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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
Vol. XVII of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

The Mahāvagga

 


[285]

Tenth Khandhaka

Schisms among the Samgha

 


 

1.

1.1 At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at Kosambî in the Ghositârâma.

At that time a certain Bhikkhu had committed an offence which he considered as an offence, while the other Bhikkhus considered that offence as no offence. Afterwards he began to consider that offence as no offence, and the other Bhikkhus began to consider that offence as an offence.

Now those Bhikkhus said to that Bhikkhu: 'You have committed an offence, friend; do you see that offence?'

(He replied): 'There is no offence, friends, which I should see.'

Then those Bhikkhus, bringing about unanimity (of the fraternity for their sentence) pronounced expulsion against that Bhikkhu for his refusal to see that offence.

1.2 Now that Bhikkhu was erudite; he had studied the Agamas; he knew the Dhamma, the Vinaya, the Mâtikâ[1]; he was wise, learned, intelligent, modest, conscientious, anxious for training.

And that Bhikkhu went to his companions and friends among the Bhikkhus, and said to them: 'This is no offence, friends; this is not an offence.

[286] I am offenceless; I am not guilty of an offence; I am unexpelled and, have not been expelled; the sentence by which I have been expelled is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid. May the venerable ones be my partisans according to Dhamma and Vinaya.'

Thus that Bhikkhu got his companions and friends among the Bhikkhus on his side.

And he sent also a messenger to his companions and friends among the Bhikkhus of the whole country (with the following message): 'This is no offence, friends; this is not an offence (&c., down to:). May the venerable ones be my partisans according to Dhamma and Vinaya.'

Thus that Bhikkhu got also his companions and friends among the Bhikkhus of the whole country on his side.

1.3 Now those Bhikkhus who were partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu, went to the place where those who had expelled him, were. Having approached them, they said to the Bhikkhus who had expelled him: This is no offence, friends; this is not an offence. This Bhikkhu is offenceless; this Bhikkhu is not guilty of an offence. This Bhikkhu is unexpelled; this Bhikkhu has not been expelled. The sentence by which he has been expelled is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid.'

When they had spoken thus, the Bhikkhus who had expelled that Bhikkhu, said to the partisans of the expelled one: 'This is an offence, friends; this is not no offence. This Bhikkhu is an offender; this Bhikkhu is not offenceless. This Bhikkhu is expelled; this Bhikkhu is not unexpelled. The sentence by which he has been expelled is lawful, [287] unobjectionable, and valid. Do not stand, O venerable ones, on the side of this expelled Bhikkhu; do not follow him.'

But the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu, though they were spoken to thus by the Bhikkhus who had expelled him, persevered nevertheless on the side of that expelled Bhikkhu and followed him.

1.4 And a certain Bhikkhu went to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him that Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: 'A certain Bhikkhu, Lord, had committed an offence which he considered as an offence (&c., as in §Ī1-3, down to:). But the partisans, Lord, of the expelled Bhikkhu, though they were spoken to thus by the Bhikkhus who had expelled him, persevered nevertheless on the side of that expelled Bhikkhu and followed him.'

1.5 Then the Blessed One (exclaimed): 'The Bhikkhu Samgha is divided! The Bhikkhu Samgha is divided!'--and he rose from his seat and went to the place where the Bhikkhus were who had pronounced that sentence of expulsion. Having approached them, he sat down on the seat they had prepared. Sitting there the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus who had pronounced expulsion against that Bhikkhu: 'Do not think, O Bhikkhus, that you are to pronounce expulsion against a Bhikkhu whatever be the facts of the case, saying, "It occurs to us to do so; it occurs to us to do so."

1.6 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has committed an offence which he considers as no offence, while the other Bhikkhus consider it as an offence--if, O Bhikkhus, those Bhikkhus know with regard [288] to that Bhikkhu: "This venerable brother is erudite; he has studied the Âgamas; he knows the Dhamma, the Vinaya, the Mâtikâ; he is wise, learned, intelligent, modest, conscientious, anxious for training. Should we pronounce expulsion against this Bhikkhu for his refusal to see that offence, and should we not hold Uposatha with that Bhikkhu, but hold Uposatha without that Bhikkhu, this matter will cause among the Samgha altercations, contentions, discord, quarrels, divisions among the Samgha, disunion among the Samgha, separations among the Samgha, schisms among the Samgha,"--in that case, O Bhikkhus, let those Bhikkhus, standing in awe of causing divisions, not pronounce expulsion against that Bhikkhu for his refusal to see his offence.

1.7 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has committed (&c., as above, down to:). "Should we pronounce expulsion against this Bhikkhu for his refusal to see that offence, and should we not hold Pavâranâ with that Bhikkhu, but hold Pavâranâ without that Bhikkhu, and not perform official acts with that Bhikkhu, but perform official acts without that Bhikkhu, and not sit down on our seats with that Bhikkhu, but sit down on our seats without that Bhikkhu, and not sit down to drink rice-milk with that Bhikkhu, but sit down to drink rice-milk without that Bhikkhu, and not sit down in the dining-hall with that Bhikkhu, but sit down in the dining-hall without that Bhikkhu, and not dwell under one roof with that Bhikkhu, but dwell under one roof without that Bhikkhu, and not perform with that Bhikkhu, according to seniority, the duties of respectfully saluting each other, rising from our seats, raising the joined hands before each other, and all [289] proper duties, but perform without that Bhikkhu, according to seniority, the duties, &c.,--this matter will cause among the Samgha (&c., as in Ī6, down to the end).'

1.8 And the Blessed One, having spoken thus to the Bhikkhus who had pronounced that sentence of expulsion, rose from his seat, and went to the place where the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu were. Having approached them, he sat down on the seat they had prepared. Sitting there the Blessed One said to the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu: 'Do not think, O Bhikkhus, if you have committed an offence, that you need not atone for that offence, (saying to yourselves): "We are without offence." In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has committed an offence which he considers as no offence, while the other Bhikkhus consider it as an offence--if, O Bhikkhus, that Bhikkhu knows with regard to those Bhikkhus: "These venerable brethren are erudite (&c., down to:) anxious for training. It is impossible that they should, on my account, or on account of anybody else, abandon themselves to walking in longing, in malice, in delusion, in fear. Should these Bhikkhus pronounce expulsion against me for my refusal to see that offence, and should they not hold Uposatha with me, but hold Uposatha without me, and should they not hold Pavâranâ with me, but hold Pavâranâ without me (&c., as in Ī7), this matter will cause, &c., schisms among the Samgha,"--in that case, O Bhikkhus, let that Bhikkhu, standing in awe of causing divisions, acknowledge that offence on the authority of his brethren[2].' And the [290] Blessed One, having spoken thus to the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu, rose from his seat and went away.

