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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XVII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

 


 

Ninth Khandhaka

Validity and Invalidity of Formal Acts of the Samgha

 


 

1.

1.1 At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at Kampâ, on the brink of the lotus-pond Gaggarâ. At that time there was in the country of Kâsi (a village) called Vâsabha-gâma. There a Bhikkhu called Kassapa-gotta had his residence, who was bound (to that place) by the string (of the religious duties which he had to perform there[1]), and who exerted himself to the end that clever Bhikkhus from a distance might come to that place, and the clever Bhikkhus therein might live at ease, and that (religious life at that residence might progress, advance, and reach a high state.

Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus, making their pilgrimage in the country of Kâsi, came to Vâsabha-gâma. And the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta saw those Bhikkhus coming from afar; when he saw them, he prepared seats for them, brought water for the washing of their feet, a foot-stool, and a towel[2].

Then he went forth to meet them, took their bowls and their robes, offered them (water) to drink, and provided a bath for them, and provided also rice-milk and food hard and soft.

[257] Now those stranger Bhikkhus thought: 'The resident Bhikkhu here, O friends, is indeed good-natured; he provides a bath for us and provides also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. What if we were to stay here, friends, at Vâsabha-gâma.' Thus those stranger Bhikkhus stayed there at Vâsabha-gâma.

1.2 Now the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta thought: 'These stranger Bhikkhus are rested now from their travel-weariness; they did not know their way here before, but now they know their way. It is troublesome indeed to be busy all one's life for people not related to one's self, and being asked[3] is disagreeable to men. What if I were to provide no longer rice-milk, and food, hard and soft (for those Bhikkhus).' Thus he did not provide any more (for them) rice-milk, and food, hard and soft.

Then those stranger Bhikkhus thought: 'Formerly, friends, this resident Bhikkhu used to provide baths for us, and to provide also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. But now he does not provide any more rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. This resident Bhikkhu, friends, is in anger with us now. Well, friends, let us pronounce expulsion against this resident Bhikkhu.'

1.3 Then those stranger Bhikkhus assembled and said to the Bhikkhu' Kassapa-gotta: 'Formerly, friend, you used to provide baths for us and to provide also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. But now you do not provide any more rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. You have committed an offence, friend; do you see that offence?'

[258] 'There is no offence, friends, for me to see.'

Then those stranger Bhikkhus pronounced expulsion against the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta for his refusal to see that (pretended) offence. Then the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta thought: 'I do not know indeed whether this is an offence or not, and whether I have made myself guilty of an offence or not, and whether I have been expelled or not, and whether that sentence is lawful or unlawful, objectionable or unobjectionable, valid or invalid. What if I were to go to Kampâ and to ask the Blessed One about this matter?'

1.4 And the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta put his resting-place in order, took up his alms-bowl and his robe, and went forth to Kampâ; and in due course he came to Kampâ and to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him.

Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas to exchange greeting with incoming Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta: 'Is it all well with you, O Bhikkhu? Do you find your living? Have you made your journey without too much fatigue? And from what plate do you come, O Bhikkhu?'

'It is all well, Lord; I find my living, Lord; I have made the journey, Lord, without too much fatigue:

1.5 'There is in the country of Kâsi, Lord, (a village) called Vâsabha-gâma. There I had my residence, Lord, (&c.[4], down to:) Then those [259] stranger Bhikkhus, Lord, pronounced against me expulsion for my refusal to see that offence. Then I thought, Lord: "I do not know indeed whether this is an offence or not, and whether I have made myself guilty of an offence or not, and whether I have been expelled or not, and whether that sentence is lawful or unlawful, objectionable or unobjectionable, valid or invalid. What if I were to go to Kampâ and to ask the Blessed One about this matter." Thus I have come here, Lord.'

1.6 (Buddha replied): 'This is no offence, O Bhikkhu; it is not an offence. You are innocent; you are not guilty of an offence. You are not expelled, and have not been expelled; the sentence by which you have been expelled is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid. Go, O Bhikkhu, and settle yourself again at Vâsabha-gâma.'

The Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta expressed his assent to the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' rose from his seat, and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One and walked round him with his right side towards him, he went on his way to Vâsabha-gâma.

1.7 Now those stranger Bhikkhus (at Vâsabha-gâma) were overcome by scruples and remorse:

It is all loss to us indeed, it is no gain to us; we will fare ill indeed, we will not fare well, in this that we have expelled that pure, guiltless Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. Well, friends, let us go to Kampâ and let us confess there in the Blessed One's presence our sin in its sinfulness.'

[260] And those stranger Bhikkhus put their resting-places in order, took up their alms-bowls and their robes, and went forth to Kampâ, and in due course they came to Kampâ and to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down near him. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas (&c.[5], down to:) 'It is all well, Lord; we find our living, Lord; we have made the journey, Lord, without too much fatigue. There is in the country of Kâsi, Lord, (a village) called Vâsabha-gâma; from that place we come, Lord.'

