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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XVII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

 


 

Eighth Khandhaka

The Dress Of The Bhikkhus

 


 

1.

1.1 At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at Râgagaha, in the Veluvana, in the Kalandaka-nivâpa. At that time Vesâlî was an opulent, prosperous town, populous, crowded with people, abundant with food[1]; there were seven thousand seven hundred and seven storeyed buildings, and seven thousand seven hundred and seven pinnacled buildings, and seven thousand seven hundred and seven pleasure grounds (Ârâmas), and seven thousand seven hundred and seven lotus-ponds. There was also the courtezan Ambapâlikâ[2], who was beautiful, graceful, pleasant, gifted with the highest beauty of complexion, well versed in dancing, singing, and lute-playing, much visited by desirous people. She asked fifty (kahâpanas) for one night. Through that person Vesâlî became more and more flourishing.

1.2 Now a merchant from Râgagaha went to Vesâlî on a certain business. That Râgagaha merchant saw what an opulent, prosperous town Vesâlî was, how populous, crowded with people, and abundant with food, and the seven thousand seven [172] hundred and seven storeyed buildings . . . . and the courtezan Ambapâlî, who was beautiful . . . . and through whom Vesâlî became more and more flourishing. And the Râgagaha merchant, after having done his business in Vesâlî, returned to Râgagaha and went to the place where the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra was. Having approached him, he said to the Mâgadha king Seniya Bimbisâra: 'Vesâlî, Your Majesty, is an opulent, prosperous town (&c., as in Ī1, down to:) Through that person Vesâlî becomes more and more flourishing. May it please Your Majesty, let us also install a courtezan.'

(The king replied), 'Well, my good Sir, look for such a girl whom you can install as courtezan.'

1.3 Now at that time there was at Râgagaha a girl Sâlavatî by name, who was beautiful, graceful, pleasant, and gifted with the highest beauty of complexion. That girl Sâlavatî the Râgagaha merchant installed as courtezan. And before long the courtezan Sâlavatî was well versed in dancing, singing, and lute-playing, and much visited by desirous people, and she asked one hundred (kahâpanas) for one night. And before long the courtezan Sâlavatî became pregnant. Now the courtezan Sâlavatî thought: 'Men do not like a pregnant woman. If anybody should find out regarding me that "The courtezan Sâlavatî is pregnant," my whole position will be lost. What if I were to have the people told that I am sick.'

And the courtezan Sâlavatî gave orders to the door-keeper (saying), 'Let no man enter here, my good door-keeper, and if a man calls for me, tell him that I am sick.' The door-keeper accepted [173] this of the courtezan Sâlavatî (by saying), Yes, Madam.'

1.4 And the courtezan Sâlavatî, when the child in her womb had reached maturity, gave birth to a boy. And the courtezan Sâlavatî gave orders to her maid-servant (saying), 'Go, my girl, put this boy into an old winnowing basket, take him away, and throw him away on a dust-heap.' The servant accepted this order of the courtezan Sâlavatî (by saying), 'Yes, Madam,' put that boy into an old winnowing basket, took him away, and threw him away on a dust-heap.

At that time a royal prince, Abhaya by name[3], went betimes to attend upon the king, and saw that boy, around whom crows were gathering. When he saw that, he asked the people: 'What is that, my good Sirs, around which the crows are gathering?'

It is a boy, Your Highness [4].'

'Is he alive, Sirs?'

'He is alive, Your Highness.'

'Well, my good Sirs, bring that boy to our palace and give him to the nurses to nourish him.'

And those people accepted that order of the royal prince Abhaya (by saying), 'Yes, Your Highness,' brought that boy to the palace of the royal prince Abhaya, and gave him to the nurses (saying),

'Nourish (this boy).'

[174] Because (the people had said about this boy to Abhaya), 'He is alive' (gîvati), they gave him the name of Gîvaka; because he had been caused to be nourished by the royal prince (kumârena posâpito), they gave him the name of Komârabhakka[5].

1.5 And ere long Gîvaka Komârabhakka came to the years of discretion. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the place where the royal prince Abhaya was; having approached him he said to the royal prince Abhaya: 'Who is my mother, Your Highness, and who is my father?'

'I do not know your mother, my good Gîvaka, but I am your father, for I have had you nourished.'

Now Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'In these royal families it is not easy to find one's livelihood without knowing an art. What if I were to learn an art.'

1.6 At that time there lived at Takkasilâ (Τάξιλα) a world-renowned physician. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka without asking leave of the royal prince Abhaya set out for Takkasilâ. Wandering from place to place he came to Takkasilâ and to the place where [175] that physician was. Having approached him he said to that physician, 'I wish to learn your art, doctor.

'Well, friend Gîvaka, learn it.'

And Gîvaka Komârabhakka learnt much, and learnt easily, and understood well, and did not forget what he had learnt. And when seven years had elapsed, Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'I learn much, and learn easily, and I understand well, and I do not forget what I have learnt. I have studied now seven years, and I do not see the end of this art. When shall I see the end of this art?'

1.7 And Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the place where that physician was; having approached him he said to that physician: 'I learn much, doctor, and I learn easily; I understand well, and do not forget what I have learnt. I have studied now seven years, and I do not see the end of this art. When shall I see the end of this art?'

'Very well, my dear Gîvaka, take this spade, and seek round about Takkasilâ a yogana on every side, and whatever (plant) you see which is not medicinal, bring it to me.'

Gîvaka Komârabhakka accepted this order of that physician (saying), 'Yes, doctor,' took a spade, and went around about Takkasilâ a yogana on every side, but he did not see anything that was not medicinal. Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the place where that physician was; having approached him he said to that physician: 'I have been seeking, doctor, all around Takkasilâ a yogana on every side, but I have not seen anything that is not medicinal.'

(The physician replied), 'You have done your learning, my good Gîvaka; this will do for acquiring your livelihood.' Speaking thus he gave to Gîvaka [176] Komârabhakka a little (money) for his journey (home).

1.8 And Gîvaka Komârabhakka took that little money, given to him for his journey, and set out for Râgagaha. And on the way at Sâketa that little money of Gîvaka Komârabhakka was spent. Now Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'These ways are wild, and there is but little water and little food; it is difficult to travel here without money for the journey. What if I were to try to get some money for my journey.'

At that time the setthi's[6] wife at Sâketa had been suffering for seven years from disease in the head; many very great and world-renowned physicians came, but they could not restore her to health; they received much gold, and went away.

And Gîvaka Komârabhakka, when he had entered Sâketa, asked the people: 'Who is sick here, my good Sirs? Whom shall I cure?'

'That setthi's wife, doctor, has been suffering for seven years from a disease in the head; go, doctor, and cure that setthi's wife.'

1.9 Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the house of that householder, the setthi; and when he had reached it, he gave orders to the door-keeper (saying), 'Go, my good door-keeper, and tell the setthi's wife: "A physician has come in, Madam, who wants to see you."'

That door-keeper accepted this order of Gîvaka Komârabhakka (saying), 'Yes, doctor,' went to the place where the setthi's wife was, and having approached her, he said to the setthi's wife: 'A physician has come in, Madam, who wants to see you.'

[177] 'What sort of man is that physician, my good door-keeper?'

'He is a young man, Madam.'

'Nay, my good door-keeper, what can a young physician help me? Many very great and world-renowned physicians have come and have not been able to restore me to health; they have received much gold, and have gone away.'

1.10 Thus that door-keeper went to Gîvaka Komârabhakka; having approached him he said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'The setthi's wife has said, doctor: "Nay, my good door-keeper (&c., as in Ī9)."'

(Gîvaka replied), 'Go, my good door-keeper, and tell the setthi's wife: "The physician, Madam, says: 'Do not give me anything beforehand, Madam when you shall have been restored to health, then you may give me what you like."'

The door-keeper accepted this order of Gîvaka Komârabhakka (saying), 'Yes, doctor,' went to the place where the setthi's wife was, and having approached her he said to the setthi's wife: 'The physician, Madam, says (&c., as above).'

'Well, my good door-keeper, let the physician enter.'

The door-keeper accepted this order of the setthi's wife (saying), 'Yes, Madam,' went to the place where Gîvaka Komârabhakka was, and having approached him he said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'The setthi's wife calls you, doctor.'

1.11 Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the place where the setthi's wife was; having approached her, and having carefully observed the change in the appearance of the setthi's wife, he said to the [178] setthi's wife: 'We want one pasata[7] of ghee, Madam.' Then the setthi's wife ordered one pasata of ghee to be given to Gîvaka Komârabhakka. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka boiled up that pasata of ghee with various drugs, ordered the setthi's wife to lie down on her back in the bed, and gave it her through her nose. And the butter given through the nose came out through the mouth. And the setthi's wife spat it out into the spittoon, and told the maid-servant: 'Come, my girl, take this ghee up with a piece of cotton.'

1.12 Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'It is astonishing how niggardly this house-wife is, in that she has this ghee, which ought to be thrown away, taken up with a piece of cotton. I have given her many highly precious drugs. What sort of fee will she give me?'

And the setthi's wife, when she observed the change of demeanour in Gîvaka Komârabhakka, said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'Why are you perplexed, doctor?'

'I thought: "It is astonishing, &c."'

'Householders like us, doctor, know why to economize thus; this ghee will do for the servants or workmen to anoint their feet with, or, it can be poured into the lamp. Be not perplexed, doctor, you will not lose your fee.'

[179] 1.13 And Gîvaka Komârabhakka drove away the disease in the head which the setthi's wife had had for seven years, by once giving her medicine through the nose. Then the setthi's wife, who had been' restored to health, gave four thousand (kâhâpanas) to Gîvaka Komârabhakka; her son (thinking), 'My mother stands there restored,' gave him four thousand; her daughter-in-law (thinking), 'My mother-in-law stands there restored,' gave him four thousand; the setthi, the householder, (thinking), 'My wife stands there restored,' gave him four thousand and a man-servant and a maid-servant and a coach with horses.

Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka took those sixteen thousand (kâhâpanas) and the man-servant, the maid-servant, and the coach with the horses, and set out for Râgagaha. In due course he came to Râgagaha, and to the place where the royal prince Abhaya was; having approached him he said to the royal prince Abhaya: 'This, Your Highness, (have I received for) the first work I have done, sixteen thousand and a man-servant and a maid-servant and a coach with horses; may Your Highness accept this as payment for my bringing up.'

'Nay, my dear Gîvaka, keep it, but do not get a dwelling for yourself elsewhere than in our residence.'

Gîvaka Komârabhakka accepted this order of the royal prince Abhaya (saying), 'Yes, Your Highness,' and got himself a dwelling in the residence of the royal prince Abhaya.

1.14 At that time the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra suffered from a fistula; his garments were stained with blood. When the queens saw that, [180] they ridiculed (the king, and said): 'His Majesty is having his courses. His Majesty will bring forth!' The king was annoyed at that. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra said to the royal prince Abhaya: 'I am suffering, my dear Abhaya, from such a disease that my garments are stained with blood; and the queens, when they see it, ridicule (me by saying), "His Majesty is, &c." Pray, my dear Abhaya, find a physician for me, able to cure me.'

'This excellent young physician of ours, Sire, Gîvaka, he will cure Your Majesty.'

'Then pray, my dear Abhaya, give orders to the physician Gîvaka, and he shall cure me.'

1.15 Then the royal prince Abhaya gave orders to Gîvaka Komârabhakka (saying), 'Go, my dear Gîvaka, and cure the king.'

Gîvaka Komârabhakka accepted this order of the royal prince Abhaya (by saying), 'Yes, Your Highness,' took some medicament in his nail, and went to the place where the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra was. Having approached him, he said to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra: 'Let us see your disease, Your Majesty.' And Gîvaka Komârabhakka healed the fistula of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra by one anointing.

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, having been restored to health, ordered his five hundred wives to put on all their ornaments; then he ordered them to take their ornaments off and to make a heap of them, and he said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'All these ornaments, my dear Gîvaka, of my five hundred wives shall be thine.'

'Nay, Sire, may Your Majesty remember my office.'

[181] 'Very well, my dear Gîvaka, you can wait upon me and my seraglio and the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head.'

Gîvaka Komârabhakka accepted this order of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty.'

1.16 At that time the setthi at Râgagaha had been suffering for seven years from a disease in the head. Many very great and world-renowned physicians came, and were not able to restore him to health; they received much gold and went away. And a prognostication had been made by the physicians to him, to wit: Some of the physicians said: 'The setthi, the householder, will die on the fifth day;' other physicians said: 'The setthi, the householder, will die on the seventh day.'

Now (a certain) Râgagaha merchant thought: 'This setthi, this householder, does good service both to the king and to the merchants' guild. Now the physicians have made prognostication to him(&c., as above). There is Gîvaka, the royal physician, an excellent young doctor. What if we were to ask the king for his physician Gîvaka to cure the setthi, the householder?'

1.17 And the Râgagaha merchant went to the place where the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra was; having approached him, he said to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra: That setthi, Sire, that householder, does good service both to Your Majesty and to the merchants' guild. Now the physicians have made prognostication to him, &c. May it please Your Majesty to order the physician Gîvaka to cure the setthi, the householder.'

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra gave [182] orders to Gîvaka Komârabhakka (saying), 'Go, my dear Gîvaka, and cure the setthi, the householder.'

Gîvaka Komârabhakka accepted this order of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty,' went to the place where the setthi, the householder, was, and having approached him, and having carefully observed the change in his appearance, he said to the setthi, the householder: 'If I restore you to health, my good householder, what fee will you give me?'

'All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and I will be your slave.'