1.9 At that time the Bhikkhus who were partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu, held Uposatha and performed official acts at that same place, within the boundary. On the other hand the Bhikkhus who had pronounced expulsion against him, went outside the boundary and there held Uposatha, and performed official acts.

Now a certain Bhikkhu of those who had expelled that Bhikkhu, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him that Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, those Bhikkhus who are partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu, hold Uposatha, and perform official acts, at that same place, within the boundary. On the other hand, we who have pronounced expulsion against him, have gone outside the boundary and there hold Uposatha and perform official acts.'

(Buddha replied): 'If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhu, who are partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu, will hold Uposatha, and perform official acts, at that same place, within the boundary, according to the rules laid down by me about ñatti and anussâvanâ, these official acts which they perform will be lawful, unobjectionable, and valid. And if you, O Bhikkhus, who have expelled that Bhikkhu, will hold Uposatha, and perform official acts, at that same place, within the boundary (&c., down to:) and valid.

1.10 'And why is this so? These Bhikkhus belong to another communion than that to which you [291] belong, and you belong to another communion than that to which they belong.

'There are two cases, O Bhikkhu, in which a Bhikkhu (though he dwell within the same boundary) is considered as belonging to another communion:--either he himself makes himself belong to another communion[3], or the Samgha in a complete congregation pronounces expulsion against him for his refusal to see (an offence committed by himself), or to atone (for such an offence), or to renounce (a false doctrine). These, O Bhikkhu, are the two cases in which a Bhikkhu is considered as belonging to another communion.

'There are two cases, O Bhikkhu, in which a Bhikkhu (belonging to either of the categories mentioned) reacquires the belonging to the same communion (with his brethren within the same boundary); either he himself makes himself belong (again) to that same communion[4], or the Samgha, having expelled him for his refusal to see (an offence), or to atone (for an offence), or to renounce (a false doctrine), restores him in a complete congregation. These, O Bhikkhu, are the two cases in which a Bhikkhu reacquires the belonging to the same communion.

 


 

2.

 

2.1 At that time the Bhikkhus, among whom altercations, contentions, and quarrels had arisen, in the dining-hall and amidst the houses, behaved [292] improperly towards each other in gesture and word, and came to blows.

The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can these Sakyaputtiya Samanas, when altercations, contentions, and quarrels have arisen among them, &c., and come to blows?' Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the Bhikkhus, when altercations, &c.?'

2.2 These Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, &c.?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Having rebuked them, and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'When divisions have arisen among the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, and when unlawful conduct and unfriendliness prevail among the Bhikkhus, then you ought to sit down on your seats (separately, saying to yourselves): "At least we will not behave improperly towards each other in gesture or word, and will not come to blows." When divisions have arisen among the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, and when lawful conduct' and friendliness prevail among the Bhikkhus, then you may sit down (together), one by one from each side[5].'

At that time the Bhikkhus, among whom altercations, contentions, and quarrels had arisen, wounded each other with sharp words in the assemblies, and were unable to settle that question.

[293] Then a certain Bhikkhu went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted him, he stationed himself near him. Standing near him, that Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, the Bhikkhus among whom altercations, contentions, and quarrels have arisen, wound each other with sharp words in the assemblies, and are unable to settle that question. Pray, Lord, may the Blessed One go to those Bhikkhus out of compassion towards them.'

And the Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent.

Then the Blessed One went to the place where those Bhikkhus were; having approached them, he sat down on the seat they had prepared. Sitting there the Blessed One thus addressed those Bhikkhus: 'Enough, O Bhikkhus, no altercations, no contentions, no disunion, no quarrel!'

When he had spoken thus, a certain Bhikkhu, an adherer of the party who were wrong, said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, may the Blessed One, the king of Truth, be patient! Lord, may the Blessed One quietly enjoy the bliss he has obtained already in this life! The responsibility for these altercations and contentions, for this disunion and quarrel will rest with us alone.'

And for the second time the Blessed One thus addressed those Bhikkhus: 'Enough, O Bhikkhus, &c.' And for the second time that Bhikkhu who adhered to the party who were wrong, said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, may the Blessed One, &c.' Then the Blessed One spoke thus to those Bhikkhus:

2.3 'In former times, O Bhikkhus, there lived at [294] Benares a king of Kâsi, Brahmadatta by name, wealthy, rich in treasures, rich in revenues, rich in troops and vehicles, the lord over a great realm, with full treasuries and storehouses. And there was also a king of Kosala, Dîghîti by name, not wealthy, poor in treasures, poor in revenues, poor in troops and vehicles, the lord over a small realm, with empty treasuries and storehouses.

'And king Brahmadatta, O Bhikkhus, of Kâsi, having set the four hosts of his army in array, went out to war with king Dîghîti of Kosala.

'And king Dîghîti of Kosala heard, O Bhikkhus: "King Brahmadatta of Kâsi, having set the four hosts of his army in array, has gone out to war with me." Then king Dîghîti of Kosala thought, O Bhikkhus: "King Brahmadatta of Kâsi is wealthy, rich in treasures, &c.; and I am not wealthy, poor in treasures, &c. I am not able to stand against even one attack of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi. What if I were to flee from the town beforehand."

'And king Dîghîti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, took his queen-consort with him and fled from the town beforehand.

Then king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, conquered the troops and vehicles, the realm, the treasuries and storehouses of king Dîghîti of Kosala, and took possession of them.

And king Dîghîti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, together with his consort, went forth to Benares. Wandering from place to place he came to Benares, and there at Benares, O Bhikkhus, king Dîghîti of Kosala dwelt, together with his consort, at a certain place near the town, in a potter's dwelling, in disguise, in the guise of a wandering ascetic.

[295] 2.4 'And ere long, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort of king Dîghîti of Kosala became pregnant. And there came upon her the longing of pregnant women; and she desired, at sunrise, to see an army, with its four hosts set in array, clad in armour, standing on auspicious ground, and to drink the water in which the swords were washed.

'And the queen-consort, O Bhikkhus, of king Dîghîti of Kosala said to king Dîghîti of Kosala: "I am pregnant, Lord, and the longing of pregnancy has come upon me; and I desire, at sunrise, &c."

'(The king replied): "Whence shall come, O queen, to people in distress like us, an army with four hosts set in array, clad in armour, standing on auspicious ground, and the water in which the swords are washed?"

'(The queen said): "If I do not obtain it, Lord, I shall die."

2.5 'Now at that time, O Bhikkhus, the Brâhmana who was domestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, was a friend of king Dîghîti of Kosala. And king Dîghîti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, went to the place where that Brâhmana, the domestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, was; having approached him he said to that Brâhmana, the domestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi: "Your lady-friend, my beloved, is pregnant, and the longing of pregnant women has come upon her; and she desires (&c., as above)."