1.8 'So are you, O Bhikkhus, those who have expelled the resident Bhikkhu there?'

'We are, Lord.'

'For what cause, O Bhikkhus, and for what reason?'

'Without any cause and reason, Lord.'

Then the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'That is improper, O Bhikkhus, it is unbecoming, indecent, unworthy of Samanas, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can you, O fools, expel a pure and guiltless Bhikkhu, without any cause and reason? This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted.' Having thus rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, expel a pure and guiltless Bhikkhu without cause and reason. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'

1.9 Then those Bhikkhus rose from their seats, adjusted their upper robes so as to cover one [261] shoulder, prostrated themselves, inclining their heads to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'Transgression, O Lord, has overcome us like the foolish, like the erring, like the unhappy, in this that we have expelled a pure, guiltless Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept (the confession of) our sin in its sinfulness, and we will refrain from it in future.'

'Truly, O Bhikkhus, transgression has overcome you like the foolish, like the erring, like the unhappy, in that you have expelled a pure, guiltless Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. But as you see, O Bhikkhus, your sin in its sinfulness, and duly make amends for it, we accept it from you. For this, O Bhikkhus, is called progress in the discipline of the noble one, if one sees his sin in its sinfulness, and duly makes amends for it, and refrains from it in future.'

 


 

2.

 

2.1 At that time the Bhikkhus of Kampâ performed official acts in the following ways: they performed unlawful acts before an incomplete congregation; they performed unlawful acts before a complete congregation; they performed lawful acts before an incomplete congregation; they performed seemingly lawful acts before an incomplete congregation; they performed seemingly lawful acts before a complete congregation; a single Bhikkhu pronounced expulsion against a single one; a single Bhikkhu pronounced expulsion against two; a single Bhikkhu [262] pronounced expulsion against a number of Bhikkhus; a single Bhikkhu pronounced expulsion against a Samgha; two Bhikkhus pronounced expulsion against a single one . . . . against two . . . . against a number of Bhikkhus . . . . against a Samgha; a number of Bhikkhus pronounced expulsion against a single one . . . . against two . . . . against another number . . . . against a Samgha; a Samgha pronounced expulsion against another Samgha[6]

2.2 Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Bhikkhus of Kampâ perform official acts in the following ways: perform unlawful acts before an incomplete congregation (&c., down to:) how can a Samgha pronounce expulsion against another Samgha?'

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, as they say, O Bhikkhus, that the Bhikkhus of Kampâ perform official acts in the following ways, &c.?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'It is improper, O Bhikkhus, what these foolish persons are doing; it is unbecoming, indecent, unworthy of Samanas, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, perform official acts in the following ways, &c. This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted.' Having thus rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

2.3 'If an official act, O Bhikkhus, is performed [263] unlawfully by an incomplete congregation, it is no real act[7] and ought not to be performed. An official act performed unlawfully by a complete congregation is no real act and ought not to be performed (&c., as in Ī1, down to:). A seemingly lawful act performed before a complete congregation is no real act and ought not to be performed. In case a single Bhikkhu pronounces expulsion against a single one,--this is no real act and ought not to be performed (&c., down to:). In case a Samgha pronounces expulsion against another Samgha,--this is no real act and ought not to be performed.

2.4 'There are, O Bhikkhus, four kinds of official acts (which a Samgha can perform); an unlawful act performed by an incomplete congregation, an unlawful act performed by a complete congregation, a lawful act performed by an incomplete congregation, and a lawful act performed by a complete congregation.

'If, O Bhikkhus, an act is unlawful and performed by an incomplete congregation--such an act, O Bhikkhus, is objectionable and invalid on account of its unlawfulness and of the incompleteness (of the congregation). Such an act, O Bhikkhus, ought not to be performed, nor is such an act allowed by me.

'If, O Bhikkhus, an act is unlawful and performed by a complete congregation--such an act, O Bhikkhus, is objectionable and invalid on account of its unlawfulness. Such an act, &c.

'If, O Bhikkhus, an act is lawful and performed by an incomplete congregation--such an act, O Bhikkhus, is objectionable and invalid on account of [264] the incompleteness (of the congregation). Such an act, &c.

'If, O Bhikkhus, an act is lawful and performed by a complete congregation--such an act, O Bhikkhus, is unobjectionable and valid on account of its lawfulness and of the completeness (of the congregation). Such an act, O Bhikkhus, ought to be performed, and such an act is allowed by me.

'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, you ought to train yourselves thus: "Lawful acts which are performed by complete congregations--such acts will we perform[8]."'

 


 

3.