1.18 'Well, my good householder, will you be able to lie down on one side for seven months?'

'I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on one side for seven months.'

'And will you be able, my good householder, to lie down on the other side for seven months?'

'I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on the other side for seven months.'

'And will you be able, my good householder, to lie down on your back for seven months?'

'I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on my back for seven months.'

Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka ordered the setthi, the householder, to lie down on his bed, tied him fast to his bed, cut through the skin of the head, drew apart the flesh on each side of the incision, pulled two worms out (of the wound), and showed them to the people (saying), 'See, Sirs, these two worms, a small one and a big one. The doctors who said, "On the fifth day the setthi, the householder, will die," have seen this big worm, and how it would penetrate on the fifth day to the brain of [183] the setthi, the householder, and that when it had penetrated to the brain, the setthi, the householder, would die. Those doctors have seen it quite rightly. And the doctors who said, "On the seventh day the setthi, the householder, will die," have seen this small worm, and how it would penetrate on the seventh day to the brain of the setthi, the householder, and that when it had penetrated to the brain, the setthi, the householder, would die. Those doctors have seen it quite rightly.' (Speaking thus) he closed up the sides of the wound, stitched up the skin on the head, and anointed it with salve.

1.19 And when seven days had elapsed, the setthi, the householder, said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'I am not able, doctor, to lie down on one side for seven months.'

'Did you not tell me, my good householder: "I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on one side for seven months?"'

'It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, but I shall die (if I do); I cannot lie down on one side for seven months.'

'Well, my good householder, then you must lie down on the other side for seven months.'

And when seven days had elapsed, the setthi, the householder, said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'I am not able, doctor, to lie down on the other side for seven months.'

'Did you not tell me, &c.'

It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, &c.'

'Well, my good householder, then you must lie down on your back for seven months.'

And when seven days had elapsed, the setthi, the householder, said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'I am [184] not able, doctor, to lie down on my back for seven months.'

Did you not tell me, &c.?'

It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, &c.'

1.20 'If I had not spoken thus to you, my good householder, you would not have lain down even so long a time. But I knew beforehand, "After three times seven days the setthi, the householder, will be restored to health." Arise, my good householder, you are restored; look to it what fee you give me.'

'All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and I will be your slave.'

'Nay, my good householder, do not give me all that you possess, and do not be my slave; give one hundred thousand (kâhâpanas) to the king, and one hundred thousand to me.'

Then the setthi, the householder, having regained his health, gave a hundred thousand (kâhâpanas) to the king, and a hundred thousand to Gîvaka Komârabhakka.

1.21 At that time the son of the setthi at Benares, who used to amuse himself by tumbling (mokkhakikâ[8]), brought upon himself an entanglement of his [185] intestines, in consequence of which he could digest neither the rice-milk which he drank, nor the food of which he partook, nor was he able to ease himself in the regular way. In consequence of that he grew lean, he looked disfigured and discoloured, (his complexion became) more and more yellow, and the veins stood out upon his skin.

Now the setthi of Benares thought: 'My son is suffering from such and such a disease: he neither can digest the rice-milk which he drinks (&c., as above, down to:) and the veins stand out upon his skin. What if I were to go to Râgagaha and to ask the king for his physician Gîvaka to cure my son.'

And the setthi of Benares went to Râgagaha and repaired to the place where the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra was; having approached him he said to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra: 'My son, Your Majesty, is suffering from such and such a disease: he neither can digest the rice-milk which he drinks (&c., as above, down to:) and the veins stand out upon his skin. May it please Your Majesty to order the physician Gîvaka to cure my son.'

1.22 Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra gave orders to Gîvaka Komârabhakka (saying), 'Go, my dear Gîvaka; go to Benares, and cure the setthi's son at Benares.'

Gîvaka Komârabhakka accepted this order of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty,' went to Benares, and repaired to the place where the son of the Benares setthi was; having approached him, and having carefully [186] observed the change in his appearance, he ordered the people to leave the room, drew the curtain, tied him fast to a pillar, placed his wife in front of him, cut through the skin of the belly, drew the twisted intestines out, and showed them to his wife (saying), 'Look here what the disease was, from which your husband was suffering. This is the reason why he neither can digest the rice-milk which he drinks, nor can digest the food of which he partakes, nor is able to ease himself in the regular way, and why he has grown lean, and looks disfigured and discoloured, and (why his complexion has become) more and more yellow, and the veins have stood out upon his skin.' (Speaking thus), he disentangled the twisted intestines, put the intestines back (into their right position), stitched the skin together, and anointed it with salve. And before long the Benares setthi's son regained his health.

Then the setthi of Benares (saying to himself), 'My son stands here restored to health,' gave sixteen thousand (kâhâpanas) to Gîvaka Komârabhakka. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka took those sixteen thousand (kâhâpanas), and went back again to Râgagaha.

1.23 At that time king Paggota (of Uggenî) was suffering from jaundice. Many very great and world-renowned physicians came and were not able to restore him to health; they received much gold and went away. Then king Paggota sent a messenger to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra (with the following message): 'I am suffering from such and such a disease; pray, Your Majesty[9], give [187] orders to the physician Gîvaka; he will cure me.' Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra gave orders to Gîvaka Komârabhakka (saying), 'Go, my dear Gîvaka; go to Uggenî, and cure king Paggota.'

Gîvaka Komârabhakka accepted this order of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty,' went to Uggenî and to the place where king Paggota was, and having approached him, and having carefully observed the change in his appearance, he said to king Paggota:

1.24 'I will boil up some ghee, Sire, which Your Majesty must drink.'

'Nay, my good Gîvaka; do what you can for restoring me without giving me ghee; I have an aversion and a distaste for ghee.'

Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'The disease of this king is such a one that it cannot be cured without ghee. What if I were to boil up ghee so that it takes the colour, the smell, and the taste of an astringent decoction[10].'

Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka boiled some ghee with various drugs so as to give it the colour, the smell, and the taste of an astringent decoction. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'When this king will shall have taken the butter and digested it, it will  make him vomit. This king is cruel; he might have me killed. What if I were to take leave before [188] hand.' And Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the place where king Paggota was; having approached him he said to king Paggota:

1.25 'We physicians, Sire, draw out roots and gather medical drugs at such an hour as this. May it please Your Majesty to send the following order to the (royal) stables, and to the gates (of the town): "Let Gîvaka ride out on what animal he likes; let him leave (the town) by what gate he likes; let him leave at what hour he likes; let him enter again at what hour he likes."'

And king Paggota sent the following order to the (royal) stables and to the gates (of the town): 'Let Gîvaka ride out on what animal he likes, &c.'

At that time king Paggota had a she-elephant, called Bhaddavatikâ, which could travel fifty yoganas (in one day). And Gîvaka Komârabhakka gave the ghee to king Paggota (saying), 'May Your Majesty drink this decoction.' Then, having made king Paggota drink the ghee, Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the elephant stable, and hasted away from the town on the she-elephant Bhaddavatikâ.

1.26 And when king Paggota had drunk that ghee and was digesting it, it made him vomit. Then king Paggota said to his attendants: 'That wicked Gîvaka, my good Sirs, has given me ghee to drink. Go, my good Sirs, and seek the physician Gîvaka.'

(The attendants answered), 'He has run away from the town on the she-elephant Bhaddavatikâ.'

At that time king Paggota had a slave, Kâka by name, who could travel sixty yoganas (in one day), who had been begotten by a non-human being. To this slave Kâka; king Paggota gave the order: 'Go, my good Kâka, and call the physician Gîvaka back [189] (saying), "The king orders you to return, doctor." But those physicians, my good Kâka, are cunning people; do not accept anything from him.'

1.27 And the slave Kâka overtook Gîvaka Komârabhakka on his way, at Kosambî, when he was taking his breakfast. And the slave Kâka said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'The king orders you to return, doctor.'

(Gîvaka replied), 'Wait, my good Kâka, until we have taken our meal; here, my good Kâka, eat.'

(Kâka said), 'Nay, doctor, the king has told me, "Those physicians, my good Kâka, are cunning people; do not accept anything from him."'

At that time Gîvaka Komârabhakka, who had cut off some drug with his nail, was eating an emblic myrobalan fruit and drinking water. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka said to the slave Kâka: 'Here, my good Kâka, eat of this myrobalan fruit and take some water.'

1.28 Then the slave Kâka thought: 'This physician eats the myrobalan and drinks the water; there cannot be any harm in it;' so he ate half of the myrobalan and drank some water. And that half myrobalan which (Gîvaka) had given him to eat, opened his bowels on the spot.

Then the slave Kâka said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'Can my life be saved, doctor?'

(Gîvaka replied), 'Be not afraid, my good Kâka, you will be quite well. But the king is cruel; that king might have me killed; therefore do I not return.'

Speaking thus he handed over to Kâka the she-elephant Bhaddavatikâ and set out for Râgagaha. Having reached Râgagaha in due course, he went to [190] the place where the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra was; having approached him he told the whole thing to the Magadha king Bimbisâra.

(Bimbisâra said), 'You have done right, my good Gîvaka, that you have not returned; that king is cruel; he might have had you killed.'

1.29 And king Paggota, being restored to health, sent a messenger to Gîvaka Komârabhakka (with this message), 'May Gîvaka come to me; I will grant him a boon.'

(Gîvaka replied), 'Nay, Sir, may His Majesty remember my office.'

At that time king Paggota had a suit of Siveyyaka cloth[11], which was the best, and the most excellent, and the first, and the most precious, and the noblest of many cloths, and of many suits of cloth, and of many hundred suits of cloth, and of many thousand suits of cloth, and of many hundred thousand suits of cloth. And king Paggota sent this suit of Siveyyaka cloth to Gîvaka Komârabhakka. Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'This suit of Siveyyaka cloth which king Paggota has sent me, is the best and the most excellent (&c., down to:) and of many hundred thousand suits of cloth. Nobody else is worthy to receive it but He the blessed, perfect [191] Arahat-Buddha, or the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra.'

1.30 At that time a disturbance had befallen the humors of the Blessed One's body. And the Blessed One said to the venerable Ânanda: 'A disturbance, Ânanda, has befallen the humors of the Tathâgata's body; the Tathâgata wishes to take a purgative.' Then the venerable Ânanda went to the place where Gîvaka Komârabhakka was; having approached him he said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka:

'My good Gîvaka, a disturbance has befallen the humors of the Tathâgata's body; the Tathâgata wishes to take a purgative.'

(Gîvaka replied), 'Well, venerable Ânanda, you ought to rub the Blessed One's body with fat for a few days.'

And the venerable Ânanda, having rubbed the Blessed One's body with fat for some days, went to the place where Gîvaka Komârabhakka was; having approached him he said to Gîvaka Komârabhakka: 'I have rubbed, my good Gîvaka, the Tathâgata's body with fat; do you now what you think fit.'

1.31 Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka thought: 'It is not becoming that I should give a strong purgative to the Blessed One.' (Thinking thus), he imbued three handfuls of blue lotuses with various drugs and went therewith to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him he offered one handful of lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), 'Lord, may the Blessed One smell this first handful of lotuses; that will purge the Blessed One ten times.' Thus he offered also the second handful of lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), 'Lord, may the Blessed One smell this second handful of lotuses; [192] that will purge the Blessed One ten times.' Thus he offered also the third handful of lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), 'Lord, may the Blessed One smell this third handful of lotuses; that will purge the Blessed One ten times. Thus the Blessed One will have purged full thirty times.' And Gîvaka Komârabhakka, having given to the Blessed One a purgative for full thirty times, bowed down before the Blessed One, and passed round him with his right side towards him, and went away.

1.32 And Gîvaka Komârabhakka, when he was out of doors, thought: 'I have given indeed to the Blessed One a purgative for full thirty times, but as the humors of the Tathâgatha's body are disturbed, it will not purge the Blessed One full thirty times; it will purge the Blessed One only twenty-nine times. But the Blessed One, having purged, will take a bath; the bath will purge the Blessed One once; thus the Blessed One will be purged full thirty times.'

And the Blessed One, who understood by the power of his mind this reflection of Gîvaka Komârabhakka, said to the venerable Ânanda: 'Gîvaka Komârabhakka, Ânanda, when he was out of doors, has thought: "I have given indeed (&c., as above, down to:) thus the Blessed One will be purged full thirty times." Well, Ânanda, get warm water ready.'

The venerable Ânanda accepted this order of the Blessed One (saying), 'Yes, Lord,' and got warm water ready.

1.33 And Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him; sitting near him Gîvaka Komârabhakka said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, has the [193] Blessed One purged?' (Buddha replied), 'I have purged, Gîvaka' (Gîvaka said), 'When I was out of doors, Lord, I thought: "I have given indeed, &c." Lord, may the Blessed One take a bath, may the Happy One take a bath.' Then the Blessed One bathed in that warm water; the bath purged the Blessed One once; thus the Blessed One was purged full thirty times.

And Gîvaka Komârabhakka said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, until the Blessed One's body is completely restored, you had better abstain from liquid food.' And ere long the Blessed One's body was completely restored.

1.34 Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka took that suit of Siveyyaka cloth and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him, Gîvaka Komârabhakka said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, I ask one boon of the Blessed One.' (Buddha replied), 'The Tathâgatas, Gîvaka, are above granting boons (before they know what they are).' (Gîvaka said), 'Lord, it is a proper and unobjectionable demand.'--'Speak, Gîvaka.'

