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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

Kulla Vagga

 


[329]

First Khandhaka

The Minor Disciplinary Proceedings

 


 

I. The Tagganiya Kamma (Act of Rebuke)

 


 

1.

1.1 At that time the Blessed One was staying at Getavana, in the grove of Anâtha-pindika.

Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were followers of Panduka and of Lohitaka[1],--who themselves were makers of strife, quarrelsome[2], makers of disputes[3], given to idle talk, and raisers of legal questions in the Samgha[4],--used to go up to such other Bhikkhus as were the same, and say, 'Do not allow such a one, venerable Sirs, to turn you back. Discuss loud and long. You are indeed cleverer, more wise, more well informed, more able at that (than [330] your adversaries are) and do not you be afraid of them. We too will be on your side.' Thereby both disputes arose which had not arisen before; and disputes which had arisen grew hotter.

1.2 Those Bhikkhus who were modest were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, How can the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and of Lohitaka act thus.' And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, convened an assembly of the Order of Bhikkhus, and inquired of the Bhikkhus: 'Is it true, as they say, Bhikkhus, that those Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka,--who themselves (&c., as in Ī1, down to the end)?'

'It is true, Lord!'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 'This is improper, O Bhikkhus, for those foolish persons, not according to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samana, unbecoming, and ought not to be done. How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, who themselves (&c., as in Ī1, down to the end). This will not conduce, O Bhikkhus, either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to those who have not been converted being not converted, and to the turning back of those who have been converted.'

1.3 And when the Blessed One had rebuked those Bhikkhus in various ways,--speaking of the evils of being hard to satisfy in the matter of support or nourishment, of wishing for much, of discontent, of love of society, and of sloth; and speaking in praise of being easy to satisfy in the matter of support and nourishment, of wishing for little, of the [331] contented man who has eradicated (evils from his mind), has quelled his passions[5], and is full of faith, of reverence, and of the exercise of zeal,--when he had thus held a religious discourse to the Bhikkhus as to what was fit and suitable in that respect, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let the Samgha, therefore, O Bhikkhus, carry out the Tagganiya-kamma (Act of Rebuke) against those Bhikkhus.

1.4 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka ought to be warned; when they have been warned, they ought to be reminded (of the Rule in the Pâtimokkha against which they have offended); when they have been reminded, they ought to be charged with the (particular) offence; when they have been charged with the offence, some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the Samgha, saying,

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. These Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka, who themselves (&c., as in Ī1, down to the end). If the time is fit for the Samgha (to do so) let the Samgha carry out the Tagganiya-kamma against the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka.

'"Such is the motion (ñatti).

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. The Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka, [332] who themselves (&c., as in Ī1, down to the end). The Samgha hereby carries out the Tagganiya-kamma against them. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the carrying out of the Tagganiya-kamma against the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka, let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.

'"A second time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c., as before[6]). A third time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c., as before r).

'"The Tagganiya-kamma against the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka has been carried by the Samgha. The Samgha approves (the motion). Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

 


 

2.

2.1[7] 'There are three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tagganiya-kamma is characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has not been carried out in a full assembly of properly qualified persons, 'according to law and justice, and in the presence of the litigant parties[8]--when it has been carried out without the accused person having been heard--when it has been carried out without the accused person having confessed himself guilty. A Tagganiya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised [333] by these three things is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled.

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tagganiya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has been carried out though no fault has been committed--when it has been carried out for a Pârâgika or a Samghâdisesa offence[9]--when it has been carried out though the fault has been confessed. A Tagganiya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised (&c., as before, down to) settled.

There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tagganiya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has been carried out without the accused person having been warned--when it has been carried out without the accused person having been called upon to remember (whether he has or has not committed the offence)--when it has been carried out without the accused person having been convicted. A Tagganiya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised (&c., as before, down to) settled.

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tagganiya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has not been carried out in a properly constituted meeting properly conducted[10]--when it has [334] been carried out without justice[11]--when it has been carried out without the presence and approval of all the Bhikkhus belonging to the particular circuit[12]. A Tagganiya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by these three things is (&c., as before, down to) settled.

There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tagganiya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has been carried out without the accused person having been heard--when it has been carried out without justice--when it has been carried out without the presence and approval of all the Bhikkhus belonging to the circuit. A Tagganiya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by these three things is (&c., as before, down to) settled.

