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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XIII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

 


 

Sixth Khandhaka

On Medicaments

 


 

1.

 

1.1 At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Sâvatthi, in the Getavana, the park of Anâtha-pindika. And at that time Bhikkhus, attacked by the sickness of the hot season[1], threw up the rice-milk they had drunk, and the food they had eaten. And thereby they became lean, rough, ill-favoured, yellow and ever yellower, and the veins stood out on their limbs[2].

And the Blessed One saw those Bhikkhus thus lean, rough, ill-favoured, yellow and ever yellower, and with the veins standing out on their limbs. And on seeing it, he asked the venerable Ânanda:

'How is it, Ânanda, that the Bhikkhus are become now so lean, rough, &c.?'

'At this time, Lord, the Bhikkhus are attacked with the disease of the hot season; and they throw up the rice-milk they have drunk, and the food they have eaten. Thence is it that they are become lean, rough, ill-favoured, yellow and ever yellower, and that the veins stand out on their limbs.'

1.2 Then there occurred to the mind of the

[42] Blessed One, when meditating alone, this consideration: 'At this time the Bhikkhus (&c., down to:) on their limbs. What medicaments shall I now prescribe for the Bhikkhus, as may be authorised as common medicine, and may be diffused through the body, though it be not regarded as ordinary (material) food?' And the Blessed One thought: 'These five medicaments--that is to say, ghee, butter, oil, honey, molasses--are such medicaments. Let me then prescribe them as medicines which the Bhikkhus may accept at the right time, and use at the right time.'

1.3 And in the evening, when the Blessed One had arisen from his meditation, having delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus in that connection, saying,

'When I was meditating alone, O Bhikkhus, then occurred to my mind this consideration: "At this time (&c., as in Ī2, down to:) material food." Then I thought: "These five (&c., as in Ī2, down to:) at the right time." I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, these five things as medicine to be accepted at the right time, and to be used at the right time.'

1.4 Now at that time the Bhikkhus accepted those five things at the right time, and used them at the right time. And foods which though rough, were ordinary foods, they could not digest[3], much less greasy foods[4]. Then they--attacked both by the hot-season disease, and by this want of appetite[5]--became by both at once still more lean, rough,[43] ill-favoured, yellow and ever yellower, and with the veins standing out on their limbs.

And the 'Blessed One saw the Bhikkhus thus still more lean, &c. And when he saw it, he asked the venerable Ânanda: 'How is it, Ânanda, that the Bhikkhus are become now still more lean, &c.?'

1.5 'At present, Lord, these Bhikkhus, who use the five medicaments only at the right time, cannot digest foods which, though ordinary, are rough, much less greasy foods. Then they, attacked (&c., as in Ī4, down to:) standing out on their limbs.'

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'I permit you, O Bhikkhus, not only to receive those five medicaments, but to use them both at the right time, and at other times.'

 


 

2.

 

2.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of fatty substances as medicine.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of the fat of bears, of fish, of alligators, of swine, and of asses, if received at the right time, cooked at the right time, mixed at the right time, to be partaken of with oil.'

2.2 'If the fat be received, O Bhikkhus, at the wrong time, cooked at the wrong time, and mixed at the wrong time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu is guilty of three dukkata offences.'

'If it be received, O Bhikkhus, at the right time, cooked at the wrong time, and mixed at the wrong [44] time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu is guilty of two dukkata offences.'

'If it be received, O Bhikkhus, at the right time, cooked at the right time, and mixed at the wrong time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

'If it be received, O Bhikkhus, at the right time, cooked at the right time, and mixed at the right time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu is not guilty.'

 


 

3.

 

3.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of roots for medicine.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of roots as medicine--turmeric, ginger, orris root, white orris root, ativisa, black hellebore, usîra root, bhaddamuttaka, and whatsoever other roots are used for medicine, and impart an appetising flavour to foods, either hard or soft, which the sick Bhikkhus could not otherwise eat[6]. They may be received, and stored up your life long; and, if there be necessity, they may be eaten. If eaten without necessity, (the Bhikkhu who uses them) is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

3.2 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick

had need for medicine of different sorts of flour made from roots.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

[45] I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a grind-stone, and of another stone to grind upon[7].'

 


 

4.

 

4.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of astringent decoctions as medicine. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of astringent decoctions as medicine--the nimba[8], the kutaga[9], the pakkava[10], the nattamâla[11], and whatsoever other astringent roots are used for medicine, which impart an appetising flavour to foods, either hard or soft, which the sick Bhikkhus could not otherwise eat. They may be received, and stored up your life long; and, if there be necessity, they may be. eaten. If eaten without necessity, (the Bhikkhu who uses them) is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

5.

 

5.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of leaves as medicine.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of leaves as [46] medicine--the leaves of the nimba[12], of the kutaga[12], of the patola[13], of the tulasi[14], of the kappâsika[15], and whatsoever other leaves are used for medicine, and impart an appetising flavour to foods, either hard or soft, which the sick Bhikkhus could not otherwise eat. They may be received, and stored up (&c., as in last chapter, down to:) guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

6.

 

6.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of fruits as medicine.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of fruits as medicine--the vilaṅga[16], the pippala[17], and marika peppers; the harîtaka[18], and vibhîtaka[19], and âmalaka[20] myrobalans; the gotha fruit[21]; and whatsoever other fruits are used for medicine, and impart an appetising flavour to foods, either hard or soft, which the [47] sick Bhikkhus could not otherwise eat. They may be received and stored up (&c., as in chap. 4, down to:) guilty of a dukkata offence,'

 


 

7.

 

7.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of various kinds of gum as-medicine. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of gums as medicine--hiṅgu[22], hiṅgu lac, sipâtikâ[23], taka 3, taka-patti 3, taka-panni[24], saggulasa[25], and whatsoever other gums are used for medicine, and impart (&c., as in chap. 4, down to:) is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

8.

 

8.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of various kinds of salt[26] as medicine. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of salts as [48] medicine--sea-salt[27], black salt[28], rock salt[29], kitchen salt[30], red salt[31], and whatsoever other salts are used in medicine (&c., as in chap. 4, down to:) is guilty of a dukkata offence.'

 


 

9.[32]

 

9.1 Now at that time the venerable Belatthasîsa, the superior of the venerable Ânanda, had a disease of thick scabs; and by reason of the discharge thereof his robes stuck to his body. The Bhikkhus moistened those robes with water, and loosened them (from his body).

The Blessed One as he was wandering in search of a lodging-place for the night saw them [doing so], and going up to the place where they were, he asked them:

'What is the matter, O Bhikkhus, with this Bhikkhu?'

'The venerable one has the disease of thick scabs; and by reason of the discharge thereof his robes stick to his body. So we moisten those robes with water, and loosen them (from his body).'

[49] 9.2 Then the Blessed One on that occasion, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of chunam as a medicine by whomsoever has the itch, or boils, or a discharge, or scabs, or whose body is ill-smelling, and to those in health the use of dry dung[33], and of clay, and of colouring matter[34]. I allow the use, O Bhikkhus, of a pestle and mortar[35].'

 


 

10.

 

10.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick had need of sifted[36] chunam as medicine.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a chunam sieve.'

They had need of the chunam very fine.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a cloth sieve.'

10.2 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a disease not human. Though his teacher and his superior nursed him, they were not able to make him well. He went to a place where swine were slaughtered, and ate the raw flesh, and drank the blood. Thereby his sickness abated.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, in the case of a disease not human, the use of raw flesh and of blood.'

 


 

11.

 

[50] 11.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had disease of the eyes. They used to carry that Bhikkhu out to ease himself. The Blessed One as he was passing through the Bhikkhus' sleeping quarters saw them [doing so]. When he saw them, he went up to the place where they were, and asked those Bhikkhus:

'What is the disease, O Bhikkhus, from which this Bhikkhu suffers?'

11.2 'This venerable one, Lord, has disease of the eyes. Therefore do we carry him out to ease himself.'

Then the Blessed One, on that account, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of eye ointments[37]; to wit, black collyrium[38], rasa ointment[39], sota ointment[40], geruka[41], and kapalla[42].'

They had need of perfumes to grind up into ointments.

[51] 'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of sandal wood, tagara[43], black anusâri[44], kâlîya[45], and bhaddamuttaka[46].'

 


 

12.

 

12.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to put pulverised ointments into pots and saucers. They became sprinkled over with herb-powders and dust.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a box for ointment.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to carry about various kinds of boxes for ointments--gold ones, and silver ones. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'Like those who still live in the world.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Various kinds of boxes for ointments, gold ones. and silver ones, are not, O Bhikkhus, to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of such boxes made of bone, or ivory, or horn, or of the nala reed, or of bambu, or of wood, or of lac, or of the shells of fruit, or of bronze, or of the centre of the chank-shell[47].'

[52] 12.2 Now at that time the boxes of ointment had no lid. (The ointment) was sprinkled over with herb-powders and dust.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a lid.'

The lids used to fall off.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fasten the lid with thread, and to tie it on to the box.'

The boxes used to fall.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sew the boxes on with thread[48].'

12.3 Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to rub the ointment on with their fingers: and the eyes were hurt.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a stick or holder to put the ointment on with.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to keep various kinds of ointment-sticks--gold ones, and silver ones. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'Like those who still live in the world.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Various kinds of ointment-holders, O Bhikkhus, are not to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty of. a dukkata offence. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of ointment-holders of bone, or of ivory, or of horn, or of the nala reed, or of bambu, or of wood, or of lac, or of fruit, or of bronze, or of the chank-shell.'

[53] 12.4 Now at that time the ointment-sticks used to fall on the ground and become rough.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a case for the ointment-sticks[49].'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to carry the ointment-boxes and ointment-sticks about in their hands.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to put the ointment-box in.'

They had no shoulder strap.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder strap (by which to carry the ointment-box), or of a thread (by which to sew or tie it on).'

 


 

13.

 

13.1 Now at that time the venerable Pilindavakkha had head-ache[50].

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a little oil on the head.'

(The disease) became no better[51].

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the practice of taking up (medicine) through the nose[52].'

[54] The nose ran.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a nose-spoon[53].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus had various kinds of nose-spoons--made of gold, and of silver. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'Like those who still live in the world.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Various kinds of nose-spoons, O Bhikkhus, are not to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of such nose-spoons made of bone (&c., as in chap. 12. 1, down to:) or of the chank-shell.'

13.2 The nose took up the medicament in unequal proportions.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a double nose-spoon[54].'

(The disease) became no better.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sniff up the aroma.'

They used to spread the drugs on a wick before they sniffed up the aroma[55]: and their throats got burnt.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a pipe to conduct the aroma.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus had various kinds of pipes (&c., as in the last clauses of Ī1, down to the end).

[55] Now at that time the aroma-pipes came open: and worms got in.

I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a lid to the pipes.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus carried the pipes about in their hands.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to carry the aroma-pipes in.'

The aroma-pipes rubbed against one another.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a double bag.'

They had no shoulder strap.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder strap (by which to carry the double bag), or of a thread (by which to sew it on).'

 


 

14.

 

14.1 Now at that time the venerable Pilindavakkha was troubled with wind in the stomach[56]. The physicians said he must drink oil.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a decoction of oil.'

It was necessary to put strong drink into the decoction.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to put strong drink in decoctions of oil.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to put too much strong drink into their decoctions of medicinal oils: and they got drunk.

'Oil should not be drunk, O Bhikkhus, when too much strong drink has been put into it. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to law[57].'

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to drink such decoctions [56] of oil with strong drink in them, as wherein neither the colour, nor the smell, nor the taste of the strong drink shall be sensible.'

14.2 Now at that time the Bhikkhus had a quantity of decoction in which too much strong drink had been put. Then those Bhikkhus thought: 'What shall we do with this oil, which has too much strong drink in it?'

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, to use it as an ointment.'

Now at that time the venerable Pilindavakkha had a quantity of oil-decoction; but he had no vessel for it.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of three kinds of pots, bronze pots, wooden pots, pots made of the shells of fruits[58].'

14.3 Now at that time the venerable Pilindavakkha had rheumatism.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to bring on sweating[59].'

(The disease) became no better.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to bring on sweating by the use of herbs which have that effect[60].'

(The disease) became no better.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a great steam bath[61].'

(The disease) became no better.

[57]'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of hemp-water (bang)[62].'

(The disease) became no better.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of hot baths in water in which medicinal herbs have been steeped[63].

14.4 Now at that time the venerable Pilindavakkha had intermittent ague.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the letting of blood.'

(The disease) became no better.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a horn to let blood[64].'

Now at that time the feet of the venerable Pilindavakkha were blistered.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of ointment for the feet.'

(The disease) became no better.

[58] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep water ready for washing the feet (of travellers)[65].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had boils.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of the lancet.'

Decoctions of astringent herbs were required.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, decoctions of astringent herbs[66].'

Sesamum salve was required.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of sesamum salve[67].'

14.5 Compresses were required.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of compresses[68].'

It was necessary to tie up the sore with cloth.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of bandages for tieing up wounds.'

The sore itched.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the sprinkling of a sore with mustard-powder[69].'

The sore became moist[70].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fumigate (the sore).'

Proud flesh formed on the wound[71].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cut off (proud flesh) with a lancet.'

[59] The wound would not close up.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of oil for wounds.'

The oil ran over.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of fine rags[72], and of all kinds of ways of treating wounds.'

14.6 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was bitten by a snake.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the four kinds of filth to be given--dung, urine, ashes, and clay.'

Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'Are these things among those which may be taken even without being offered to us by others, or among things which cannot be taken unless they are offered?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow these things, O Bhikkhus, to be accepted if any one be there to offer them[73], and if not, then that you may take them yourselves and use them.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had drunk poison.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give (as an emetic) a decoction of dung.'

Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'Is this among those things which may be taken even without being offered to us by others, or is it among things which cannot be taken unless they are offered?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I rule, O Bhikkhus, that there is a proper taking when a man takes what he himself has made; and [60] that such a thing need not be received again from others.'

14.7 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu suffered from the ghara-dinnaka[74] disease.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give him to drink a decoction of soil turned up by the plough[75].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had constipation[76].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give him a decoction of the ashes of burnt rice[77].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had the jaundice.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give to drink a decoction made with (cows') urine[78].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had skin disease.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the anointing with perfumes.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a superfluity of humors in his body[79].'

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give a purgative.'

Clarified gruel was required.

[61] 'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of clarified gruel.'

Natural juice was required[80].

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of natural juice.'

Artificial and natural juice was required[81].

I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of artificial and natural juice.'

Meat broth was required[82].

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of meat broth.'

 


 

15.

 

15.1 Now at that time the venerable Pilindavakkha had a mountain cave at Râgagaha cleared out, with the object of making it into a cave dwelling-place. And the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra went to the place where the venerable Pilindavakkha was; and when he had come there, he saluted the venerable Pilindavakkha, and took his seat on one side.

And when he was so seated the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra said to the venerable Pilindavakkha, 'What is it that my Lord, the Thera, is having done?'

'I am having a cave cleared out, with the object of making it into a cave dwelling-place.'

'Do you then, Sir, require an ârâmika (a park-keeper)?'

'Not so, great king! A park-keeper has not been prescribed by the Blessed One.'

'Then, Sir, enquire, of the Blessed One (concerning this matter), and let me then know.'

[62] 'Very well, O King!' said the venerable Pilindavakkha in assent to the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra.

15.2 Then the venerable Pilindavakkha taught and incited and roused and gladdened the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra with religious discourse. And the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, when he had been taught &c. by the religious discourse, rose from his seat, and bowed down before the venerable Pilindavakkha, and passing round him with his right side towards him, departed thence.

Then the venerable Pilindavakkha sent a message to the Blessed One, saying, 'Lord! the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra desires to present me with a park-keeper. What am I, therefore, Lord, to do?'

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, after delivering a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the accepting of a park-keeper.'

15.3 And a second time the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra went to the place where the venerable Pilindavakkha was; and when he had come there he saluted the venerable Pilindavakkha, and took his seat on one side.

And when he was so seated the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra said to the venerable Pilindavakkha, 'Has the Blessed One allowed a park-keeper?'

'Yes, O King!'

Then, Sir, I will present a park-keeper to you.'

Now the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, after he had (thus) promised a park-keeper to the venerable Pilindavakkha, forgot it. And after a time he [63] recovered recollection of it, and addressed a certain minister who had charge of general affairs, and said: 'The park-keeper whom I promised to the venerable one, has he been given to him?'

'No, your Majesty!'

'How long is it then, good Sir, since that was determined?'

15.4 Then that minister, counting up the nights, said to the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, 'Five hundred nights, your Majesty.'

'Give then, my good Sir, five hundred park-keepers to the venerable one!'