'Lord, the Blessed One wears only pamsukûla robes (robes made of rags taken from a dust heap or a cemetery[12]), and so does the fraternity of Bhikkhus. Now, Lord, this suit of Siveyyaka cloth has been sent to me by king Paggota, which is the best, and the most excellent, and the first, and the most precious, and the noblest of many cloths and of [194] many suits of cloth, and of many hundred suits of cloth, and of many thousand suits of cloth, and of many hundred thousand suits of cloth. Lord, may the Blessed One accept from me this suit of Siveyyaka cloth, and may he allow to the fraternity of Bhikkhus to wear lay robes[13].'

The Blessed One accepted the suit of Siveyyaka cloth. And the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened Gîvaka Komârabhakka by religious discourse. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka, having been taught, incited, animated, and gladdened by the Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, passed round him with his right side towards him, and went away.

1.35 And the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse in consequence of that, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear lay robes. He who likes may wear pamsukûla robes; he who likes may accept lay robes. Whether you are pleased with the one or with the other sort[14] of robes, I approve it.'

Now the people at Râgagaha heard, The Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.' Then those people became glad and delighted (because they thought), 'Now we will bestow gifts (on the Bhikkhus) and acquire merit by good works, [195] since the Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.' And in one day many thousands of robes were presented at Râgagaha (to the Bhikkhus).

And the people in the country heard, 'The Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.' Then those people became glad (&c., as above, down to:) And in one day many thousands of robes were presented through the country also (to the Bhikkhus).

1.36 At that time the Samgha had received a mantle. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear a mantle.'

They had got a silk mantle.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear a silk mantle.'

They had got a fleecy counterpane[15].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a fleecy counterpane.'

End of the first Bhânavâra.

 


 

2.

 

2.1 At that time the king of Kâsi[16] sent to Gîvaka Komârabhakka a woollen garment made half of Benares cloth . . . [17]. Then Gîvaka Komârabhakka [196] took that woollen garment made half of Benares cloth and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him, Gîvaka Komârabhakka said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, this woollen garment made half of Benares cloth. . . .[18] has been sent to me by the king of Kâsi. May the Blessed One, Lord, accept this woollen garment, which may be to me a long time for a good and a blessing.' The Blessed One accepted that woollen garment.

And the Blessed One taught (&c., as in chap. I, 34, down to:) and went away.

And the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse in consequence of that, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use woollen garments.'

 


 

3.

 

3.1 At that time the fraternity got robes of different kinds. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'What robes are allowed to us by the Blessed One, and what robes are not allowed?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, six kinds of robes, viz. [197] those made of linen, of cotton, of silk, of wool, of coarse cloth, and of hempen cloth.'

3.2 At that time the Bhikkhus accepted lay robes, but did not get pamsukûla robes, because they had scruples (and thought): 'The Blessed One has allowed us either kind of robes only, not both kinds[19].'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, that he who accepts lay robes, may get also pamsukûla robes. If you are pleased with those both sorts of robes, I approve that also.'

 


 

4.

 

4.1 At that time a number of Bhikkhus were travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Some of these Bhikkhus went off (the road) to a cemetery in order to get themselves pamsukûla robes; some (other) Bhikkhus did not wait. Those Bhikkhus who had gone to the cemetery for pamsukûla robes, got themselves pamsukûlas; those Bhikkhus who had not waited, said to them: 'Friends, give us also a part (of your pamsukûlas).' They replied, 'We will not give you a part, friends; why have you not waited?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are not obliged to give a part against your will to Bhikkhus who have not waited.'

4.2 At that time a number of Bhikkhus were travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Some [198] of these Bhikkhus went off (the road) to a cemetery in order to get themselves pamsukûla robes; some (other) Bhikkhus waited for them. Those Bhikkhus who had gone to the cemetery for pamsukûla robes, got themselves pamsukûlas; those Bhikkhus who had waited, said to them: 'Friends, give us also a part (of your pamsukûlas).' They replied, 'We will not give you a part, friends; why did you not also go off (to the cemetery)?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a part (even) against your will to Bhikkhus who have waited.'

4.3 At that time a number of Bhikkhus were travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Some of these Bhikkhus went aside first from (the road) to a cemetery in order to get themselves pamsukûla robes; some (other) Bhikkhus went aside later. Those Bhikkhus who had gone first to the cemetery for pamsukûla robes, got themselves pamsukûlas; those Bhikkhus who had got off later, did not get any, and said (to the other ones): 'Friends, give us also a part.' They replied, 'We will not give you a part, friends; why did you get off (to the cemetery) after us?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are not obliged to give a part against your will to Bhikkhus who have gone (to the cemetery) later (than yourselves).'

4.4 At that time a number of Bhikkhus were travelling on the road in the Kosala country. They went altogether off (the road) to a cemetery in order to get themselves pamsukûla robes; some of the Bhikkhus got pamsukûlas, other Bhikkhus did not [199] get any. The Bhikkhus who had got nothing, said: 'Friends, give us also a part (of your pamsukûlas).' They replied, 'We will not give you a part, friends; why did you not get (them yourselves)?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a part (even) against your will to Bhikkhus who have gone (to the cemetery) together with yourselves.'

4.5 At that time a number of Bhikkhus were travelling on the road in the Kosala country. They went off (the road) to a cemetery in order to get themselves pamsukûla robes, after having made an agreement (about the distribution of what they were to find). Some of the Bhikkhus got themselves pamsukûlas, other Bhikkhus did not get any. The Bhikkhus who had got nothing, said: 'Friends, give us also a part (of the pamsukûlas).' They replied, 'We will not give you a part, friends; why did you not get (them yourselves)?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a part, (even) against your will, to Bhikkhus who have gone (with you to the cemetery) after having made with you an agreement (about the distribution of the pamsukûlas).'

 


 

5.

 

5.1 At that time people went to the Ârâma with robes[20] (which they intended to present to the [200] Bhikkhus). They found there no Bhikkhu who was to receive the robes; so they took them back again. (In consequence of that) few robes were given (to the Bhikkhus).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, to receive the robes (presented to the Bhikkhus): (a person) who does not go in the evil course of lust, in the evil course of hatred, in the evil course of delusion, in the evil course of fear, and who knows what has been received and what has not.

5.2 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (such a Bhikkhu) in this way: First, that Bhikkhu must be asked (to accept that commission). When he has been asked, let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha appoint the Bhikkhu N. N: to receive the robes (presented to the Bhikkhus). This is the ñatti. Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. The Samgha appoints the Bhikkhu N. N. to receive the robes (presented). Let any one of the venerable brethren who is in favour of our appointing the Bhikkhu N. N. to receive the robes (presented), be silent, and any one who is not in favour of it, speak. The Bhikkhu N. N. has been appointed by the Samgha to receive the robes (presented). The Samgha is in favour of it, therefore are you silent; thus I understand."'

 


 

6.

 

6.1 At that time the Bhikkhus who had to receive the robes (presented), after having received them, left them there (in the Vihâras) and went away; the robes were spoilt.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, to lay by the robes (received): (a person) who does not go in the evil course of lust, in the evil course of hatred, in the evil course of delusion, in the evil course of fear, and who knows what is laid by and what is not.

6.2 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (&c., see chap. 5, Ī2).'

 


 

7.

 

7.1 At that time the Bhikkhus appointed to lay the robes by, laid the robes by in an open hall, or at the foot of a tree, or in the hollow of a Nimba tree[21]; thus they were eaten by rats and white ants.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint what the Samgha chooses, a Vihâra, or an Addhayoga[22], or a storied building, or an attic, or a cave, to be the store-room[23] (of the Samgha).

[202] 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint it in this way: Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha appoint the Vihâra called N. N, to be the store-room (of the Samgha), (&c., the usual formula of a ñaattidutiya kamma)."'

 


 

8.

 

8.1 At that time the cloth in the Samgha's store-room was not protected (from rain, mice, &c.) They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, to take charge of the store-room: (a person) who does not go in the evil course of lust (&c., as in chap. 5, Ī1), and who knows what is protected and what is not.

'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (&c., see chap. 5, Ī2):

8.2 At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus expelled a Bhikkhu, who had charge of a store-room, from his place.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, expel a Bhikkhu, who has charge of a store-room, from his place. He who does so, commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

9.

 

9.1 At that time the Samgha's store-room was over-full of clothes.

[203] They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that they should be distributed by the assembled Samgha.'

At that time the whole Samgha, when distributing the clothes, made a bustle.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, to distribute the clothes: (a person) who does not go in the evil course of lust . . . and who knows what is distributed and what is not.

'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (&c. see chap. 5, Ī2).'

9.2 Now the Bhikkhus appointed to distribute the clothes thought: 'In what way are we to distribute the clothes?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you first assort the clothes, estimate them, share them according to their higher or lower value[24], then count the Bhikkhus, divide them into troops[25], and divide the portions of cloth (accordingly).'

Now the Bhikkhus, who were to distribute the clothes, thought: 'What portion of cloth shall be given to the Sâmaneras?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give to the Sâmaneras half a portion.'

[204] 9.3 At that time a certain Bhikkhu wished to go across (a river or a desert) with the portion that should come to him.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give to a Bhikkhu who is going across (a river or a desert), the portion that should come to him.'

At that time a certain Bhikkhu wished to go across (a river or a desert) with a greater portion (of cloth than fell to his share).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give more than the due portion (to a Bhikkhu who desires it), if-he gives a compensation.'

9.4 Now the Bhikkhus, who were to distribute the clothes, thought: 'How are we to assign the portions of cloth (to the single Bhikkhus), by turns as they arrive (and ask for cloth), or according to their age (i.e. the time elapsed since their ordination)?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you cast lots, made of grass-blades, after having made every defective portion even.'

 


 

10.

 

10.1 At that time the Bhikkhus dyed cloth with (cow-)dung or with yellow clay. The robes were badly coloured.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you use the following six kinds of dye, viz. dye made of roots, dye made of trunks of trees, dye made of bark, dye made of leaves, dye made of flowers, dye made of fruits.'

[205] 10.2 At that time the Bhikkhus dyed cloth with unboiled dye; the cloth became ill-smelling.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you boil the dye (and use) little dye-pots.'

They spilt the dye.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you put basins (under the dye-pots) to catch the spilt (dye).'

At that time the Bhikkhus did not know whether the dye was boiled or not.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you let a drop of dye fall into water, or on to your nail (in order to try if the dye is duly boiled).'

10.3 At that time the Bhikkhus, when pouring the dye out (of the pot), upset the pot; the pot was broken.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you use a dye-ladle or a scoop with a long handle.'

At that time the Bhikkhus did not possess vessels for keeping dye.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you get jars and bowls for keeping the dye.'

At that time the Bhikkhus rubbed the cloth against the vessels and the bowls (in which they dyed it); the cloth was rent.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you use a (large) trough for dying (cloth) in.'

 


[206]

11.

 

11.1 At that time the Bhikkhus spread the cloth on the floor (when they had dyed it); the cloth became dusty.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you spread grass (and put the cloth on it).'

The grass they had spread was eaten by white ants. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you get a bambû peg or rope to hang the cloth on.'

They hung it up in the middle; the dye dropped down on both sides.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you tie it fast at the corner.'

The corner wore out.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the use of a clothes-line.'

The dye dropped down on one side.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you turn the cloth, when dying it, whenever required, and that you do not go away before the dye has ceased to drop.'

11.2 At that time the cloth had become stiff[26]. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

[207] 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you dip (the cloth) into water (in order to remove the excessive dye).' At that time the cloth became rough.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, (that you smooth it by) beating it with your hands.'

At that time the Bhikkhus possessed akkhinnaka[27] robes of yellowish colour like ivory. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: '(The Bhikkhus dress) like those who still live in the pleasures of the world.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to possess akkhinnaka robes. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

 


 

12.

 

12.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, he set forth on his journey towards Dakkhinâ-giri (the Southern Hills[28]). And the Blessed One beheld how the Magadha rice fields were divided into short pieces[29], [208] and in rows[30], and by outside boundaries[31] (or ridges), and by cross boundaries[32].

On seeing this the Blessed One spake thus to the venerable Ânanda: 'Dost thou perceive, Ânanda, how the Magadha rice fields are divided into short pieces, and in rows, and by outside boundaries, and by cross boundaries?'

'Even so, Lord.'

'Could you, Ânanda, provide[33] robes of a like kind for the Bhikkhus?'

'I could, Lord.'

Now when the Blessed One had remained in the Southern Hills as long as he thought fit, he returned again to Râgagaha.

Then Ânanda provided robes of a like kind for many Bhikkhus; and going up to the place where the Blessed One was, he spake thus to the Blessed One: 'May the Blessed One be pleased to look at the robes which I have provided.'

12.2 Then the Blessed One on that occasion addressed the Bhikkhus and said: 'An able man, O Bhikkhus, is Ânanda; of great understanding, O Bhikkhus, is Ânanda, inasmuch as what has been spoken by me in short that can he understand in full, and can make the cross seams[34], and the [209] intermediate cross seams[35], and the greater circles[36], and the lesser circles[37], and the turning in[38], and the lining of the turning in[39], and the collar piece[40], and the knee piece[41], and the elbow piece[42]. And it shall be of torn pieces[43], roughly sewn together[44], suitable for a Samana, a thing which his enemies cannot covet.[45] I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, the use of an under robe of torn pieces, and of an upper robe of torn pieces, and of a waist cloth of torn pieces.'[46]

 


[210]

13.

 

13.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, he went forth on his journey towards Vesâlî. And the Blessed One, when on the high road between Râgagaha and Vesâlî, saw a number of Bhikkhus smothered up in robes[47], they went along with robes made up into a roll[48] on their heads, or on their backs, or on their waist. And when the Blessed One saw them, he thought: 'With too great celerity have these foolish persons given themselves up to superfluity[49] in the matter of dress. It would be well were I to confine the dress of the Bhikkhus within limits, and were to fix a bound thereto.'

