction of the ancient Indian lute, see Milinda Pañha (p. 53, ed. Trenckner), where all the various parts are mentioned. Compare also the Guttila Gâtaka (No. 243, ed. Fausböll).

[10] There is a misprint here in the text, savaratî for saravati.

[11] Buddhaghosa says: Tattha ka nimittam ganhâhîti: tasmim samathe sati yena âdâse mukhabimben’ eva nimittena uppaggitabbam, tam samatha-nimittam vipassanâ-nimittam magga-nimittam phala-nimittañ ka ganhâhi nipattetîti (? nipphâdehîti, nibbattehîti) attho.

[12] It is often represented in the Pâli Pi.itakas to have been a customary thing for any one who thought he had attained to Arahatship to deliver a discourse in the presence of Gotama, as a kind of proof, or test, of his emancipation; and to receive the decision of Gotama thereupon. Buddhaghosa says: Aññam vyâkareyyan ti: arahâ ahan ti gânâpeyyam. Compare Gâtaka I, 140; II, 333.

[13] Adhimutto hotîti: pativigghitvâ pakkakkham katvâ thito hoti (B.).

[14] Kevalam saddhâmattakan ti: pativedha-rahitam kevalam pativedha-paññâya asammissam saddhâmattakam (B.). On the lower position here assigned to faith, compare Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 9.

[15] Kakkhussa âpâtham âgakkhanti; that is, should come within reach of his vision.

[16] Vayañ k’ assânupassatîti: tassa kittassa uppâdam pi vayam pi passati B.).

[17] This half sloka recurs in Dhammapada, verse 81.

[18] Ekapalâsikan ti eka-patalam (B.).

[19] Asîti-sakata-vâhe hiraññam (so correct the misprint in the text). Buddhaghosa says: ettha dve sakatabhârâ eko vâho ’ti veditabbo; but compare Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and Measures,' &c., p. 18, Ī32, and p. 14, Ī23. Vâha occurs also in the Mahâvamsa, p. 22.

[20] Sattahatthikañ ka anîkan ti: ettha kha hatthiniyo eko ka hatthîti, idam ekam anîkam, îdisani satta anîkâni sattahatthikam nâma (B.).

[21] Dvi-gunâ ’ti dvi-patalâ. Ti-gunâ ’ti ti-patalâ. Ganamganûpâhanâ ’ti katu-patalato patthâya vukkati (B.).

[22] Nîlikâ ummâra-puppha-vannâ hoti; pîtikâ kanikâra-puppha-vannâ; lohitikâ gayasumana-puppha-vannâ; mañgetthikâ mañgetthi-vannâ eva; kanhâ atâritthaka-vannâ; mahâraṅgarattâ satapada-pitthi-vannâ (Mahâragana is saffron; the colour of the back of a centipede is brownish yellow), mahânâmarattâ sambhinna-vannâ hoti pandu-palâsa-vannâ, Kurundiyam pana paduma-puppha-vannâ ’ti vuttam (B.).

[23] Read gihikâmabhogino (as corrected at vol. ii. p. 363).

[24] All the names of boots or shoes are of doubtful meaning; and as the use of every sort of foot-covering has long been given up among those Buddhists who have preserved the use of the Pâli language, Buddhaghosa's explanations are not very reliable. He says here: Khallaka-baddhâ ’ti panhi-pidhânattham tale khallakam bandhitvâ katâ.

[25] Putabaddhâ ’ti Yonaka-upâhanâ vukkati, yâva gaṅghato sabbapâdam patikkhâdeti.

[26] Pâligunthimâ ’ti paligunthitvâ katâ upari-pâda-mattam eva patikkhâdeti na gaṅgham.

[27] Tûlapunnikâ ’ti tûlapunnâ pûretvâ katâ.

[28] Tittirapattikâ ’ti tittira-patta-sadisa-vikitra-baddhâ.

[29] Menda-visâna-baddhikâ ’ti kannika-tthâne mendaka-siṅga-santhâne vaddhe yogetvâ katâ. Aga-visâna-vaddhikâdisu pi es’ eva nayo.

[30] Vikkhikâlikâ ’ti tatth’ eva vikkhika-nanguttha-santhane vaddhe yogetvâ katâ.

[31] Morapiñkhaparisibbitâ (sic) ’ti talesu vâ baddhesu vâ moraviñkhehi (sic) suttakasadisehi parisibbitâ.

[32] Kitrâ ’ti vikitrâ.

[33] Sîha-kamma-parikkhatâ nâma pariyantesu, kîvaresu anuvâtam viya sîhakammam yogetvâ katâ.

[34] Udda, an animal, feeding on fish; but Childers thinks it is not an amphibious creature, and therefore not 'otter.'

[35] Lûka-kamma-parikkhatâ (sic) ’ti pakkha-bilâla-kamma-parikkhatâ. The latter is the flying fox, a large kind of bat.