'As your Majesty commands,' said that minister in assent to the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra; and he gave over to the venerable Pilindavakkha five hundred park-keepers, and (for their use) a distinct village grew up. And they called it Arâmika-gâma, and they called it also Pilinda-gâma. Thenceforward the venerable Pilindavakkha depended upon the families living in that village (for alms, &c.). And the venerable Pilindavakkha robed himself early in the morning, and entered into Pilinda-gâma, duly bowled and robed for alms.

15.5 Now at that time there was a feast in that village, and the children were celebrating it, with their ornaments on, and decked with garlands. And the venerable Pilindavakkha, when he was going his rounds for alms, straight on from house to house, came to the dwelling-place of a certain park-keeper; and when he had come there he sat down on a seat prepared for him.

And at that time the daughter of that park-keeper's wife, seeing the other children with their ornaments on, and decked with garlands, began to [64] cry (saying), 'Give me too a garland, give me an ornament!'

And the venerable Pilindavakkha said to that park-keeper's wife: 'Why does that girl cry?'

'This girl, venerable Sir, seeing the other children with their ornaments on, and decked with garlands, is crying (and saying), "Give me too a garland, give me too an ornament!" But whence should we, who have become so poor, get garlands or ornaments?'

15.6 Then the venerable Pilindavakkha took a grass chumbat[83], and said to the park-keeper's wife: 'Bind, I pray you, this grass chumbat round the child's head.'

And the park-keeper's wife took the grass chumbat, and bound it round the girl's head. And that became a chaplet of gold, beautiful, lovely, and pleasing, such that there was no chaplet of gold in the king's seraglio like it.

And people told the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, 'There is a chaplet of gold, your Majesty, in the house of such and such a park-keeper, such that there is no chaplet of gold in the king's seraglio like it. How could he, poor as he is, have got (such a thing)? For a certainty he must have procured it by theft.'

Then the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra had (the whole of) that park-keeper's family thrown into bonds.

15.7 Now the venerable Pilindavakkha robed himself again early in the morning, and went, duly bowled and robed, into Pilinda-gâma for alms. And going his round for alms straight on from house to house he came to the dwelling-place of that park-keeper; and [65] when he had come there he asked the neighbours, 'Where is the family of this park-keeper gone to?'

'The king, Sir, has had them thrown into bonds on account of that chaplet of gold.'

Then the venerable Pilindavakkha went on to the residence of the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra: and when he had come there he sat down on the seat prepared for him. And the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra went to the place where the venerable Pilindavakkha was; and when he had come there, he bowed down before the venerable Pilindavakkha, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the venerable Pilindavakkha said to the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra:

15.8 'Why, O King, has the park-keeper's family been thrown into bonds?'

'That park-keeper, Sir, has in his house a chaplet of gold, such that there is no chaplet of gold in the king's seraglio like it. Whence should he, poor as he is, have got (such a thing)? For a certainty he has procured it by theft.'

Then the venerable Pilindavakkha determined that the palace of the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra should be gold. And it became all of gold.

'Now, your Majesty, whence have you this so great quantity of gold?'

'I understand, Lord. This is your miraculous power' (said the king. And so saying) he set that park-keeper's family free.

15.9 When the people, glad at heart and full of satisfaction, saw that so great a miracle had been shown by the venerable Pilindavakkha to the king and his royal retinue, they brought to the venerable Pilindavakkha the five kinds of medicine,--that is to [66] say, ghee, butter, oil, honey, and molasses. Now (besides this) the venerable Pilindavakkha was accustomed to receive the five kinds of medicine; and whatever he received he distributed among his attendant (Bhikkhus). So the retinue became abounding therein, and as they received it they laid it aside, filling vessels and pots; and filling water-strainers and bags with it they laid them in the windows, and they remained there clinging and adhering together, and the Vihâras became sprinkled and scattered all over with them through the (gnawing of) rats. People who saw this, when they went round the Vihâras, were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant (saying), 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas are becoming storers up of goods like the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra.'

15.10 The Bhikkhus heard the people thus murmuring, &c. And those Bhikkhus who were moderate were indignant, &c., saying,

'How can Bhikkhus think (of possessing) such abundance?'

And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, Bhikkhus, as they say, that Bhikkhus think (of possessing) such abundance?'

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed One rebuked them, and after delivering a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus:

'Whatsoever kinds of medicine are meet for the use of sick Bhikkhus,--that is to say, ghee, butter, oil, honey, and molasses,--when such are received they must be used within a period of seven days during which they may be stored up. Whosoever [67] goes beyond that limit shall be dealt with according to law.'[84]

End of the first Bhânavâra on the law of medicines.

 


 

16.

 

16.1 Now after the Blessed One had remained at Sâvatthi as long as he thought fit, he. went forth on his journey towards Râgagaha. And on the way the venerable Kaṅkhâ-revata saw a sugar factory, and on stepping aside to it (he saw the men) putting flour and cane-dust into the molasses. When he saw that he thought: 'Molasses mixed with food is not permitted: it is not permitted to take such molasses (at a time) beyond the time (for the daily meal).' And fearing to offend he ate not of it, and his attendant Bhikkhus ate not, and such as held him worthy to be heard, they ate not.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Why, O Bhikkhus, do they put flour and cane-dust into molasses?'

'In order, Lord, to make it firm.'

'If, O Bhikkhus, they put flour and cane-dust into molasses to make it firm, but it is still (nevertheless) considered to be molasses, I allow you, O Bhikkhus, such molasses as much as you like.'

16.2 Now the venerable Kaṅkhâ-revata saw on the way a kidney bean growing out of a dung heap. And when he had seen it, he thought: 'Beans are not permitted (to us, for) beans grow ready ripe[85]: And [68] he did not eat, fearing to offend, and his attendant Bhikkhus did not eat, and such as held him worthy to be heard, they also did not eat the beans.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Though, Bhikkhus, beans grow ready ripe, yet I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat beans as much as you like.'

16.3 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu suffered from wind in the stomach. He drank salt sour gruel; and thereby his sickness abated.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I allow, O Bhikkhus, to one who is sick the use of salt sour gruel, to one who is not sick the use thereof mixed with water[86] as a beverage.'

 


 

17.

 

17.1 Now the Blessed One journeying on in due course came to Râgagaha. And there at Râgagaha the Blessed One stayed at the Veluvana in the Kalandaka-nivâpa.

Now at that time the Blessed One was troubled with wind in his stomach. And the venerable Ânanda thinking, 'Now formerly the Blessed One when suffering from wind in the stomach had ease from Tekatula[87] gruel,' made ready of his own accord tila seeds, and rice, and beans; and kept [69] them indoors; and cooked them indoors of his own accord, and offered them to the Blessed One, saying, 'Let the Blessed One drink this Tekatula gruel.'

17.2 Now the Tathâgatas sometimes ask about what they know (&c., as usual, as, for instance, in I, 31, 5, down to the end).

And the Blessed One said to the venerable Ânanda, 'Whence, Ânanda, is this gruel?'

Then the venerable Ânanda told this thing to the Blessed One.

17.3 The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'This is improper, Ânanda, unbecoming, unsuitable, unworthy of Samanas, not allowable, and ought to be avoided. How can you, Ânanda, think (of permitting yourself) such abundance? Whatever, Ânanda, is kept indoors, is not allowed; whatever is cooked indoors, is not allowed; and whatever is cooked of your own accord, is not allowed. This will not redound, Ânanda, to the conversion of the unconverted.'

And when he had rebuked him, and delivered a religious discourse. he said to the Bhikkhus: Whatsoever is kept indoors, O Bhikkhus, or cooked indoors, or cooked of your own accord, is not to be eaten. Whosoever shall eat thereof, is guilty of a dukkata offence.

17.4 'And if, O Bhikkhus, there be food kept indoors, or cooked indoors, or cooked of your own accord, and one shall eat thereof, he is guilty of three dukkata offences. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept indoors, and cooked indoors, shall have been so cooked by others, and one eat thereof, he is guilty of two dukkata offences. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept indoors, shall have been cooked out of doors, and [70] so cooked of your own accord, and one eat thereof, he is guilty of two dukkata offences.

17.5 'If, O Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors shall have been cooked indoors, and of your own accord, and one eat thereof he is guilty of two dukkata offences. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept indoors, shall have been cooked out of doors, and by others, and one eat thereof, he is guilty of a dukkata offence. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors shall have been cooked indoors, and by others, and one eat thereof, he is guilty of a dukkata offence. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors, shall have been cooked out of doors, and of your own accord, and one shall eat thereof, he is guilty of a dukkata offence. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors, shall have been cooked out of doors, and by others, and one shall eat thereof, he is not guilty.'

17.6 Now at that time, the Bhikkhus, thinking, 'Food cooked of one's own accord has been disallowed by the Blessed One,' feared to offend by cooking a second time food (already cooked once).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook food a second time.'

17.7 Now at that time there was a scarcity of food in Râgagaha. People brought salt, and oil, and rice, and hard food to the Ârâma. These the Bhikkhus kept out of doors; and vermin[88] ate them, and thieves carried them off.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

[71] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep food indoors.'

When they kept it indoors, and cooked it out of doors, those men who practised self-mortification by living on the remains of offered food[89] crowded round them; and the Bhikkhus ate in fear.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook indoors.'

In the time of scarcity, those who (by offering food, inviting Bhikkhus to their houses, &c.) made (the accepting or eating of food) allowable (to the Bhikkhus), used to take more (for themselves), and give less to the Bhikkhus.

I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook of your own accord. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook indoors, and of your own accord, food kept indoors.'

17.8 Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus who had spent the rainy season in the land of Kâsi, and were journeying to Râgagaha to visit the Blessed One, did not receive on the way as full a supply as they required of food, either bitter or sweet. And there was plenty of eatable fruit, but there was no one to make it allowable for them[90]. And those Bhikkhus went on in weariness to Râgagaha, to the Veluvana, in the Kalandaka-nivâpa, where the Blessed One was. And when they had come there, they bowed down before the Blessed One, and took their seats on one side.

Now it is the custom of the Blessed Buddhas to exchange courteous greetings with Bhikkhus who [72] arrive. And the Blessed One said to those Bhikkhus:

'Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhus? Do you get enough to support yourselves with? Have you accomplished your journey without too much fatigue? And whence, O Bhikkhus, have you come?'

17.9 'Things go well with us, Lord. We have spent the rainy season in the land of Kâsi; and as we were journeying to Râgagaha to visit the Blessed One, we did not receive on the way as full a supply as we required of food, either bitter or sweet. And there was plenty of eatable fruit, but there was no one to make it allowable for us. And we came on our way in weariness.'

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, after having delivered a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus: 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, wherever edible fruit is seen and there is no one to make it allowable, to pick it of your own accord, and take it away. And when you see one who can make it allowable, you are to place it on the ground, and (only) eat it after you have received it again. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take whatever (fruit) you have picked up[91].'

 


 

18.

 

18.1 Now at that time a certain Brâhman had received some fresh tila seeds, and some fresh honey. Now it occurred to that Brâhman: 'What if I were to give these fresh tila seeds, and this [73] fresh honey to the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head.' And that Brâhman went to the place where the Blessed One was, and when he had come there, he exchanged courteous greetings with the Blessed One. And after he had exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of friendship and civility, he stood on one side. And, so standing, that Brâhman said to the Blessed One:

'May the venerable Gotama grant me that the venerable Gotama shall take his morrow's meal at my home to-morrow with the Bhikkhu-samgha.'

The Blessed One consented by remaining silent. And when that Brâhman perceived that the Blessed One had consented he. went away.

18.2 And that Brâhman, at the end of that night, when he had made ready sweet food, both hard and soft, had the time announced to the Blessed One (in the words), 'It is time, O Gotama, and the meal is prepared.'

And the Blessed One, early in the morning, having put on his under robe, went duly bowled and robed to that Brâhman's residence. And when he had come there, he sat down on a seat prepared for him, and with him the Bhikkhu-samgha.

And that Brâhman satisfied with the sweet food, hard and soft, the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head, and waited on them with his own hand. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal, and had washed his hands and his howl, the Brâhman took his seat on one side. And as he so sat the Blessed One instructed, and roused, and incited, and gladdened that Brâhman with religious discourse, and rose from his seat, and went away.

18.3 Now not long after the Blessed One had gone [74] it occurred to that Brâhman: 'The things for the sake of which I invited the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head, thinking, "I will give them the fresh tila seeds and the fresh honey,"--those I have neglected to give. What if I were now to have the fresh tila seeds and the fresh honey taken, in pots and vessels, to the Ârâma!'

And that Brâhman had the fresh tila seeds and the fresh honey taken in pots and vessels, and went to the place where the Blessed One was. 'And when he had come there, he stood on one side; and so standing that Brâhman said to the Blessed One:

18.4 'The things for the sake of which I invited the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head, thinking, "I will give them the fresh tila seeds and the fresh honey,"--those I have neglected to give. May the venerable Gotama receive of me the fresh tila seeds and the fresh honey.'

'Very well then, Brâhman; give them to the Bhikkhus.'

Now at that time, during the scarcity, people invited Bhikkhus to a slender meal, and they, counting the number (of those invited), refused (the invitation). And the whole Samgha was (once) invited; but the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did not accept the invitation[92].

'Accept it, O Bhikkhus, and eat. I allow, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu who has eaten and who has refused food still offered may nevertheless eat food, if it be brought from within, even if it has not been left over[93].

 


 

19.

 

[75] 19.1 Now at that time a family who were devoted to the venerable Upananda, of the Sakya clan, sent hard food for the Samgha, saying, 'This is to be given to the Samgha with especial reference to the venerable Upananda.'

Now at that time the venerable Upananda of the Sakya clan had gone forth to the village for alms. And those men went to the Ârâma, and asked the Bhikkhus:

'Where, Sirs, is the venerable Upananda?'

'The venerable Upananda of the Sakya clan has gone forth to the village for alms.'

'This hard food, Sirs, is to be given to the Samgha, with especial reference to the venerable Upananda.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'In that case, O Bhikkhus, receive it, a id put it aside till Upananda returns.'

19.2 And the venerable Upananda, after having attended on the families in the forenoon, returned during the (after-part of the) day.

Now at that time, during the scarcity, people invited the Bhikkhus to a slender meal; and they, [76] counting the numbers (of those invited, refused) the invitation. And the whole Samgha was (once) invited; but the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did not accept the invitation.

'Accept it, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu who has eaten, and who has refused food still offered, may nevertheless eat food, if it have been received before meal-time (in the forenoon), even if it has not been left over.'[94]

 


 

20.

 

20.1 Nov the Blessed One having remained at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, proceeded on his way to Sâvatthi. And wandering straight on from place to place he arrived at Sâvatthi. And there, at Sâvatthi, the Blessed One stayed at the Getavana, Anâtha-pindika's Grove.

Now at that time the venerable Sâriputta suffered from fever. And the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna went to the place where the venerable Sâriputta was; and when he had come there he said to the venerable Sâriputta:

You have lately had fever, friend Sâriputta. By what means has it got well?'

'By lotus stalks, my friend, of various kinds.'

Then the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna, as quickly as a strong man would stretch forth his arm, or draw it in again when it had been stretched forth, vanished from the Getavana and appeared on the bank of the Mandâkinî lake.

20.2 And a certain Nâga saw the venerable Mahâ [77] Moggallâna coming from afar: and on seeing him he said to the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna:

'May my lord, the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna, approach. Welcome to my lord, the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna. What may my lord have need of? What shall I give to him?'

'I want the edible stalks of the various lotuses.'

Then that Nâga gave command to another Nâga, saying, 'Very well then, good friend, give the venerable one edible stalks of the lotuses.'

And that Nâga plunged into the Mandâkinî lake, and plucked with his trunk edible stalks of the lotuses, and washed them thoroughly, and bound them in a bundle, and went to the place where the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna was.

20.3 Then the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna as quickly (&c., as in Ī1) vanished from the bank of the Mandâkinî lake, and appeared in Getavana. Then that Nâga also vanished from the bank of the Mandâkinî lake, and appeared in the Getavana. And when that Nâga had caused the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna to receive those edible stalks of the lotuses he vanished from the Getavana, and appeared on the shore of the Mandâkinî lake.

Then the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna presented those edible stalks of the lotuses to the venerable Sâriputta. And the fever abated on the venerable Sâriputta when he had eaten the edible stalks of the lotuses. And many of them remained over.

20.4 Now at that time, during the scarcity (&c., as above, in chap. 18. 4, down to:) did not accept the invitation.

'Accept it, O Bhikkhus, and eat. I allow a Bhikkhu who has eaten, and has refused food still [78] offered, to eat things growing in woods and ponds even if they are not the leavings of the meal of one who has eaten[95].'