'(The Brâhmana replied): "Well, O king, let us see the queen also."

'Then, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort of king Dîghîti of Kosala went to the place where that Brâhmana, the domestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta [296] of Kâsi, was. And, O Bhikkhus, that Brâhmana, the domestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, saw the queen-consort of king Dîghîti of Kosala coming from afar. On seeing her he rose from his seat, adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, raised his joined hands to the queen-consort of king Dîghîti of Kosala, and three times uttered this exclamation: "Verily a Kosala king dwells in thy womb! Verily a Kosala king dwells in thy womb!" (And further he said): "Do not despond, O queen, you will obtain the sight at sunrise of an army with its four hosts set in array, clad in armour, standing on auspicious ground, and you will obtain the drinking of the water in which the swords are washed."

2.6 And, O Bhikkhus, that Brâhmana, the domestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, went to the place where king Brahmadatta of Kâsi was. Having approached him, he said to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi: "Lord, the signs that appear are such, that to-morrow at sunrise an army with four hosts, set in array, clad in armour, must station itself on auspicious ground, and the swords must be washed."

Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi gave order to his attendants: "Do, my friends, what the Brâhmana, my domestic chaplain, tells you."

'Thus, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort of king Dîghîti of Kosala obtained the sight at sunrise, &c., and the drinking of the water in which the swords were washed.

'And, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort of king Dîghîti of Kosala, when the child in her womb had reached maturity, gave birth to a boy. They called [297] him Dîghâvu ("Longeval"). And ere long, O Bhikkhus, young Dîghâvu came to the years of discretion.

2.7 'And king Dîghîti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, thought: "This king Brahmadatta of Kâsi has done much harm to us. By him we have been robbed of our troops and vehicles, our realm, our treasuries and storehouses. Should he find us out here, he will have us all three killed. What if I were to cause young Dîghâvu to dwell outside the town."

Then king Dîghîti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, caused young Dîghâvu to dwell outside the town. And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, dwelling outside the town, ere long learnt all arts.'

2.8 'At that time, O Bhikkhus, the barber of king Dig-hid of Kosala dwelt at the court of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi. Now, O Bhikkhus, this barber of king Dîghîti of Kosala saw king Dîghîti of Kosala dwelling, together with his consort, at Benares, at a certain place near the town, in a potter's dwelling, in disguise, in the guise of a wandering ascetic. When he had seen him, he went to the place where king Brahmadatta of Kâsi was, and having approached him, he said to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi: "King Dîghîti of Kosala, Your Majesty, dwells, together with his consort, at Benares, at a certain place near the town, in a potter's dwelling, in disguise, in the guise of a wandering ascetic."

2.9 Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi gave order to his attendants: "Well, my friends, bring king Dîghîti of Kosala and his consort before me."

And those people, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), [298] "Yes, Your Majesty," and brought king Dîghîti of Kosala and his consort before him.

'Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi gave order to his attendants: "Well, my friends, bind king Dîghîti of Kosala and his consort firmly with strong ropes, tie their arms to their backs, have them close shaven, lead them around with loud beatings of drums from road to road and from cross-way to cross-way, then lead them out of the town by the southern gate, hew them in four pieces to the south of the town, and throw the pieces away to the four quarters."

'And those people, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), "Yes, Your Majesty," bound king Dîghîti of Kosala and his consort firmly with strong ropes, tied their arms to their backs, had them close shaven, and led them around with loud beatings of drums from road to road and from cross-way to cross-way.

2.10 'Now, O Bhikkhus, young Dîghâvu thought "For a long time I have not seen my father and mother. What if I were to go and see my father and mother." And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, entered Benares, and saw his father and mother, bound firmly with strong ropes, their arms tied to their backs, close shaven, and being led around with loud beating of drums from "road to road and from cross-way to cross-way. When he saw that, he went up to his father and mother.

'And king Dîghîti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, saw young Dîghâvu coming from afar; seeing young Dîghâvu he said to him: "Do not look long, my dear Dîghâvu, and do not look short[6]. For not by [299] hatred, my dear Dîghâvu, is hatred appeased; by not-hatred, my dear Dîghâvu, hatred is appeased."

2.11 'When he had spoken thus, O Bhikkhus, the people said to king Dîghîti of Kosala: "This king Dîghîti of Kosala is mad and raves. What has this Dîghâvu to do with him? Who is he to whom he says: Do not look long, &c.?'" (Dîghîti replied): "I am not mad, my friends, nor do I rave. 'He who is clever will understand it."

'And for the second time, &c. And for the third time, O Bhikkhus, king Dîghîti of Kosala said to young- Dîghâvu, &c. And for the third time said the people (&c., down to:) "He who is clever will understand it."

'Then those people, O Bhikkhus, having led king Dîghîti of Kosala and his consort around from road to road and from cross-way to cross-way, led them out of the town by the southern gate, hewed them in four pieces to the south of the town, threw the pieces away to the four quarters, stationed there a troop of soldiers, and went away.

2.12 Then young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, went to Benares, got strong drink there, and made those soldiers drink it. When they were drunk and had fallen down, he gathered the pieces (of the two bodies), made a funeral pile, put his father's and his mother's bodies on that pile, set it on fire, and raising his clasped hands he three times circumambulated the funeral pile.

'Now at that time, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi had gone up on to the terrace of his splendid palace. And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, saw young Dîghâvu, who, raising his clasped 'hands, three times circumambulated the [300] funeral pile. When he saw that, he thought: "Doubtless this man is a relation or kinsman of king Dîghîti of Kosala. Alas for my misfortune, that nobody will tell me (what this means)!"

2.13 'And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, went to the forest. There he cried and wept to his heart's content. Then he wiped his tears, entered the town of Benares, went to the elephant stables near the royal palace, and said to the elephant trainer: "I wish to learn your art, master."

'"Well, my good young man, learn it."

'And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, arose in the night, at dawn's time, and sung in the elephant stables in a beautiful voice, and played upon the lute. And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, having risen in the night, at dawn, heard that singing in a beautiful voice and that playing upon the lute in the elephant stables. On hearing that he asked his attendants: "Who is it, my friends, who has risen in the night, at dawn's time, and has sung in the elephant stables in so beautiful a voice, and has played upon the lute?"

2.14 '(The attendants replied): "A young pupil, Your Majesty, of such and such an elephant trainer, has risen in the night, at dawn, and has sung it the elephant stables in so beautiful a voice, and has played upon the lute."

'(The king said): "Well, my friends, bring that young man to me."

'Those people accepted, O Bhikkhus, that order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), "Yes, Your Majesty," and brought young Dîghâvu to him.

'"Is it you, my good young man, who has risen in the night, &c.?"

[301] "Yes, Your Majesty."

'"Well, my good young man, sing and play upon the lute (also before me)."