[36] This must be understood as spoken by the Buddha.

[37] Omukkan ti patimuñkitvâ apanîtam (B.).

[38] This walking up and down thinking is represented as a constant habit of the early Buddhist Samanas.

[39] Avassikassa khabbasso âkariyamatto. So hi katuvassakâle tam nissâya vakkhati (Mahâvagga I, 35). Evam ekavassassa sattavasso, duvassassa atthavasso, tivassassa dasavasso (B.).

[40] Upagghâyassa samdittha-sambhattâ pana sahâyâ bhikkhû, ye vâ pana keki dasahi vassehi mahantatarâ, te sabbe pi upagghâyamattâ nâma. This confirms the view expressed in a note to the first Book (chap. 32. I), that the Upagghâya is a more important person than the Âkariya. The former must have ten years, the latter need only have six years, seniority.

[41] Pâdakhîlâbâdho nâma pâdato khîla-sadisam mamsam nikkhantam hoti (B.).

[42] Kattara-danda. Compare Kullavagga VIII, 6, 3, and Childers under Kattara-yatthi. Our word occurs at Gâtaka I, 9.

[43] This list recurs in the Magghima Sîla, Ī7 (Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 194).

[44] These are the leaves on which the MSS. are written.

[45] Hintâla-pâdukâ ’ti khaggûra- (MS. khaggari) pattehi katapâdukâ: hintâla-pattehi pi na vattati yeva (B.).

[46] Kamala-pâdukâ ’ti kamala-tinam nâma atthi, tena kata-pâdukâ. Ussîra-pâdukâ ’ti pi vadanti. Childers only gives lotus as the meaning of kamala. At Gâtaka I, 119, 149, 178; IV, 42, it must be kamala, and not kambala as printed by Fausböll, that is meant.

[47] Kambala-pâdukâ ’ti unnâhi kata-pâdukâ.

[48] On riñkanti (Sanskrit rik, rinakti), compare the verses in Milinda Pañha, p. 419 (ed. Trenckner).

[49] The adhisîlâdi-sikkhâ-ttayam mentioned at Dhp. p. 358 is explained in the Samgiti Sutta as training in adhisîla, adhikitta, and adhipaññâ. On the first, compare the note on Mahâvagga I, 36, 8.

[50] See next clause.

[51] Asamkamaniyâyo ’ti bhûmiyam supatitthâ nikkalâ asamhariyâ (sic), (B. here). Compare Pâtimokkha, pp. 106, 113 (ed. Minayeff), and Childers's interpretation of those passages under samkamati.

[52] On vakka-pâdukâ, see Kullavagga V, 35, 2, at the end; and VIII, 10, 3, at the beginning. On the other two, Kullavagga V, 35; 1, 4, and VIII, 10, 3; and see also VIII, 9. The use of them was part of the sanitary arrangements enjoined upon the Order. A very ancient pair of stone vakka-pâdukâ, forming part of a slab of stone, was discovered at Anurâdhapura by Rhys Davids, and is now in the Colombo Museum. As they were dug up in one of the palaces there, they were probably for the use of the king, or some high official. These ruins are among the most ancient in Ceylon, and are certainly pre-Christian in date.

[53]On kheppâ, compare Sutta-vibhaṅga I, 6; and Böhtlingk-Roth under sepa and parukkhepa.

[54] See the 61st Pâkittiya Rule.

[55] Buddhaghosa explains this passage in a different way: Itthi-yuttenâ ’ti dhenu-yuttena. Purisantarenâ ’ti purisa-sârathinâ. Purisa-yuttenâ ’ti gona-yuttena. Itthantarenâ ’ti itthi-sârathinâ.

[56] Gaṅgâ-mahiyâyâ ’ti Gaṅgâ-mahî-kilikâya (B.). It is possible That Mahî may here mean the Earth; but it is probably the well-known affluent of the Ganges, which is one of the Mahânadîs. Compare Kullavagga IX, 1, 3, Spence Hardy's 'Manual,' p. 17, and the Dhaniya Sutta in the Sutta Nipâta.

[57] Kullavagga X, 21 gives the rules for sisters of the Order, corresponding to the first two sections of this chapter.

[58] On hatthavattakam here Buddhaghosa merely says, 'itthiyo vâ vattantu purisâ vâ vattantu (MS. vattati) yeva.' The word recurs in Kullavagga X, 21.

[59] That Âsandi is a cushion, and not a chair as Childers gives, is clear from Gâtaka I, 108.

[60] Patikâ ’ti unnâmayo setattharako (Sum. Vil. on Brahmagâla Sutta 9).

[61] Kuttakan ti solasannamtakitthînam thatvâ nakkana-yoggam unnâmayattharanam (Sum. Vil. on Brahmagâla Sutta 9).