 


 

21.

 

21.1 Now at that time edible fruit was very plentiful in Sâvatthi, but there was no one to make it allowable[96]. And the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not eat of it.

They told that thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat fruit which has not yet had any seed in it, or which has no more seed in it, even without any one being there to make it allowable[97].'

 


 

22.

 

22.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Sâvatthi as long as he thought fit, he went forth on his journey to Râgagaha. And wandering straight on he arrived at Râgagaha: and there at Râgagaha he stayed at the Veluvana in the Kalandaka-nivâpa.

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was suffering from fistula[98]. And the physician (named) Âkâsa-gotta lanced it. And the Blessed One when he [79] was going round through the sleeping-places came to the place where that Bhikkhu dwelt.

22.2 Âkâsa-gotta, the physician, saw the Blessed One coming from afar; and when he saw him he said to the Blessed One: 'Let the venerable Gotama come and look at this Bhikkhu's orifice; it is like the mouth of an iguana!' And the Blessed One thinking, 'This foolish fellow is making fun of me,' kept silence and turned away. And in that connection, and on account of that, he called a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and asked the Bhikkhus: Is there, O Bhikkhus, in that Vihâra a Bhikkhu who is sick?'

'There is, Lord.'

'What is the matter, O Bhikkhus, with that Bhikkhu?'

'That venerable one, Lord, has a fistula, and Âkâsa-gotta, the physician, has been lancing it.'

22.3 The Blessed Buddha rebuked (that Bhikkhu), saying, 'This is improper, O Bhikkhus, for that foolish one, unbecoming, indecent, unworthy of Samanas, not allowable, and ought not to be done. How can this foolish fellow, O Bhikkhus, allow a surgical operation to be performed in that part of his body[99]? The skin there, O Bhikkhus, is tender, the wound is difficult to treat, the knife is difficult to guide. This will not redound, O Bhikkhus, to the conversion of the unconverted.'

And having rebuked him, the Blessed One, after delivering a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus: You are not, O Bhikkhus, to allow a surgical operation to be performed upon you in that part [80] of your bodies. Whosoever allows that, is guilty of a thullakkaya offence.'

22.4 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, since a surgical operation had been forbidden by the Blessed One, used a clyster[100].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, as they say, O Bhikkhus, that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus use a clyster?'

'It is true, Lord.'

He rebuked them, and having delivered a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus: 'No surgical operation is to be performed within a distance of two inches round the anus, and a clyster is not to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a thullakkaya offence[101].'

 


 

23.

 

23.1 And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, went forth to Benares. Wandering from place to place he came to Benares. There the Blessed One dwelt near Benares, in the deer-park Isipatana.

At that time there were at Benares a devout layman Suppiya and a devout laywoman Suppiyâ who showed their faith in both ways: they were givers and doers, and devoted themselves to the service of the fraternity. And Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, went to the Ârâma, and going around from Vihâra to Vihâra, and from cell to cell, she asked [81] the Bhikkhus: 'Who is sick, venerable Sirs? For whom, and what shall I procure?'

23.2 At that time a certain Bhikkhu had taken a purgative. And that Bhikkhu said to Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee: 'I have taken a purgative, sister, and I want some broth[102].'

(She replied): 'Well, reverend Sir, it shall be procured for you,'--and went to her house and gave order to a pupil[103]: 'Go, my good sir, and see if there is any meat to be had.'[104]

That man accepted this order of Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee (by saying), 'Yes, Madam,' and searched through the whole of Benares, but did not find any meat on hand[104]. Then that man went to Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee; having approached her he said to Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee: 'There is no meat to be had, Madam; the killing of cattle is interdicted to-day.'

23.3 Then Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, thought: 'If that sick Bhikkhu does not get the broth his sickness will increase, or he will die. It would be unbecoming indeed for me to promise something, and not to procure it;'--(thinking thus) she took a knife, cut a piece of flesh from her thigh, and gave it to her maid-servant (saying), 'Go, my girl, [82] and get the strength out of this meat. In such and such a Vihâra is a sick Bhikkhu; give it to that (Bhikkhu). And should anybody call for me, tell him that I am sick;'--(speaking thus), she veiled her thigh with her upper garment, went into her inner room, and lay down on her bed.

23.4 And Suppiya, the lay-devotee, came to his house and asked the maid-servant: 'Where is Suppiyâ?'

'She lies in the inner room, Sir.' Then Suppiya, the lay-devotee, went to the place where Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, was; having approached her he said to Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee: 'Why are you lying down?'

'I am sick.'

'What is the matter with you?'

Then Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, told the whole matter to Suppiya, the lay-devotee. And Suppiya, the lay-devotee, said: 'Oh wonderful! oh astonishing! How believing and how pious is this Suppiyâ who gives even her own flesh (to the indigent). What else can there be which she would not give?' (Speaking thus), joyful and elated he went to the place where the Blessed One. was; having approached him, and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him.

23.5 Sitting near him, Suppiya, the lay-devotee, said to the Blessed One: 'Might the Blessed One, Lord, consent to take his meal with me to-morrow, together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.'

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent. Then Suppiya, the lay-devotee, when he understood that the Blessed One had accepted his invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted [83] the Blessed One, and passing round him with his right side towards him, went away.

And when the night had elapsed, Suppiya, the lay-devotee, ordered excellent food, both hard and soft, to be prepared, and had the meal-time announced to the Blessed One in the words: 'It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.' And in the fore-noon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl, and, with his kîvara on, went to the house of Suppiya, the lay-devotee. When he had arrived there, he sat down with the Bhikkhus who followed him, on seats laid out for them.

23.6 And Suppiya, the lay-devotee, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he stationed himself near him. When he was standing near him, the. Blessed One said to Suppiya, the lay-devotee: 'Where is Suppiyâ?'

'She is sick, Lord.'

'Well, let her come here.'

'She is not able to do so, Lord.'

'Well then you must take her and carry her (to me).'

Then Suppiya, the lay-devotee, took Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, and carried her (to the Buddha). And in the moment the Blessed One saw her, that great wound was healed; and there was good skin there, with the tiny hairs thereon.

23.7 And Suppiya, the lay-devotee, and Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee (thought): 'Oh wonderful! oh astonishing! What high power and great faculties the Tathâgata possesses, in that in the moment the Blessed One has seen (Suppiyâ), that great wound has been healed; and there is good skin there, [84] with the tiny hairs thereon;'--(thinking thus) joyful and elated they served and offered with their own hands excellent food, both hard and soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal, and cleansed his bowl and his hands, they sat down near him. And the Blessed One, after having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened Suppiya, the lay-devotee, and Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, by religious discourse, rose from his seat and went away.

23.8 In consequence of that, and on this occasion, the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus: 'Who was it, O Bhikkhus, who asked Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, for meat?'

When he had spoken thus, that Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: 'It is I, Lord, who asked Suppiyâ, the lay-devotee, for meat.'

'Has it been brought to you, O Bhikkhu?'

'It has been brought, Lord.'

'Have you eaten it, O Bhikkhu?'

'I have eaten it, Lord.'

'And did you enquire, O Bhikkhus, (what) meat it was?'

'Lord! I did not enquire about that.'

23.9 Then the blessed Buddha rebuked him: 'How can you, O foolish one, eat meat without having enquired (what it is)? It is man's flesh, O foolish one, which you have eaten. This will not do, O foolish one, for converting the unconverted,' (&c.)

Having rebuked him and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'There are, O Bhikkhus, believing, pious people who give [85] up even their own flesh. Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat man's flesh. He who does, commits a thullakkaya (or, grave) offence. And let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat meat without having enquired (what it is). He. who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

23.10 At that time the king's elephants died. During a famine the people ate that elephants' flesh, and when the Bhikkhus came and asked for alms, they gave them elephants' flesh. The Bhikkhus ate that elephants' flesh. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas eat elephants' flesh? Elephants are an attribute of royalty. If the king knew that, they would not be in his favour.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat elephants' flesh. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

23.11 At that time the king's horses died. During a famine (&c., as in 5 10, down to:)

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat horse-flesh. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

23.12 At that time the people, during a famine, ate dogs' flesh, and when the Bhikkhus came and asked for alms, they gave them dogs' flesh. The Bhikkhus ate that dogs' flesh. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas eat dogs' flesh? Dogs are disgusting and loathsome animals.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat dogs' flesh. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

23.13 At that time the people, during a famine, ate serpents' flesh (&c., as in Ī12, down to:) 'How can [86] the Sakyaputtiya Samanas eat serpents' flesh? Serpents are disgusting and loathsome animals.'

And the serpent king Supassa went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he stationed himself near him. Standing near him the serpent king Supassa said to the Blessed One: 'There are, Lord, unbelieving serpents who are disinclined (to the faith); these might do harm to the Bhikkhus even on trifling occasions. Pray, Lord, let their reverences not eat serpents' flesh. Then the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the serpent king Supassa by religious discourse (&c., down to:), and passing round him with his right side towards him, went away.'

In consequence of that the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat serpents' flesh. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

23.14 At that time hunters had killed a lion and eaten his flesh, and when the Bhikkhus came and asked for alms, they gave them lions' flesh. The Bhikkhus, having eaten that lions' flesh, sojourned in the forest. Then the lions, (attracted) by the smell of lions' flesh, fell upon the Bhikkhus.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat lions' flesh. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

23.15 At that time hunters had killed a tiger, &c., a panther, &c., a bear, &c., a hyena (&c., as in Ī14, down to:)

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat a hyena's flesh. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

24.

 

[87] 24.1 And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Benares as long as he thought fit, went forth to Andhakavinda, accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. At that time the people in the country, after having loaded their carts with much salt and oil and rice and hard food, followed from behind the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head (thinking), 'When our turn comes, we will make a meal for them;' and five hundred people who ate the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food (followed on their way). And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Andhakavinda.

24.2 Now a certain Brâhmana, whose turn did not come, thought: 'Two months have elapsed while I have been following the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head, in order to make a meal for them when my turn comes, but my turn does not come. I am alone here, and many household affairs of mine are going to ruin. What if I were to look into the provision-room, and what I should not see in the provision-room, to prepare that (for the Bhikkhus)!' Then that Brâhmana looked into the provision-room and did not see there two (sorts of food), rice-milk and honey-lumps.

24.3 And that Brâhmana went to the place where the venerable Ânanda was; having approached him, he said to the venerable Ânanda: 'As my turn did not come, my dear Ânanda, I thought: "Two months have elapsed (&c., down to:). What if I were to look into the provision-room, and what I should not [88] see in the provision-room, to prepare that!" Thus, my dear Ânanda, I looked into the provision-room and did not see there two (sorts of food), rice-milk and honey-lumps. If I were to prepare, my dear Ânanda, rice-milk and honey-lumps (for the Bhikkhus), would the reverend Gotama accept it from me?'

'Well, my good Brâhmana, I will ask the Blessed One.'

24.4 And the venerable Ânanda told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Well, Ânanda, let him prepare (those dishes).'

'Well, my good Brâhmana, you may prepare (those dishes).'

And when the night had elapsed, that Brâhmana had abundant rice-milk and honey-lumps prepared, and offered them to the Blessed One (in the words): 'May the reverend Gotama accept from me this rice-milk and honey-lumps.'

'Well, my good Brâhmana, give it to the Bhikkhus.' The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did not accept it. 'Accept it, O Bhikkhus, and eat it.'

Then that Brâhmana with his own hands served and offered abundant rice-milk and honey-lumps to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head; and when the Blessed One had washed his hands, when he had cleansed his bowl and his hands, he sat down near him.

24.5 When he was seated near him, the Blessed One said to that Brâhmana: 'Tenfold, O Brâhmana, is the merit attached to rice-milk. In what way is it tenfold? He who gives rice-milk, gives life; he gives colour; he gives joy; he gives strength; he gives readiness of mind; rice--milk when it is drunk removes hunger; dispels thirst; [89] sets right the humors of the body; purifies the bladder; and promotes the digestion. This ten-fold merit, O Brâhmana, is attached to rice-milk.

24.6 'He who attentively at the right time gives rice-milk to the self-possessed, who live on what others give to them, will benefit them in ten ways: life and colour, joy and strength (he gives to them);

'Readiness of mind arises from it; it dispels hunger and thirst, and sets the humors right; it purifies the bladder, and brings the food to digestion. As medicine the Perfect One has praised it.

'Therefore should rice-milk be continually given by a man who is longing for joy, who is desirous of heavenly joy, or who aspires to human prosperity.'

24.7 And the Blessed One, having gladdened that Brâhmana by these stanzas, rose from his seat and went away.

And in consequence of this event the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, (to partake of) rice-milk and honey-lumps.'

 


 

25.

 

25.1 Now the people heard: 'The Blessed One has allowed (to the Bhikkhus to partake of) rice-milk and honey-lumps.' They prepared early in the morning solid rice-milk[105] and honey-lumps. The Bhikkhus, having satiated themselves in the [90] morning with solid rice-milk and with honey-lumps, (afterwards) did not dine in the dining-hall with good appetite. At that time a certain minister, who was but newly converted, had invited the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head for the next day. Now this newly converted minister thought: 'What if I were to prepare for these twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus twelve hundred and fifty dishes of meat, and offer to each Bhikkhu one dish of meat!'

25.2 And when that night had elapsed, that newly converted minister ordered excellent food, both hard and soft, and twelve hundred and fifty dishes of meat to be prepared, and had meal-time announced to the Blessed One in the words: 'It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.' And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl, and, with his kîvara on, went to the house of that newly converted minister. When he had arrived there, he sat down with the Bhikkhus who followed him, on seats laid out for them.

25.3 Then that newly converted minister in his dining-hall waited on the Bhikkhus. The Bhikkhus said to him: 'Give us little, friend; give us little, friend.'

'Do not take little, reverend Sirs, because you think: "This minister is but newly converted." Much food, both hard and soft, has been prepared by me, and twelve hundred and fifty dishes of meat; I will offer to each Bhikkhu one dish of meat. Take, reverend Sirs, as much as you want.'

'This is not the reason, friend, for which we take little. But we have satiated ourselves in the morning with solid rice-milk and with honey-lumps; therefore we take little.'

[91] 25.4 And that newly converted minister was annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can their reverences, when I have invited them, partake of solid rice-milk with other people, as if I were unable to give them as much as they want.' (Thinking thus), he went around angry, displeased, and in an offensive temper, filling the bowls of the Bhikkhus (and saying), 'Eat or take it away!' And that newly converted minister served and offered with his own hands excellent food, both hard and soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head; and when the Blessed One had finished his meal and cleansed his bowl and his hands, he sat down near him. And the Blessed One, after having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened that newly converted minister, who was sitting near him, by religious discourse, rose from his seat and went away.

25.5 And soon after the Blessed One was gone, scruples and remorse befell that newly converted minister: 'Alas, it is evil to me, it is not good to me! Alas, it is loss to me, it is not gain to me that I went around (among the Bhikkhus) angry, displeased, and in an offensive temper, filling their bowls (and saying), "Eat or take it away!" What have I produced thereby, more merit or more demerit?'

And that newly converted minister went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him, that newly converted minister said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, soon after the Blessed One was gone, scruples and remorse have befallen me: "Alas, it is evil to me

[92] (&c., down to) more merit or more demerit?" Lord, what have I produced thereby, more merit or more demerit?'

25.6 'The moment, friend, in which you invited the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head for the next day, that moment you acquired much merit. And the moment in which each Bhikkhu received one lump of rice from you, that moment you acquired much merit. You gained the inheritance of heaven.'

Then that newly converted minister thought: 'Oh, it is good to me! Oh, it is gain to me! I have acquired much merit! I have gained the inheritance of heaven!'--and glad and joyful he rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing round him with his right side towards him, went away.

25.7 In consequence of that, and on this occasion, the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus: Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the Bhikkhus, having been invited to one place, partake of solid rice-milk with other persons?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, having been invited to one place, partake of solid rice-milk with other persons? This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted,' &c. Having rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, when he is invited to one place, partake of solid rice-milk with other persons. He who does, is to be treated according to the law.'

 


[93]

26.[106]

 

26.1 And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Andhakavinda as long as he thought fit, went forth to Râgagaha, accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. At that time Belattha Kakkâna was travelling on the road from Râgagaha to Andhakavinda with five hundred carts all full of pots of sugar. And the Blessed One saw Belattha Kakkâna coming from afar; when he saw him, he left the road, and sat down at the foot of a tree.

26.2 And Belattha Kakkâna went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he stationed himself near him. Standing near him, Belattha Kakkâna said to the Blessed One: 'I wish, Lord, to give to each Bhikkhu one pot of sugar.'

'Well, Kakkâna, bring here one pot of sugar.'