'Young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), "Yes, Your Majesty," and in order to win (the king's) favour he sung in a beautiful voice and played upon the lute.

'And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, said to young Dîghâvu: "Be my attendant, my good young man."

'Young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), "Yes, Your Majesty." And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, became (a servant) of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, rising before him, lying down after him, willingly obeying all his commands, agreeable in his conduct, pleasing in his words. And ere long, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi gave to young Dîghâvu an intimate position of trust.

2.15 'And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, said to young Dîghâvu: "Well, my young friend, put the horses to the chariot; we will go a-hunting." And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), "Yes, Your Majesty," put the horses to the chariot, and said to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi: "The horses have been put to your chariot, Your Majesty; you may do now as you think fit."

'And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, ascended the chariot, and young Dîghâvu drove the chariot: and he drove the chariot in such a way that the hosts (of the royal retinue) went one way, and the chariot went another way.

[302] And after a long drive, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi said to young Dîghâvu: "Well, my young friend, stop now the chariot. I am tired; I would lie down."

Young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), "Yes, Your Majesty," stopped the chariot, and sat down on the ground cross-legged. And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, lay down, laying his head in the lap of young Dîghâvu; and as he was tired, he fell asleep in a moment.

2.16 'And young Dîghâvu thought, O Bhikkhus: "This king Brahmadatta of Kâsi has done much harm to us. By him we have been robbed of our troops and vehicles, our realm, our treasuries and storehouses. And he has killed my father and mother. Now the time has come to me to satisfy my hatred,"--(thinking thus) he unsheathed his sword. Then, O Bhikkhus, young Dîghâvu thought: "My father said to me in the hour of his death: 'Do not look long, my dear Dîghâvu, and do not look short. For not by hatred, my dear Dîghâvu, is hatred appeased; by not-hatred, my dear Dîghâvu, hatred is appeased.' It would not become me to transgress my father's word,"--(thinking thus) he put up his sword.

And for the second time . . . . and for the third time young Dîghâvu thought, O Bhikkhus: "This king Brahmadatta of Kâsi has done much harm to us" (&c., down to:)--(thinking thus) he put up his sword.

At that moment, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, frightened, terrified, full of anguish, and alarmed, suddenly arose.

'And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, said to king [303] Brahmadatta of Kâsi: "Why do you arise so suddenly, O king, frightened, terrified, full of anguish and alarmed?"

'(The king replied): "I dreamt, my young friend, that young Dîghâvu, the son of king Dîghîti of Kosala, came upon me with his sword; therefore have I arisen so suddenly, frightened, terrified, full of anguish, and alarmed."

2.17 'Then, O Bhikkhus, young Dîghâvu, stroking with his left hand the head of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, and with his right hand unsheathing his sword, said to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi: "I am that young Dîghâvu, O king, the son of king Dîghîti of Kosala. You have done much harm to us. By you we have been robbed of our troops and vehicles, our realm, our treasuries and storehouses. And you have killed my father and mother. Now the time has come to me to satisfy my hatred."

'Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi fell down before young Dîghâvu, inclining his head to his feet, and said to young Dîghâvu: "Grant me my life, my dear Dîghâvu! Grant me my life, my dear Dîghâvu!"

"How can I grant you your life, O king? It is you, O king, who should grant me my life!"

'"Well, my dear Dîghâvu, then grant me my life, and I will grant you your life."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kâsi and young Dîghâvu granted each other their lives and took each other's hands and swore an oath not to do any harm to each other.

'And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, said to young Dîghâvu: "Well, my dear Dîghâvu, put now the horses to the chariot; we will go."

[304] 'And young Dîghâvu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order of king Brahmadatta of Kâsi (by saying), "Yes, Your Majesty," put the horses to the chariot, and said to king Brahmadatta of Kâsi: "The horses have been put to your chariot, Your Majesty; you may do now as you think fit."

'And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, ascended the chariot, and young Dîghâvu drove the chariot; and he drove the chariot in such a way that they soon reached again the hosts (of the royal retinue).

2.18 'And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, having entered Benares, convoked his ministers and counsellors and said to them: "If you should see, my good Sirs, young Dîghâvu, the son of king Dîghîti of Kosala, what would you do to him?"

'Some (of the ministers) replied: "We would cut off his hands, Your Majesty;" (others said): "We would cut off his feet"--"We would cut off his hands and feet"--"We would cut off his ears"--"We would cut off his nose"--"We would cut off his ears and his nose"--"We would cut off his head."

'"This is young Dîghâvu, Sirs, the son of king Dîghîti of Kosala. It is not permitted to do anything to him; he has granted me my life, and I have granted him his life."

2.19 'And king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, said to young Dîghâvu: "Why did your father say to you in the hour of his death: 'Do not look long, &c.'--what did your father mean by that?"

'What my father said, O king, in the hour of his death: 'Not long'--(means): 'Let not your hatred last long;' this did my father mean when he said in the hour of his death: 'Not long.' And [305] what my father said, O king, in the hour of his death: 'Not short'--(means): 'Do not be hasty to fall out with your friends;' this did my father mean when he said in the hour of his death: 'Not short.' And what my father said, O king, in the hour of his death: 'For not by hatred, my dear Dîghâvu, is hatred appeased; by not-hatred, my dear Dîghâvu, is hatred appeased'--(means this): 'You have killed my father and mother, O king. If I should deprive you therefore of life, O king, then your partisans, O king, would deprive me of life; my partisans again would deprive those of life. Thus by hatred that hatred would not be appeased. But now, O king, you have granted me my life, and I, O king, have granted you your life; thus by not-hatred hatred has been appeased.' This did my father mean when he said in the hour of his death: 'For not by hatred, &c.'"

2.20 'Then king Brahmadatta of Kâsi, O Bhikkhus, thought: "O wonderful! O marvellous! How clever is this young Dîghâvu, that he understands in its full extent the meaning of what his father spoke so concisely,"--and he gave him back his father's troops and vehicles, his realm, his treasuries and storehouses, and he gave him his daughter,

'Now, O Bhikkhus, if such is the forbearance and mildness of kings who wield the sceptre and bear the sword, so much more, O Bhikkhus, must you so let your light shine before the world that you, having embraced the religious life according to so well-taught a doctrine and a discipline, are seen to be forbearing and mild.'

And for the third time[7] the Blessed One thus [306] addressed those Bhikkhus: 'Enough, O Bhikkhus, no altercations, no contentions, no disunion, no quarrels!'

And for the third time that Bhikkhu who adhered to the party who were wrong, said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, may the Blessed One, the king of Truth, be patient! Lord, may the Blessed One quietly enjoy the bliss he has obtained already in this life! The responsibility for these altercations and contentions, for this disunion and quarrel will rest with us alone.' And the Blessed One thought: 'Truly these fools are infatuate; it is no easy task to administer instruction to them,'--and he rose from his seat and went away.