 

3.1 At that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus performed official acts in the following ways: they performed unlawful acts before an incomplete congregation (&c., as in chap. 2, Ī1, down to:) they performed seemingly lawful acts before a complete congregation; they performed acts without a ñatti[9] and with the proclamation (of the kammavâkâ[9]) they performed acts without a proclamation (of the kammavâkâ) and with the ñatti; they performed acts without a ñatti and without a proclamation (of the kammavâkâ); they performed acts contrary to the Dhamma; they performed acts contrary to the Vinaya; they performed acts contrary to the doctrine of the Teacher; and they performed acts against which (the Bhikkhus present) protested, which were unlawful, objectionable, and invalid.

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, were annoyed, [265] &c. These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, as they say, O Bhikkhus, that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, &c.?'

It is true, Lord, &c.'

Having thus rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

3.2 'If an official act, O Bhikkhus, is performed unlawfully by an incomplete congregation, it is no real act and ought not to be performed (&c.[10], down to:). If an official act, O Bhikkhus, is performed against which (the Bhikkhus present) protest, which is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid, this is no real act and ought not to be performed.

3.3 'There are, O Bhikkhus, six kinds of official acts (which a Samgha can perform): an unlawful act, an act performed by an incomplete congregation, an act performed by a complete congregation, a seemingly lawful act performed by an incomplete congregation, a seemingly lawful act performed by a complete congregation, a lawful act performed by a complete congregation.

'And which, O Bhikkhus, is an unlawful act? If one performs, O Bhikkhus, a ñattidutiya act[11] with one ñatti, and does not proclaim a kammavâkâ, such an act is unlawful. If one performs, O Bhikkhus, a ñattidutiya act with two ñatti and does not proclaim a kammavâkâ . . . . with one kammavâkâ and does not propose a ñatti . . . . with two [266] kammavâkâs and does not propose a ñatti, such an act is unlawful.

3.4 'If one performs, O Bhikkhus, a ñattikatuttha act with one ñatti and does not proclaim a kammavâkâ, such an act is unlawful. If one performs, O Bhikkhus, a ñattikatuttha act with two (. . three, . . . . four) ñattis and does not proclaim a kammavâkâ, such an act is unlawful. If one performs, O Bhikkhus, a ñattikatuttha act with one kammavâkâ ( . . . . with two, . . . . three, . . . . four kammavâkâs) and does not propose a ñatti, such an act is unlawful. Such acts, O Bhikkhus, are called unlawful acts.

3.5 'And which, O Bhikkhus, is an act of an incomplete congregation?

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattidutiya act not all Bhikkhus, as many as are entitled to vote, are present, if the khanda[12] of those who have to declare their khanda has not been conveyed (to the assembly), and if the Bhikkhus present protest, such an act is performed by an incomplete congregation.

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattidutiya act as many Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, but if the khanda of those who have to declare their khanda has not been conveyed (to the assembly), and if the Bhikkhus present protest, such an act is performed by an incomplete congregation.

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattidutiya act as many Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, if the khanda of those who have to declare their khanda has been conveyed, but if the Bhikkhus present protest, such an act is performed by an incomplete congregation.

[267] 'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattikatuttha act, &c.[13]

'Such acts, O Bhikkhus, are called acts performed by incomplete congregations.

3.6 'And which, O Bhikkhus, is an act of a complete congregation?

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattidutiya act as many Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, if the khanda of those who have to declare their khanda has been conveyed (to the assembly), and if the Bhikkhus present do not protest, such an act is performed by a complete congregation.

If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattikatuttha act (&c., as in last section).

Such acts, O Bhikkhus, are called acts performed by complete congregations.

3.7 'And which, O Bhikkhus, is a seemingly lawful act performed by an incomplete congregation?

If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattidutiya act the kammavâkâ is proclaimed first and the ñatti is proposed afterwards, if not all Bhikkhus, as many as are entitled to vote, are present, &c.[14]

3.8 'And which, O Bhikkhus, is a seemingly lawful act performed by a complete congregation?

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattidutiya act the kammavâkâ is proclaimed first and the ñatti is proposed afterwards, if as many Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, &c.[15]

[268] 3.9 'And which, O Bhikkhus, is a lawful act performed by a complete congregation?

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattidutiya act the ñatti is proposed first and afterwards the act is performed with one kammavâkâ, if as many Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, if the khanda of those who have to declare their khanda has been conveyed (to the assembly), and if the Bhikkhus present do not protest, such an act is lawful and performed by a complete congregation.

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a ñattikatuttha act the ñatti is proposed first and afterwards the act is performed with three kammavâkâs, if as many Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, &c., such an act is lawful and performed by a complete congregation.'

 


 

4.