Belattha Kakkâna accepted this order of the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' took one pot of sugar and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, he said to the Blessed One: 'I have brought here, Lord, the pot of sugar; what shall I do with it, Lord?'

'Well, Kakkâna, give the sugar to the Bhikkhus.'

26.3 Belattha Kakkâna accepted this order of the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' gave the [94] sugar to the Bhikkhus, and said to the Blessed One: 'I have given the sugar to the Bhikkhus, Lord, but there is much sugar left over; what shall I do with it, Lord?'

'Well, Kakkâna, give the Bhikkhus as much sugar as they want.'

Belattha Kakkâna accepted this order of the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' gave the Bhikkhus as much sugar as they wanted, and said to the Blessed One: '1 have given, Lord, the Bhikkhus as much sugar as they want, but there is much sugar left over; what shall I do with it, Lord?'

'Well, Kakkâna, let the Bhikkhus eat their fill with sugar.'

Belattha Kakkâna accepted this order of the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' and let the Bhikkhus eat their fill with sugar; some Bhikkhus filled their bowls and filled their water strainers and bags with it.

26.4 And Belattha Kakkâna, having let the Bhikkhus eat their fill with sugar, said to the Blessed One: 'The Bhikkhus, Lord, have eaten their fill with sugar, but there is much sugar left over; what shall I do with it, Lord?'

'Well, Kakkâna, give the sugar to the people who eat the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food,' &c.

'Well, Kakkâna, give the people who eat the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food as much sugar as they want,' &c.

26.5 'Well, Kakkâna, let the people who eat the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food, eat their fill with sugar' (&c., down to:); some of the people who ate the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food, filled their [95] pots and jars, and filled their baskets and the folds of their dress with it.

26.6 And Belattha Kakkâna, having let the people who ate the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food, eat their fill with sugar, said to the Blessed One: 'The people, Lord, who eat the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food, have eaten their fill with sugar, but there is much sugar left over; what shall I do with it, Lord?'

I see no one, Kakkâna, in the world of men and gods, in Mâra's and Brahma's world, among all beings, Samanas and Brâhmanas, gods and men, by whom that sugar, when he has eaten it, can be fully assimilated, save by the Tathâgata or by a disciple of the Tathâgata. Therefore, Kakkâna, throw that sugar away at a place free from grass, or sink it into water in which there are no living things.'

Belattha Kakkâna accepted this order of the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' and sunk that sugar into water in which there were no living things.

26.7 And that sugar, when thrown into the water, hissed and bubbled, and steamed, and sent forth smoke. As a ploughshare, which has been heated through the whole day and is thrown into water, hisses and bubbles, and steams, and sends forth smoke, so that sugar, when thrown into the water, hissed and bubbled, steamed, and sent forth smoke. And Belattha Kakkâna, terrified and having his hair erect with fear, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him.

26.8 When Belattha Kakkâna was sitting near him, [96] the Blessed One preached to him in due course; that is to say, he talked about the merits obtained by alms-giving, about the duties of morality, about heaven, about the evils, the vanity, and the defilement of lusts, and about the blessings of the abandonment of lusts. When the Blessed One saw that the mind of Belattha Kakkâna was prepared, impressible, free from obstacles (to understanding the Truth), elated, and believing, then he preached what is the principal doctrine of the Buddhas, namely, Suffering, the Cause of suffering, the Cessation of suffering, the Path. Just as a clean cloth free from black specks properly takes the dye, thus Belattha Kakkâna, even while sitting there, obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.'

26.9 And Belattha Kakkâna, having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth, having understood the Truth, having penetrated the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, said to the Blessed One: 'Glorious, Lord! glorious, Lord! Just as if one should set up, Lord, what had been overturned, or should reveal what had been hidden, or should point out the way to one who had lost his way, or should bring a lamp into the darkness, in order that those who had eyes might see visible things, thus has the Blessed One preached the doctrine in many ways. I take my refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkhus; may [97] the Blessed One receive me from this day forth while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his refuge in him.'

 


 

27.

 

27.1 And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Râgagaha. There the Blessed One dwelt near Râgagaha, in the Veluvana, at Kalandakanivâpa. At that time the Bhikkhus at Râgagaha had plenty of sugar. The Bhikkhus feared to offend (and thought): 'The Blessed One has allowed the eating of sugar only to the sick and not to the healthy,' and therefore they did not eat sugar.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, to the sick the eating of sugar, and to the healthy the drinking of sugar-water.'

 


 

28.[107]

 

28.1 And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, went forth to Pâtaligâma, accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. Wandering from place to place the Blessed One came to Pâtaligâma.

[98] Now the lay-devotees at Pâtaligâma heard: 'The Blessed One has arrived at Pâtaligâma.' And the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down near him. When they were seated near him, the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees by religious discourse.

28.2 And the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees, having been taught, incited, animated, and gladdened by the Blessed One by religious discourse, said to the Blessed One: 'Might the Blessed One, Lord, consent to come to our rest house together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.' The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent. Then the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees, when they understood that the Blessed One had accepted their invitation, rose from their seats, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing round him with their right side towards him, went away to the rest house. When they had arrived there, they strewed the whole floor of the rest house[108], placed seats in it, set up a water-pot, and fixed an oil lamp. Then they went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they stationed themselves near him.

28.3 Standing near him the Pâtaliputta lay-devotees said to the Blessed One: 'We have strewn the whole floor of the rest house, Lord, (with sand), we have placed seats in it, set up a water-pot, and [99] fixed an oil lamp. May the Blessed One, Lord, do now what he thinks fit.'

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl, and, with his kîvara on, went to the rest house together with the Bhikkhus who followed him. When he had arrived there, he washed his feet, entered the rest house, and took . his seat against the centre pillar, with his face towards the east. And the Bhikkhus also washed their feet, entered the rest house, and took their seats against the western wall, with their faces towards the east, having the Blessed One before their eyes. And the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees also washed their feet, entered the rest house, and took their seats against the eastern wall, with their faces towards the west, having the Blessed One before their eyes.

28.4 Then the Blessed One thus addressed the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees: 'Fivefold, O householders, is the loss of the wrong-doer through his want of rectitude. And which is this fivefold loss? In the first place, O householders, the wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, falls into great poverty through sloth; this is the first loss of the wrong-doer through his want of rectitude. And again, O householders, of the wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, evil repute gets noised abroad; this is the second &c. And again, O householders, whatever society the wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, enters--whether of noblemen, Brâhmanas, heads of houses, or Samanas--he enters shyly and confused; this is the third &c. And again, O householders, the wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, is full of anxiety when he dies; this is the fourth &c. And again, O householders, the [100] wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, on the dissolution of his body, after death, is reborn into some state of distress and punishment, a state of woe, and hell; this is the fifth &c. This is the fivefold loss, O householders, of the wrong-doer through his want of rectitude.

28.5 'Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of the well-doer through his practice of rectitude. And which is this fivefold gain? In the first place, O householders, the well-doer, strong in rectitude, acquires great wealth through his industry; this is the first gain of the well-doer through his practice of rectitude. And again, O householders, of the well-doer, strong in rectitude, good reports are spread abroad; this is the second &c. And again, O householders, whatever society the well-doer, strong in rectitude, enters--whether of noblemen, Brâhmanas, heads of houses, or Samanas--he enters confident and self-possessed; this is the third &c. And again, O householders, the well-doer, strong in rectitude, dies without anxiety; this is the fourth &c. And again, O householders, the well-doer, strong in rectitude, on the dissolution of his body, after death, is reborn into some happy state in heaven; this is the fifth &c. This is the fivefold gain, O householders, of the well-doer through his practice of rectitude.'

28.6 When the Blessed One had thus taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees far into the night with religious discourse, he dismissed them, saying, 'The night is far spent, O householders. May you do now what you think fit.' The Pâtaligâma lay-devotees accepted the Blessed One's word by saying, 'Yes, Lord,' rose from their [101] seats, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing round him with their right side towards him, went away.

28.7 And the Blessed One, not long after the Pâtaligâma lay-devotees had departed thence, went to an empty place[109] (in order to give himself to meditation).

At that time Sunîdha and Vassakâra, two ministers of Magadha, were building a (fortified) town at Pâtaligâma in order to repel the Vaggis. And the Blessed One, rising up early in the morning, at dawn's time, saw with his divine and clear vision, surpassing that of ordinary men, great numbers of fairies who haunted the ground there at Pâtaligâma. Now, wherever ground is occupied by powerful fairies, they bend the hearts of powerful kings and ministers to build dwelling-places there. Wherever ground is occupied by fairies of middling power, &c.; of inferior power, they bend the hearts of middling kings and ministers, &c., of inferior kings and ministers to build dwelling-places there.

28.8 And the Blessed One said to the venerable Ânanda: 'Who are they, Ânanda, who are building a town at Pâtaligâma?'

'Sunîdha and Vassakâra, Lord, the two ministers of Magadha, are building a town at Pâtaligâma in order to repel the Vaggis.'

'As if they had consulted, Ânanda, with the Tâvatimsa gods, so (at the right place), Ânanda, the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra build this town at Pâtaligâma in order to repel the Vaggis. When I had risen up early in the morning, Ânanda, at dawn's time, I saw with my divine [102] and clear vision (&c., as in Ī7, down to:) they bend the hearts of inferior kings and ministers to build dwelling-places there. As far, Ânanda, as Aryan people dwell, as far as merchants travel, this will become the chief town, the city of Pâtaliputta. But danger of destruction, Ânanda, will hang over Pâtaliputta in three ways, by fire, or by water, or by internal discords[110].'

28.9 And the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra went to the place where the Blessed One was.; having approached him, they exchanged greeting with the Blessed One; having exchanged with him greeting and complaisant words, they stationed themselves near him; then standing near him the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra said to the Blessed One: 'Might the reverend Gotama consent to take his meal with us to-day together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.'

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent. Then the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra, when they understood that the Blessed One had accepted their invitation, went away.

[103] 28.10 And the Magadha. ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra ordered excellent food, both hard and soft, to be prepared, and had meal-time announced (&c.[111], down to:) on seats laid out for them. And the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra with their own hands served and offered excellent food, both hard and soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head; and when the Blessed One had finished his meal and cleansed his bowl and his hands, they sat down near him. When they were sitting near him, the Blessed One gladdened the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra by these stanzas:

28.11 'Wheresoe’er the prudent man shall take up his abode, let him support there good and upright men of self-control.

'Let him make offerings to all such deities as may be there. Revered, they will revere him; honoured, they honour him again;

'Are gracious to him as a mother to the son of her womb. And a man who has the grace of the gods, good fortune he beholds.'

And the Blessed One, having gladdened the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra by these stanzas, rose from his seat and went away.

28.12 And the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra followed the Blessed One from behind, saying, The gate the Samana Gotama goes out by to-day shall be called Gotama's gate, and the ferry at which he crosses the river Ganges shall be called Gotama's ferry.' And the gate the Blessed One went out by [104] was called Gotama's gate. And the Blessed One went on to the river. At that time the river Ganges was brimful and overflowing[112]; and wishing to cross to the opposite bank, some began to seek for boats, some for rafts of wood, while some made rafts of basket-work.

28.13 And the Blessed One saw those people who wished to cross to the opposite bank, some seeking for boats, some for rafts of wood, and some making rafts of basket-work. When he saw them, he vanished as quickly as a strong man might stretch his bent arm out, or draw back his outstretched arm, from this side of the river Ganges, and stood on the further bank with the company of the Bhikkhus.

And the Blessed One, perceiving all this, on this occasion, pronounced this solemn utterance:

'They who cross the ocean's floods making a solid path across the pools--

'Whilst the vain world ties its basket rafts: these are the wise, these are the saved indeed.'

 


 

29.

 

29.1 And the Blessed One went to Kotigâma. There at Kotigâma the Blessed One resided. And the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'It is through not understanding and grasping four Noble Truths, O Bhikkhus, that we have had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary path of transmigration, both you and I. And what are [105] these four? By not understanding and grasping the Noble Truth of Suffering, O Bhikkhus; by not understanding and grasping the Noble Truth of the Cause of suffering; by not understanding and grasping the Noble Truth of the Cessation of suffering; by not understanding and grasping the Noble Truth of the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering: thereby we have had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary path of trans-migration, both you and I.

29.2 'But now, O Bhikkhus, the Noble Truth of Suffering is understood and grasped;' the Noble Truth of the Cause of suffering, &c., of the Cessation of suffering, &c., of the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering is understood and grasped. The craving for existence is rooted out; that which leads to renewed existence is destroyed; and there is no more birth!

'By not seeing the four Noble Truths as they really are, long is the path that is traversed through many a birth.

'Now these are grasped; the cause of birth is removed, the root of sorrow rooted out, and there is no more birth.'

 


 

30.

 

30.1 Now the courtezan Ambapâlî heard that the Blessed One had arrived at Kotigâma. And the courtezan Ambapâlî ordered a number of magnificent vehicles to be made ready, mounted one of these vehicles, and left Vesâlî with her magnificent vehicles in order to visit the Blessed One. She [106] went in the carriage as far as the ground was passable for carriages; there she alighted; and she proceeded on foot to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, she sat down near him.

30.2 When she was sitting near him, the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the courtezan Ambapâlî by religious discourse. And the courtezan Ambapâlî, having been taught, &c., by the Blessed One by religious discourse, said to the Blessed One: 'Might the Blessed One, Lord, consent to take his meal with me to-morrow together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.'

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent.

Then the courtezan Ambapâlî, when she understood that the Blessed One had accepted her invitation, rose from her seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and, passing round him with her right side towards him, went away.

30.3 Now the Likkhavis of Vesâlî heard that the Blessed One had arrived at Kotigâma. And the Likkhavis of Vesâlî ordered a number of magnificent vehicles to be made ready, mounted these vehicles, and left Vesâlî with their magnificent vehicles in order to visit the Blessed One. Some of the Likkhavis were dark, dark in colour, and wearing dark clothes and ornaments; some of them. were fair, fair in colour, and wearing light clothes and ornaments; some of them were red, ruddy in colour, and wearing red clothes and ornaments; some of them were white, pale in colour, and wearing white colours and ornaments. And the courtezan Ambapâlî drove up against the young [107] Likkhavis, pole to pole, yoke to yoke, wheel to wheel, axle to axle. [4.] And those Likkhavis said to the courtezan Ambapâlî: 'How is it, Ambapâlî, that you drive up against the young Likkhavis, pole to pole, &c.?'

My Lords, I have just invited the Blessed One with the fraternity of Bhikkhus for their morrow's meal.'

'Ambapâlî! give up this meal to us for a hundred thousand.'

'My Lords, were you to offer all Vesâlî with its subject territory, I would not give up this meal.' Then the Likkhavis snapped their fingers (exclaiming), 'We are outdone by this woman[113]! we are out-reached by this woman[113]!'

30.4 Then the Likkhavis went to the place where the Blessed One was. And the Blessed One saw the Likkhavis coming from afar; when he saw them, he addressed the Bhikkhus and said: 'O Bhikkhus, let those of the Bhikkhus who have never seen the Tâvatimsa gods, gaze upon this company of the Likkhavis, behold this company of the Likkhavis, compare this company of the Likkhavis, even as a company of Tâvatimsa gods!' And the Likkhavis went in the carriages as far as the ground was passable for carriages (&c., as in §Ī1, 2, down to:) 'Might the Blessed One, Lord, consent to take his meal with us to-morrow together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.'

[108] 'I have promised, O Likkhavis, to dine to-morrow with Ambapâlî the courtezan.'

30.5 And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Kotigâma as long as he thought fit, went to Ñâtikâ. There the Blessed One dwelt at Ñâtikâ, in the Brick Hall (Giñgakâvasatha). And when the night had elapsed, the courtezan Ambapâlî ordered in her park excellent food (&c., as in chap. 28. 10[114], down to:) she sat down near him. Sitting near him the courtezan Ambapâlî said to the Blessed One: 'I give up this Ambapâlî grove, Lord, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head.' The Blessed One accepted the Ârâma. Then the Blessed One, after having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the courtezan Ambapâlî by religious discourse, rose from his seat and went to the Mahâvana. There the Blessed One dwelt at Vesâlî, in the Mahâvana, in the Kûtâgâra-sâlâ.

End of the Likkhavi Bhânavâra.

 


 

31.

 

31.1 At that time many distinguished Likkhavis were sitting together assembled in the town-hall and spoke in many ways in praise of the Buddha, of the Dhamma, and of the Samgha. At that time Sîha, the general-in-chief (of the Likkhavis), a disciple of the Nigantha sect, was sitting in that assembly. And Sîha, the general, thought: 'Truly [109] he, the Blessed One, must be the Arahat Buddha, since these many distinguished Likkhavis, who are sitting here together assembled in the town-hall, speak in so many ways in praise of the Buddha, of the Dhamma, and of the Samgha. What if I were to go and visit him, the Arahat Buddha.'