End of the first Bhânavâra, which contains the story of Dîghâvu.

 


 

3.

 

3.1 And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, took up his alms-bowl and his kîvara, and entered the town of Kosambî for alms. Having collected alms in Kosambî, after his meal, when he had returned from his alms-pilgrimage, he put his resting-place in order, took up his alms-bowl and his kîvara, and standing in the midst of the assembly he pronounced the following stanzas:

'Loud is the noise that ordinary men make. Nobody thinks himself a fool, when divisions arise in the Samgha, nor do they ever value another person higher (than themselves).

[307] 'Bewildered[8] are (even) the clever words of him who is versed in the resources of eloquence. As wide as they like they open their mouth. By whom they are lead they do not see.

'"He[9] has reviled me, he has beaten me, he has oppressed me, he has robbed me,"--in those who nurse such thoughts, hatred will never be appeased.

'"He has reviled me, he has beaten me, he has oppressed me, he has robbed me,"--in those who do not nurse such thoughts, hatred is appeased.

'For not by hatred is hatred ever appeased; by not-hatred it is appeased; this is an eternal law.

'The others[10] do not know that we must keep ourselves under restraint here; but those who know it, their quarrels are appeased.

'They whose bones are broken (by their foes), who destroy lives, who rob cows, horses, and treasures, who plunder realms,--even these may find conciliation. How should you not find it?

'If[11] a man find a wise friend, a companion who [308] lives righteously, a constant one, he may walk with him, overcoming all dangers, happy and mindful[12].

'If he find no wise friend, no companion who lives righteously, no constant one, let him walk alone, like a king who leaves his conquered realm behind[13], like an elephant in the elephant forest[14].

'It is better to walk alone; with a fool there is no companionship. Let a man walk alone; let him do no evil, free from cares, like an elephant in the elephant forest[14].'

 


 

4.

 

4.1 And the Blessed One, having pronounced these stanzas standing in the midst of the assembly, went forth to Bâlakalonakâra-gâma (or, to Bâlaka, the salt-maker's village).

At that time the venerable Bhagu dwelt at Bâlakalonakâra-gâma. And the venerable Bhagu saw the Blessed One coming from afar; seeing him he prepared a seat, brought water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel, went forth to meet him, and took his bowl and his robe. The Blessed One sat down on the seat he had prepared; and [309] when he was seated, the Blessed One washed his feet. And also the venerable Bhagu, having respect-fully saluted the Blessed One, sat down near him. When he was sitting near him, the Blessed One said to the venerable Bhagu: 'Is it all well with you, O Bhikkhu? Do you find your living? Do you get food without too much trouble?'

'It is all well with me, Lord; I find my living, Lord; I get food, Lord, without too much trouble.'

And the Blessed One, having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the venerable Bhagu by religious discourse, rose from his seat and went forth to the Eastern Bambû Park (Pâkîna-vamsa-dâya).

4.2 At that time the venerable Anuruddha and the venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila dwelt at Pâkîna-vamsa-dâya. And the park-keeper saw the Blessed One coming from afar; seeing him he said to the Blessed One: 'Do not enter this park, O Samana; here dwell three noble youths accustomed to comfort and ease; you must not annoy them.' And the venerable Anuruddha heard what the park-keeper was saying to the Blessed One; hearing that he said to the park-keeper: 'Do not keep off the Blessed One, my good park-keeper; our teacher, the Blessed One, has arrived.' And the venerable Anuruddha went to the place where the venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila were; having approached them, he said to the venerable Nandiya and to the venerable Kimbila: 'Come here, my venerable friends! Come here, my venerable friends! Our teacher, the Blessed One, has arrived.'

4.3 And the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila went forth to meet the Blessed One; one took the bowl and the [310] robe of the Blessed One, the other one prepared a seat, the third one brought water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel. Then the Blessed One sat down on the seat they had pre-pared; and when he was seated, the Blessed One washed his feet. And also those venerable persons, having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, sat down near him. When the venerable Anuruddha was sitting near him, the Blessed One said to him:

'Is it all well with you, O Anuruddhas[15]? Do you find your living? Do you get food without too much trouble?'

'It is all well with us, Lord; we find our living, Lord; we get food, Lord, without too much trouble.'

'And do you live, O Anuruddhas, in unity and concord, without quarrels, like milk and water (mixed together)[16], and looking at each other with friendly eyes?'

'Certainly, Lord, do we live in unity and concord (&c., down to:) and looking at each other with friendly eyes.'

'And in what way, O Anuruddhas, do you live in unity and concord, &c.?'

4.4 'I think, Lord: "It is all gain to me indeed, it is high bliss for me indeed, that I live in the companionship of brethren like these." Thus, Lord, do I exercise towards these venerable brethren friendliness in my actions, both openly and in secret; I [311] exercise (towards them) friendliness in my words, and friendliness in my thoughts, both openly and in secret. And I think thus, Lord: "What if I were to give up my own will and to live only according to the will of these venerable brethren." Thus, Lord, I give up my own will and live only according to the will of these venerable brethren. Our bodies, Lord, are different, but our minds, I think, have become one[17].'

And also the venerable Nandiya . . . . and also the venerable Kimbila . . . . said to the Blessed One: 'I think also, Lord: "It is all gain to me" (&c., down to:) have become one.

'In this way, Lord, do we live in unity and concord, without quarrels, like milk and water (mixed together), and looking at each other with friendly eyes.'

4.5 'And do you live, O Anuruddhas, in earnestness, zeal, and resolvedness?'

'Certainly, Lord, do we live in earnestness, zeal, and resolvedness.'

'And in what way, O Anuruddhas, do you live in earnestness, zeal, and resolvedness?'

'He[18] who first of us comes back, Lord, from the village, from his alms-pilgrimage, prepares seats, gets water for washing feet, a foot-stool, and a towel, cleans the slop-basin, and gets it ready, and puts there (water to) drink and food. He who comes back last from the village, from his alms-pilgrimage, eats, if there is any food left (from the dinner of the others) and if he desires to do so; and if he does [312] not desire (to eat), he throws it away at a place free from grass, or pours it away into water in which no living things are; takes away the seat, puts away the water for washing the feet, the foot-stool, and the towel, cleans the slop-basin and puts it away, puts the water and the food away, and sweeps the dining-room. He who sees a water-pot, or a bowl for food, or an easing-chair, empty and void, puts it (into its proper place), and if he is not able to do so single-handed, he calls some one else, and thus we put it (into its place) with our united effort, but we do not utter a word, Lord, on that account. And every five days, Lord, we spend a whole night, sitting together, in religious discourse. In this way, Lord, do we live in earnestness, zeal, and resolvedness.'