13.2 And the Blessed One, proceeding in due course on his journey toward Vesâlî, arrived at that place. And there, at Vesâlî, the Blessed One stayed at the Gotamaka shrine[50]. And at that time in the cold [211] winter nights, in the period between the Ashtakâ festivals when the snow falls[51], the Blessed One sat at night in the open air with but one robe on, and the Blessed One felt not cold. As the first watch of the night was coming to its end, the Blessed One felt cold; and he put on a second robe, and felt not cold. As the middle watch of the night was coming to its end, the Blessed One felt cold; and he put on a third robe, and felt not cold. As the last watch of the night was coming to an end, when the dawn was breaking and the night was far spent[52], the Blessed One felt cold; and he put on a fourth robe, and felt not cold.

13.3 Then this thought sprang up in the Blessed One's mind: 'Those men of good birth[53] in this doctrine and discipline who are affected by cold, and are afraid of cold, they are able to make use of three robes[54]. It were well if in confining within limits the dress of the Bhikkhus, and in fixing a bound thereto, I were to allow the use of three robes.' And on that occasion the Blessed One, when he had [212] delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

13.4-5 'When on the high road, &c. . . . I saw, &c. . . .  and I thought, &c. . . .  (all the chapter is repeated down to ". . . . I were to allow the use of three robes"). I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of three robes, (to wit), a double waist cloth, and a single[55] upper robe, and a single under garment[56].'

[213] 13.6 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, on the ground that three robes had been allowed by the Blessed One, used to frequent the village in one suit of three robes, and in another suit to rest in the Ârâma, and in another to go to the bath. Then those Bhikkhus who were modest were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, How can the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus wear extra suits of robes.'

And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, when he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear an extra suit of robes. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to law[57]:

13.7 Now at that time the venerable Ânanda had acquired an extra suit of robes, and the venerable Ânanda was desirous of giving the extra suit to the venerable Sâriputta, but the venerable Sâriputta was staying at Sâketa. Then the venerable Ânanda thought: 'It hath been laid down by the Blessed One that we are not to keep an extra suit of robes. Now I have received one, and I want to give it to the venerable Sâriputta; but he is staying at Sâketa. What now shall I do?'

[214] And the venerable Ânanda told this thing to the Blessed One.

'How long will it be, Ânanda, before the venerable Sâriputta returns?'

'He will come back, Lord, on the ninth or the tenth day from now.'

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, when he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep an extra suit of robes up to the tenth day.'[58]

13.8 Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to get extra suits of robes given to them. And these Bhikkhus thought: 'What now should we do with extra suits of robes?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, to make over an extra suit of robes (to other Bhikkhus who have no robes[59]).'

 


 

14.

 

14.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Vesâlî as long as he thought fit, he went onwards on his journey towards Benares. And in due course he arrived at Benares, and there, at Benares, he stayed in the hermitage in the Migadâya.

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu's under robe was torn. And that Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed [215] One has ordained the use of three robes, a double waist cloth, and a single upper robe, and a single under-garment[60], and this under-garment of mine is torn. What if I were to insert a slip of cloth[61] so that the robe shall be double all round and single in the middle.'

14.2 So that Bhikkhu inserted a slip of cloth. And the Blessed One on his way round the sleeping apartments saw him doing so, went up to the place where he was, and said to him:

'What are you doing, O Bhikkhu?'

'I am inserting a slip of cloth, Lord.'

'That is very good, O Bhikkhu. It is quite right of you, O Bhikkhu, to insert a slip of cloth.'

And the Blessed One on that occasion, when he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a double waist cloth, and a single upper robe, and a single under-garment, of cloths which are new, or as good as new[62]; and the use of a fourfold waist cloth, and of a double upper robe, and of a double under robe of cloth which has been worn for a long time. You are to make endeavour to get sufficient material from rags taken from the dust-heap[63], or from bits picked up in the bazaar[63]. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, slips of cloth inserted bolt-like to hold a torn robe [216] together, patches[64], darns[65], and small pieces of cloth sewn on by way of marking[65], or of strengthening[65] the robe.'

 


 

15.

 

15.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Benares as long as he thought fit, he went onwards on his journey toward Sâvatthi. And in due course journeying 'straight on he arrived at Sâvatthi; and there, at Sâvatthi, he stayed at the Getavana, Anâtha-pindika's Ârâma. And Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra went up to the place where the Blessed One was; and when she had come there, she saluted the Blessed One, and took her seat on one side. And the Blessed One taught Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra seated thus: and incited, and aroused, and gladdened her with religious discourse. And Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra when she had been thus taught, &c., spake thus to the Blessed One: 'Will my Lord the Blessed One consent to accept his morrow's meal at my hands, together with the company of the Bhikkhus?' The Blessed One, by remaining silent, granted his consent; and Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra, perceiving that the Blessed One had consented, rose from her seat, and saluted the Blessed One, and keeping him on her right side as she passed him, she departed thence.

[217] 15.2 Now at that time, when the night was far spent, there was a great storm of rain over the whole world[66]. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus:

'Just as it is raining in the Getavana, O Bhikkhus, so is it raining over the whole world. Let yourselves, O Bhikkhus, be rained down upon, for this is the last time there will be a mighty storm of rain over the whole world.'

'Even so, Lord,' said those Bhikkhus in assent to the Blessed One; and throwing off their robes they let themselves be rained down upon.

15.3 And Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra having provided sweet food, both hard and soft, gave command to a slave girl, saying,

'Go thou[67] to the Ârâma; and when you are there, announce the time, saying, "The time, Sirs, has arrived, and the meal is ready."'

'Even so, my Lady,' said the slave girl in assent to Visâkhâ, the mother of Migâra; and going to the Ârâma she beheld there the Bhikkhus, with their robes thrown off, letting themselves be rained down upon. Then thinking, 'These are not Bhikkhus in the Ârâma, they are naked ascetics letting the rain fall on them,' she returned to the place where Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra was, and said to her:

There are no Bhikkhus in the Ârâma; there are [218] naked ascetics there, letting the rain fall on themselves.'

Then it occurred to Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra--she being learned, expert, and wise--'For a certainty the venerable ones must have thrown off their robes in order to let themselves be rained down upon, and this foolish girl thinks therefore that there are no Bhikkhus in the Ârâma, but only naked ascetics letting the rain fall on them.' And she again gave command to the slave girl, saying,

'Go thou to the Ârâma; and when you are there, announce the time, saying, "The time, Sirs, has arrived, and the meal is ready."'

15.4 Now the Bhikkhus when they had cooled their limbs, and were refreshed in body, took their robes, and entered each one into his chamber, When the slave girl came to the Ârâma, not seeing any Bhikkhus, she thought: 'There are no Bhikkhus in the Ârâma. The Ârâma is empty.' And returning to Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra she said so.

Then it occurred to Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra--she being learned, expert, and wise--'For a certainty the venerable ones, when they had cooled their limbs and were refreshed in body, must have taken their robes, and entered each one into his chamber.' And she again gave command to the slave girl, saying,

'Go thou to Ârâma; and when you are there announce the time, saying, "The time, Sirs, has arrived, and the meal is ready."'

15.5 And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 'Make yourselves ready, O Bhikkhus, with bowl and robe; the hour for the meal has come.'

'Even so, Lord,' said the Bhikkhus in assent to [219] the Blessed One. And in the morning the Blessed One, having put on his under-garment, and being duly bowled and robed, vanished from the Getavana as quickly as a strong man would stretch forth his arm when it was drawn in, or draw it in again when it was stretched forth, and appeared in the mansion[68] of Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra. And the Blessed One took his seat on the seat spread out for him, and with him the company of the Bhikkhus.

15.6 Then said Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra: Most wonderful, most marvellous is the might and the power of the Tathâgata, in that though the floods are rolling on knee-deep, and though the floods are rolling on waist-deep, yet is not a single Bhikkhu wet, as to his feet, or as to his robes.' And glad and exalted in heart she served and offered with her own hand to the company of the Bhikkhus, with the Buddha at their head, sweet food, both hard and soft. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal, and had cleansed his hands and the bowl, she took her seat on one side. And, so sitting, she spake thus to the Blessed One:

'Eight are the boons, Lord, which I beg of the Blessed One.'

'The Tathâgatas, O Visâkhâ, are above granting boons (before they know what they are)[69].'

'Proper, Lord, and unobjectionable are the boons I ask.'

'Speak then, O Visâkhâ.'

15.7 'I desire, Lord, my life long to bestow robes [220] for the rainy season on the Samgha, and food for in-coming Bhikkhus, and food for out-going Bhikkhus, and food for the sick, and food for those who wait upon the sick, and medicine for the sick, and a constant supply of congey, and bathing robes for the nuns.'

'But what circumstance is it, O Visâkhâ, that you have in view in asking these eight boons of the Tathâgata?'

'I gave command, Lord, to my slave girl, saying, "Go thou to the Ârâma; and when you are there, announce the time, saying, 'The time, Sirs, has arrived, and the meal is ready.'" And the slave girl went, Lord, to the Ârâma; but when she beheld there the Bhikkhus with their robes thrown off, letting themselves be rained down upon, she thought: "These are not Bhikkhus in the Ârâma, they are naked ascetics letting the rain fall on them," and she returned to me and reported accordingly. Impure, Lord, is nakedness, and revolting. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to provide the Samgha my life long with special garments for use in the rainy season[70].

15.8 'Moreover, Lord, an in-coming Bhikkhu, not being able to take the direct roads, and not knowing the places where food can be procured, comes on his way wearied out by seeking for an alms. But when he has partaken of the food I shall have provided for in-coming Bhikkhus, he will come on his way without being wearied out by seeking for an alms, taking the direct road, and knowing the place where food can be procured. It was this circumstance [221] that I had in view in desiring to provide the Samgha my life long with food for in-coming Bhikkhus.

'Moreover, Lord, an out-going Bhikkhu, while seeking about for an alms for himself, may be left behind by the caravan[71], or may arrive too late at the place whither he desires to go, and will set out on the road in weariness. But when he has partaken of the food I shall have provided for out-going Bhikkhus, he will not be left behind by the caravan; he will arrive in due time at the place whither he desires to go, and he will set out on the road when he is not weary. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to provide the Samgha my life long with food for out-going Bhikkhus.

15.9 'Moreover, Lord, if a sick Bhikkhu does not obtain suitable foods his sickness may increase upon him, or he may die. But if a Bhikkhu have taken the diet that I shall have provided for the sick, neither will his sickness increase upon him, nor will he die. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to provide the Samgha my life long with diet for the sick.

'Moreover, Lord, a Bhikkhu who is waiting upon the sick, if he has to seek out food for himself, may bring in the food (to the invalid) when the sun is already far on his course[72], and he will lose his [222] opportunity of taking his food[73]. But when he has partaken of the food I shall have provided for those who wait upon the sick, he will bring in food to the invalid in due time, and he will not lose his opportunity of taking his food. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to provide the Samgha my life long with food for those who wait upon the sick.

15.10 'Moreover, Lord, if a sick Bhikkhu does not obtain suitable medicines his sickness may increase upon him, or he may die. But if a Bhikkhu have taken the medicines which I shall have provided for the sick, neither will his sickness increase upon him, nor will he die. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to provide the Samgha my life long with medicines for the sick.

'Moreover, Lord, the Blessed One when at Andhakavinda, having in view the ten advantages thereof, allowed the use of congey[74]. It was those advantages I had in view, Lord, in desiring to provide the Samgha my life long with a constant supply of congey.

15.11 'Now, Lord, the Bhikkhunîs are in the habit of bathing in the river Akiravatî with the courtesans, at the same landing-place, and naked. And the courtesans, Lord, ridiculed the Bhikkhunîs, saying, "What is the good, ladies, of your maintaining[75] chastity when you are young? are not the [223] passions things to be indulged? When you are old, maintain chastity then; thus will you be obtainers of both ends." Then the Bhikkhunîs, Lord, when thus ridiculed by the courtesans, were confused. Impure, Lord, is nakedness for a woman, disgusting, and revolting. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to provide the Bhikkhunî-samgha my life long with dresses to bathe in.'

15.12 'But what was the advantage you had in view for yourself, O Visâkhâ, in asking these eight boons of the Tathâgata?'

'Bhikkhus who have spent the rainy seasons in various places will come, Lord, to Sâvatthi, to visit the Blessed One. And on coming to the Blessed One they will ask, saying, "Such and such a Bhikkhu, Lord, has died. Where has he been re-born, and what is his destiny?" Then will the Blessed One explain that he had attained to the fruits of conversion, or of the state of the Sakadâgâmins, or of the state of the Anâgâmins, or of Arahatship[76]. And I, going up to them, shall ask, "Was that brother, Sirs, one of those who had formerly been at Sâvatthi?"

15.13 'If they should reply to me, "He had formerly been at Sâvatthi," then shall I arrive at the conclusion, "For a certainty did that brother enjoy either the robes for the rainy season, or the food for the in-coming Bhikkhus, or the food for the out-going Bhikkhus, or the food for the sick, or the food for those that wait upon the sick, or the [224] medicine for the sick, or the constant supply of congey." Then will gladness spring up within me on my calling that to mind; and joy will arise to me thus gladdened; and so rejoicing all my frame will be at peace; and being thus at peace I shall experience a blissful feeling of content; and in that bliss my heart will be at rest; and that will be to me an exercise of my moral sense, an exercise of my moral powers, an exercise of the seven kinds of wisdom[77]! This, Lord, was the advantage I had in view for myself in asking those eight boons of the Blessed One.'