 

4.1 'There are five kinds of Samghas: the Bhikkhu Samgha consisting of four persons, the Bhikkhu Samgha consisting of five persons . . . . of ten persons . . . . of twenty persons . . . . of more than twenty persons.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Samgha consist of four persons, and acts lawfully, and is complete, it is entitled to perform all official acts except three acts, that is, the upasampadâ ordination, pavâranâ, and abbhâna[16].

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Samgha consist of five persons, and acts lawfully, and is complete, it is entitled to perform all official acts except [269] two acts, that is, the upasampadâ ordination in the central countries[17] and abbhâna.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Samgha consist of ten persons, and acts lawfully, and is complete, it is entitled to perform all official acts except one, namely, abbhâna.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Samgha consist of twenty persons, and acts lawfully, and is complete, it is entitled to perform all official acts.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Samgha consist of more than twenty persons, and acts lawfully, and is complete, it is entitled to perform all official acts.

4.2 'An official act, O Bhikkhus, which requires the presence of four persons, if performed by a congregation in which a Bhikkhunî is the fourth, is no real act, and ought not to be performed. An official act, O Bhikkhus, which requires the presence of four persons, if performed by a congregation in which a sikkhamânâ is the fourth, . . . . in which a sâmanera, &c.[18], is the fourth, . . . . in which a person belonging to another communion is the fourth, . . . . in which a person staying within a different boundary[19] is the fourth, . . . . in which a person poised in the air by supernatural power is [270] the fourth, . . . . in which a person against whom the Samgha institutes a proceeding is the fourth--is no real act and ought not to be performed.'

End of the regulations about acts performed by four persons.

4.3-5 'An official act, O Bhikkhus, which requires the presence of five (. . . . ten, . . . . twenty) persons, if performed by a congregation in which a Bhikkhunî, &c.[20], is the fifth ( . . . . tenth, . . . . twentieth), is no real act and ought not to be performed.'

End of the regulations about acts performed by five, (ten, twenty) persons.

4.6 'If, O Bhikkhus, a congregation in which a person sentenced to the parivâsa discipline[21] is the fourth, institutes the proceedings of parivâsa, of mûlâya patikassanâ, and of mânatta, or if a congregation in which such a person is the twentieth, confers abbhâna, this is no real act and ought not to be performed.

'If, O Bhikkhus, a congregation in which a person that ought to be sentenced to mûlâya patikassanâ . . . . that ought to be sentenced to mânatta . . . . that is subject to the mânatta discipline . . . . [271] on whom the abbhâna sentence ought to be conferred[22], institutes the proceedings of parivâsa, of mûlâya patikassanâ, and of mânatta, or if a congregation in which such a person is the twentieth, confers abbhâna, this is no real act and ought not to be performed.

4.7 'Of some persons, O Bhikkhus, the protest[23] raised in the assembly is effectual, of some persons it is ineffectual.

'And which are the persons, O Bhikkhus, whose protest raised in the assembly is ineffectual?

'The protest, O Bhikkhus, raised in the assembly by a Bhikkhunî is ineffectual. The protest, O Bhikkhus, raised in the assembly by a sikkhamânâ (&c.[24], down to:) by a person against whom the Samgha institutes a proceeding, is ineffectual. These are the persons, O Bhikkhus, whose protest raised in the assembly is ineffectual.

4.8 'And which are the persons, O Bhikkhus, whose protest raised in the assembly is effectual?

'The protest, O Bhikkhus, of a Bhikkhu who is healthy (in mind), who belongs to the same communion [25], who stays within the same boundary[26], even [272] if he have committed a sin which brings about immediate punishment in hell,--if he give notice of his protest at the meeting,--is effectual. This is the person, O Bhikkhus, whose protest raised in the assembly is effectual.

4.9 'There are, O Bhikkhus, two cases of expulsion[27] (pronounced against, a person). If expulsion, O Bhikkhus, had not been pronounced (before) against a person, and the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him, there are some against whom such expulsion has been pronounced duly, and others against whom it has been pronounced unduly.

'And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, against whom, if expulsion had not been pronounced before, and the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him, expulsion has been pronounced unduly? In case, O Bhikkhus, there be a pure, guiltless Bhikkhu,--if the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him, expulsion has been pronounced unduly. This, O Bhikkhus, is called a person against whom, if expulsion had not been pronounced before, and the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him, expulsion has been pronounced unduly.

'And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, against whom, &c., expulsion has been pronounced duly? In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhu, a constant offender, who is unable to discern what is an offence[28], who lives in lay society, unduly [273] associating himself with lay people,--if the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him, expulsion has been pronounced duly. This, O Bhikkhus, is called a person, &c.

4.10 'There are, O Bhikkhus, two cases of restoration (of an expelled Bhikkhu). If restoration, O Bhikkhus, had not been granted before to a person, and the Samgha grants restoration to him, there are some to whom such restoration will have been granted duly, and others to whom it will have been unduly granted.