4.6 And the Blessed One, having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the venerable Anuruddha and the venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila by religious discourse, rose from his seat, and went forth to Pârileyyaka. Wandering from place to place he came to Pârileyyaka. There the Blessed One dwelt at Pârileyyaka, in the Rakkhita grove, at the foot of the Bhaddasâla tree. Then in the mind of the Blessed One, who was alone, and had retired into solitude, the following thought arose: 'Formerly I did not live at ease, being troubled by those litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious Bhikkhus of Kosambî, the constant raisers of questions before the Samgha. But now, being alone and without a companion, I live pleasantly and at ease, remote from those litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious Bhikkhus of Kosambî, the constant raisers of questions before the Samgha.' And there [313] dwelt also a noble elephant, who was surrounded by a crowd of elephants, she-elephants, elephant-calves, and young elephants; the grass blades he ate had their tips broken; the branches he broke down (the other elephants) ate; the water he drank was turbid; and when he waded into the river and plunged down, the she-elephants came and rubbed up their bodies against him. Now that noble elephant thought: 'I am surrounded by a crowd of elephants (&c., down to:) and rub up their bodies against me. What if I were to live alone, far away from those crowds.'

4.7 And that noble elephant left the herd behind, and went to Pârileyyaka, to the Rakkhita grove, to the foot of the Bhaddasâla tree, to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him, he administered with his trunk to the Blessed One (water to) drink and food, and removed the grass from that place. And that noble elephant thought:

Formerly I did not live at ease, surrounded by that crowd of elephants (&c., down to:) and rubbed up their bodies against me. But now, being alone and without a companion, I live pleasantly and at ease, remote from those elephants, she-elephants, elephant-calves, and young elephants.'

Then the Blessed One, both regarding his own retirement, and understanding by the power of his mind the thoughts which had arisen in the mind of that noble elephant, on this occasion pronounced this solemn utterance:

'Thus the noble one and the noble, the elephant tusked with tusks like cart poles[19] (and the noble [314] One among men)--the mind of the one and the mind of the other harmonise in this, that they take delight in dwelling alone in the forest.'

 


 

5.

 

5.1 And the Blessed One, having dwelt at Pârileyyaka as long as he thought fit, went forth to Sâvatthi. Wandering from place to place he came to Sâvatthi. There the Blessed One dwelt at Sâvatthi, in the Getavana, the garden of Anâtha-pindika. And the lay-devotees of Kosambî thought: 'These venerable Bhikkhus of Kosambî have brought much misfortune to us; worried[20] by them the Blessed One is gone. Well, let us neither salute the venerable Bhikkhus of Kosambî, nor rise from our seats before them, nor raise our hands before them, nor perform the proper duties towards them, nor honour and esteem and revere and sup-port them, nor give them food when they come on their walks for alms; thus, when they are not honoured, esteemed, revered, supported, and hospitably received by us, they will go away, or return to the world, or propitiate the Blessed One.'

5.2 Thus the lay-devotees of Kosambî did not salute any more the Bhikkhus of Kosambî, nor did they rise from their seats before. them (&c., down to:) nor gave them food when they came on their walks for alms.

Then the Bhikkhus of Kosambî, when they were no more honoured (&c., down to:) and hospitably [315] received by the lay-devotees of Kosambî, said to each other: 'Well, friends, let us go to Sâvatthi and let us settle there that question before the Blessed One.' And the Bhikkhus of Kosambî put their resting-places in order, took up their alms-bowls and their robes, and went forth to Sâvatthi.

5.3 And the venerable Sâriputta heard: Those litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious Bhikkhus of Kosambî, the constant raisers of questions before the Samgha, are coming to Sâvatthi.' And the venerable Sâriputta went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the venerable Sâriputta said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, those litigious, contentious (&c., down to:) are coming to Sâvatthi. How am I to behave, Lord, towards those Bhikkhus?'

'Well, Sâriputta, you must side with those who are right according to the Dhamma.'

'But how shall I discern, Lord, what is right and what is wrong?'

5.4 'There are eighteen things, Sâriputta, by which you may conclude that a Bhikkhu is wrong according to the Dhamma. In case, Sâriputta, a Bhikkhu declares what is not Dhamma to be Dhamma, or declares what is Dhamma not to be Dhamma, or declares what is not Vinaya to be Vinaya, or declares what is Vinaya not to be Vinaya, or declares what has not been taught and spoken by the Tathâgata to have been taught and spoken by the Tathâgata, or declares something taught and spoken by the Tathâgata not to have been taught and spoken by the Tathâgata, or declares what has not been [316] practised by the Tathâgata to have been practised by the Tathâgata, or declares something practised by the Tathâgata not to have been practised by the Tathâgata, or declares what has not been ordained by the Tathâgata to have been ordained by the Tathâgata, or declares something ordained by the Tathâgata not to have been ordained by the Tathâgata, or declares what is no offence to be an offence, or declares an offence to be no offence, or declares a slight offence to be a grievous offence, or declares a grievous offence to be a slight offence, or declares (a rule regarding) an offence to which there is an exception to be without an exception, or declares (a rule regarding) an offence to which there is no exception to admit of exceptions[21], or declares a grave offence [22] to be a not grave offence, or declares an offence that is not grave to be a grave offence,--these are the eighteen things, Sâriputta, by which you may conclude that a Bhikkhu is wrong according to the Dhamma.

5.5 'And there are eighteen things, Sâriputta, by which you may conclude that a Bhikkhu is right according to the Dhamma. In case, Sâriputta, a Bhikkhu declares what is not Dhamma to be not [317] Dhamma, or declares what is Dhamma to be Dhamma (&c., down to:), or declares a grave offence to be a grave offence, or declares an offence that is not grave to be not grave,--these are the eighteen things, Sâriputta, by which you may conclude that a Bhikkhu is right according to the Dhamma.'

5.6 And the venerable Mahâmoggallâna heard (&c., as in Ī3--5)--and the venerable Mahâkassapa heard, &c.--and the venerable Mahâkakkâna heard, &c.--and the venerable Mahâkotthita[23] heard, &c.--and the venerable Mahâkappina heard, &c.--and the venerable Mahâkunda heard, &c.--and the venerable Anuruddha heard, &c.--and the venerable Revata heard, &c.--and the venerable Upâli heard, &c.--and the venerable Ânanda heard, &c.--and the venerable Râhula heard (&c., as above).

5.7 And Mahâpagâpati Gotamî heard: 'Those litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious Bhikkhus of Kosambî, the constant raisers of questions before the Samgha, are coming to Sâvatthi.' And Mahâpagâpati Gotamî went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, she stationed herself near him. Standing near him Mahâpagâpati Gotamî said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, those litigious, contentious (&c., down to:) are coming to Sâvatthi. How am I to behave, Lord, towards those Bhikkhus?'