31.2 And Sîha, the general, went to the place where the Nigantha Nâtaputta[115] was; having approached him, he said to the Nigantha Nâtaputta: 'I wish, Lord, to go and visit the Samana Gotama.'

'Why should you, Sîha, who believe in the result of actions[116] (according to their moral merit), go to visit the Samana Gotama, who denies the result of actions? For the Samana Gotama, Sîha, denies the result of actions; he teaches the doctrine of non-action; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples.'

Then the desire to go and to visit the Blessed One, which had arisen in Sîha, the general, abated in him.

31.3 And a second time many distinguished Likkhavis were sitting together (&c., as in §Ī1, 2, down to the end).

And a third time many distinguished Likkhavis were sitting together, &c. And a third time Sîha, the general, thought: 'Truly he, the Blessed One, must be the Arahat Buddha, since these many distinguished Likkhavis, who are sitting here together assembled in the town-hall, speak in so many ways [110] in praise of the Buddha, of the Dhamma, and of the Samgha. What are the Niganthas to me, whether they give their consent or not? What if I were to go without asking the Niganthas for their consent, to visit him, the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha.'

31.4 And Sîha, the general, went out of Vesâlî with five hundred vehicles at broad daylight in order to visit the Blessed One. He went in the carriage as far as the ground was passable for carriages; there he alighted; and he proceeded on foot to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him, and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. When he was sitting near him, Sîha, the general, said to the Blessed One: 'I have heard, Lord, that the Samana Gotama denies the result of actions; he teaches the doctrine of non-action, and in this doctrine he trains his disciples. Now, Lord, those who speak thus: "The Samana Gotama denies the result of actions," &c.--do they say the truth of the Blessed One, and do they not bear false witness against the Blessed One and pass off a spurious Dhamma as your Dhamma? And there is nothing blameworthy in a discourse and dispute like this regarding matters of the Dhamma; for it is our intention, Lord, to avoid bringing false accusations against the Blessed One.'

31.5 [117]. 'There is a way, Sîha, in which one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama denies action[118]; he teaches the doctrine of non-action; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples."

[111] 'And again, Sîha, there is a way in which one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama maintains action[119]; he teaches the doctrine of action; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples."

'And again, Sîha, there is a way in which one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama maintains annihilation[120]; he teaches the doctrine of annihilation; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples."

'And again, Sîha, there is a way in which one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama proclaims contemptibleness[121]; he teaches the doctrine of contemptibleness; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples."

'And again, &c.: "The Samana Gotama proclaims Vinaya[122]; he teaches the doctrine of Vinaya; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples."

'And again, &c.: "The Samana Gotama proclaims Tapas[123], &c."

'And again, &c.: "The Samana Gotama is apagabbha[124]; he teaches the doctrine of apagabbhatâ, &c."

[112] 'And again, &c.: "The Samana Gotama is confident[125]; he teaches the doctrine of confidence, &c."

31.6 'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama denies action; he teaches the doctrine of non-action; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples?" I teach, Sîha, the not-doing of such actions as are unrighteous, either by deed, or by word, or by thought; I teach the not bringing about of the manifold conditions (of heart) which are evil and not good. In this way, Sîha, one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama, &c."

'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama maintains action; he teaches the doctrine of action; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples?" I teach, Sîha, the doing of such actions as are righteous, by deed, by word, and by thought; I teach the bringing about of the manifold conditions (of heart) which are good and not evil. In this way, &c."

31.7 'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama maintains annihilation; he teaches the doctrine of annihilation; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples?" I proclaim, Sîha, the annihilation of lust, of ill-will, of delusion; I proclaim the annihilation of the manifold conditions (of heart) which are evil and not good. In this way, &c."

'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama [113] proclaims contemptibleness, &c.?" I deem, Sîha, unrighteous actions contemptible, whether they be performed by deed, or by word, or by thought; I proclaim the doctrine of the contemptibleness of falling into the manifold conditions (of heart) which are evil and not good. In this way, &c.

31.8 'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama proclaims Vinaya, &c.?" I teach, Sîha, the doing away[126] with lust, with ill-will, with delusion; I teach the doing away with the manifold conditions (of heart) which are evil and not good. In this way, &c.

'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama proclaims Tapas, &c.?" I teach, Sîha, that all the conditions (of heart) which are evil and not good, unrighteous actions by deed, by word, and by thought must be burnt away[127]. He who has freed himself, Sîha, from all conditions (of heart) which are evil and not good, which ought to be burnt away, who has rooted them out, and has done away with them as a palm tree is rooted out[128], so that they are destroyed[129] and cannot grow up again--such a [114] person do I call accomplished in Tapas. Now the Tathâgata, Sîha, has freed himself from all conditions, &c. In this way, &c.

31.9 'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama is apagabbha (irresolute[130]), &c.?" He who has freed himself, Sîha, from the necessity of returning in future into a mother's womb[131], and of being reborn into new existences, who has rooted out (his being subject to) rebirth, and has done away with it as a palm tree is rooted out, so that it is destroyed and cannot grow up again--such a person do I call apagabbha. Now the Tathâgata, Sîha, has freed himself, &c. In this way, &c.

'And in which way is it, Sîha, that one speaking truly could say of me: "The Samana Gotama is confident, &c.?" I am confident, Sîha, by the highest confidence; and thus I teach the doctrine of confidence and train my disciples in it. In this way, &c.'

31.10 When he had spoken thus, Sîha, the general, said to the Blessed One: 'Glorious, Lord! glorious, Lord! (&c., as in chap. 26. 9, down to:) may the Blessed One receive me from this day forth while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his refuge in him.'

'Consider first, Sîha, what you are doing. It is becoming that well-known persons like you should do nothing without due consideration.'

[115] 'By this, Lord, my joy and my faith in the Blessed One has still increased, in that the Blessed One says to me: "Consider first, &c." Had the other Titthiya teachers, Lord, got me as their disciple, they would carry around their banners through the whole of Vesâlî (and cry): "Sîha, the general, has become our disciple!" But the Blessed One says to me: "Consider first, &c." For the second time, Lord, I take my refuge in. the Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the Bhikkhu-samgha: may the Blessed One receive me from this day forth while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his refuge in him.'

31.11 'For a long time, Sîha, drink has been offered to the Niganthas in your house[132]. You should therefore deem it right (also in the future) to give them food when they come (to you on their alms-pilgrimage).'

'By this, Lord, my joy and my faith in the Blessed One has still increased, in that the Blessed One says to me: "For a long time, &c." I have been told, Lord: "The Samana Gotama says: 'To me alone gifts should be given; to nobody else gifts should be given. To my pupils alone gifts should be given; to no one else's pupils gifts should be given. Only what is given to me has great reward; what is given to others has not great reward. Only what is given to my pupils has great reward; what is given to the pupils of others has not great reward.'" But the Blessed One exhorts me to give also to the Niganthas. Well, Lord, we will see what will be seasonable.

[116] For the third time, Lord, I take my refuge in the Blessed One, &c.'

31.12 And the Blessed One preached to Sîha, the general, in due course; that is to say, he talked about the merits obtained by almsgiving, about the duties of morality (&c., in the usual way; see, for instance, I, 8, 2, 3, down to:) dependent on nobody else for knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, he said to the Blessed One; 'Lord, may the Blessed One consent to take his meal with me to-morrow, together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.'

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent. Then Sîha, the general, when he understood that the Blessed One had accepted his invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and, passing round him with his right side towards him, went away.

And Sîha, the general, gave order to a certain man (among his subalterns, saying), 'Go, my friend, and see if there is any meat to be had[133]: And when that night had elapsed, Sîha, the general, ordered excellent food (&c., as in chap. 23. 5, down to the end).

31.13 At that time a great number of Niganthas (running) through Vesâlî, from road to road and from cross-way to cross-way[134], with outstretched arms, cried: 'To-day Sîha, the general, has killed a great ox and has made a meal for the Samana Gotama; the Samana Gotama knowingly eats this meat of an animal killed for this very purpose, and has thus become virtually the author of that deed (of killing the animal)!'

Then a certain man went to the place where Sîha, [117] the general, was. Having approached him he said to Sîha, the general, into his ear: 'Please, Lord, have you noticed that a great number of Niganthas (running) through Vesâlî, &c.?'

'Do not mind it, my good Sir. Long since those venerable brethren are trying to discredit the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Samgha; and those venerable brethren do not become tired of telling false, idle, vain lies of the Blessed One. Not for our life would we ever intentionally kill a living being.'

31.14 And Sîha, the general, served and offered with his own hands excellent food, both hard and soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head; and when the Blessed One (&c., as in chap. 23. 7, down to the end).

In consequence of that the Blessed One, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus and said:

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, knowingly eat meat (of an animal) killed for that purpose. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that fish is pure to you in three cases: if you do not see, if you have not heard, if you do not suspect (that it has been caught specially to be given to you).'

 


 

32.

 

32.1 Now at that time Vesâlî was well provided with food, the harvest was good, alms were easy to obtain, one could very well get a living[135] by gleaning, or through favour.

[118] And when the Blessed One had retired into solitude this consideration presented itself to his mind: 'The things which I have prescribed for the Bhikkhus in a time of scarcity, when the harvest is bad, and alms are difficult to obtain--keeping food indoors, cooking it indoors, cooking it of one's own accord, taking what they can pick up, eating food brought from within, or received before meal-time, eating things found in woods or in pools[136], those things the Bhikkhus enjoy also now.'

And the Blessed One, in the evening, when he had left his solitude, said to the venerable Ânanda: 'The things which (&c., as above, down to:) or in pools--do the Bhikkhus enjoy those things now also?'

'They enjoy them, Lord.'

32.2 Then the Blessed One, in that connection, and on that account, after having delivered a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus:

'The things which I have prescribed (&c., as in Ī1, down to:) or in pools--those I do not allow from this day forth. You are not, O Bhikkhus, to eat food kept indoors, or cooked indoors, or cooked of your own accord; nor to take things (to eat) which you have picked up. Whosoever shall do so, is guilty of a dukkata offence. And you are not, O Bhikkhus--after you have once finished eating, and have refused food still offered--to eat food brought from within, or received before meal-time, or found in the woods or pools, even if it be food which is not the leavings of the meal of one who has eaten on invitation. Whosoever shall so eat, shall be dealt with according to law[137].'

 


 

33.

 

[119] 33.1 Now at that time the country people loaded much salt, and oil, and rice, and hard food on their carts, and making a laager in the outer enclosure of the Ârâma, they waited there, saying, 'When it comes to our turn, we will provide a meal.' And a great storm-cloud arose. Then those people went to the place where the venerable Ânanda was; and when they had come there they said to the venerable Ânanda: 'We loaded a quantity of salt, and oil, and rice, and hard food on to our carts; and they stand there. Now a great storm-cloud has arisen. What are we now, Ânanda, Sir, to do with them?'

Then the venerable Ânanda told this thing to the Blessed One.

33.2 'In that case, Ânanda, let the Samgha decide upon some outside building as a kappiyabhûmi (that is to say, a site, outside the actual dwelling, in which provisions can be kept or cooked without breaking the rule laid down in the last chapter) and keep the stores there (in a building) of any shape the Samgha chooses, such as vihâra, addhayoga, pâsâda, hammiya, guhâ[138].

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be resolved upon. A discreet and able Bhikkhu should proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha appoint the Vihâra called N. N. to be our kappiya-bhûmi. This is the ñatti. Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me.

[120] The Samgha appoints the Vihâra called N. N. to be our kappiya-bhûmi. Let any one of the venerable brethren who is in favour of appointing the Vihâra (&c., down to:) thus I understand."'

33.3 Now at that time men in that place--the kappiya-bhûmi duly chosen by resolution (of the Samgha)--boiled congey, and boiled rice, and mixed curries, and cut up meat, and split fire-wood. And when the Blessed One, as the night was passing away, rose up, he heard a great and loud noise, as of the cawing of crows. On hearing this he asked the venerable Ânanda: 'What now, Ânanda, may be this great and loud noise, as of the cawing of crows?'

33.4 'In that place, Lord,--the kappiya-bhûmi duly chosen by resolution (of the Samgha),--men are now boiling congey, and boiling rice, and mixing curries, and cutting up meat, and splitting fire-wood. Thence, Lord, comes that great and loud noise, as of the cawing of crows.'

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, and on that account, after he had delivered a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus

'A kappiya-bhûmi, O Bhikkhus, duly chosen, is not to be made use of. Whosoever shall so use it, is guilty of a dukkata offence. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a kappiya-bhûmi of three kinds, one that has become so by means of a proclamation[139], [121] an ox-stall[140], and a building belonging to laymen[141].'

33.5 Now at that time the venerable Yasoga was sick, and drugs were brought for his use, and these the Bhikkhus put out of doors. Vermin ate them, and thieves carried them away[142].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a duly chosen kappiya-bhûmi (to keep drugs in). I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a kappiya-bhûmi of four kinds, one that has become so by means of a proclamation, an ox-stall, a building belonging to laymen, and a duly chosen one.'

End of the twenty-fourth Bhânavâra.

 


 

34.

 

34.1 Now at that time in Bhaddiya-nagara there dwelt a householder named Mendaka (the Goat), who was possessed of this miraculous power: When he had bathed his head, and had had his granary swept out, he could sit outside and fill the granary [122] by making showers of grain fall down from the sky. His wife was possessed of this miraculous power: When she sat down beside a pint[143] pot and vessel for curry and sauce she could serve the serving men with food; and so long as she did not get up, it was not exhausted. Their son was possessed of this miraculous power: He could take a bag containing a thousand[144], and give to each serving man six months' wages; and so long as he held it in his hand, it was not exhausted.

34.2 Their daughter-in-law was possessed of this miraculous power.: When she sat down beside a four-bushel[145] basket she could give six months' rice to the serving men; and so long as she did not get up, it was not exhausted. Their slave was possessed of this miraculous power: When he ploughed with one plough-share seven furrows were formed.

34.3-4 Now the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra heard: 'In Bhaddiya-nagara in our kingdom there dwells, they say, a householder named Mendaka, who is possessed (&c., as in §Ī1, 2, down to the end).'

34.5 Then the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra said to a certain minister who had charge of general affairs: 'They say, good Sir, that in Bhaddiya-nagara (&c., as above). Go, good Sir, and find out about this. When you have seen it, it shall be the same as if I myself had seen it.'

'Even so, Lord,' said that minister, in assent, to the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, and he set out for Bhaddiya-nagara with his fourfold host.

34.6 And proceeding straight on he came to Bhaddiya-nagara, and to the place where the householder [123] Mendaka the was; householder Mendaka a 'I have there, said to received command from the king, "They say, good Sir (&c., as above, S 5)." Let us behold, O householder, your miraculous power.'

Then Mendaka the householder bathed his head, and had his granary swept out, and sat down outside it. And showers of grain fell down from the sky and filled the granary.

'I have seen, O householder, your miraculous power. Let us see that of your wife.'

34.7 Then Mendaka the householder gave command to his wife, 'Serve then the fourfold host with food.'

And the wife of Mendaka the householder took her seat beside a pint pot and a vessel of sauces and curry, and served the fourfold host with food; and until she rose up it was not exhausted.

'I have seen, O householder, the miraculous power of your wife. Let us see that of your son.'

34.8 Then Mendaka the householder gave command to his son, 'Pay then, my dear boy, six months' wages to the fourfold host.'

And the son of Mendaka the householder took one bag containing a thousand, and paid the four-fold army six months' wages. And so long as he held it in his hand, it was not exhausted.

'I have seen, O householder, the miraculous power of your son. Let us see that of your daughter-in-law.'

34.9 Then Mendaka the householder gave command to his daughter-in-law, 'Give, then, six months' rice to the fourfold host.'

And the daughter-in-law of Mendaka the householder [124] sat down beside one four-bushel basket, and provided the fourfold host with six months' rice. And so long as she did not get up, it was not exhausted.

'I have seen, O householder, the miraculous power of your daughter-in-law. Let us see that of your slave.'

'The miraculous power of my slave, Sir, must be seen in the field.'

'It is enough, O householder. I have seen the miraculous power of your slave.'

Then that minister returned again to Râgagaha with his fourfold host, and went to the place where the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra was, and when he had come there he told the matter to the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra.

34.10 Now the Blessed One, when he had remained at Vesâlî as long as he thought fit, went on his way to Bhaddiya with a great company of Bhikkhus, with one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One wandering straight on arrived at Bhaddiya. And there the Blessed One stayed in the Gâtiyâvana.