'And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, to whom, &c., restoration has been granted unduly? A eunuch, O Bhikkhus, to whom restoration had not been granted before, and whom the Samgha restores, has been restored unduly. A person who has furtively attached himself (to the Samgha), &c.[29], to whom restoration had not been granted before, and whom the Samgha restores, has been restored unduly.

'This, O Bhikkhus, is called a person to whom, &c., restoration has been granted unduly. These, O Bhikkhus, are called persons to whom, &c., restoration has been granted duly.

4.11 'And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, to whom, &c., restoration has been granted duly?' &c.[30]

End of the first Bhânavâra, called the Vâsabha-gâma Bhânavâra.

 


[274]

5.

 

5.1 'In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no offence which a Bhikkhu should see (or, acknowledge as committed by himself), and if the Samgha, or a number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove him (and say): "You have committed an offence, friend; do you see that offence?"--and he replies: "There is no offence, friends, which I should see," and the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him for his refusal to see that offence,--this is an unlawful act.

In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no offence which a Bhikkhu should atone for, &c.[31]

'In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no false doctrine which a Bhikkhu should renounce, &c.[32]

5.2 'In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no offence which a Bhikkhu should see, and there be no offence which he should atone for, and if the Samgha, or a number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove him (and say): "You have committed an offence, friend; do you see that offence? Atone for that offence,"--and he replies: "There is no offence, friends, which I should see; there is no offence, [275] friends, which I should atone for," and the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him for his refusal to see that offence, or for his refusal to atone for that offence,--this is an unlawful act.

5.3-5 3-5[33]. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an offence which a Bhikkhu should see, and if the Samgha, or a number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove him (and say): "You have committed an offence, friend; do you see that offence?"--and he replies: "Yes, friends, I see it," and the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him for his (pretended) refusal to see that offence,--this is an unlawful act.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an offence which a Bhikkhu should atone for, &c.[34]

5.8-9 'In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an offence which a Bhikkhu should see, and if the Samgha, or a number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove him (and say): "You have committed an offence, friend; do you see that offence?"--and he replies: "There is no offence, friends, which I should see," and the Samgha pronounces expulsion against him for his refusal to see that offence,--this is a lawful act[35].'

 


[276]

6.

 

6.1 And the venerable Upâli[36] went to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the venerable Upâli said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, if a complete congregation performs an act at which the presence (of the accused Bhikkhu) is required, in his absence--is this act, Lord, performed lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya?'

'It is performed, Upâli, unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya.'

6.2 'Lord, if a complete congregation performs an act at which (the accused Bhikkhu) ought to be called upon for an answer, without calling upon him for an answer--if it performs an act at which the confession (of the culprit) is required, without his confession--if it grants to a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya[37] ought to be granted, an amûlhavinaya[38]--if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu to whom amûlhavinaya ought to be granted, with the tassapâpiyyasikâkamma[39]--if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu against whom the tassapâpiyyasikâkamma ought [277] to be instituted, with the tagganiyakamma[40]--if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu against whom the tagganiyakamma ought to be instituted, with the nissayakamma--if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu against whom the nissayakamma ought to be instituted, with the pabbâganiyakamma--if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu against whom the pabbâganiyakamma ought to be instituted, with the patisâraniyakamma--if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu against whom the patisâraniyakamma ought to be instituted, with the ukkhepaniyakamma--if it sentences a Bhikkhu against whom the ukkhepaniyakamma ought to be instituted, to parivâsa[41]--if it sentences a Bhikkhu who ought to be sentenced to parivâsa, to mûlâya patikassanâ--if it sentences a Bhikkhu who ought to be sentenced to mûlâya patikassanâ, to mânatta--if it grants to a Bhikkhu who ought to be sentenced to mânatta, the decree of abbhâna--if it confers on a Bhikkhu to whom abbhâna ought to be granted, the upasampadâ ordination,--is this act, Lord, performed lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya?'

6.3 'It is performed, Upâli, unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya. If a complete congregation, Upâli, performs an act at which the presence (of the accused Bhikkhu) is required, in his absence (&c., down to:) confers on a Bhikkhu to whom abbhâna ought to be granted, the upasampadâ ordination,--in such case, Upâli, this act is performed unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya, and in such case this Samgha trespasses against the law.'

[278] 6.4 'Lord, if a complete congregation performs an act at which the presence (of the accused Bhikkhu) is required, in his presence (&c., down to:) confers on a person, on whom the upasampadâ ordination ought to be conferred, the upasampadâ ordination,--is this act, Lord, performed lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya?'

It is performed, Upâli, lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya. If a complete congregation performs an act (&c., down to:) the upasampadâ ordination,--in such case, Upâli, this act is performed lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya, and in such case this Samgha does not trespass against the law.'