[62] This list recurs in the Magghima Sîla, Ī5 (Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 193). Childers has given the commentary on most of these terms from the Sumaṅgala Vilâsinî. Several of the items are also mentioned among the possessions of the Great King of Glory (Rh. D., loc. cit., p. 274, &c.). In several cases the exact meaning is at present quite uncertain. The comment on the last two words runs as follows: Sauttarakkhadan ti saha uttarakkhadena upari-bandhena ratta-vitânena saddhin ti attho. Setavitânam pi hetthâ akappiya-pakkattharane sati na vattati, asati pana vattati. Ubhatolohitakûpadhânam sisûpadhânañ ka pâdûpadhânañ ka mañkassa ubhatolohitakûpadhânam evam (read eva?) na kappati. Yam pana ekam eva upadhânam ubhosu passesu rattam vâ hoti paduma-vannamkitram vâ sake pamâna-yuttam vattati, mahâupadhânam pana patikkhittam.

[63] The Laws (Dhammas) referred to are the first Pârâgika, the 11th Pâkittiya, and the 61st and 62nd Pâkittiyas.

[64] Ogumphiyantîti bhitti-dandakâdisu vethetvâ bandhanti (B.).

[65] Sections 1-6 of this chapter were published and translated by Alwis in his 'Kakkâyana's Pali Grammar,' pp. 92 and following.

[66] Buddhaghosa spells this name Kuduraghara, and says it was there that Kakkâyana had been accustomed to go for alms, and that he dwelt on the precipice itself.

[67] Buddhaghosa has a curious explanation of this name, Kotiagghanakam pana kanna-pilandhanakam dhâreti, tasmâ Kutikanno ’ti vukkati. This is evidently merely drawn from the word itself, which may just as well have meant 'with pointed ears.'

[68] This is a common phrase. Compare Tevigga Sutta (Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' pp. 187, 188).

[69] Compare gamikâbhisamkhâra, Mahâvagga VI, 31, 2.

[70] On the necessity of this, see Mahâvagga IX, 4, I.

[71] Kanhuttarâ ’ti kanha-mattik-uttarâ upari-vaddhitâ kanha-mattikâ (B.). Alwis translates, 'overrun with thorns.'

[72] Gokantaka-hatâ ’ti gunnam khurehi akkanta-bhumito samutthehi go-kantakehi upahatâ. Te kira gokantake ekapatalikâ upâhanâ rakkhitum na sakkonti, evam kharâ honti (B.). Alwis takes gokantaka as a plant (Ruellia Longifolia).

[73] Compare the 57th Pâkittiya.

[74] See below, Ī12; and compare Rh. D., 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 61.

[75] Imâ katasso pi tina-gâtiyo. Etehi kata-sâtake ka tattikâyo ka karonti. Ettha eragû ’ti ekaraka-tinam, tam olârikam. Moragutinam tamba-sisam sukhumam mudukam sukha-samphassam; tena katâ tattikâ nipaggitvâ vutthitamatte pana uddhumâtâ hutvâ titthati. Maggârunâ (sic, and so Alwis) kata-sâtake pi karonti. Gantussa mani-sadiso vanno hoti, Tattikâ is a mat; see Gâtaka I, 142. Compare Sanskrit Eraka, and Mayûraka.

[76] Patibhâtu tam bhikkhu dhammo bhâsitum. Compare Buddhaghosa's commentary on the similar idiom used in the Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta II, 31 as given by Rh. D. ('Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 36).

[77] Atthaka-vagga is the name of the fourth book in the Sutta Nipâta. See Professor Fausböll's translation, p. viii. It may also be the name of divisions of other books, but probably that portion of the Sutta Nipâta is here referred to.

[78] On Anelagalâya compare nelâ vâkâ in Ī6 of the Kûla-sîla.

[79] Ariyo is the man who has entered the Path, Suki is locative. Nirûpadhi, he in whom there remains no longer the cause of the renewal of existence as a separate individual (the cause referred to being thirst or excitement and craving, Tanhâ, Upâdâna).

[80] Compare Cunningham, 'Ancient Geography of India,' I, 440; Childers, Khuddaka Pâtha, p. 20; Alwis, 'Introduction to Pali Grammar,' XXIX; Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, I, 119 (2nd ed.); Rhys Davids, 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p, 61.

[81] On this last clause compare the first Nissaggiya, and our note there. The clause here means that the ten days of the rule in the Pâtimokkha are not to begin to run, under the circumstances specified, till the set of robes has actually reached the hand of the Bhikkhu for whom they were intended.

Buddhaghosa says here: Yâva âharitvâ vâ na dinnam tumhâkam bhante kîvaram uppannan ti pahinitva vâ nârokitam, tâva gananam na upeti, anadhitthitam na vattati. Yadâ pana ânetvâ vâ dinnam hoti, uppannan ti vâ sutam, tato patthâya dasâham eva parihâram labhati.


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