34.11 And Mendaka the householder heard: 'Behold, that Samana Gotama, of the Sakya clan, who left the Sakya tribe to adopt the religious life, is now arrived at Bhaddiya and is staying in the Gâtiyâvana. Now regarding that venerable Gotama, such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad that he is said to be a fully-enlightened one, blessed, and worthy, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed, who guides men as a driver curbs a bullock, a teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha. He by himself thoroughly understands, and sees, as it [125] were face to face, this universe, the world with its Devas, and with its Brahmas; and with its Mâras, and all creatures, Samanas and Brâhmanas, gods and men: and he then makes that knowledge known to others. The truth doth he make known, both in the spirit and in the letter: lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation. The higher life doth he proclaim, in all its purity and all its perfectness. Blessed is the sight of Arahats like that.'

34.12 Then Mendaka the householder had a number of splendid carriages made ready, and mounting one of them he set out from Bhaddiya with the train of splendid carriages to visit the Blessed One.

And many Titthiyas saw Mendaka the householder as he was coming from afar; .and when-they had seen him, they said to Mendaka the householder:

'Whither, O householder, are you going?'

'I am going, Sirs, to visit the Blessed One, the Samana Gotama.'

'But why, O householder, do you, being a Kiriya-vâda, go out to visit the Blessed One who is an Akiriya-vâda? For, O householder, the Samana Gotama, who is an Akiriya-vâda, teaches Dhamma without the doctrine of action[146], and in this Dhamma he instructs his hearers.'

34.13 Then thought Mendaka the householder: 'For a certainty that Blessed One must be an Arahat Buddha: since these Titthiyas are so jealous of him.' And he went on to the place where the Blessed One was, proceeding in the carriage as far [126] as the ground was passable for carriages, and then dismounting from the carriage, and going on foot. And when he had come there, he bowed down before the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side.

And when he was so seated the Blessed One preached (&c., as usual, for instance, I, 8, 2; 3, down to:) 'taken his refuge in him.'

'May the Blessed One consent to take his meal, together with the Bhikkhu-samgha, at my house to-morrow.'

The Blessed One consented by remaining silent.

34.14 Then Mendaka the householder when he saw that the Blessed One had consented (&c., as usual, see VI, 18, 1, 2, down to:) sat down on the seat prepared for him.

34.15 Then the wife, and the son, and the daughter-in-law, and the slave of Mendaka the householder went to the place where the Blessed One was: and when they had come there they bowed down before the Blessed One and took their seats on one side.

And the Blessed One preached to them (&c., as in Ī13, down to:) 'taken their refuge in him.'

34.16 Then Mendaka the householder served the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head (&c., as usual, down to:) sat down on one side.

And when he was so seated Mendaka the householder said to the Blessed One: 'So long as the Blessed One shall stay at Bhaddiya, so long will I provide the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head with food every day.'

Then the Blessed One gladdened (&c., as usual, down to:) the Blessed One rose from his seat, and went away.

34.17 Now when the Blessed One had remained [127] at Bhaddiya as long as he thought fit, he went on, without informing Mendaka the householder, to Aṅguttarâpa with a great company of Bhikkhus, with one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus.

And Mendaka the householder heard: 'The Blessed One, they say, has gone on to Aṅguttarâpa with (&c., down to:) Bhikkhus.' And Mendaka the householder gave command to his slaves and servants: 'Load then, my men, a quantity of salt and oil, and rice, and hard food, and come: and let one thousand two hundred and fifty cow-keepers come with one thousand two hundred and fifty cows. Wherever we find the Blessed One there will we supply him with fresh milk.'

34.18 And Mendaka the householder came up with the Blessed One in a desert place on the way. And Mendaka the householder went up to the place where the Blessed One was: and when he had come he stood on one side. And so standing, Mendaka the householder said to the Blessed One: 'May the Blessed One consent to take his meal (&c., as usual, down to:) 'The time has come, and the meal is ready.'

34.19 And the Blessed One early in the morning (&c., down to:) sat down on the seat prepared for him.

Then Mendaka the householder gave command to those thousand two hundred and fifty cow-keepers: 'Take then, my men, each of you a cow, and wait each of you upon a. Bhikkhu, and provide him with fresh milk.'

And Mendaka the householder waited upon the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head with his own hand, and satisfied them with sweet food, hard and soft, and with fresh milk.

[128] The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not take the milk:

'Take it, Bhikkhus, and drink it.'

34.20 And Mendaka the householder, when he had waited with his own hand upon the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head, and had satisfied them with sweet food, hard and soft, and with fresh milk; and when the Blessed One had finished his meal, and had washed his hands and his bowl, took his seat on one side.

And, so sitting, Mendaka the householder said to the Blessed One: 'There are desert ways, Lord, waterless and foodless, where it is not easy to travel without supplies for the journey. It would be well if the Blessed One were to allow the Bhikkhus to take supplies with them.'

Then the Blessed One gladdened (&c., as usual, down to:) rose from his seat, and went away.

34.21 And the Blessed One, in that connection, and on that account, after having delivered a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the five products of the cow;--milk, curds, ghee, buttermilk, and butter. There are, O Bhikkhus, desert ways, waterless and foodless, where it is not easy to travel without supplies for the journey. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to provide yourselves with supplies for a journey;--rice for him who wants rice, beans for him who wants beans[147], salt for him who wants salt, molasses for him who wants molasses, oil for him who wants oil, ghee for him who wants ghee. There are, O Bhikkhus, faithful and converted men who deposit [129] gold with a kappiya-kâraka[148], saying, "Provide whatever is allowable for this Bhikkhu." I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to accept whatever is allowable. But I do not say by that, O Bhikkhus, that you may, on any pretext whatsoever, accept or seek for gold.'

 


 

35.

 

35.1 Now the Blessed One proceeded straight on, on his alms-pilgrimage, to Âpana. And Keniya the ascetic[149] heard the saying, 'Behold! the Samana Gotama, who was born in the Sâkya clan, and who went forth from the Sâkya clan (to adopt the religious life), has arrived at Âpana, and is staying at Âpana. Now regarding that venerable Gotama, such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad that he is said to be a fully-enlightened one, blessed and worthy, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed, who guides men as a driver curbs a bullock, a teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha. He by himself thoroughly understands, and sees, as it were face to face, this universe, the world with its Devas, and with its Brahmas, and with its Mâras, and all creatures, Samanas and Brâhmanas, gods and men: and he then makes his knowledge known to others. The truth doth he make known, both in the spirit and in the letter: [130] lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation. The higher life doth he proclaim, in all its purity and all its perfectness. Blessed is the sight of Arahats like that[150]!' And Keniya the ascetic thought: 'What now should I have taken[151] to the Samana Gotama.'

35.2 And Keniya the ascetic thought: 'They who are the ancient Rishis of the Brâhmans, the authors of the sacred verses, the utterers of the sacred verses, whose ancient form of words, so uttered chaunted or composed, the Brâhmans of to-day chaunt over again and repeat, intoning or reciting exactly as had been intoned or recited--to wit, Atthaka, Vâmaka, Vâmadeva, Vessâmitta, Yamataggi, Aṅgirasa, Bhâradvâga, Vâsettha, and Bhagu[152]--they were abstainers from food at night, and abstainers from food at the wrong time, yet they used to receive such things as drinks.

35.3 Now the Samana Gotama is also an abstainer from food [131] at night, an abstainer from food at the wrong time[153]. It will be worthy of him too to receive such things as drinks. And when he had had a quantity of drinkables made ready he had them carried on pingoes and went up to the place where the Blessed One was. And when he had come there, he greeted him; and after exchanging with him the greetings of friendship and civility, he stood by on one side. And so standing Keniya the ascetic spake thus to the Blessed One:

'May the Blessed One accept at my hands these drinkables.'

'Very good then, Keniya; give them to the Bhikkhus.'

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not receive them.

'Receive them, O Bhikkhus, and make use of them.'

35.4 Then Keniya the ascetic having, with his own hand, satisfied the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head with many drinkables until they refused any more, took his seat, when the Blessed One had washed his hands, and had laid aside the bowl, on one side. And when he was so seated the Blessed One taught and incited and aroused and gladdened Keniya the ascetic with religious discourse: and Keniya the ascetic, when he had been taught and incited and aroused and gladdened by the Blessed One with religious discourse, spake thus to the Blessed One:

'May the venerable Gotama grant to me the privilege of providing the to-morrow's meal for him, together with the company of the Bhikkhus.'

[132] 35.5 'Great, O Keniya, is the company of the Bhikkhus. Two hundred and fifty are the Bhikkhus in number. And thou art greatly devoted to the Brâhmans.'

Yet a second time spake Keniya the ascetic to the Blessed One thus:

'What though the company of the Bhikkhus, O Gotama, be great; and though two hundred and fifty be the number of the Bhikkhus. May the venerable Gotama grant to me the privilege of providing the to-morrow's meal for him, together with the company of the Bhikkhus.'

'Great, O Keniya (&c., as before).'

Yet a third time spake Keniya the ascetic to the venerable Gotama thus:

'What though the company of the Bhikkhus (&c., as before).'

Then the Blessed One granted, by remaining silent, his consent. And when Keniya the ascetic perceived that the Blessed One had granted his consent, he arose from his seat, and departed thence.

35.6 Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, after he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, eight kinds of drink-able things: mango-syrup, and jambu-syrup, and plantain-syrup[154], and moka-syrup, and honey, and [133] grape juice, and syrup made from the edible root of the water-lily[155], and phârusaka[156]-syrup. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the juice of all fruits, except the juice prepared from corn[157]. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, drinks prepared from all leaves, except drinks prepared from potherbs[158]. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, drinks prepared from all flowers, except liquorice-juice[159]. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of the juice of the sugar cane.'

35.7 And Keniya the ascetic, at the end of the night, had sweet food, both hard and soft, made ready at his hermitage: and he had the time announced to the Blessed One, saying, 'It is time, O Gotama, and the meal is ready.'

And the Blessed One, having put on his under robes early in the morning, went, duly bowled and . robed, to the place where the hermitage of Keniya the ascetic was. And when he had arrived there, he sat down on the seat spread out for him, and with him the company of the Bhikkhus. Then [134] Keniya the ascetic, with his own hand, offered to the company of the Bhikkhus with the Buddha at their head, and satisfied them with the sweet food, both hard and soft. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal and had washed his hands and his bowl, he (Keniya) took his seat on one side.

35.8 And when he was so seated the Blessed One pronounced the benediction on Keniya the ascetic in these verses:

'Of the offerings[160] the fire sacrifice is the chief, of sacred verses the chief is the Sâvitthi[161];

'Among men the king is chief; and of waters the ocean,

'Of constellations the moon is chief, and of heat-givers the sun,

But of them, the conquering ones, who long after good, the Samgha, verily, is chief.'

And when the Blessed One had, in these verses, pronounced the benediction[162] on Keniya the ascetic, he rose from his seat, and departed thence[163].

 


 

36.

 

36.1 Now when the Blessed One had stayed at Âpana as long as he thought fit, he went on, on his pilgrimage, to Kusinârâ, with a great company [135] of Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. And the Mallas of Kusinârâ heard, saying, 'The Blessed One, they say, is coming to Kusinârâ with a great company of Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus.' And they established a compact to the effect that whosoever went not forth to welcome the Blessed One, should pay a fine of five hundred (pieces[164]).

Now at that time there was a certain Malla, by name Roga, who was a friend of the venerable Ânanda's. And the Blessed One, continuing in due course his pilgrimage, arrived at Kusinârâ.

36.2 Then the Mallas of Kusinârâ went forth to welcome the Blessed One. And Roga the Malla, having gone forth to welcome the Blessed One, went on to the place where the venerable Ânanda was: and when he had come there, he saluted the venerable Ânanda, and stood by on one side. And to him, so standing, the venerable Ânanda spake thus:

'This is most excellent of thee, friend Roga, that thou hast come forth to welcome the Blessed One!'

'It is not I, O Ânanda, who am much moved[165] by the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the Samgha. But by the clansmen a compact was made to the effect that whosoever went not forth to welcome the Blessed One should pay a fine of five hundred (pieces). So that it was through fear of being fined [136] by my clansmen that even I went forth to welcome the Blessed One.'

Then the venerable Ânanda was filled with sorrow, thinking, 'How can Roga the Malla speak thus?'

36.3 And the venerable Ânanda went up to the place where the Blessed One was: and when he had come there, he saluted the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side, and so sitting the venerable Ânanda spake to the Blessed One thus:

'This Roga the Malla, Lord, is a very distinguished and well-known person. Great would be the efficacy[166] of the adherence given by well-known persons like him to this doctrine and discipline. May the Blessed One be pleased so to act, that Roga the Malla shall become devoted to this doctrine and discipline.'

'Now that, Ânanda, is not a hard thing for the Tathâgata--so to act that Roga the Malla should become devoted to this doctrine and discipline.'

36.4 Then the Blessed One suffused Roga the Malla with the feeling of his love[167], and rising from his seat he entered into his dwelling-place. And Roga the Malla, overcome by the Blessed One by the sense of his love, just as a young calf follows the kine, so did he go on from dwelling-place to dwelling-place, and from apartment to apartment, asking the Bhikkhus:

'Where then, Sirs, is that Blessed One dwelling now, the Arahat Buddha? For we desire to visit that Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha.'

[137] 'This, friend, is his dwelling-place, the door of which is shut. Go up therefore quietly, and without crossing the threshold, enter into the verandah, and knock at the cross-bar. The Blessed One will open the door to thee.'

36.5 So Roga the Malla did so, and the Blessed One opened the door. And Roga the Malla entered into the dwelling-place, and saluted the Blessed One and took his seat on one side. And to Roga the Malla sitting there the Blessed One preached in due course: that is to say, he talked to him of giving; of moral conduct; of heaven; of the danger of vanity, of the corruption of lusts; and of the advantages of renunciation. When the Blessed One saw that the mind of Roga the Malla was prepared, impressible, free from obstacles to understanding the truth, elated, and believing, then he preached that which is the principal doctrine of the Buddhas, namely, Suffering, the Cause of suffering, the Cessation of suffering, and the Path. And just as a clean cloth, free from black specks, properly takes the dye, thus did Roga the Malla, even while sitting there, obtain the pure and spotless eye of the truth (that is, the knowledge that), 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of beginning, that is subject also to the condition of cessation.' And Roga the Malla, having seen the truth, having mastered the truth, having understood the truth, having penetrated the truth, having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on no one else for knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, thus spake to the Blessed One:

'May the venerable one be pleased, Lord, to [138] receive from me alone, and not from others, the requisites of the Order: that is to say, robes, and food, and dwelling-places, and medicine for the use of the sick.'

'Whosoever, Roga, with the knowledge of a disciple, and with the insight of a disciple[168], has perceived the Truth, even as thou hast, they also will think, "Oh! that the venerable ones would be pleased to receive from me alone, and not from others, the requisites of the order." Therefore, Roga, they shall receive them from you, indeed, but also from others.'

36.6 Now at that time a certain succession had been fixed, in which the inhabitants of Kusinârâ should each in succession provide food for the Samgha. And it occurred to Roga the Malla, who had not received a place in the succession, thus: What if I were to inspect the Samgha's storehouse, and provide whatever I found wanting in the storehouse?' And on inspecting the storehouse, he found there no potherbs, and no meal[169].

Then Roga the Malla went up to the place where the venerable Ânanda was, and when he had come there, he spake to the venerable Ânanda thus:

'It occurred to me (&ç., as before, down to:) and no meal. If, Ânanda, I were to provide potherbs and meal, would the Blessed One accept them at my hands?'

36.7 The venerable Ânanda told this thing to the Blessed One.

[139] 'Very good, then, Ânanda. Let him provide them.'

'Very good, then, Roga. Provide them accordingly.'

Then Roga the Malla at the end of the night, after he had had a quantity of potherbs and meal made ready, offered them to the Blessed One, saying, 'May the Blessed One accept at my hands the potherbs and the meal.'

'Very good, then, Roga. Present them to the Bhikkhus.'

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did not accept them.

'Accept them, O Bhikkhus, and make use of them.'

36.8 Then Roga the Malla, with his own hand, offered to the company of the Bhikkhus with the Buddha at their head, and satisfied them with the potherbs and the meal. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal, and had cleansed his hands and the bowl, he (Roga) took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the Blessed One taught, and incited, and conversed, and gladdened Roga the Malla with religious discourse. And Roga the Malla, when he had been taught, &c., rose from his seat and departed thence.

And the Blessed One, on that occasion, and in that connection, when he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, all kinds of potherbs[170], and all kinds of meal[171].'

 


[140]

37.