15.14 'It is well, it is well, Visâkhâ. Thou hast [225] done well in asking eight boons of the Tathâgata with such advantages in view.'

And the Blessed One gave thanks to Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra in these verses;

'Whatsoever woman, upright in life, a disciple of the Happy One, gives, glad at heart and overcoming avarice, both food and drink--a gift, heavenly, destructive of sorrow, productive of bliss,--

'A heavenly life does she attain, entering upon the Path that is free from corruption and impurity;

'Aiming at good, happy does she become, and free from sickness, and long does she rejoice in a heavenly body.'

And when the Blessed One had given thanks to Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra in these verses, he arose from his seat, and departed thence.

15.15 Then the Blessed One on that occasion, after he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

I allow you, O Bhikkhus, garments for the rainy season[78], and food for in-coming Bhikkhus, and food for out-going Bhikkhus, and diet for the sick, and food for those that wait upon the sick, and medicine for the sick, and a constant supply of congey, and bathing robes for the sisterhood.'

Here ends the chapter called the Visâkhâ-bhânavâra.

 


[226]

16.

 

16.1-2 Now at that time Bhikkhus who had eaten sweet foods went to sleep unmindful and unthoughtful. And they who had thus gone to sleep, dreamed[79] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.3 'I allow, O Bhikkhus, for the protection of the body, and of the robe, and of the sleeping-place, the use of a mat.'

16.4 Now at that time the mat, being too short[80], did not protect the whole of the sleeping-place.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have a covering made as large as you like.'

 


 

17.[81]

 

17.1 Now at that time the venerable Belatthasîsa, the superior of the venerable Ânanda, had a disease of thick scabs; and by reason of the discharge thereof his robes stuck to his body. The Bhikkhus moistened those robes with water, and loosened them (from his body).

The Blessed One, as he was going on his rounds through the sleeping-places, saw them [doing so], and going up to the place where they were, he asked them:

[227] 'What is the matter, O Bhikkhus, with this Bhikkhu?'

'The venerable one has the disease of thick scabs; and by reason of the discharge thereof his robes stick to his body. So we are moistening those robes thoroughly with water, to loosen them (from his body).'

17.2 Then the Blessed One on that occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, to whomsoever has the itch, or boils, or a discharge, or scabs, the use of an itch-cloth[82].'

 


 

18.

 

18.1 Now Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra took a cloth for wiping the face, and went up to the place where the Blessed One was. And on arriving there, she saluted the Blessed One, and took her seat on one side, and, so sitting, Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra spake thus to the Blessed One:

'May the Blessed One be pleased to accept of me this cloth for wiping the face, that that may be to me for a long time for a blessing and for good.'

And the Blessed One accepted the cloth for wiping the face. And he taught, and incited, and aroused, and gladdened Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra with religious discourse. And she, so taught &c., rose from her seat, and saluted the [228] Blessed One, and passing him on her right side, she departed thence.

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a cloth to wipe your faces with.'

 


 

19.

 

19.1 Now at that time Roga the Malla was a friend of the venerable Ânanda's[83]. And a linen cloth belonging to Roga the Malla had been deposited in the keeping of the venerable Ânanda; and the venerable Ânanda had need of a linen cloth.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take a thing on trust (that it would be given to you) when it belongs to a person possessed of these five qualifications--he must be an intimate and familiar friend who has been spoken to (about it)[84] and is alive, (and the Bhikkhu taking the thing) must know "He will remain pleased with me after I have taken it." I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take a thing on trust (that it would be given to you)[85] when it belongs to a person possessed of these five qualifications.'

 


[229]

20.

 

20.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus were fully provided with the three robes, but they had need of water-strainers[86] and of bags (to carry their bowls and other things in)[87].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, pieces of cloth requisite (for those purposes).'

20.2 Then it occurred to the Bhikkhus: 'The things allowed by the Blessed One--the three robes, and the robes for the rainy season, and the mat, and the bed-covering, and the cloth to cover boils &c. with, and to wipe the face with, and required (for water-strainers and bags)--are all these things things which ought to be kept to ourselves[88], or things which ought to be handed over[89] (from time to time by one Bhikkhu to another)?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep in hand the three robes, and not to assign them--to keep to yourselves the robes for the rainy season during the four months of the rains, but beyond that time to hand them over--to keep to yourselves the mats and the bed coverings, and not to hand them over--to keep to yourselves the coverings for the itch &c. while the disease lasts, but beyond that time to [230] hand them over--to keep to yourselves the cloths to wipe the face with, and those required for water-strainers and bags, and not to hand them over.'

 


 

21.

 

21.1 Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'What is the limit for the size of a robe up to which it ought to be handed over to another Bhikkhu[90]?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, to hand over any robe which is in length eight inches according to the accepted inch[91].'

Now at that time a robe belonging to the venerable Mahâ Kassapa, which had been made of cast-off pieces of cloth became heavy (by reason of the weight of the new pieces tacked on to it[92]).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to darn it roughly together with thread[93].'

It was uneven at the end[94].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to remove the unevenness[95].'

[231] The threads frayed out[96].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to put a braiding or a binding along or round (the edge)[97]:

Now at that time the ribbons[98] of the under garment gave way[99].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make an eight-footed . . . [100].'

21.2 Now at that time when a set of robes was being made for a certain Bhikkhu it was impossible to make it entirely from torn pieces of cloth[101].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have two of the robes made of torn pieces of cloth, and one of cloth not torn.'

It was impossible to make two of the robes of torn pieces of cloth, and one of cloth not torn.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make two robes [232] (out of the set) of untorn pieces, and one of torn pieces.'

Even this was impossible.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make (each robe out of the set) half (from torn pieces) and half[102] (from untorn pieces). But a set of robes made entirely from untorn pieces is not to be worn. Whosoever shall wear (a set of robes so made) is guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

22.

 

22.1 Now at that time a quantity of robes had come into the possession of a certain Bhikkhu, and he was desirous of giving those robes to his father and mother.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Since they are his father and mother, what can we say, O Bhikkhus, though he give them to them. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give (robes, in such a case,) to your parents. And a gift of faith is not to be made of no avail. Whosoever shall make it of no avail, he is guilty of a dukkata[103].'

 


 

23.

 

23.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who had deposited his robes[104] in Andhavana entered the [233] village for alms (clad only) in his waist cloth and nether garment[105]. Thieves carried off that robe. That Bhikkhu became ragged and ill-clad.

The Bhikkhus spake thus: 'How is it, friend, that you have become ragged and ill-clad?'

'I had deposited my robe in Andhavana, and entered the village in my waist cloth and nether garment. Thieves carried off that robe., Thence am I become ragged and ill-clad.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to enter the village (clad only) in your waist cloth and nether garment. Whosoever shall do so is guilty of a dukkata[106].'

23.2 Now at that time the venerable Ânanda through thoughtlessness went into the village for alms in his waist cloth and nether garment.

The Bhikkhus spake to him thus: 'Hath it not been laid down by the Blessed One that we are not to enter the village in our waist cloth and nether garment. Why have you, O friend, gone so into the village?'

'It is true, my friends, that it has been laid down by the Blessed One that we are not to enter the village so, but I did it out of thoughtlessness.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

23.3 'There are five reasons, O Bhikkhus, for laying [234] aside the robe[107]--when he (the Bhikkhu) is sick, when it is the appointed time for keeping the rainy season[108], when it is necessary to go to the other side of a river, when the vihâra has been securely fastened with a bolt[109], when the Kathina ceremony has been performed[110]. These, O Bhikkhus, are the five reasons for laying aside the robe (Samghâti).

'There are five reasons, O Bhikkhus, for laying aside the waist cloth and the nether garment. [The reasons are the same as in the last paragraph.] These, O Bhikkhus, are the five reasons, &c.

'There are five reasons for laying aside the garment for use in the rainy season--when he is sick, when it is necessary to go beyond the boundary (?)[111], when it is necessary to go to the other side of a river, when the vihâra has been securely fastened with a bolt, when the garment for use in the rainy [235] season has not been made, or has been left unfinished[112].

'These, O Bhikkhus, are the five reasons,' &c.

 


 

24.

 

24.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu kept Vassa[113] alone. The people then gave him robes, saying, 'We give them to the Samgha.'

Then that Bhikkhu thought: 'It has been laid down by the Blessed One that the lowest number which can constitute a Samgha is four[114]. Now I am by myself, and these people have given the robes, saying, "We give them to the Samgha." I had better take these robes, which are the property of a Samgha, to Sâvatthi.'

So that Bhikkhu did so, and told the matter to the Blessed One.

'These robes are your own, O Bhikkhu, until the Kathina ceremony shall have been performed[115].'

24.2 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu keep Vassa alone, and the people of the place give [236] him robes, intending them for the Samgha,--I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that those robes shall be his until the Kathina ceremony shall have been performed.'

24.3 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu spent the rest of the year (besides the rainy season)[116] alone. The people there (&c., as before, in the first paragraph of 24. 1, down to the end).

So that Bhikkhu did so, and told the matter to the Bhikkhus. They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are to divide such robes with the Samgha (whether large or small in number) that may be present there.

24.4 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu spend the rest of the year (besides the rainy season) alone, if and the people of the place give him robes, intending them for the Samgha,--I allow, O Bhikkhus, that that Bhikkhu should appropriate those robes to himself[117], saying, "These robes are for me." If another Bhikkhu should arrive before those robes have been appropriated to that Bhikkhu, an equal share is to be given (to the in-coming Bhikkhu). If while the robes are being divided by those Bhikkhus, and before the lot has been cast, another Bhikkhu should arrive, an equal share is to be given to him. If while the robes are being divided by those Bhikkhus, and after the lot has been cast, another Bhikkhu [237] should arrive, an equal share need not, if they do not wish it[118], be given to him.'

24.5 Now at that time two Theras, who were brothers, the venerable Isidâsa and the venerable Isibhatta, having spent the rainy season in Sâvatthi, went to take up their abode in a certain village. The people there, thinking, 'It is long since these Theras have arrived here,' made gifts of both food and robes.

The Bhikkhus who resided there asked the Theras, saying, 'These robes, Sirs, which are the property of the Samgha, have come to us through the Theras' arrival[119]. Will the Theras accept a share?'

The Theras answered: 'As we understand the rule laid down by the Blessed One, these robes belong to you alone until the K a Mina ceremony shall have been performed[120].'

24.6 Now at that time three Bhikkhus spent the rainy season at Râgagaha. The people there made gifts of robes, saying, 'We give them to the Samgha.'

Then those Bhikkhus thought thus: 'It has been laid down by the Blessed One that the smallest Samgha shall consist of four persons, and we are only three, and these people have made gifts of robes, intending to give them to the Samgha. What now ought we to do with them?'

Now at that time there were staying in Pâtaliputta, [238] at the kukkutârâma, a number of Theras--the venerable Nilavâsi, and the venerable Sânavâsi ,[121] and the venerable Gopaka, and the venerable Bhagu, and the venerable Phalika-sandâna. And those Bhikkhus went to Pâtaliputta, and asked the Theras what they should do.

The Theras answered: 'As we understand the rule laid down by the Blessed One, these robes belong to you alone until the Kathina ceremony shall have been performed.'

 


 

25.

 

25.1 Now at that time the venerable Upananda of the Sakya race, having spent the rainy season at Sâvatthi, went to take up his abode in a certain village. The Bhikkhus in that place assembled together with the object of dividing the robes. They said to him

'These robes, friend, which are the property of the Samgha, are about to be divided. Will you accept a share of them?'

'Yes, friends, I will,' said he; and taking his share, departed thence and took up his abode elsewhere.

[The same thing happened there, and] he departed thence and took up his abode elsewhere.

[The same thing happened there, and so] he returned to Sâvatthi with a great bundle of robes.

25.2 The Bhikkhus said to him: 'What a meritorious [239] person you are, friend Upananda. Plenty of robes have come into your possession!'

'Where is my merit, friends?' said he, and [told them all that had happened].[122]

25.3 'How then, friend Upananda, have you spent the rainy season in one place, and accepted a share of robes in another place?'

'Yes, friends, that is so.'

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were indignant, murmured, and became annoyed, saying, 'How can the venerable Upananda spend the rainy season in one place, and accept a share of robes in another place?'

They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, Upananda, as they say, that you have spent the rainy season in one place, and have accepted a share of robes in another place?'

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'How can you, O foolish one, act so? This will not redound to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted!'

And after having rebuked him, and delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, saying, 'Whosoever, O Bhikkhus, has spent the rainy season in one place, is not to accept a share of the robes in another place. Whosoever does so shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

25.4 Now at that time the venerable Upananda of the Sakya race spent the rainy season alone in two residences, thinking thus to obtain many robes. And the Bhikkhus thought: 'How should his portion [240] of the robes be assigned to Upananda of the Sakya race?'

They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Give, O Bhikkhus, to that foolish one but one portion.[123] In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu spend the rainy season alone in two residences, thinking thus to obtain many robes, then, if he have spent exactly half the season in one place and half in another, a half portion of the robes due to him shall be given to him in one place, and a half in the other; but in whichever place of the two he have spent a greater part of the rainy season, thence shall the portions of robes due to him be given.'

 


 

26.

 

26.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a disturbance in his bowels, and he lay fallen in his own evacuations. And the Blessed One on going round the sleeping-places accompanied by the venerable Ânanda came to that Bhikkhu's abode, and saw him so. And he went up to him, and asked him, 'What is the matter with you, O Bhikkhu?'