'There are other three things (&c., as before, down to) that is to say, when it has been carried out without the accused person having been convicted--when it has been carried out without justice--when it has been carried out without the presence and approval of all the Bhikkhus belonging to the circuit.'

[And in a similar way each of the three things in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this section are united with the two things just repeated in each of paragraphs 4, 5, and 6, to make six further cases in which a Tagganiya-kamma is declared to be against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be revoked.]

Here end the twelve cases of a proceeding (Kamma) which is against the law.

 


 

3.

3.1 [335] 'There are three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tagganiya-kamma is characterised, it is a proceeding in accordance with the Dhamma, a proceeding in accordance with the Vinaya, and is easy to be settled; (that is to say), when it has been carried out in a full assembly of qualified persons, according to law, and in the presence of the litigant parties--when it has been carried out after the accused person has been heard--when it has been carried out after the accused person has confessed himself guilty. A Tagganiya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by these three things is in accordance with the Dhamma, and in accordance with the Vinaya, and is easy to be settled.'

[And in a similar way the opposite of each of the twelve propositions in the last section is here laid down.]

Here end the twelve cases of a proceeding (Kamma) which is according to law.

 


 

4.

4.1 'There are three things, O Bhikkhus, which, when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Samgha, if it likes, should carry out the Tagganiya-kamma against him; (that is to say), when he is a maker of strife, quarrelsome, a maker of disputes, given to idle talk, and a raiser of legal questions in the Samgha[13]--when he is dull, stupid, full of faults, and devoid of merit--when he is living in lay society, in unlawful [336] association with the world. There are three things, O Bhikkhus, which, when the Samgha suspects (&c., as before, down to) against him.

There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, (&c., as before, down to) against him; (that is to say), when he has failed in morality as regards moral things--when he has failed in conduct as regards transgression--when he has failed in opinion as regards the principal matters of opinion[14]. There are three things, O Bhikkhus, (&c., as before, down to) against him.

There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, (&c., as before, down to) against him; (that is to say), when he speaks in dispraise of the Buddha--when he speaks in dispraise of the Dhamma--when he speaks in dispraise of the Samgha. These are three things, O Bhikkhus, (&c., as before, down to) against him.

4.2 'There are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, against whom, if the Samgha likes, it should carry out the Tagganiya-kamma; (that is to say), one who is a maker of strife (&c., as in Ī1, down to) a raiser of legal questions in the Samgha--one who is dull, stupid, full of faults, and devoid of merit--and one who is living in lay society, in unlawful association with the world. These are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, (&c., as before, down to) the Tagganiya-kamma.

'There are other three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, against whom, if the Samgha likes, it should carry out the Tagganiya-kamma; (that is to say), one who has failed in morality in regard to moral matters--one who has failed in conduct [337] as regards transgression--one who has failed in opinion as regards the principal matters of opinion. These are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) the Tagganiya-kamma.

'There are other three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, against whom, if the Samgha likes, it should carry out the Tagganiya-kamma; (that is to say), one who speaks in dispraise of the Buddha--one who speaks in dispraise of the Dhamma--one who speaks in dispraise of the Samgha. These are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) the Tagganiya-kamma.'

Here end the six permissive cases of Tagganiya-kamma.

 


 

5.[15]

5.1 'A Bhikkhu against whom the Tagganiya-kamma has been carried out ought to conduct himself aright. And herein this is the right conduct[16]: he ought not to confer the upasampadâ--he ought not to give a nissaya[17]--he ought not to provide [338] himself with a sâmanera[18]--he ought not to accept the office of giving exhortation to the nuns[19]--and if he has accepted the office, he ought not to exhort the nuns[19]--he ought not to commit the offence for which the Tagganiya-kamma has been carried out by the Samgha against him--nor any offence of a similar kind--nor any worse offence--he ought not to find fault with the proceeding (that has been carried out against him)--nor with (the Bhikkhus) who have carried it out--he ought not to raise objection against a regular[20] Bhikkhu's taking part in the Uposatha ceremony[21]--or in the Pavâranâ ceremony[22]--he ought not to issue commands (to a junior inhibiting him from going beyond the bounds[23], or summoning him to come before the elders)--he ought not to set on foot a censure against any other Bhikkhu[24]--he ought not to ask another Bhikkhu to give him leave (to rebuke that Bhikkhu[25])--he ought not to warn (another Bhikkhu[26] whom he supposes to be offending)--he ought [339] not to call upon another Bhikkhu to remember (whether he has or has not committed an offence)--and he ought not to associate with the Bhikkhus.'