 

37.1 Now the Blessed One, when he had stayed at Kusinârâ as long as he thought fit, went on, on his pilgrimage to Âtumâ, with a great company of the Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. And at that time there was dwelling at Âtumâ a certain man, who had entered the Order in his old age, and who had previously been a barber[172]. He had two sons, handsome[173], skilled in discourse[174], able, fully educated in all the arts which belonged to the barbers' craft handed down to them by their teachers[175].

37.2 Now this dotard[176] heard the news: 'The Blessed One, they say, is coming to Âtumâ with [141] a great company of the Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus.' Then that dotard spake thus to his sons: 'They say the Blessed One is coming, my children[177], to Âtumâ with a great company of Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. Go, therefore, my children, and taking your barbers' lad[178] with you, collect in quart pots from house to house, salt, and oil, and rice, and meal. And we will prepare congey for the Blessed One when he has arrived.'

37.3 Very good, Father, said they, and (did so). And when people saw those young men, of pleasing appearance, and skilful in discourse, so acting, then even those who were not willing to be led into joining in the act were led to join in it; and being so led, they gave abundantly. So the young men collected a great quantity of salt, and oil; and rice, and meal.

37.4 And the Blessed One in due course arrived in his journey at Âtumâ; and there at Âtumâ the Blessed One stayed at the Threshing floor. And that dotard, when the night was far spent, had much congey made ready, and offered it to the Blessed One, saying, 'May the Blessed One accept the congey at my hands.'

Now the Tathâgatas sometimes ask about what they know; sometimes they do not ask about what they know. They understand the right time when to ask, and they understand the right time when not to ask. The Tathâgatas put questions full of [142] sense, not void of sense: to what is void of sense, the bridge is pulled down for the Tathâgatas. For two purposes the blessed Buddhas put questions to the Bhikkhus--when they intend to preach the Truth, and when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to their disciples[179]. And the Blessed One spake thus to that dotard, 'Whence, O Bhikkhu, is this congey?'

Then that dotard informed the Blessed One of the whole matter.

37.5 The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'This is improper, O foolish one, not according to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samana, unbecoming, and ought not to be done. How can you, O foolish one, having gone forth (from the world into the Order), instigate others to do what is unlawful. This will not conduce, O foolish one, to the conversion of the unconverted.'

And when he had rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'One who has gone forth ought not, O Bhikkhus, to instigate others to an unlawful act[180]. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata. And one, O Bhikkhus, who has formerly been a barber is not to keep a barber's boy. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

38.

 

38.1 And when the Blessed One had tarried at Âtumâ as long as he thought fit, he went on his [143] journey towards Sâvatthi. And in due course, journeying straight on, he arrived at Sâvatthi, and there, at Sâvatthi, the Blessed One stayed in the Ârama of Anâtha-pindika.

Now at that time there was in Sâvatthi great abundance of solid food in the shape of fruits. And the question arose among the Bhikkhus, 'Has, now, the Blessed One permitted the use of fruits as solid food, or has he not?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, all solid food in the shape of fruits.'

 


 

39.

 

39.1 Now at that time, seedlings belonging to the Samgha grew upon private ground, and seedlings belonging to private persons grew upon ground which was the property of the Samgha.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Of seedlings belonging to the Samgha, grown upon private ground, half the produce, O Bhikkhus, you may have, when you have given a part to the private owner. Of seedlings belonging to a private person, grown upon ground the property of the Samgha, you may have the use, when you have given a part to the private owner[181].'

 


 

40.

 

40.1 Now at that time there used to arise among the Bhikkhus a fear lest they should offend in [144] some particular or other, they thinking, 'Has this been permitted by the Blessed One, or has it not?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Whatsoever, O Bhikkhus, has not been disallowed by me in the words, "This beseems you not," then, if that thing is in accord with what is unlawful, and is contrary to what is lawful, that is not lawful. Whatsoever has not been disallowed by me with the words, "This beseems you not," then, if that thing is in accord with what is lawful, and is contrary to what is unlawful, that is lawful.

'And whatsoever, O Bhikkhus, has not been allowed by me with the words, "This beseems you," then, if that thing is in accord with what is lawful, and is contrary to what is unlawful, that is not lawful. Whatsoever has not been allowed by me with the words, "This beseems you," then, if that thing is in accord with what is lawful, and is contrary to what is unlawful, that is lawful[182].'

40.2 Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'Is food that may be eaten till the first watch of the night[183] lawful, or not, when mixed with food that ought to be eaten before noon on the same day? Is food that may be eaten at any time within seven days[184] lawful, or not, when mixed with food that ought to be eaten before noon on the same day? Is food that may be eaten at any time during life[185] lawful, or not, when mixed with food that ought to be eaten [145] before noon on the same day? Is food that may be eaten at any time within seven days lawful, or not, when mixed with food that may be eaten at any time during life? Is food that may be eaten at any time during life lawful, or not, when mixed with food that may be eaten at any time within seven days?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

40.3 'Food that may be eaten up to the first watch of the night, or food that may be eaten at any time within seven days, or food that may be eaten at any time during life, is lawful, O Bhikkhus, when mixed with food that ought to be eaten before noon on the same day, up till noon-time, and it is-not lawful after noon-time. Food that may be eaten at any time within seven days, or food that may be eaten at any time during life, is lawful, O Bhikkhus,--when it has been mixed with food that may be eaten up to the first watch of the night,--up till the first watch of the night, and is not lawful after the first watch of the night. Food that may be eaten at any time during life, is lawful, O Bhikkhus,--when it has been mixed with food that may be eaten at any time within seven days,--at any time within seven days, and is not lawful beyond seven days[186].'

Here ends the sixth Khandhaka on Medicaments.

 


[1] Sâradikena âbâdhenâ ’ti sarada-kâle uppannena pittâbâdhena. Tasmim hi kâle vassodakena pi tementi, kaddamam pi maddanti, antarantarâ âtapo pi kharo hoti. Tena tesam pittam kotthabbhantara-gatam hoti (B.).

[2] Read in the text Dhamani-santata-gattâ; and compare Lalita Vistara, p. 226, and Professor Weber's 'Bhagavatî,' II, 289.

[3] Na kkhâdenti na gîranti, na vâtarogam patipassambhetum sakkonti (B.).

[4] Senesikâni siniddhâni (B.). Compare Sanskrit snaihika.

[5] Bhattâkkhandakenâ ’ti bhattam arokakena (B.).

[6] Literally, 'which impart the quality of eatableness to not eatable food, either hard or soft.'

[7] Compare the Sanskrit root puth. Buddhaghosa says: Pisanasilâ ka pisana-poto ka. Pestle and mortar is in Pâli udukkhalam musalañ ka: see below, VI, 9, 2.

[8] Azadirachta Indica. Compare Mahâvagga III, 12, 5.

[9] Wrightia anti-dysenterica. Wise, p. 142, gives the botanical name as Echites anti-dysenterica, and says it is an emetic.

[10] A kind of creeper, says Buddhaghosa.

[11] Pongania Glabra (the same as Karañga, says Buddhaghosa).

[12] See the last chapter for these plants.

[13] A species of cucumber, Trichosanthes Dioeca.

[14] That is, basil; but the reading is conjectural only. The text has sulasi.

[15] This is ordinary cotton.

[16] Erycibe Paniculata.

[17] This is not the Ficus Religiosa, but simply pepper. Childers, following Subhûti's edition of the Abhidhânappadîpikâ, spells both this word and the allied form Pippalî with pph instead of pp. So also Fausböll at Gâtaka, vol. i, p. 29, verse 218. We prefer the spelling with pp in accordance with the Sanskrit.

[18] Yellow myrobalan.

[19] Beleric myrobalan.

[20] Emblic myrobalan.

[21] We cannot suggest any explanation of this word. Buddhaghosa has no comment on any of these medicinal fruits or seeds.

[22] Ferula assa foetida: Böhtlingk-Roth (sub voce) say it comes from Persia. It is much used in Hindu medicine. See Wise, 'Hindu System of Medicine,' pp. 152-154.

[23] The correct spelling is probably sivâtikâ. Böhtlingk-Roth under Sivâtikâ and Hiṅgu-sivâtikâ say it is the same as Vamsa-pattrî.

[24] Buddhaghosa merely says these are kinds of lac. According to Wise, p. 152, lâkshâ is used as errhine.

[25] Resin.

[26] On these salts compare Abhidhânappadîpikâ, verse 461; Susruta, vol. i, pp. 226, 227, of the edition by Madhusûdana Gupta; Wise, 'Hindu Medicine,' p. 117.

[27] Sâmuddikâ ’ti samudda-tîre vâlukâ viya titthati (B.).

[28]la-lonan ti pakati-lonam (B.).

[29] Sindhavan ti seta-vannam: pabbate utthahati (B.). It was probably called Sindh salt because it was found there, though, like Sindhava horses, it is always supposed to be white.

[30] Ubbhidâ ’ti bhummito aṅkuyam (sic) utthahati (B.).

[31] Bilan ti dabba-sambhârehi saddhim pakitam: tam ratta-vannam (B.). It is Sanskrit vida, Hindustâni bit laban, and the same as bilâla in the Abhidhânappadîpikâ.

[32] This introductory story recurs as the introduction to the rule laid down in VIII, 17.

[33] Khakanan ti gomayam (B.).

[34] Ragana-pakkan (sic) ti raganakasatam. Pâkatika-kunnam pi kotetvâ udakena temetvâ nhâyitum vattati, etam pi ragana-nipakka-samkhepam (sic, read samkham) eva gakkhati (B.). Satam in this passage must be equal to sritam. On samkham compare below, Mahâvagga VI, x6, r.

[35] Compare above, VI, 3, 2.

[36] Kâleti has often a more definite meaning than 'shake.' Compare Gâtaka I, 71.

[37] Añgana, which is here a generic term, inclusive of all the following; sabba-samgâhika-vakanam, says Buddhaghosa.

[38]lañganan ti ekâ añgana-gâti (B.).

[39] Rasañganan ti nânâ-sambhârehi katam (B.). Böhtlingk-Roth say it is made with vitriol.

[40] Sotañganan ti nadisotâdisu uppagganakam añganam (B.). It is called in Sanskrit srotoñgana, and was made with antimony.

[41] Geruka is the Sanskrit gairika, ochre; and the kind meant is yellow ochre. Geruko nâma suvanna-geruko, says Buddhaghosa. Compare the Sanskrit Kâñkana-gairika and svarna-gairika.

[42] Kapallan ti dîpa-sikhâto gahita-masi, 'soot taken from the flame of a lamp' (B.).

[43] Tagara as a fragrant flower is mentioned in verse 54 of the Dhammapada quoted in Milinda Pañha, p. 333.

[44] A kind of dark fragrant sandal wood.

[45] Read so in the text as corrected on p. 381. It is a kind of sandal wood.

[46] A perfume made from the grass of the same name (mentioned above, VI, 3).

[47] Saṅkha-nâbhi, the meaning of the latter part of which compound is not quite clear.

[48] Buddhaghosa has no comment on this. It may mean that the ointment boxes might be sewn either on to some place in the Vihâra, or on to some part of the Bhikkhu's dress. The latter is more in accordance with Ī4 below.

[49] Salâkodhâniyan ti yattha salâkam odahanti susiradantakam vâ thâlikam vâ anuganâmî ’ti attho (B.).

[50] Sîsâbhitâpo, literally 'heat in the head.'

[51] Compare Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta II, 31, and below, 13. 2; 14. 3.

[52] Natthu-kamma. In the commentary on the Dhammapada, pp. 83 and foll., there is an example of the way in which a physician administers medicinal oil in this manner to a sick Bhikkhu.

[53] Natthu-karanî, that is, an instrument to hold up the nose, so that the medicinal oil does not run out.

[54] Yamaka-natthu-karanî, that is, one that would go up both nostrils. The last sentence of Ī1 would come in better after this clause.

[55] They used to burn the drugs by smearing them on wicks, and then inhale the smoke through their nostrils.

[56] Compare chapter 17.

[57] See the 51st Pâkittiya.

[58] Compare VI, 12, I.

[59] Perhaps fumigations.

[60] Sambhâra-sedan ti nânâvidha-panna-bhaṅga-sedam (B.). Apparently a poultice or fomentation in which various kinds of leaves or twigs are used.

[61] Mahâsedan ti mahantam sedam: porisa-ppamânam âvâtam aṅgârânam pûretvâ, pamsu-vâlikâdîhi pidahitvâ, tattha nânâvidhâni vâta-harana-pannâni santharitvâ tela-makkhitena gattena tattha nipaggitvâ samparivattantena sarîram sedetum anugânâmîti attho (B.). A pit, six feet deep, is filled with charcoal, and covered with a coating of earth or sand. The leaves good for rheumatism are spread over the sand. The patient reposes on the leaves on the affected limb, which has been rubbed over with oil; and turns over and over until his whole body has been well steamed.

[62] Bhaṅgodakan ti nânâ-panna-bhaṅga-kudhita-udakam. Tehi pannehi ka udakena ka siñkitvâ sedetabbo (B.). Bhaṅga may here mean 'broken bits,' namely, of the leaves, just as sâkhâ-bhaṅga at Gâtaka I, 158 means 'twig.' Compare uttari-bhaṅga, Gâtaka I, 197, 349; Dhammapada 171; Kullavagga VIII, 4, 4; sarîra-bhaṅga, Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 59; and bhaṅga alone at Gâtaka I, 392; Mahâvagga I, 25, 10; Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 241. For kudhita we should read kuthita.

[63] Dakakotthakan ti udaka-kotthamtim vâ donim vâ unhodakassa pûretvâ tattha tattha pavisitvâ seda-kamma-karanam anugânâmîti attho (B.). Compare Dhammapada, p.103.

[64] Wise, p.176, says, 'The local accumulation of bad blood may be removed by means of cupping, which is performed by a horn, cut smooth and even at the large extremity, and with a small opening at the narrow end.' Compare Susruta, Sûtrasthâna, chap. 27, and Sarîrasthâna, chap. 8 (at the end).

[65] This would seem to be a preventive remedy. Water may be kept ready, so that the incoming Bhikkhus may use it, and their feet therefore may not become blistered. But perhaps pagga here means some curative application of water to the feet, such as cold water bandages, for example. Compresses (?poultices) are mentioned below (Ī5) for boils.

[66] Compare chapter 4.

[67] Buddhaghosa explains tila-kakka as ground sesamum seeds (pitthehi tilehi attho); but kalka is paste or salve. See Wise, p. 129.

[68] Kabalikan ti (MS. pakalikan) vana-mukhe sattu-pindam pakkhipitum (B.). Compare Böhtlingk-Roth, sub voce kavalikâ.

[69] Sâsapa-pitthena, says Buddhaghosa.

[70] Compare the quotations from Susruta in Böhtlingk-Roth under klidyati.

[71] Vana- (MS. viddham) mamsan ti adhika-mamsam: âni viya utthahati (B.).

[72] Vikâsikan ti tela-ruddhana-pilotikam (B.). See VIII, 2.

[73] A kappiya-kâraka is one who by offering a thing to a Bhikkhu, makes that thing kappiya, allowable, to the Bhikkhu.

[74] Ghara-dinnakan ti vasikarana-pâna-samutthita-rogo, 'a disease arising from a philter, which when given brings another into one's power' (B.). He was bewitched, was suffering from the results of sorcery.

[75] Sîtâlolin ti naṅgalena kasantassa phâle lagga-mattikam udakena aloletvâ pâyetum anugânâmîti attho (B.).

[76] Dutthagahaniko ’ti vipanna-gahaniko. Kikkhena ukkâro nikkhamatîti. Compare Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 260 note.

[77] Âmisakhâran ti sukkhodanam ghâpetvâ tâya kharikâya paggharitam khârodakam (B.).

[78] Mutta-haritakan ti gomutta-paribhâvitam harîtakam (B.).

[79] Abhisannakâyo ’ti ussanna-dosa-kâyo (B.). Dosa is a disturbance of the so-called humors in the body. Compare VIII, 1, 30.

[80] Akata-yûsan ti asiniddho mugga-pakita-pâriyo (B.).

[81] Katâkatan ti so ka baddhoka-siniddho (B.).

[82] Compare chap. 23. 1-8.

[83] A circular roll of grass, or cloth, to be placed on the head when a pot of oil or water was being carried on the head. Compare kumbataka, and Rh. L.'s 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 295.

[84] Compare the 23rd Nissaggiya.

[85] Pakkâ pi muggâ gâyanti, the meaning of which is not quite clear. Buddhaghosa says, yathâsukham paribhuñgitabbâ, pakkattâ hi te kappiyâ. Perhaps the doubt was supposed to have arisen because the beans required no cooking, but grew, ready to eat, of themselves.

[86] Compare asambhinna-pâyâsa at Gâtaka, vol. i, p. 55, l. 32.