'I have a disturbance, Lord, in my bowels.'

'Then have you, O Bhikkhu, any one to wait upon you?'

'No, Lord.'

'Why do not the Bhikkhus wait upon you?'

'Because I am of no service, Lord, to the Bhikkhus.'

26.2 Then the Blessed One said to the venerable [241] Ânanda: 'Go, Ânanda, and fetch some water. Let us bathe this Bhikkhu.'

'Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Ânanda, in assent to the Blessed One, and fetched the water. And the Blessed One poured the water over that Bhikkhu; and the venerable Ânanda wiped him down. And the Blessed One taking hold of him at the head, and the venerable Ânanda at the feet, they lifted him up, and laid him down upon his bed.

26.3 Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and asked the Bhikkhus, 'Is there, O Bhikkhus, in such and such an apartment, a Bhikkhu who is sick?'

'There is, Lord.'

'Then what, O Bhikkhus, is the matter with that Bhikkhu?'

'He has a disturbance, Lord, in his bowels.'

'And is there any one, O Bhikkhus, to wait upon him?'

'No, Lord.'

Why, then, do not the Bhikkhus wait upon him?'

'That Bhikkhu, Lord, is of no service to the Bhikkhus; therefore do they not wait upon him.'

'Ye, O Bhikkhus, have no mothers and no fathers who might wait upon you! If ye, O Bhikkhus, wait not one upon the other, who is there indeed who will wait upon you? Whosoever, O Bhikkhus, would wait upon me, he should wait upon the sick.

26.4 'If he have an upagghâya, his upagghâya should wait upon him as long as his life lasts, and wait until he has recovered; and so if he have an âkariya, a saddhi-vihârika, an antevâsika, a fellow [242] saddhi-vihârika, or a fellow antevâsika[124]. And if he have neither of all these, then should the Samgha wait upon him; and whosoever does not do so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.

26.5 'There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, when a sick man has, he is difficult to wait upon--when he does not do what is good for him; when he does not know the limit (of the quantity of food) that is good for him [125]; when he does not take his medicine; when he does not let a nurse who desires his good know what manner of disease he has, or when it is getting worse that that is so, or when it is getting better that that is so, or when it is stationary that that is so; and when he has become unable to bear bodily pains that are severe, sharp, grievous, disagreeable, unpleasant, and destructive to life[126]. These are the five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, when a sick man has, he is difficult to wait upon.

26.6 'There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, when a sick man has, he is easy to wait upon--when he does' (&c., the contrary of the last section).

26.7 'There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, when one who waits upon the sick has, he is incompetent to the task--when he is not capable of prescribing medicines; when he does not know what (diet) is good and what is not good for the patient, serving what is not good, and not serving what is good for him; when he waits upon the sick out of [243] greed, and not out of love; when he revolts from removing evacuations, saliva or vomit; when he is not capable from time to time of teaching, inciting, arousing, and gladdening the patient with religious discourse. These are the five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, when one who waits upon the sick has, he is incompetent to the task.

26.8 'There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, when one who waits upon the sick has, he is competent to the task--when he is capable' (&c., the contrary of the last section).

 


 

27.

 

27.1 Now at that time two Bhikkhus were journeying along a high road in the country of Kosala. And they came to a certain residence, and there one of the two fell ill. Then the Bhikkhus there thought: 'Waiting upon the sick has been highly spoken of by the Blessed One. Let us then, friends, now wait upon this Bhikkhu.' And they waited upon him, and while he was being nursed by them, he completed his time[127]. Then those Bhikkhus took that Bhikkhu's bowl and his robes, and went to Sâvatthi, and told the matter to the Blessed One.

27.2 'On the death of a Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, the Samgha becomes the owner of his bowl and of his robes. But, now, those who wait upon the sick are of much service. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the bowl and the set of robes are to be assigned by the [244] Samgha to them who have waited upon the sick. And thus, O Bhikkhus, are they to be assigned. The Bhikkhu who has waited upon the sick ought to go before the Samgha, and to say thus: "Such and such a Bhikkhu, Sirs, has completed his time. These are his set of robes and his bowl." Then a discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the proposition before the Samgha, saying, "Let the Samgha hear me. Such and such a Bhikkhu has completed his time. These are his set of robes and his bowl. If it is convenient to the Samgha, let the Samgha assign this set of robes and this bowl to those who have waited upon the sick." This is the ñatti.' [Here follow the usual formal words of a kammavâkâ[128].]

27.3 Now at that time a certain Sâmanera had completed his time.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[The decision and the kammavâkâ are the same as in §2.]

27.4 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu and a Sâmanera waited upon a sick Bhikkhu; and while he was being waited upon by them he completed his time. And the Bhikkhu who had waited upon the sick thought: 'How now ought the due portion of robes be given to the Sâmanera who waited upon the sick?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are to give an equal portion to a Sâmanera who waits upon the sick.'

27.5 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who was [245] possessed of much property, and of a plentiful supply of a Bhikkhu's requisites, completed his time.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'On the death of a Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, the Samgha becomes the owner of his bowl and of his robes. But, now, those who wait upon the sick are of much service. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the set of robes and the bowl are to be assigned by the Samgha to them who have waited upon the sick. And whatever little property and small supply of a Bhikkhu's requisites there may be, that is to be divided by the Samgha that are present there; but whatever large quantity of property and large supply of a Bhikkhu's requisites there may be, that is not to be given away[129] and not to be apportioned[130], but to belong to the Samgha of the four directions[131], those who have come in, and those who have not[132].'

 


 

28.

 

28.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu came naked up to the place where the Blessed One was, and said:

'The Blessed One, Lord, has praised in many ways the moderate man and the contented who has eradicated (evil), who has shaken off his passions, who is gracious, reverent, energetic[133]. Now this [246] nakedness, Lord, is in many ways effectual to moderation and content, to the eradication of evil, to the suppressions of the passions, to graciousness, reverence, and zeal. It were well, Lord, if the Blessed One would enjoin nakedness upon the Bhikkhus.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'This would be improper, O foolish one, crooked, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samana, unbecoming, and it ought not to be done. How can you, O foolish one, adopt nakedness as the Titthiyas do? This will not conduce, O foolish one, to the conversion of the unconverted.'

And when he had rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to adopt nakedness, as the Titthiyas do[134]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a grave offence (Thullakkaya).'

28.2 [The whole -section repeated respectively in the case of a Bhikkhu clad in a garment of grass, clad in a garment of bark[135], clad in a garment of phalaka cloth[136], clad in a garment of hair[137], clad in the skin of a wild animal, clad in the feathers of [247] an owl, clad in antelope skins (with the hoofs left on)[138]. But instead of 'adopt nakedness as the Titthiyas do' substitute respectively 'wear a garment of grass, &c., which is the symbol[139] the Titthiyas use.']

28.3 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu came up to the place where the Blessed One was, clad in cloth made of the stalks of the akka plant[140].

[All as before in Ī1, down to:]

And when he had rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to dress yourselves in the stalks of the akka plant. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

[Ī3 is then repeated of a Bhikkhu clad in cloth made of the makaki fibre[141].]

 


 

29.

 

29.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus wore robes that were all of a blue, light yellow, crimson, brown, black, brownish yellow, or dark [248] yellow colour[142]; they wore robes with skirts to them which were not made of torn pieces of cloth, or were long, or had flowers on them, or cobras' hoods on them; they wore jackets, and dresses of the Tirîtaka plant[143], and turbans.

The people were indignant, murmured, and became annoyed, saying, 'This is like those still living in the enjoyments of the world.'

They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Robes that are all of a blue colour [&c.; all the things mentioned in the first paragraph being here repeated] are not to be worn. Whosoever wears them shall be guilty of a dukkata[144].'

 


 

30.

 

30.1 Now at that time Bhikkhus, after having spent the rainy season, but before a gift of robes had fallen to the Samgha, went away (from the place); left the Order; died; admitted that they were Sâmaneras; or that they had abandoned the precepts; or that they had become guilty of an extreme [249] offence; or that they were mad; or that their minds were unhinged; or that they suffered bodily pain; or that suspension had been pronounced against them for their refusal to acknowledge an offence they had committed, or to atone for such an offence, or to renounce a false doctrine; or that they were eunuchs; or that they had furtively attached themselves (to the Samgha); or that they had gone over to the Titthiyas; or that they were an animal; or that they had been guilty of matricide, or of parricide; or that they had murdered an A rah at; or that they had violated a Bhikkhunî; or that they had caused a schism in the Samgha; or that they had shed (a Buddha's) blood; or that they were hermaphrodites[145].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

30.2 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after having spent the rainy season, goes away before a gift of robes has fallen to the Samgha--then they are nevertheless to be allotted to him if there be any person present proper to receive them on his behalf.

'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after having spent the rainy season, and before a gift of robes has fallen to the Samgha, leaves the Order, or dies, or acknowledges that he has become a Sâmanera, or that he has abandoned the precepts, or lastly that he has become guilty of an extreme offence,--then the Samgha becomes the owner (of the portion of robes that would have fallen to him).

[250] 'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after having spent the rainy season, and before a gift of robes has fallen to the Samgha, acknowledges that he has become mad, or unhinged in his mind, or in bodily pain, or that he has been suspended for refusal to acknowledge an offence he had committed, or to atone for such an offence, or to renounce a false doctrine--then (his portion of robes is nevertheless) to be allotted to him if there be any person present proper to receive them on his behalf.

'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after having spent the rainy season, and before a gift of robes has fallen to the Samgha, acknowledges that he is a eunuch, or that he had furtively attached himself to the Samgha, or that he had gone over to the Titthiyas, or that he is an animal, or that he had been guilty of matricide, or of parricide, or that he had murdered an Arahat, or that he had violated a Bhikkhunî, or that he had raised a schism in the Samgha, .or that he had shed a Buddha's blood, or that he is a hermaphrodite--then the Samgha becomes the owner (of the portion of robes that would have fallen to him).

30.3 '[The same rules as in Ī2, if he had gone away,. &c., after the gift of robes had been made to the Samgha, but before the robes had been divided among the individual members of the Samgha belonging to the place where he had spent the rainy season.]

30.4 'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, after the Bhikkhus have spent the rainy season, divisions arise among the Samgha before any robes have fallen to them, and the people there give the water (of [251] presentation[146]) to one party, and the robes to the other party, thinking, "We are giving to the Samgha"--then those (robes are the property) of the (whole) Samgha.

The people there give the water of presentation to one party, and the robes to the same party, thinking, "We are giving to the Samgha"--then those robes are the property of the whole Samgha.

30.5 '[In the same two cases, if the people intend to give to the one party only, the robes are to be the property of that party.]

30.6 'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, after the Bhikkhus have spent the rainy season, divisions arise among the Samgha after the gift of robes has been made to the Samgha, but before the division (of the robes to the individual members) has taken place--then at the division an equal share is to be given to all.'

 


 

31.

 

31.1 Now at that time the venerable Revata sent a robe to the venerable Sâriputta in charge of a certain Bhikkhu, saying, 'Give this robe to the' Thera.' But that Bhikkhu, whilst on the way, took the robe himself in trust on the venerable Revata[147].

Now the venerable Revata, on meeting with the [252] venerable Sâriputta, asked him, saying, 'I sent to the venerable Thera a robe. Did that robe come into his hands?'

'I know nothing, friend, about that robe.'

Then the venerable Revata said to that Bhikkhu: 'I sent a robe, my friend, in your charge to the Thera. Where is that robe?'

'I took the robe myself, Lord, in trust upon you.'

They told the matter to the Blessed One.

31.2 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu send a robe in charge of a Bhikkhu, saying, "Give this robe to such and such a Bhikkhu;" and he, whilst on the way, takes it himself in trust on the one who sends it--then it is rightly taken. But if he takes it himself in trust on the one to whom it was sent, it is wrongly taken.

'[The same repeated, the latter case being put first, and the former case last.]

'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu send a robe in charge of a Bhikkhu, saying, "Give this robe to such and such a Bhikkhu;" and he, whilst on the way, hears that that Bhikkhu who sent it is dead;--then if he keeps the robe himself[148] as the robe of a deceased Bhikkhu, it is rightly kept; if he takes it himself in trust on the one to whom it was sent, it is wrongly taken.

'[In the same case], if he, whilst on the way, hears that that Bhikkhu to whom it was sent is dead--then if he keeps the robe himself as the robe of a deceased Bhikkhu, it is wrongly kept; if he takes [253] it himself in trust on the one who sent it, it is rightly taken.

[In the same case, if he hears, whilst on the way, that both are dead--then if he keeps it himself as the robe of a deceased Bhikkhu, to wit, the one who sent it, it is rightly kept; if he keeps it himself as the property of a deceased Bhikkhu, to wit, the one to whom it was sent, it is wrongly kept.]

31.3 'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu send a robe in charge of a Bhikkhu, saying, "I give the robe to such and such a Bhikkhu"--then [in all the cases given in Ī2 the decision is reversed][149].'

 


 

32.

 

32.1 There are, O Bhikkhus, these eight grounds[150] for the getting of a gift of robes--when he gives it to the boundary, when he gives it to (a Samgha which is) under agreement (with other Samghas), when he gives it on a declaration of alms, when he gives it to the Samgha, when he gives it to both the Samghas, when he gives it to the Samgha which has spent the rainy season (at the place), when he gives it to a specified number[151], when he gives it to a single Bhikkhu.

[254] 'When he gives it to the boundary, it is to be divided among all those Bhikkhus who have come within the boundary[152].