'Well, Gotamî, hear the Dhamma on both sides. When you have heard the Dhamma on both sides, [318] then accept the opinion and the belief and the doctrine and the cause of those Bhikkhus who are right according to the Dhamma; and whatever the Bhikkhunîsamgha has to apply for to the Bhikkhusamgha[24], for all that you must apply to the party of those who are right.'

5.8 And Anâtha-pindika the householder heard (&c., as in 3, down to:). 'How am I to behave, Lord, towards those Bhikkhus?'

'Well, householder, bestow gifts on both sides; having bestowed gifts on both sides, hear the Dhamma on both sides. When you have heard the Dhamma on both sides, then accept the opinion and the belief and the doctrine and the cause of those Bhikkhus who are right according to the Dhamma.'

5.9 And Visâkhâ Migâramâtâ heard, &c.[25]

5.10 And the Bhikkhus of Kosambî in due course came to Sâvatthi. And the venerable Sâriputta went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the venerable Sâriputta said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, those litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious Bhikkhus of Kosambî, the constant raisers of questions before the Samgha, have arrived at Sâvatthi. How are we, Lord, to arrange the dwelling-places of those Bhikkhus?'

'Well, Sâriputta, assign separate dwelling-places to them.'

[319] 'And if there be no separate dwelling-places, what are we to do then, Lord?'

'Then, Sâriputta, you must separate (some dwelling-places from the rest) and then assign them (to those Bhikkhus). But in no wise, Sâriputta, do I say that the dwelling-place of a senior Bhikkhu must be taken from him. He who does that, commits a dukkata offence.'

'And how are we to act, Lord, regarding (the distribution of) material gifts[26]?'

'Material gifts, Sâriputta, must be distributed among all in equal parts.'

5.11 And that Bhikkhu against whom expulsion had been pronounced, pondering over both Dhamma and Vinaya, came to the following conclusion: 'This is an offence; this is not no offence. I am an offender; I am not offenceless. I am expelled; I am not un-expelled. The sentence by which I have been expelled is lawful, unobjectionable, and valid.' Then that expelled Bhikkhu went to the expelled Bhikkhu's partisans; having approached them, he said to the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu: 'This is an offence, friends; this is not no offence, &c. Come now, my venerable brethren, and restore me.'

5.12 Then the partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu took with them the expelled Bhikkhu, and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down near him. Sitting near him those Bhikkhus said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, this Bhikkhu, against whom expulsion has been pronounced, says, "This is an offence, friends (&c., [320] down to:) and restore me." What are we to do here, Lord?'

This is an offence, O Bhikkhus; this is not no offence. This Bhikkhu is an offender; this Bhikkhu is not offenceless. This Bhikkhu is expelled; he is not unexpelled; the sentence by which he has been expelled is lawful, unobjectionable, and valid. But since this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, having committed an offence, and having been sentenced to expulsion, sees (his offence), restore now that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus.'

5.13 And the partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu, having restored that expelled Bhikkhu, went to the Bhikkhus who had sentenced him to expulsion; having approached them, they said to the Bhikkhus who had pronounced that sentence: 'As regards that matter, friends, which gave origin to altercations among the Samgha, to contentions, discord, quarrels, divisions among the Samgha, to disunion among the Samgha, to separations among the Samgha, to schisms among the Samgha,--that Bhikkhu (who was concerned in that matter), having committed an offence, and having been sentenced to expulsion, has seen (his offence) and has been restored. Come, friends, let us declare now the re-establishment of concord among the Samgha in order to bring that matter to an end.'

Then the Bhikkhus who had pronounced that sentence of expulsion, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down near him; sitting near him those Bhikkhus said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, those partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu have said to us: "As regards [321] that matter (&c., down to:) in order to bring that matter to an end." What are we to do here, Lord?'

5.14 'Since this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, having committed an offence, and having been sentenced to expulsion, has seen (his offence) and has been re-stored, let the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, declare the re-establishment of concord in order to bring that matter to an end. And this declaration is to be performed in this way: Let all brethren assemble together, both the sick and the healthy; no one is allowed to send his declaration of khanda[27] (and to stay away). When you have assembled, let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. As regards that matter which gave origin to altercations among the Samgha, to contentions, discord, quarrels, divisions among the Samgha, to disunion among the Samgha, to separations among the Samgha, to schisms among the Samgha,--that Bhikkhu (concerned in that matter), having committed an offence, and having been sentenced to expulsion, has seen (his offence) and has been restored. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha declare the re-establishment of concord in order to bring that matter to an end. This is the ñatti. Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me (&c.[28], down to:) the re-establishment of concord, in order to bring that matter to an end, has been declared by the Samgha; the division that existed among the Samgha has been settled; the disunion that existed [322] among the Samgha has been settled. The Samgha is in favour (of this declaration); therefore you are silent; thus I understand." Then let the Samgha hold Uposatha and proclaim the Pâtimokkha.'

 


 

6.

 

6.1 And the venerable Upâli[29] went to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the venerable Upâli said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, if the Samgha, regarding a matter which has given origin to altercations (&c., down to:) to schisms among the Samgha, declares the re-establishment of concord, without having inquired into that matter and without having got to the bottom of it, is this declaration, Lord, lawful?'

'If the Samgha, Upâli, regarding a matter (&c., down to:) declares the re-establishment of concord, without having inquired into that matter and without having got to the bottom of it,--this declaration, Upâli, is unlawful.'

'But if the Samgha, Lord, regarding a matter (&c., down to:) declares the re-establishment of concord, after having inquired -into that matter and after having got to the bottom of it,--is this declaration, Lord, lawful?'

'If the Samgha, Upâli, (&c., down to:) declares the re-establishment of concord, after having inquired [323] into that matter and after having got to the bottom of it,--this declaration, Upâli, is lawful.'

6.2 'How many kinds are there, Lord, of the re-establishment of concord among a Sâmgha?'

'There are the following two kinds, Upâli, of re-establishment of concord among a Samgha: Con-cord may be re-established, Upâli, in the letter, but not in the spirit, and concord may be' re-established both in the spirit and in the letter.

And in what case, Upâli, is concord re-established in the letter,' but not in the spirit? If the Samgha, Upâli, (&c., as above) declares the re-establishment of concord, without having inquired into that matter and without having got to the bottom of it,--in this case, Upâli, concord is said to have been re-established in the letter, but not in the spirit.

'And in what case, Upâli, is concord re-established both in the spirit and in the letter? If the Samgha. Upâli, (&c., as above) declares the re-establishment of concord, after having inquired into that matter and after having got to the bottom of it,--in this case, Upâli, concord is said to have been re-established both in the spirit and in the letter. These, Upâli, are the two kinds of re-establishment of concord among a Samgha.'