[87] That is, gruel containing the three pungent (katu) substances, which are explained to be ginger and two kinds of pepper.

[88] Buddhaghosa says, ukkapindakâ pi khâdantîti bilâla-mûsika-godha-muṅgusâ khâdanti. The expression recurs in VI, 33, 5.

[89] Buddhaghosa says, damakâ ti vighâsâdâ. The sane explanation is given in Abhidhânappadîpikâ, verse 467, where the Sinhalese expression is indul kannâ, and the English 'one who eats orts.'

[90] See the last section.

[91] Compare; below, 21, 1.

[92] Compare Pâtimokkha, Pâkittiya 32.

[93] This is an exception to Pâkittiya 35. A Bhikkhu who has finished, and has declared himself to have done so by declining further food, can still take 'leavings' without offending. By this rule he is also allowed to take food tato nîhatam, literally, 'brought out thence,' which seems to mean 'out of the store of the giver.' The expression recurs in VI, 32, I, and again in VI, 32, 2 (at the end), where the exceptions to Pâkittiya 35 laid down in this and the following rules are again, the scarcity having passed away, put aside by 'the Blessed One.'

[94] See the last note.

[95] See the note above, on VI, 18, 4.

[96] See above, VI, 17, 7.

[97] Buddhaghosa says, abîgan ti taruna-phalam; yassa bîgam aṅkuram na ganeti. Nibbatta-bîgan (nivatta-bîgan?) ti bîgam nibbattetva (nivattetvâ?) apanetvâ.

[98] Compare VIII, 1, 14.

[99] Sambâdhe.

[100] Vatthikamma. See Wise, 'Hindu Medicine,' pp. 143 and following.

[101] Surgical operations are allowed in 14. 5 and below.

[102] Patikkhâdaniya. See Abhidhânappadîpikâ, verse 468, and above, chap. 14. 7, at the end.

[103] Of her husband's?

[104] Pavattamamsa, which Buddhaghosa explains, 'matassa mamsam.' Pavatta means 'already existing,' opposed to what is brought into existence for a special purpose, and pavattamamsa is said here, therefore, in order to exclude uddissa-kata-mamsa (meat of animals killed especially for them), which Bhikkhus were not allowed to partake of (see chap. 3,1. 14). Compare also pavattaphala-bhogana at Gâtaka I, p. 6.

[105] Bhogga-yâgu, literally, eatable rice-milk, which seems opposed to the ordinary rice-milk which was drunk. Yâgu is the Pâli word for what is called in Anglo-Indian terminology 'congey.' Bhogga-yâgu is 'rice pudding made with milk.'

[106] See the 33rd Pâkittiya Rule about parampara-bhogana (taking food in turn).

[107] Chaps. 28--30 are, with a few unimportant variations, word for word the same as Mahâparinibbâna Sutta I, 19-II, 3; II, 16-24. See Rh. D.'s Introduction to his translation of the Mahâparinibbâna Sutta, pp. xxxiv seq., and his note there at II, 16.

[108] Perhaps we are to supply 'with sand.' Comp. Dîpavamsa VI, 64; XII, 71, &c.

[109] Suññâgâra. Comp. I, 78, 5; Suttavibhaṅga, Pârâg. IV, 4, 1.

[110] The event prophesied here, Pâtaliputta's becoming the capital of the Magadha empire, is placed by the various authorities under different kings. Hwen Thsang and the Burmese writer quoted by Bishop Bigandet ('Legend of the Burmese Buddha,' third edition, vol. ii, p. 183) say that it was Kâlâsoka who removed the seat of the empire to Pâtaliputta. The Gains, on the other hand, state that it was Udâyi, the son of Agâtasattu. Most probably the latter tradition is the correct one, as even king Munda is mentioned in the Aṅguttara Nikâya as having resided at Pâtaliputta. Comp. Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' Introd. pp. xv seq.; H. O.'s Introduction to the Mahâvagga, p. xxxvii; and the remarks of Professor Jacobi and of H. O. in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxiv, pp. 185, 751, 752, note 2.

[111] See chap. 23. 5, &c. Instead of 'Lord,' read here, 'Reverend Gotama.

[112] Samatitthikâ. This word is replaced by samatîrthikâ at Lal. Vist. pp. 501, 528. Compare, however, Rh. D.'s note on Tevigga Sutta I, 24 ('Buddhist Suttas,' p. 178).

[113] Ambakâya, which Buddhaghosa explains by itthikâya, comp. the well-known Mantra, Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ 23. 18: Ambe ambike ’mbâlike, &c. Probably the word ambakâ is a contemptuous form intended here at the same time to convey an allusion to the mango- (amba-) gardens which Ambapâlî possessed, and from which she was named. Comp. Rh. D.'s note at Mahâparinibbâna Sutta II, 19.

[114] Replace 'the Magadha ministers Sunîdha and Vassakâra' by the courtezan Ambapâlî,' and instead of 'Reverend Gotama,' read 'Lord.'

[115] The founder of the Nigantha sect, who is, according to the important discovery of Professors Bühler and Jacobi, identical with the Mahâvira of the Gain legends. See Jacobi's Preface to the Kalpasûtra, pp. 1 seq.

[116] Kiriyavâda.

[117] A part of the following discourse is the same as Suttavibhaṅga, Pârâg. I, 1, 3.

[118] 'The doctrine of non-action,' and 'the doctrine of action,' taken in the ordinary sense of the words, are the doctrines that the actions of sentient beings receive not, or receive, their reward according to the law of moral retribution. In this discourse, however, a peculiar meaning is attached to these two terms; see Ī6.

[119] See note 2, p. 110.

[120] Ukkhedavâda ( the doctrine of annihilation') is the doctrine that death is the annihilation of existence ('ukkhedavâda sato sattassa ukkhedam vinâsam vibhavam paññâpenti.' Brahmagâlasutta). But in this discourse the word is taken in a peculiar sense; comp. Ī7.

[121] Gegukkhitâ. See Ī7.

[122] 'Right conduct.' But in this discourse it is also taken in the sense of 'putting away' (scil. evil); see Ī8.

[123] 'Self-mortification,' literally, 'burning,' in which sense the word is taken in Ī8.

[124] Apagabbha (apragalbha) and apagabbhatâ ordinarily mean 'irresolute' and 'irresolution.' But here the words are taken in quite another sense, with a pun that cannot be rendered in English; see Ī9.

[125] See Ī9.

[126] Vinayâya.

[127] Tapanîya, connected with tapas.

[128] Tâlâ vatthukatâ. See Buddhaghosa's explanation of this phrase in Vinaya Pitaka, vol. iii, p. 267.

[129] Anabhâvam gatâ (see the correction, Vinaya Pitaka, vol. ii, p. 363), literally, 'They are gone to non-existence.' Buddhaghosa takes great pains in explaining anabhâva; and he quotes also a various reading anubhâva; see Vinaya Pitaka, vol. iii, p. 267. But anabhâva is correct, and must be understood as a synonym of abhâva. As to ana-, equal to a-, compare S. Goldschmidt, Zeitschr. der Deutschen Morg. Ges. vol. xxxii, pp, 100 seq.; Weber, Hâla, p. 16; Pischel's note on Hemakandra II, 190; Curtius, Griechische Etymologie, 5th edition, p. 306 (ἀνάεδνοσ, &c.). Another Pali word containing this prefix ana- is anamata, anamatagga; see, for instance, Gâtaka II, p. 56.

[130] See Ī5 with our note.

[131] Into a 'gabbha.' 'Apagabbha' is taken here as 'not subject to returning to a gabbha.'

[132] Literally,' your house has been an opâna to the Niganthas: Opâna may be either avapâna or, as Buddhaghosa seems to understand it, udapâna (compare oka = udaka).

[133] About pavattamamsa, see the note at chap. 23. 2.

[134] See X, 1, 9.

[135] Literally, 'keep oneself going.' Compare the use of yâpetum at Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta II, 32.

[136] For these rules, see above, VI, 17-19.

[137] See the 35th Pâkittiya Rule, and our note upon it.

[138] On these five kinds of buildings, see above, I, 30, 4; II, 8, 1.

[139] Buddhaghosa says on this word: 'When a Vihâra is to be erected on piles, or the foundations of its walls are to be dug out, and the stones on which it is to rest are already laid, then when the first pile or the first stone of the walls is put upon them, the men standing round in a body proclaim, "Let us make a kappiyakutî."' The proclamation cannot be made after the building has got further than the actual stage here described. Ussâvanâ is therefore from ussâveti, 'to proclaim;' and antika is used here, as below in VII, 1, 7.

[140] Gonisâdika. Compare Buddhaghosa's explanation of gonisâdi-nivittho gâmo at Sutta-vibhaṅga, Pâr. II, 3, as given by Minayeff, 'Prâtimoksha,' p. 66, lines 7, 8. Here Buddhaghosa says simply, 'There are two kinds of ox-stalls; ârâma ox-stalls and vihâra ox-stalls. Of these, when neither the ârâma nor the dwellings are fenced in (parikkhittâni honti), that is an ârâma ox-stall; when all or some of the dwellings are fenced in, and not the ârâma, that is a vihâra ox-stall. So both kinds depend upon the fencing in of the ârâma.

[141] This seems to mean that stores could be kept for the Samgha on laymen's premises.

[142] Compare above, VI, 17, 7.

[143] Alhaka. See Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and Measures,' p.18.

[144] Ibid. p. 9 and note 4.

[145] Dona. Ibid. p. 18.

[146] See above, VI, 31, 5.

[147] Two kinds of beans are mentioned, mugga and mâsa.

[148] See above, chap. 17. 8.

[149] In Pâli Gatila; that is, 'one with long matted hair.' See our note on Mahâvagga I, 15, I; and compare also Dîpavamsa I, 38; Gâtaka I, 15, 84; Dhammapada, v. 141, and the passages quoted by Professor Oldenberg in his edition of the Kullavagga, p. 350, and by Dr. Rhys Davids in his 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 185.

[150] This is a stock phrase. Compare above VI, 34, II, and the Tevigga Sutta I, 7, 46, and the passages quoted on the last by Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 287.

[151] That is, as a present, the usual tribute of respect.

[152] The names of these Rishis, and the above phrases from 'They who' &c. downwards, recur several times in the Tevigga Sutta. See Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 172, &c. Most of these names are easily to be identified, being in Sanskrit Vâmadeva, Visvâmitra, Gamadagni (who is only mentioned in this list in reference to Rig-veda III, 62, quoted from below. See also Oldenberg's note to Sâṅkhâyana's Grihya-sûtra IV, 10 in Indische Studien XV, 153), Âṅgirasa, Bhâradvâga, Vasishtha, Kasyapa, and Bhrigu. The only doubtful names are Vâmaka and Atthaka. The latter must be Ashtaka, mentioned as the author of Rig-veda X, 104, unless it be supposed to be a corrupt reading under which some representation of Atri may lurk. Vâmaka is the only unintelligible form, for it would be difficult to see how that word could come to stand for the Vamra to whom Rig-veda X, 99 is ascribed.

[153] See the eighth section of the Kûla-sîla.

[154] So Buddhaghosa; but it may also be cocoa-nut or cinnamon, according to Böhtlingk-Roth sub voce. Buddhaghosa's words are Koka-pânan ti atthika-kadali-phalehi kata-pânam; and he explains moka by anatthikehi kadali-phalehi kata-pânam. As kadali is the ordinary plantain or banana, which has no seeds, the meaning of the difference he makes between the two kinds is not clear. The expression ekatthithâlapakka, at Gâtaka I, 70, evidently rests on the same meaning of the word atthi, which there also cannot be, as usual, seed; for there is no such thing as a palmyra fruit with one seed. See Rh. D.'s note on p. 94 of the 'Buddhist Birth Stories.'

[155] In the text read sâlûka.

[156] This is the Grewia Asiatica of Linnaeus. See Böhtlingk-Roth under parûsaka.

[157] Toddy and arrack are so prepared. The use of toddy was one of the famous Ten Points of the heretics at the Council of Vesâlî. See below, Kullavagga XII, 1, 11. Buddhaghosa explains this as 'drink made from any one of the seven kinds of corn;' where the seven kinds referred to must be those mentioned in the Abhidhâna-ppadîpikâ, verses 450, 451.

[158] Dâka = sâka. Compare our note below on VI, 36, 8, and Gâtaka, ed. Fausböll, I, 308.

[159] Madhuka-puppha-rasam; Madhuka is the Bassia Latifolia of Linnaeus.

[160] Yaññâ. Compare above, I, 22, 4, and our note there (p. 138).

[161] This is of course the well-known verse Rig-veda III, 62, 10. The argumentum ad hominem here is a fresh confirmation of the view already expressed above in our note on I, 15, 1, that by the Gatilas are to be understood the orthodox Brâhman ascetics.

[162] Compare the Book of the Great Decease I, 31, and Gâtaka I, 119.

[163] §Ī7, 8 recur in the Sela Sutta (Sutta Nipâta, III, 7, 21, 22), where they stand in a much more appropriate context.

[164] That is, the square kahâpanas of copper or bronze, figured in the Bârhut has-reliefs, and mentioned in the Dhammapada. See Rh. D.'s 'Ancient Coins and Measures,' p. 4, Ī5.

[165] Bahukato; only found in this passage. Buddhaghosa says, Nâham bhante Ânanda bahukato ti nâham Buddhâdi-gatapasâda-bahumânena idhâgato ti dassetî ti. Here Buddhâdi means the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Samgha.

[166] Mahiddhiyo, where, as so often elsewhere, Iddhi has no supernatural connotation. Compare the passages quoted above in our note on I, 15, 2.

[167] Compare Rh. D., 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 112.

[168] Sekhena, as opposed to asekhena. That is, with the knowledge of one who is not himself an Arahat. See our note on Mahâvagga I, 7, 13.

[169] See the note at the end; of Ī8.

[170] Sabbañ ka tâkan (sic) ti sappi-âdîhi pakkam vâ apakkam vâ yam kiñki tâkam (B.)

[171] Pittha-khâdaniyan ti pitthamayam khâdaniyam (B.)

[172] This man is identified by the tradition with the Subhadda mentioned in the accounts of the Great Decease, and of the First Council. See Rh. D.'s note on Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 40.

[173] Buddhaghosa understands this word, which he reads differently, as meaning 'sweet-voiced.' Mañkukâ (sic) ti madhura-vakanâ. We follow the ordinary meaning of mañgu.

[174] Here again Buddhaghosa gives a technical meaning to the word, unsupported by the derivation. He says, Patibhâneyyakâ ti sake sippe patibhâna-sampannâ. This agrees with Childers's rendering (sub voce) of Gâtaka I, 60; but compare Sigâlovâdâ Sutta, ed. Grimblot, p. 309.

[175] On the idiomatic phrase sakam âkariyakam, compare Mahâparinibbâna Sutta III, 7, 8 (text ed. Childers, pp. 24 and following)

[176] Literally, 'this man who had gone forth (from the household state into the homeless life of the Order) in his old age.' But it is impossible to repeat this long phrase throughout the narrative as is done in the Pâli, where the meaning of the phrase is 'expressed by one compound. As the Pâli word vuddha-pabbagito connotes contempt, and even censure (men entering the Order in their old age being often represented as incapable of appreciating even the simplest principles of the 'doctrine and discipline'), the use of the word 'dotard' in our translation seems to retain the spirit of the Pâli epithet, while avoiding the inconvenient length of a literal version.

[177] Tâta, not tâtâ. It will be seen that Childers is wrong in supposing that the plural form is always used when more than one person is addressed.

[178] Khura-bhandam; not 'shaving materials;' compare hatthi-bhando and assa-bhando at Mahâvagga I, 61, and below, Ī5.

[179] See Mahâvagga I, 31, 5.

[180] Unlawful, because one Bhikkhu may not beg for others, and it is unlawful for those others to accept things thus procured.

[181] Buddhaghosa explains the 'part' (bhâgam) as the twelfth part, which, he says, is in accordance with the ancient custom of India. Used absolutely, as in this passage, bhâga usually means 'half.'

[182] The formal expressions referred to in these two paragraphs are precisely the expressions to which, in the Book of the Great Decease VI, 40, and in the Kullavagga XI, 1, r, Subhadda is stated to have taken such serious objection.

[183] This refers to certain medicines; see Mahâvagga VI, 1, 5.

[184] This also refers to certain medicines; see the 23rd Nissaggiya.

[185] What this refers to is unknown to us.

[186] Buddhaghosa says that this holds good if the two are so mixed that the taste (rasu) has become one (sambhinna). If the two are not so mixed, then they may be divided, and the part allow-able during the longer period may be enjoyed up to the end of that period. See I, 20, 9; V, 2, 1; VI, 16, 3; VIII, I, 24, and the notes there.


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