'When he gives it to a Samgha which is under agreement, there are a number of residences which hold in common whatever they get, and what is given in one residence is given in all.

'When he gives it on a declaration of alms (means when the givers say), "We give it at the place where constant supply of alms is kept up for the Samgha[153]."

'When he gives it to the Samgha, it is to be divided among the Samgha there present.

'When he gives it to both the Samghas, though there be many Bhikkhus and only one Bhikkhunî, an equal half is to be given (to each of the two Samghas), and though there be many Bhikkhunîs and only one Bhikkhu, an equal half is to be given (to each of the two Samghas).

'When he gives it to the Samgha which has spent the rainy season, it is to be divided among as many Bhikkhus as have spent the rainy season at that particular residence.

'When he gives it to a specified number, it is the number present at the giving of congey, or [255] rice, or hard food, or robes, or bedding, or medicine[154].

'When he gives it to a single Bhikkhu, he says, "I give a set of robes to such and such a one."'

End of the eighth Khandhaka

 


[1] Compare Mahâ-sudassana Sutta I, 3, and Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta V, 42.

[2] See above, VI, 30, 6; Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta II, 16 seq.

[3] This royal prince Abhaya' (Abhaya kumâra) is mentioned by the Gainas under the name of Abhayakumâra as the son of Seniya, i.e. Bimbisâra. See Jacobi, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxiv, p. 187.

[4] The word which we have translated 'Your Highness' (deva, lit. 'God') is the same which is used by all persons except by Samanas in addressing a king.

[5] Evidently the redactors of this passage referred the first part of the compound Komârabhakka to the royal prince (kumâra) Abhaya, and intended Komârabhakka to be understood as 'a person whose life is supported by a royal prince.' So also the name Kumâra-Kassapa is explained in the Gâtaka commentary (Rh. D., 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 204). The true meaning of the name, however, appears to have been different, for in Sanskrit kumârabhrityâ and kaumârabhritya are technical terms for the part of the medical science which comprises the treatment of infants (see Wise, 'Commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine,' p. 3). We believe, therefore, that this surname Komârabhakka really means,' Master of the kaumârabhritya science.'

[6] See the note at I, 7, 1.

[7] One prasrita or prasriti ('handful') is said by the Sanskrit lexicographers to be equal to two palas. About the pala, which according to the ghee measure (ghritapramâna) of Magadha was the thirty-second part of a prastha, see the Atharva-parisishta 35, 3, ap. Weber, Ueber den Vedakalender namens Jyotisham, p. 82. Compare also Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' pp. 18, 19.

[8] Mokkhakikâ is explained in a passage quoted by Childers sub voce and taken from the Sumaṅgala Vilâsinî on the 4th Magghima Sîla. (Compare Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 193.) The passage from Buddhaghosa is however not devoid of ambiguity. He says: 'Mokkhakikâ is the feat of turning over and over. One gets hold of a staff in the air, and places his head on the ground; turning himself upside down. This is what is meant (by the word mokkhakikâ).' It is not clear whether the performer suspends himself by his feet from a horizontal bar fixed at a height above the ground; or whether he turns a sommersault, holding at the same time a stick in his hands. The latter seems more in accordance with the phrase 'holding a stick in the air' (âkâse dandam gahetvâ) and with the phrase 'turning over and over' (samparivattanam).

[9] This passage in which king Paggota is represented as addressing king Bimbisâra by the respectful expression 'deva' may in our opinion be brought forward against Professor Jacobi's conjecture (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxiv, p. 188) that Bimbisâra was merely a feudal chief under the supreme rule of king Paggota. The Pitaka texts are always very exact in the selection of the terms of respect in which the different persons address each other.

[10] See, about the decoctions used in medicine, VI, 4.

[11] Buddhaghosa gives two explanations of Siveyyakam dussayugam. 'Either Siveyyaka cloth means the cloth used in the Uttarakuru country for veiling the dead bodies when they are brought to the burying-ground (sivathikâ). (A certain kind of birds take the bodies to the Himavat mountains in order to eat them, and throw the cloths away. When eremites find them there, they bring them to the king.) Or Siveyyaka cloth means a cloth woven from yarn which skilful women in the Sivi country spin.' No doubt the latter explication is the right one.

[12] Buddhaghosa: 'To the Blessed One during the twenty years from his Sambodhi till this story happened no one had presented a lay robe.'

[13] Gahapatikîvâra may be translated also, as Buddhaghosa explains it, 'a robe presented by lay people.'

[14] Itarîtara ('the one or the other') clearly refers to the two sorts of robes mentioned before, not, as Childers (s.v. itarîtaro) understands it, to whether the robes are good or bad. Compare also chap. 3, Ī2.

[15] See Abhidhânapp. v. 312.

[16] Buddhaghosa: 'This king was Pasenadi's brother, the same father's son.' He appears to have been a sub-king of Pasenadi, for in the Lohikka-sutta it is stated that Pasenadi's rule extended both over Kâsi and Kosala ('Râgâ Pasenadi Kosalo Kâsikosalam agghâvasati').

[17] Our translation of addhakâsikam kambalam is merely conjectural. Buddhaghosa has the following note: 'Addhakâsiyam, here kâsi means one thousand; a thing that is worth one thousand, is called kâsiya. This garment was worth five hundred; therefore it is called addhakâsiya. And for the same reason it is said, upaddhakâsinam khamamânam.' Perhaps vikâsikam at VI, 15, 5 may have some connection with the word used here.

[18] See last note.

[19] See chap. 1, Ī35.

[20] It will be as well to remind the reader that here and in the following chapters kîvara can mean both 'a robe' and 'cloth for making robes.'

[21] Compare III, 12, 5.

[22] Compare I, 30, 4.

[23] The word bhandâgâra does not imply any special reference to robes more than to any other articles belonging to the Samgha. A good many things which were usually kept in the bhandâgâra are mentioned at Kullav. VI, 21, 3.

[24] Buddhaghosa: 'If there are robes of the same quality, for instance, each worth ten (kâhâpanas), for all Bhikkhus, it is all right; if they are not, they must take together the robes which are worth nine or eight, with those which are worth one or two, and thus they must make equal portions.'

[25] 'In case the day should not suffice for distributing the robes to the Bhikkhus one by one' (Buddhaghosa).

[26] Buddhaghosa: Patthinan ti (this is the reading of the Berlin MS.) atiragitattâ thaddham, i.e. 'Patthinam means that it had become stiff from too much dye.' Thîna or thinna is Sanskrit styâna.

[27] That is, made of untorn cloth. See VIII, 21, 2.

[28] These are always mentioned in connection with Râgagaha (Mahâvagga I, 53 Kullavagga XI, 1-10), and are probably the name of the mountainous district immediately south of Râgagaha.

[29] Akkibaddhan (sic) ti katurassakedârakabaddham (B.). I have never seen a field divided 'ray-fashion,' which would apparently be the literal translation of the term, and it is difficult to see how the necessary water could be conducted from strip to strip of a field so divided. Buddhaghosa also, though his explanation is insufficient, evidently does not take akki in the ordinary sense (Rh. D.).

[30] Palibaddhan (sic) ti âyâmato ka vitthârato ka dighamariyâdabaddham (B.).

[31] Mariyâdabaddhan (sic) ti antarantarâya mariyâdâya mariyâdabaddham (B.).

[32] Siṅghâtakabaddhan (sic) ti mariyâdâyâ (sic) mariyâdam vinivigghitvâ gatatthâne siṅghâtakabaddham. Katukkasanthânan ti attho (B.).

[33] Samvidahitun ti kâtum (B.).

[34] Kusim pi ’ti âyâmato ka vitthârato ka anuvâtâdînam dîghapattânam etam adhivakanam (B.).

[35] Addhakusî ti antarantarâ rassa-pattânam nâmam (B.).

[36] Mandalan ti pañka-khandika-kîvarassa ekekasmim khande mahâ-mandalam (B.).

[37] Addhamandalan ti khuddaka-mandalam (B.).

[38] Vivattan ti mandalañ ka addha-mandalañ ka ekato katvâ sibbitam magghima-khandam (B.).

[39] Anuvivattan ti tassa ubhosu passesu dve khandâni. Athavâ vivattassa ekekapassato dvinnam pi katunnam pi khandânam etam nâmam (B.).

[40] Gîveyyakan ti gîva-tthâne dalhi-karan-attham aññam suttam sibbitam âgantuka-pattam (B.).

[41] Gaṅgheyyakan ti gaṅlgha-pâpuna-tthâne tatth’ eva samsibbita-pattam. Gîva-tthâne ka gaṅgha-tthâne ka pattânam ev’ etam nâman ti pi vadanti (B.).

[42] Bâhantan ti anuvivattânam bahi ekekakhandam. Athavâ suppamânam kîvaram pârupentena samharitâ bâhâya upari thapitâ ubho anto-bahi-mukhâ titthanti. Tesam etam nâmam. Ayam eva hi nayo Mahâ-atthakathâyam vutto ti (B.). This latter explanation from bâhâ seems evidently more correct than the other one from bahi; and we accordingly follow it.

[43] See the end of the last chapter.

[44] Satta-lûkha; in which compound the signification of satta is by no means clear. Buddhaghosa has no note upon it. Now it is curious that in chapter 21, below, it is laid down that the robe is to be sutta-lûkha, the meaning of which would fit this passage excellently. We have accordingly adopted that reading here.

[45] Compare the similar expressions at Gâtaka I, 8 and 9.

[46] The general sense of this chapter is clear enough. As an Indian field, the common property of the village community, was divided, for the purposes of cultivation, across and across, so must also the Bhikkhu's robe be divided. That some, both of the agricultural and of the tailoring terms, should now be unintelligible to us is not surprising. Buddhaghosa himself, as the extracts from his commentary show, was not certain of the meaning of them all.

[47] Ubbhandite kîvarehi. The former word is of course applied to the Bhikkhus. Compare Childers, under Bhandikâ, and Gâtaka I, 504 (last line but one).

[48] Bhisî = Sanskrit Brisî. Compare the 14th Pâkittiya, where we ought to have rendered the word 'bolster.' Childers is incorrect in translating it by 'mat'

[49] Mentioned also, as being near to Vesâlî, in the 'Book of the Great Decease,' III, 2.

[50] Bâhullâya âvattâ. This phrase occurs in Mahâvagga I, 31, 5.

[51] See our note on the same phrase at Mahâvagga I, 20, 15.

[52] Nandimukhiyâ rattiyâ. The derivation of this phrase is uncertain, though the general meaning is not subject to doubt. The Sanskrit form of the whole phrase will be found in the Lalita Vistara at p. 447. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-grihya, ed. Oldenberg, IV, 4, where the word nândîmukho occurs in a different connection.

[53] In the text read Ye pi kho kulaputtâ. The idea is that men of lower grade, being accustomed to cold, would not want so many robes. But there must be one rule for all; and the rule is accordingly made to suit the comfort of the weaker brethren--early Buddhism, contrary to an erroneous opinion still frequently ex-pressed, being opposed to asceticism.

[54] Or, 'to get on with the three robes.' Compare the use of yâpetum in the 'Book of the Great Decease,' II, 32.

[55] Ekakkiyam. Compare Gâtaka I, 326. Buddhaghosa says dvigunam dupatta-samghâtim ekakkiyam ekapattam. Though 'single,' the lengths of cotton cloth, pieced together, of which the robes were made, were allowed to be doubled at the seams, the collar, the elbows, and the knees. See above, VII, 1, 5.

[56] The waist cloth (samghâti) was wrapped round the waist and back, and secured with a girdle. The under garment (antaravâsaka; see also the end of this note) was wrapped round the loins and reached below the knee, being fastened round the loins by an end of the cloth being tucked in there; and sometimes also by a girdle. The upper robe (uttarâsamga) was wrapped round the legs from the loins to the ankles, and the end was then drawn, at the back, from the right hip, over the left shoulder, and either (as is still the custom in Siam, and in the Siamese sect in Ceylon) allowed to fall down in front, or (as is still the custom in Burma, and in the Burmese sect in Ceylon) drawn back again over the right shoulder, and allowed to fall down on the back. From the constant reference to the practice of adjusting the robe over one shoulder as a special mark of respect (for instance, Mahâvagga I, 29, 2; IV, 3. 3), the' Burmese custom would seem to be in accordance with the most ancient way of usually wearing the robe. The oldest statues of the Buddha, which represent the robe as falling over only one shoulder, are probably later than the passages just referred to.

The ordinary dress of laymen, even of good family, in Gotama's time was much more scanty than the decent dress thus prescribed for the Bhikkhus. See Rh. D.'s note on the 'Book of the Great Decease,' VI, 26. But it consisted also, like that of the Bhikkhus, not in garments made with sleeves or trousers, to fit the limbs, but in simple lengths of cloth.

The antara-vâsaka corresponds, in the dress of the monks, to the sâtika in the dress of ordinary women, and was of the same shape as the udaka-sâtika, or bathing dress, prescribed for the use both of monks (below, chapter 15) and of nuns (Bhikkhunîvibhaṅga, Pâkittiya XXII). The latter was, however, somewhat shorter.

The ordinary dress of the Bhikkhunîs or Sisters consisted of the same three garments as that of the Bhikkhus.

[57] That is, according to the first Nissaggiya. The first section of the Sutta-vibhaṅga on that rule is identical with this section.

[58] So the first Nissaggiya; the second section of the Sutta-vibhaṅga on which rule is identical with this section 7.

[59] On vikappetum, compare our note above, the 59th Pâkittiya, and below, chapters 20, 22.