Here end the eighteen duties which follow on a Tagganiya-kamma.

 


 

6.[27]

6.1 So the Samgha carried out the Tagganiya-kamma against the Bhikkhus who were followers of Panduka and Lohitaka. And when they had been subjected by the Samgha to the Tagganiya-kamma and were conducting themselves aright in accordance thereto, they became subdued[28], and they sought for release[29]; and going up to the Bhikkhus they spake as follows: 'We, Sirs, have been subjected by the Samgha to the Tagganiya-kamma (&c., down to) release. What now should. we do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Samgha revoke the Tagganiya-kamma carried out against the followers of Panduka and Lohitaka.

6.2 'There are five things, O Bhikkhus, by which, [340] when a Bhikkhu is characterised, a Tagganiya-kamma ought not to be revoked for him; (that is to say), when he confers the upasampadâ--when he gives a nissaya--when he provides himself with a sâmanera--when he accepts the office of giving exhortation to the nuns--and when, having accepted that office, he exhorts the nuns. These are the five things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) revoked for him.

'There are other five things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Bhikkhu is characterised, a Tagganiya-kamma ought not to be revoked for him; (that is to say), when he commits the offence for which the Tagganiya-kamma has been carried out by the Samgha against him--or any other offence of a similar kind--or any worse offence--when he finds fault with the proceeding that has been carried out against him--or with the Bhikkhus who have carried it out. These are five things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) revoked for him.

There are eight things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Bhikkhu is characterised, a Tagganiya-kamma ought not to be revoked for him; (that is to say), when he raises objections against a regular[30] Bhikkhu's taking part in the Uposatha ceremony--or in the Pavâranâ ceremony--when he inhibits a junior from going beyond the bounds--when he sets on foot a censure against any other Bhikkhu--when he asks another Bhikkhu to give [341] him leave to rebuke that Bhikkhu--when he warns another Bhikkhu whom he supposes to be offending--when he reminds another Bhikkhu of a rule against which he supposes that Bhikkhu to be offending--when he associates with the Bhikkhus. These are the eight things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) revoked for him.'

Here end the eighteen cases in which there ought to be no revocation (of the Tagganiya-kamma).

 


 

7.

7.1 [This chapter is exactly the converse of the last.]

Here end the eighteen cases in which there ought to be a revocation (of the Tagganiya-kamma).

 


 

8.[31]

8.1 'Now, thus, O Bhikkhus, should the revocation be carried out. Those Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka should go before the Samgha, with their upper robe arranged over one shoulder, and should bow down at the feet of the elder Bhikkhus, and squatting down, and raising their hands with the palms joined together, should speak as follows: "We, Sirs, have been subjected by the Samgha to the Tagganiya-kamma, and are conducting ourselves aright in accordance thereto; and we have become subdued, and we seek for release, and beg for a revocation of the Tagganiya-kamma." [342] And a second time they should beg [in the same words]. And a third time they should beg [in the same words]. Then a discreet and able Bhikkhu should lay the matter before the Samgha:

8.2 '"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. These Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka have been subjected (&c., as before), and they are conducting themselves (&c., as before), and they beg (&c., as before).

'"This is the motion (ñatti).

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. These Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) and they beg for a revocation of the Tagganiya-kamma. The Samgha revokes the Tagganiya-kamma for the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the revocation of the Tagganiya-kamma for the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka, let him hold his peace. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.

'"And a second time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c., as before, down to) let him speak.

'"And a third time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c., as before, down to) let him speak.

'"The revocation of the Tagganiya-kamma for the Bhikkhus who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka has been carried by the Samgha. The Samgha approves; therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

Here ends the first (Kamma), the Tagganiya-kamma.

 


[343]

II. The Nissaya-Kamma (Act of Subordination).

 


 

9.

9.1 Now at that time the venerable Seyyasaka was stupid, and indiscreet, and full of faults, and devoid of merit, and was living in lay society in unlawful association with the world[32]. So much so that the Bhikkhus were worn out[33] with placing him on probation[34], and with throwing him back to the beginning (of his probationary term)[35], and with subjecting him to the mânatta discipline[36], and with rehabilitating him[37]. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, and murmured, and became indignant [344] (saying), 'How can the venerable Seyyasaka be so stupid (&c., as before), that the Bhikkhus are worn out (&c., as before)?'