6.5 'Lord, if a complete congregation grants to a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya ought to be granted, an amûlhavinaya, and to a Bhikkhu to whom amûlhavinaya ought to be granted, a sativinaya (&c.[42], down to:) confers on a Bhikkhu to whom abbhâna. ought to be granted, the upasampadâ ordination, and grants to a person on whom the upasampadâ ordination ought to be conferred, the decree of abbhâna,--is this act, Lord, performed lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya?'

6.6 'It is performed, Upâli, unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya. If a complete congregation grants to a Bhikkhu, &c.,--in such case, Upâli, this act is performed unlawfully against Dhamma and [279] Vinaya, and in such case this Samgha trespasses against the law.'

6.7 'Lord, if a complete congregation grants sativinaya to a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya ought to be granted, and amûlhavinaya to a Bhikkhu to whom amûlhavinaya ought to be granted (&c.[43], down to:) grants abbhâna to a Bhikkhu to whom abbhâna ought to be granted, and confers the upasampadâ ordination on a person on whom the upasampadâ ordination ought to be conferred,--is this act, Lord, performed lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya?'

6.8 'It is performed, Upâli, lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya (&c., down to:) and in such case this Samgha does not trespass against the law.'

6.9 And the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'If a complete congregation, O Bhikkhus, grants to a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya ought to be granted, an amûlhavinaya, in such case, O Bhikkhus, this act is performed unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya, and in such case this Samgha trespasses against the law. If a complete congregation, O Bhikkhus, institutes against a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya ought to be granted, the tassapâpiyyasikâkamma (&c.[44], down to:) grants to a person on whom the [280] upasampadâ ordination ought to be conferred, the decree of abbhâna,--in such case, O Bhikkhus, this act is performed unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya, and in such case this Samgha trespasses against the law.'

End of the second Bhânavâra, which contains the questions of Upâli.

 


 

7.

 

7.1 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious, and constantly raise questions before the Samgha, And the other Bhikkhus say among each other: "This Bhikkhu, friends, is indeed litigious, contentious, &c.; well, let us proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma[45]." And they proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma unlawfully[46] with an incomplete congregation[47], and he then goes from that district to another district. There the Bhikkhus say among each other: "Against this Bhikkhu, friends, the Samgha has proceeded with the tagganiyakamma unlawfully with an incomplete congregation; well, let us proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma." And they proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma unlawfully with a complete congregation, and he then goes from that district again to- another district. And there the Bhikkhus again say among each other (&c., [281] down to:) and they proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma lawfully with an incomplete congregation . . . . seemingly lawfully[48] with an congregation . . . . seemingly lawfully with a complete congregation[49].

7.2-5 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be litigious, &c.[50]

7.6 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be ignorant, unlearned, a constant offender, unable to discern what is an offence[51], and lives in lay society, unduly associating himself with lay people. And the other Bhikkhus say among each other: "This Bhikkhu, friends, is indeed ignorant, unlearned, &c.; well, let us proceed against him with the nissayakamma[52]," and they proceed against him with the nissayakamma unlawfully with an incomplete congregation, &c.[53]

7.7 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu leads a life hurtful to the laity, and devoted to evil[54]. And the other Bhikkhus say among each other: "This[282] Bhikkhu, friends, leads a life hurtful to the laity, and devoted to evil; well, let us proceed against him with the pabbâganiyakamma[55]," &c.[56]

7.8 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu abuses and reviles lay people. And the other Bhikkhus say among each other: "This Bhikkhu, friends, abuses and reviles lay people; well, let us proceed against him with the patisâraniyakamma[57]," &c.[56]

7.9-11 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, having committed an offence, refuses to see that offence (committed by himself)[58]. And the other Bhikkhus say among each other: "This Bhikkhu, friends, has committed an offence and refuses to see that offence; well, let us pronounce expulsion against him for his refusal to see that offence[59]," &c.[56]

7.12-13 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, against whom the Samgha has proceeded with the tagganiyakamma, behaves himself properly, lives modestly, aspires to get clear of his penance, and asks for the revocation of the tagganiyakamma sentence. And the other Bhikkhus say among each other: "This Bhikkhu, friends, against whom the Samgha has proceeded with the tagganiyakamma, in truth behaves himself properly; he lives modestly, &c.; well, let us revoke the tagganiyakamma sentence pronounced against him." And they revoke the tagganiyakamma sentence [283] pronounced against him unlawfully with an incomplete congregation. And he then goes from that district to another district. There the Bhikkhus say among each other: "The tagganiyakamma sentence, friends, pronounced against this Bhikkhu has been revoked by the Samgha unlawfully with an incomplete congregation," &c.[60]