[60] See above, VIII, 13, 5.

[61] Buddhaghosa says, Aggatam akkhâdeyyan (sic) ti khinnatthâne pilotika-khandam laggâpeyyam. The word occurs at Gâtaka I, 8, where the liability to want such an insertion is given as one of the nine disadvantages of a robe from the ascetic's point of view.

[62] Ahata-kappânam. See above, VII, 1, 6.

[63] See our notes on these expressions above, VII, 1, 6.

[64] This liability to have to be patched is given, in connection with the previous phrase, as one of the nine disadvantages of robes at Gâtaka I, 8; and tunnavâya occurs as the expression for a mender of old clothes at Kullavagga VI, 5, I.

[65] See our notes on these expressions above, VII, 1, 5.

[66] Kâtuddîpiko, literally, 'over the four continents,' into which the world was supposed to be divided. Compare Genesis vii. 44.

[67] Gakkha ge; where ge is the appropriate form of address invariably used to a female slave or maid-servant. Compare Childers, in the 'Dictionary,' p. 617.

[68] Kotthaka does not only mean a room, as given by Childers: it signifies here, as at Gâtaka I, 227, a battlemented dwelling, the house of a person of rank.

[69] See our note on this phrase at I, 54, 4.

[70] See below, the note on Ī15.

[71] Compare sukhâ vihâyati in the Sigâlovâda Sutta at p. 302 of Grimblot's 'Sept Suttas Pâlis.'

[72] Compare Ussûra-seyyo in the Sigâlovâda Sutta at p. 302 of Grimblot's 'Sept Suttas Pâlis;' and Böhtlingk-Roth, under utsûra.

[73] Bhattakkhedam karissati, because he may not eat solid food after sun-turn.

[74] See Mahâvagga VI, 24. The ten advantages are enumerated in Ī5 there.

[75] In the text read kinnena. Compare Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya XXI, 1, where the whole passage recurs. The first sentence also recurs ibid., Pâkittiya II.

[76] A conversation of the kind here referred to is related, as having actually taken place at Nâdika, in the 'Book of the Great Decease,' II, 5-8.

[77] The succession of ideas in this paragraph is very suggestive, and throws much light both upon the psychological views and upon the religious feelings of the early Buddhists. The exact rendering of course of the abstract terms employed in the Pâli text is no doubt, as yet, beset with difficulty, for the reasons pointed out in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' pp. xxv, xxvi; but the general sense of the passage is already sufficiently clear. For one or two words we have no real and adequate equivalent.

Kâya is neither 'body' nor 'faculties;' it is the whole frame, the whole individuality, looked at rather objectively than subjectively, and rather from the outward and visible than from the inner, metaphysical, stand-point. Compare the use of Sakkâya-ditthi and of Kâyena passati.

Sukha is not so much 'happiness,' simply and vaguely, as the serenity of the bliss which follows on happiness. It is contrasted with, and follows after, pâmogga and pîti, in the same way as in this passage, in the standing description of the Ghânas (translated by Rh. D. in the Mahâ-sudassana Sutta II, 5-8, in the 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 272). Its opposite, Dukkha, is a positive state of pain, and in comparison with this, sukha is negative, the absence of pain.

Kitta is always more emotional than intellectual. It has the connotation, not of 'mind,' as is usually and erroneously supposed, but of 'heart.'

[78] The size of such a garment is limited by the 91st Pâkittiya to six spans by two-and-a-half--that is just enough to go round the loins from the waist half down to the knee. It would be decent, and yet avoid the disadvantage of wearing the robes in the rain, where they would become wet and heavy in the manner described, for instance, at Mahâvagga VII, 1, 1.

[79]The remainder of this introductory story scarcely bears translation. The first sentences recur in the Sutta-vibhaṅga, Samghâdisesa I, 2, I, and Pâkittiya V, 1, I.

[80] The length of a mat (nisîdanam) was limited by the 89th Pâkittiya to two spans by one.

[81] This introductory story is also given as the introduction to Mahâvagga VI, 9.

[82] According to the 90th Pâkittiya such a cloth must not be more than four spans in length, and two in breadth.

[83] He is also mentioned as such in Mahâvagga VI, 36.

[84] Buddhaghosa says, Âlapito ti mama santakam ganhâhi yam ikkheyyâsîti evam vutto.

[85] Vissâsam gahetum, on which phrase compare vissâsâ ganhâti in chapter 31, below, where the context leaves no doubt as to its meaning.

[86] Compare Kullavagga VI, 13.

[87] Compare the passages given in the index to the text of the Kullavagga, p. 355, s.v. thavikâ.

[88] Compare below, VIII, 24, 3.

[89] Compare above, VIII, 8, 3.

[90] See VIII, 13, 8, and our note on the 59th Pâkittiya.

[91] See our note on this word in the 92nd Pâkittiya.

[92] So explains the commentary, Khinna-tthâne aggalâropanena garuko hoti.

[93] Suttalûkham kâtun ti sutten’ eva aggalam kâtun ti attho (B.). Compare above, chapter 12. 2.

[94] Vikanno ti suttam añkitvâ sibbantânam eko samghâti-kono digho hoti, says Buddhaghosa. Vikannaka in the 233rd Gâtaka seems to mean 'harpoon.'

[95] Vikannam uddharitun ti dîgha-konam khinditum (B.).

[96] Okiratî (sic) ti khinna-konato galati (B.). Galati at VI, r3, 1, is 'ran over,' whereas okiriyanti at the corresponding passages VI, 12, 1, 2, is 'were spilt.' Probably the above rendering is the real meaning here, as the threads could not be literally spilt or sprinkled.

[97] On these difficult technical terms Buddhaghosa provokingly says, anuvâtam paribhandam anuvâtañ k’ eva paribhandam. Childers, under the first, has merely 'with the wind,' and under the second, 'girdle.' The same expressions occur also above, at VII, 1, 5, where Buddhaghosa, again only explains the words by the words themselves.

[98] We probably ought to read pattâ, not pattâ; but what is meant by the ribbons of the samghâti is very doubtful. Buddhaghosa says nothing.

[99] For luggati compare paluggati.

[100] What this is is again uncertain, and Buddhaghosa gives no help.

[101] See above, chapter 11, at the end.

[102] Anvâdhikam, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing.

[103] Compare the 1st and 3rd Nissaggiyas, and above, VIII, 13, 8, as to the rules concerning extra robes, and what is to be done with them.

[104] For the rule as to such depositing, see the 29th Nissaggiya. Kîvara (robe) must here be used for Samghâti. See our note on VIII, 13, 5, and section 2, below, where samghâti occurs.

[105] On Santaruttara, see the 7th Nissaggiya. It is clear from this passage that Buddhaghosa was right in his limitation of the word as used in that rule; and we should have done better, therefore, to follow it in our translation of the rule.

[106] Compare the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Sekhiyas, and the 2nd Nissaggiya; and also above, VII, 1, 3.

[107] Here the word used is Samghâti.

[108] On samketa, compare II, 8, 1. Buddhaghosa merely says here, Vassika-samketan ti kattâro mâse. As samketa implies a mutual agreement, the 'appointed time' here probably means, not the time fixed by the Buddha, but the time agreed upon by the Samgha as that to which the rule laid down by the Buddha should apply. There may easily have arisen questions as to the exact day on which the four months should properly begin; and there were even differences of opinion as to the exact length of the period itself, some making it three, and some four months. See on these points Childers, under Vassa and Vassûpanâyikâ.

[109] From fear of thieves.

[110] See the and Nissaggiya, and above, VII, 1, 3.

[111] Buddhaghosa has nothing on this reason. It would seem that the garment in question might be left behind when the Bhikkhu had to go on a journey, if that journey would take him beyond the boundary of the technical 'residence.' On the use of the word, see the passages collected by H.-O. in the Index to the Pâli Text (vol. ii. p. 349, s.v. sîmâ.).

[112] It is evident from this last reason that the reasons are not such as would justify a Bhikkhu in laying aside the garment in such a way as to remain naked, but such as would justify him in not using the rainy-season garment when he might otherwise have done so. In the five cases mentioned he might wear the nether garment only reaching from above the navel to below the knees, instead of the garment for the rainy season, which was smaller in size. See our note above on VIII, 13, 5, and VIII, 15, 15.

[113] That is, spent the rainy season.

[114] This is laid down in Mahâvagga IX, 4, I.

[115] And thereby the Kathina license suspended. Compare the 1st, and, and 3rd Nissaggiyas, and our note on p. 18.

[116] Buddhaghosa says, Utukâlan ti vassânato aññam kâlam, where vassâna means the rainy season. See Abhidhânappadîpikâ, verse 79.

[117] On this sense of adhitthâtum, see above, Mahâvagga VIII, 20, 2.

[118] Akâmâ; on which compare II, 27, 15, and especially II, 34, 3, and IV, 17, 6.

[119] Âgamma, which is here nearly the same as uddissa. To give the full import of the expression it would be necessary to say, have come to us in consequence of the inducement offered to the givers by the presence of the Theras here.'

[120] See our note above on Ī1.

[121] There is a Sânavâsi who takes a prominent part at the Council of Vesâlî (Kullavagga XII, 1, 8; XII, 2, 4). He is probably meant to be considered the same as this one.

[122] Section 1 repeated, with the necessary change of person, &c.

[123] Buddhaghosa says, Ekâdhippâyan ti ekam adhippâyam. Eka-puggala-pativisam eva dethâ ti attho.

[124] On all except the last two this duty has already been enjoined above in the passages on the mutual duties of masters and pupils (Mahâvagga I, 24, 25; I, 26, II; I, 32, 3; I, 33, r).

[125] Compare Gâtaka II, 293, 294.

[126] This last clause occurs also above, at I, 49, 6.

[127] That is, he died.

[128] There is only one, not three Kammavâkâs, given in the text.

[129] See Kullavagga VI, 15, 2.

[130] See Kullavagga VI, 16, 2.

[131] That is, 'of all the world.'

[132] This description of the totality of the Samgha is constantly found in dedicatory inscriptions. See Rh. D.'s paper in the Indian Antiquary, May, 1872.

[133] So, for example, in Kullavagga I, 1, 3.

[134] Compare above, VIII, 15, 7 and 11.

[135] This is several times referred to in the Gâtakas; for instance, pp. 6, 9, 12.

[136] Perhaps made of leaves. Compare Böhtlingk-Roth's, No. 5, sub voce; and Gâtaka I, 304 (phalakattharasayana). Perhaps also Gâtaka I, 356, 'making a man his phalaka,' may be a figure of speech founded on this use of the word, and mean 'making him his covering.'

[137] Like the well-known Titthiya Agita, one of the six great heretics (Sâmañña-phala Sutta, ed. Grimblot, p. 114, Book of the Great Decease, V, 60).

[138] Buddhaghosa, at Suttavibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, 10, 3, where this word occurs, says on it, Aginakkhikan (sic) ti salomam sakhuram agina-miga-kammam. Compare also above, Mahâvagga V. 4.

[139] Titthiya-dhaga. Compare Gâtaka I, 65, and Kullavagga I, 2 7.

[140] Akkanâlan ti akkanâlamayam (B.). Compare Böhtlingk-Roth, under arka.

[141] Potthako ti makakimayo vukkati (B.). So also Childers, sub voce.

[142] See Buddhaghosa's explanations of all these colours in the note on V, 2, I.

[143] Buddhaghosa says on this word, Tirîtan (sic) ti pana rukkhakhallimayam, tam pâda-punkhanam kâtum vattati. Khalli is 'bark.'

[144] Buddhaghosa says that the robes of the colours mentioned in this chapter may be worn if they have first been dyed, or may be used as coverlets, or may be cut up and used as parts of robes. So the robes with skirts to them may be worn if the forbidden skirts have first been torn or cut off.

[145] The above list of disqualifications has already occurred at II, 36; IV, 14.

[146] There is no doubt that this is the meaning here of udaka. Compare above, Mahâvagga I, 22, 18, and Gâtaka I, 93; III, 286; Dîpavamsa XIII, 29.

[147] That is, in trust that the venerable Revata, if he knew that the Bhikkhu wanted it, would have given it to him. See above, Mahâvagga VIII, 19.

[148] On this meaning of adhititthati, see our note above, VIII, 20,2; VIII, 24,2.

[149] The reason of all this is, that if the sender (A) says to the messenger (B), 'Give this robe to the sendee (C),' the property in the robe does not pass; if A says to B, 'I give this robe to C,' it does pass.

[150] Mâtikâ; used in the same sense here as at VII, 1, 7.

[151] That is, of monks and nuns--the Bhikkhu--samgha and the Bhikkhunî-samgha.

[152] See chapters II, 6 and following.

[153] Buddhaghosa says, Bhikkhâ-paññattiyâ, ti attano parikkâgapañña-paññapana-tthâne. Ten’ ev’ âha yattha samghassa dhuvakârâ kariyantî ti. Tass’ attho, yasmim vihâre imassa kîvara-dâyakassa santakam samghassa pâkavattam vâ vattati, yasmim vâ vihâre bhikkhû attano bhâram katvâ sadâ gehe bhogesi. Yattha vârena âvâso vâ kârito, salâkabhattâdîni vâ nibaddhâni, yena pana sakalo pi vihâro patitthâpito, tattha vattabbam eva n’ atthi ime dhuvakârâ nâma.

[154] That is, he invites a number of Bhikkhus to partake of yâgu, and when the yâgu is served he says, 'I give robes to those who have partaken of the yâgu,' and so on in all the other cases except that of robes. In that case he says, 'I give robes to those who have previously received robes from me' (B.).


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