Then those Bhikkhus told that matter to the Blessed One.

And the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhusamgha, and asked the Bhikkhus, 'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that the venerable Seyyasaka is stupid (&c., as before, down to) with rehabilitating him?'

'It is true, Lord!'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him (saying), 'This is improper' (&c., as usual, compare I, 2, 3, down to), and addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, 'Let the Samgha therefore, O Bhikkhus, carry out the Nissaya-kamma (Act of Subordination) against the venerable Seyyasaka: "Thou must remain under the superintendence of others[38]."

9.2 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Seyyasaka ought to be warned; when he has been warned, he ought to be reminded[39]; when he has been reminded, he ought to be charged with the offence[39]; when he has been charged with the offence, some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the Samgha (saying),

"Let the venerable Samgha hear me (&c., as usual; see above, chapters 1. 4. and 8. 2)."'

 


 

10.

10.1 [345] [Chapters 2-5 are here repeated at length, Nissaya-kamma being substituted throughout for Tagganiya-kamma.]

 


 

11.[40]

11.1 So the Samgha carried out the Nissaya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Seyyasaka (saying), 'Thou must remain under the superintendence of others.'

And he, when subjected by the Samgha to the Nissaya-kamma, by resorting to and cultivating the acquaintance of good companions[41], associating with them, getting them to declare to him (the Dhamma), and asking them questions, became wise in the traditions; a man to whom the Nikâyas had been handed down; a reciter of the Dhamma, of the Vinaya, and of the Mâtikas; clever, discreet, wise, modest, full of remorse, and docile; he conducted himself aright, he became subdued, he sought for release, and going up to the Bhikkhus, he spake as follows:

'I, Sirs, after having been subjected by the Samgha to the Nissaya-kamma, am conducting myself aright, and have become subdued, and I seek for release. What now should I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Samgha revoke the Nissaya-kamma for the Bhikkhu Seyyasaka.

[346] 11.2 'There are five things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as in chap. 6. 2, down to the end of chap. 7, reading throughout Nissaya-kamma for Tagganiya-kamma).'

 


 

12.

12.1 [This chapter sets out the mode of revocation by a kamma-vâkâ precisely as above in chapter 8.]

Here ends the second (Kamma), the Nissaya-kamma.

 


 

III. The Pabbâganiya-Kamma (Act of Banishment)

 


 

13.[42]

13.1 [347] Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were followers of Assagi and Punabbasu were dwelling on the Kitâ Hill, wicked Bhikkhus, and shameless. Such as these were the evil practices they followed: they used to plant cuttings of flowers, and have them planted; they used to water flowers, and have them watered; they used to gather them, and have them gathered; they used to make them up into nosegays, and have them so made up; they used to make them up, and to have them made up, into wreaths, of the kind with the stalks together, and of the kind with the stalks separate[43], of the kind called mañgarikâ[44], of the kind called vidhutikâ[45], of the kind called vatamsaka[46], of the kind [348] called âvela[47], of the kind called urakkhada[48];--and they then used to take or send wreaths of each of these various kinds to the wives and daughters and young women and sisters-in-law and female slaves in respectable families;--and they used to eat out of one dish, to drink out of one vessel, to sit on one seat, to lie on one bed, one mat, one coverlet, with the wives and daughters and young women and sisters-in-law and female slaves in respectable families;--and they used to eat food at the wrong time, and to drink strong drink, and to make use of garlands, and scents, and unguents;--and they used to dance, and sing, and play music, and wanton, and all these together in every combination.

13.2 And they used to amuse themselves at games[49] with eight pieces and ten pieces, and with tossing up, hopping over diagrams formed on the ground, and removing substances from a heap without shaking the remainder; and with games at dice, and trap-ball; and with sketching rude figures, tossing balls, blowing trumpets, having matches at ploughing with mimic ploughs, tumbling, forming mimic wind-mills, guessing at measures, having [349] chariot races, and archery matches, shooting marbles with the fingers, guessing other people's thoughts, and mimicking other people's acts;--and they used to practise elephant riding, and horse riding, and carriage driving, and archery, and swordsmanship;--and they used to run to and fro in front of elephants, and in front of horses, and in front of carriages and they used to exhibit signs of anger[50], and to wring their hands[51], and to wrestle[52], and to box with their fists;--and spreading their robes out as a stage they used to invite dancing girls, saying, 'Here you may dance, sister!' and greet her with applause[53]. Thus manifold were the evil lives which they practised.