7.14 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu against whom the Samgha has proceeded with the nissayakamma . . . . with the pabbâganiyakamma . . . . with the patisâraniyakamma . . . . against whom the Samgha has pronounced expulsion for his refusal to see an offence . . . . for his refusal to atone for an offence . . . . for his refusal to renounce a false doctrine, behaves himself properly, &c.[61]

7.15 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious, and constantly raise questions before the Samgha. And the other Bhikkhus say among each other: "This Bhikkhu, friends, is indeed litigious, contentious, &c.; well, let us proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma." And they proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma, unlawfully with an incomplete congregation. Now among the Samgha residing in that district a contention is raised whether this is an act performed unlawfully with an incomplete congregation, or an act performed unlawfully with a complete congregation, or an act performed lawfully with an incomplete [284] congregation, or an act performed seemingly law-fully with an incomplete congregation, or an act performed seemingly lawfully with a complete congregation, or an act not performed, badly performed, to be performed again. In this case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who say: "It is an act performed unlawfully with an incomplete congregation"--and the Bhikkhus who say: "It is an act not performed, badly performed, to be performed again"--these Bhikkhus are right herein.

7.16 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be litigious (&c., as in Ī15, down to:) and they proceed against him with the tagganiyakamma unlawfully with a complete congregation . . . . lawfully with an incomplete congregation . . . . seemingly lawfully with an incomplete congregation . . . . seemingly lawfully with a complete congregation. Now among the Samgha residing in that district (&c., as in Ī15).

7.17-20 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be ignorant, unlearned,' &c.[62]

End of the ninth Khandhaka, which treats of the events in Kampâ.

 


[1] Tanti-baddha. Buddhaghosa says, Tanti-baddho ’ti tasmim âvâse kâtabbatâ-tanti-patibaddho.

[2] See our note at I, 6, 11.

[3] As he was obliged to ask the people of Vâsabha-gâma for what the stranger Bhikkhus wanted.

[4] See §Ī1-3. Instead of 'the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta' the pronoun of the first person is to be read; and the appellation 'Lord,' addressed to Buddha, is inserted several times.

[5] See Ī4. The alterations to be made ('those Bhikkhus' instead of 'the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta,' &c.) are obvious.

[6] The cases of a Samgha's expelling a single Bhikkhu, or two Bhikkhus, or a number of Bhikkhus, are omitted, because such proceedings are lawful.

[7] I.e. it is null and void.

[8] A similar injunction is found at the close of chapter 1I, 14.

[9] See I, 28, &c.

[10] Here the different categories of forbidden acts are enumerated one after the other, as in Ī1.

[11] About ñatti, kammavâkâ, ñattidutiya, and ñattikatuttha acts, see our note at I, 28, 3. 'Proposing a ñatti' and 'proclaiming a kammavâkâ' mean proposing a motion and putting a resolution to the assembled brethren.

[12] See II, 23.

[13] The identical three cases given before with regard to the ñattidutiya act are repeated here.

[14] The six cases given in this paragraph, of which three refer to ñattidutiya acts and three to ñattikatuttha acts, differ from those specified in Ī5 only by the statement added in each of these cases regarding the inverted order of ñatti and kammavâkâ.

[15] This paragraph stands precisely in the same relation to Ī6 in which the preceding one stands to Ī5.

[16] See Kullavagga III, 2 seq.

[17] As regards the exceptional regulations referring to the upasampadâ ordination in the bordering countries, see above, V, 13, 12.

[18] Here follows the very frequent enumeration given, for instance, at II, 36, §Ī1-4.

[19] Generally speaking, the two categories of 'persons belonging to another communion,' and 'persons staying within another boundary,' can be considered as coincident. In certain cases, however, they could be distinguished; see X, 1, §Ī9, 10.

[20] Here the enumeration of Ī2 is repeated.

[21] See about parivâsa, and the other Samghakammas referred to in this paragraph, the details given in the second book of the Kullavagga.

[22] But has not yet been conferred. An abbhita Bhikkhu is considered as fully rehabilitated.

[23] Against official acts which the Samgha is performing.

[24] This list of persons who cannot protest against official acts of the Samgha differs from that given in Ī2 or at II, 36, §Ī1-4, only by three categories being here added after 'a person guilty of an extreme offence' (antimavatthum agghâpannaka). These categories are the following: 'a madman,' 'a person whose mind is unhinged,' 'a person who suffers (bodily) pain.' See II, 22, 3, &c.

[25] That is, the Samgha which is going to perform the act in question.

[26] See the note at Ī2.

[27] Compare the rules regarding the pabbâganiyakamma, Kullavagga I, 13 seq., and our note at I, 79, 1.

[28] Anapadâna. Buddhaghosa: 'Anapadâno ’ti apatâna-(read apadâna-) virahito. apadânam vukkati parikkhedo. âpatti-parikkheda-virahito ’ti attho.' Probably the word must not be derived from the root dâ, 'to give,' but from dâ, 'to cut.'