6.3 And the venerable Upâli rose from his seat, adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, bent his clasped hands towards the Blessed One, and addressed the Blessed One in the following stanzas:

'In the affairs of the Samgha and in its consultations, in the business that arises and in trials, what sort of man is then most wanted? what Bhikkhu is then most worthy of the leadership?'

[324]'Above all he who is blameless in his moral conduct, who watches over his behaviour, whose senses are well controlled, whom his rivals do not reprove according to the law,--for there is nothing for which they could censure him,

'Such a man, who abides in blameless conduct, is well versed (in the doctrine), and mighty are his words. He is not perplexed, nor does he tremble, when he enters an assembly[30]. He does not disparage his cause by vain talk.

'So also when he is asked questions in the assemblies, he does not hesitate, and is not troubled. By his timely words, that solve the questions, the clever man gladdens the assembly of the wise.

'Full of reverence for elder Bhikkhus, well versed in what his teacher has taught him, able to find out (the right), a master of speech, and skilled in making his rivals fail,

'By whom his rivals are annihilated, by whom many people receive instruction,--he does not for-sake the cause he has taken up, (nor does he become tired) of answering questions and putting questions without hurting others;

'If he is charged with a mission, he takes it upon himself properly, and in the business of the Samgha (he does) what they tell him[31];--when a number of Bhikkhus despatches him (somewhere), he obeys [325] their command, but he does not think therefrom, "It is I who do this;"--

'In what cases a Bhikkhu commits an offence, what an offence is, and how it is atoned for, both these expositions are well known to him[32]; he is versed in the rules about offence and atonement;--

'By what deeds a Bhikkhu brings expulsion upon himself, in what cases one has been expelled, and the rehabilitation of a person who has undergone that penance,--all this he also knows, well versed in the Vibhaṅgas;--

'Full of reverence for elder Bhikkhus, for the young, for the Theras, for the middle-aged, bringing welfare to many people, a clever one:--such a Bhikkhu is the one who is then worthy of the leadership.'

End of the tenth Khandhaka, which contains the story of the Bhikkhus of Kosambî.

End of the Mahâvagga.

 


[1] See Kullavagga I, t I, I, with our note.

[2] In the text sandhâya must be corrected into saddhâya; see Kullavagga XI, 1, 10.

[3] By associating with expelled Bhikkhus.

[4] By giving up his connection with expelled Bhikkhus.

[5] Asanantarikâya. Buddhaghosa: 'Ekekam âsanam antaram katvâ nisîditabbam.'

[6] This enigmatic phrase will be found explained below, Ī19.

[7] See Ī2.

[8] Parimutthâ. Buddhaghosa: 'Parimutthâ ’ti mutthassatino.' Mutthassati cannot be connected with mûlha, as Childers supposes, but it is evidently mushitasmiriti (Kathâsarits. 56, 289; compare satisammosa, Mil. Pañha, p. 266). Thus it appears that parimuttha must be derived also from the root mush.

[9] These verses are inserted in the Dhammapada, vv. 3-6.

[10] That is to say, those who do not follow the Buddha's teaching. On this meaning of pare compare parappavâdâ at Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta V, 62. Professor Max Müller, who in the first edition of his translation of the Dhammapada (Buddhaghosa's Parables, p. lvi) has 'Some do not know that we must all come to an end here,' in the revised edition (Sacred Books of the East, vol. x) renders the phrase, 'The world does not know that we must all come to an end here.'

[11] The following three verses have also been inserted in the Dhammapada, vv. 328-330. The two first recur in the Khaggavisâna-sutta of the Sutta Nipâta, vv. 11, 12.

[12] On the juxtaposition of happiness with mindfulness, see the constantly repeated phrase occurring, for instance, in the Tevigga Sutta I, 49 (at the end). It would perhaps be better to read satîmâ in the text, as Fausböll has done, metri causâ.

[13] That is, who abdicates, and devotes himself in the forest to a hermit's life. This is given as the crucial instance of a happy life in the Gâtaka Story, No. 10.

[14] Professor Fausböll reads in both verses mâtaṅgarañño instead of mâtaṅgaraññe.

[15] We have here the plural Anuruddhâ, meaning Anuruddha and his friends. So in Kullavagga I, 13, 6 Sâriputtâ means Sâriputta and Moggallâna.

[16] Khîrodakibhûtâ can scarcely contain an allusion to the Milk Ocean (see Childers, s.v. khîrodaka). Milk and water is frequently chosen by the Indian poets as a type of the most perfect union.

[17] Compare the last poem in the Sutta Nipâta, and especially v. 1143.

[18] Compare IV, 1.

[19] Îsâdanta; see Böhtlingk-Roth, sub voce îshâ.

[20] Ubbâlha; see Gâtaka I, 300, and Mahâvagga III, 9, 1.

[21] Our translation of sâvasesa and anavasesa is entirely conjectural. By the exceptions alluded to here we believe that such clauses must be understood as, for instance, in the sixth Nissaggiya Rule the words: 'Except at the right season;--here the right season means when the Bhikkhu has been robbed of his robe, or when his robe has been destroyed. This is the right season in this connection.'

[22] The term 'Dutthullâ âpatti' is used also in the ninth Pâkittiya Rule, and the Old Commentary there states that by 'grave offences' those belonging to the Pârâgika and Samghâdisesa classes are understood.

[23] The name of this Thera is spelt in the MSS. Mahâkotthita and Mahâkotthita. In the Northern Buddhist works he is called Mahâkaushthilya. In the Lalita Vistara (p. 1, ed. Calc.) Kaundilya is a misprint.

[24] See Kullavagga X, 1, 4, and the 59th Pâkittiya Rule in the Bhikkhunî-pâtimokkha.

[25] As in Ī8. Instead of 'Well, householder,' read 'Well, Visâkhâ.'

[26] Such as food, robes, &c.

[27] See II, 23.

[28] Here follows the repetition of the ñatti and the other solemn formulas belonging to a ñattidutiya kamma in the usual way.

[29] See the note at IX, 6, 1.

[30] The same idea is put into the Buddha's mouth in the Mahâparinibbâna Sutta I, 23, 24.

[31] We propose to read âhu nam yathâ. This seems more satisfactory than the reading and the explanation found in Buddhaghosa's Atthakathâ: 'yathâ nâma âhunam âhutipindam samugganhanti (sic) evam api so somanassagâten’ eva ketasâ samghassa kikkesu samuggaho.'

[32] For 'Exposition' the text has vibhaṅga, about the technical meaning of which see our Introduction, pp. xv seq. 'Both' refers to the Bhikkhuvibhaṅga and Bhikkhunîvibhaṅga. In the text, ubhayassa must be corrected into ubhay’ assa, i.e. ubhaye assa.


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