13.3 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who had spent the rainy season in the country of Kâsi, and was on his way to visit the Blessed One, arrived at the Kitâ Hill. And that Bhikkhu in the early morning put on his under garment, and went, duly bowled and robed, to the Kitâ Hill for alms. And he was perfect in dignity, with his eyes cast down, and pleasing in appearance, whether in going in or [350] in coming out, in looking or in watching, in bending in his arm or in stretching it forth[54].

Then the people on beholding that Bhikkhu, said, 'Who is this fellow like a fool of fools, or like an idiot of idiots, or like a simpleton of simpletons[55]? Who would give an alms when this fellow comes near! Now our own masters, the followers of Assagi and Punabbasu, are gentle, friendly, pleasant in speech, radiant with smiles, by no means fools, but open in countenance, and the first to speak. To such now it is fit to give an alms!'

And a certain lay-disciple saw that Bhikkhu as he was going along the Kitâ Hill for alms. And on seeing him, he went up to the place where he was; and on coming there he said to that Bhikkhu:

'Has your reverence received an alms?'

'No, my friend, I have received no alms!'

'Come, your reverence! Let us go to my house!'

13.4 So the lay-disciple took the Bhikkhu to his house, and gave him to eat, and asked him: 'Whither then is your reverence going?'

'I am on my way to Sâvatthi, my friend, to visit the Blessed One.'

'Then let your reverence bow down at the feet of the Blessed One in my name, and say, "The residence on the Kitâ Hill, Lord, has been spoiled. The Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu are dwelling on the Kitâ Hill, wicked Bhikkhus, and shameless. Such as these are the [351] evil practices they follow (&c., as in ĪĪ1, 2, down to the end). And people, Lord, who were formerly believers and full of faith, are now become non-believers and void of faith; the opportunities of alms that were formerly open to the Samgha are now destroyed; worthy Bhikkhus forsake, and wicked Bhikkhus dwell in the place. Let, Lord, the Blessed One be pleased to send (other) Bhikkhus to the Kitâ Hill in order that the residence there may be re-established."'

13.5 'Very well, my friend,' said the Bhikkhu, in assent, to that lay-disciple. And rising from his seat, he set out for Sâvatthi, and went straight on to Anâtha-pindika's grove, to the Getavana in Sâvatthi, to the place where the Blessed One was staying. And on arriving there he saluted the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side.

Now it is the custom for the Blessed Buddhas to exchange words of greeting with in-coming Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to that Bhikkhu, 'Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhu? Have you enough for your support? Have you accomplished your journey without too much fatigue? And whence, O Bhikkhu, have you come?'

'Things go well with me, Lord. I have enough for my support. And I have accomplished my journey without too much fatigue. I have spent the rainy season, Lord, in the land of Kâsi; and on my way to Sâvatthi to visit the Blessed One I arrived at the Kitâ Hill. And after having dressed early in the morning, I went, Lord, duly bowled and robed, on to the Kitâ Hill for alms. And a certain lay-disciple saw me (&c., as above, down to the end of Ī4, with the alterations necessary to [352] the narrative form of speech). Thence, Lord, am I come.'

13.6 Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-Samgha, and asked the Bhikkhus:

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu, and are dwelling on the Kitâ Hill, are wicked Bhikkhus, and shameless; and that such are the evil practices they follow (&c., as in Ī4, down to the end)?'

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 'How can they, O Bhikkhus, foolish persons that they are, follow such practices as these (&c., as in ĪĪ1, 2, down to the end)? This will not conduce, O Bhikkhus, to the conversion of the unconverted (&c., as usual. Compare chap. 1, Ī2, down to the end).'

And when the Blessed Buddha had rebuked them, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the venerable Sâriputta and Moggallâna, and said, 'Go now, Sâriputta and Moggallâna[56], to the Kitâ Hill. And on arriving there carry out the Pabbâganiya-kamma (Act of Banishment[57]) against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu, to the effect that they may become your Saddhi-vihârikas[58].'

[353] 'How, Lord, can we carry out the Pabbâganiyakamma against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu; for they are passionate men and violent?'