[29] See the list of persons given at II, 36, 3.

[30] The formality and the repetitions are the same here as in Ī20, and need not be repeated. The list of persons whose restoration is stated to be valid is the same as at I, 71, 1.

[31] The ukkhepaniyakamma âpattiyâ appatinissagge (expulsion for a Bhikkhu's refusal to atone for an offence) is spoken of here exactly in the same terms as those in which the ukkhepaniyakamma âpattiyâ adassane (expulsion for a Bhikkhu's refusal to see an offence) is spoken of in the preceding clause. The brethren say to the pretended offender, 'You have committed an offence, friend; atone for that offence'--which he refuses to do.

[32] As above; the Bhikkhus institute the ukkhepaniyakamma pâpikâya ditthiyâ appatinissagge (expulsion for a Bhikkhu's refusal to renounce a false doctrine).

[33] As in Ī2, the first and second of the three cases given in Ī1 are combined, so follow now combinations of the first and third, the second and third, and of the first, second, and third cases respectively.

[34] Here follow again the cases of the ukkhepaniyakamma âpattiyâ appatinissagge and pâpikâya ditthiyâ appatinissagge, and the combinations of the three cases as above.

[35] Here follow the two other cases, together with the combinations of the three, exactly as above.

[36] That the redactors of this Pitaka have chosen Upâli here and at X, 6, Kullavagga II, 2, 7, to question the Blessed One about the Vinaya regulations, stands evidently in connection with the tradition ascribing to Upâli an especial authority regarding the rules of the Order and styling him, as is said in the Dîpavamsa (IV, 3, 5; V, 7,. 9), agganikkhittaka, i.e. original depositary, of the Vinaya tradition. See our Introduction, p. xii seq.

[37] See Kullavagga IV, 4, 10.

[38] See Kullavagga IV, 5.

[39] See Kullavagga IV, 11.

[40] This Samghakamma and the following ones are explained in Kullavagga I, 1 seq.

[41] For this term and the next ones, see Kullavagga III, 1-9.

[42] The Samghakammas enumerated in Ī2, beginning with sativinaya, are arranged here in pairs, in direct and reverse order, in this way: sativinaya and amûlhavinaya, amûlhavinaya and sativinaya; then amûlhavinaya and tassapâpiyyasikâkamma, tassapâpiyyasikâkamma and amûlhavinaya, &c.

[43] The same dyads as in Ī5.

[44] In this paragraph all possible combinations of two different Samghakammas are formed in this way: first, sativinaya is combined with amûlhavinaya and all the rest, down to upasampadâ; then amûlhavinaya with all terms from tassapâpiyyasikâ down to sativinaya, and so on; the whole series ends thus with the combinations of upasampadâraha with all terms from sativinaya down to abbhâna.

[45] See Kullavagga I, 1-8.

[46] See above, chap. 3, Ī3 seq.

[47] See above, chap. 3, Ī5.

[48] See above, chap. 3, Ī7.

[49] See above, chap. 3, Ī8.

[50] As in Ī1, but with a different arrangement of the five categories on which this exposition is based: unlawfully with an incomplete congregation, unlawfully with a complete congregation, lawfully with an incomplete congregation, seemingly lawfully with an incomplete congregation, seemingly lawfully with a complete congregation. In Ī1 these categories are arranged in their natural order; in Ī2 the second is placed at the head, then follow the third, fourth, fifth, and finally the first; in Ī3 the exposition likewise begins with the third and ends with the second, &c. This arrangement is called 'a wheel' (kakka).

[51] See the note at chap. 4, Ī9.

[52] See Kullavagga I, 9-12.

[53] The same five cases and the same kakka as in §Ī1-5.

[54] See the 13th Samghâdisesa Rule.

[55] See Kullavagga I, 13-17.

[56] As in §Ī1-5 or in Ī6.

[57] Kullavagga I, 18-24.

[58] Ī10: A Bhikkhu, having committed an offence, refuses to atone for that offence. Ī11: A Bhikkhu refuses to renounce a false doctrine.

[59] Ī10: For his refusal to atone for that offence. Ī11: For his refusal to renounce that false doctrine.

[60] The analogous five cases with the kakka development as in §Ī1-5.

[61] As in §Ī12, 13.

[62] The text treats here in §Ī17, 18 of the nissayakamma (see Ī6) and of the Samghakammas down to the expulsion for a Bhikkhu's refusal to renounce a false doctrine (see §Ī7-11) in the same manner as the tagganiyakamma is spoken of in §Ī15, 16. Then follows (§Ī19, 20) an exactly analogous exposition about the revocation of these Samghakammas, which stands in the same relation to §Ī15-18 in which §Ī12-14 stand to §Ī1-11.


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