'Then do you go, Sâriputta and Moggallâna, together with a number of Bhikkhus.'

'So be it, Lord!' said Sâriputta and Moggallâna, in assent, to the Blessed One.

13.7[59]. 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu ought to be warned: when they have been warned, they ought to be reminded (of the Rule in the Pâtimokkha against which they have offended); when they have been reminded they ought to be charged with the offence; when they have been charged some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the Samgha, saying,

"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. These Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu are wicked Bhikkhus and shameless. Their evil practices are both seen and heard, and also that respectable families have been led astray by them is seen, too, and heard[60]. If the time is fit for the Samgha to do so, let the Samgha carry out the Pabbâganiyakamma against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu, to the effect that the Bhikkhus who are followers [354] of Assagi and Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Kitâ Hill'.

'"This is the motion (ñatti).

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. These Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu are wicked Bhikkhus and shameless. Their evil practices (&c., as before, down to) is seen, too, and heard. The Samgha hereby carries out the Pabbâganiya-kamma against them, to the effect that the Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Kitâ Hill[61]. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the carrying out of the Pabbâganiya-kamma against the followers (&c., as before) to the effect (&c., as before[61]) let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.

'"A second time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c., as before). A third time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c., as before).

'"The Pabbâganiya-kamma has been carried out by the Samgha against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu to the effect that those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Kitâ Hill'. The Samgha approves of it. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

 


 

14.

[Here follow the twelve cases in which a Pabbâganiya-kamma is declared to be against [355] the law, and according to law respectively, in the precise wording of chapters 2 and 3, reading Pabbâganiya for Tagganiya. Then follow the six cases of permissive suspension in the precise wording of chapter 4, but in addition to the cases there given for the Tagganiya-kamma, ĪĪ1 and 2 of this chapter are respectively added at the end of ĪĪ1 and 2 of that chapter.]

14.1 'There are three things, O Bhikkhus, which when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Samgha, if it likes, should carry out the Pabbâganiyakamma against him; (that is to say), when he is characterised by frivolity[62] of action--when he is characterised by frivolity of speech--when he is characterised by frivolity both of action and of speech. These are the three things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) against him.

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, which when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Samgha, if it likes, should carry out the Pabbâganiyakamma against him; (that is to say), when he is characterised by absence of right-doing in action--when he is characterised by absence of right-doing in speech--when he is characterised by absence of right-doing both in action and in speech. These are the other three things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) against him.

'There are other three things (&c., as in each of the last paragraphs; the three things here being injury[63] done by him to others in action, in speech, and both in action and in speech, owing to his own [356] want of training in the precepts and practices of the order).

'There are other three things (&c., as in each of the last paragraphs, the three things here being evilness of life in action, in speech, and both in action and in speech).

14.2 'There are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, against whom, when the Samgha likes (to do so), it should carry out the Pabbâganiyakamma; (that is to say), one who is frivolous in action--one who is frivolous in speech--one who is frivolous both in action and in speech. These are the three kinds of Bhikkhus (&c., as above, down to) the Pabbâganiya-kamma.

There are other three kinds of Bhikkhus (&c., as in the last paragraph, substituting first, absence of right-doing--secondly, injury to others--and thirdly, evilness of life respectively in action, in speech, and both in action and in speech).'

 


 

15.

15.1 [This chapter is identical with chapter 5, reading Pabbâganiya for Tagganiya.]

 


 

16.[64]

16.1 So the Bhikkhu-Samgha, with Sâriputta and Moggallâna at their head, proceeded to the Kitâ Hill, and there carried out the Pabbâganiyakamma against those Bhikkhus who were followers [357] of Assagi and Punabbasu, to the intent that those Bhikkhus should no longer dwell on the Kitâ Hill. And they, when subjected by the Samgha to the Pabbâganiya-kamma, did not conduct themselves aright, they did not become subdued, they did not seek for release, they did not ask the Bhikkhus for forgiveness, they reviled them, they found fault with them[65], saying that they were offending by acting in partiality, in ill-feeling, in folly, and in fear[66]; and they not only departed from the place, but also left the Order[67].

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were offended, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 'How can those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu, after having been subjected by the Samgha to the Pabbâganiya-kamma, refuse to conduct themselves aright (&c., as before, down to) leave the Order?' And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhusamgha, and asked the Bhikkhus:

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and Punabbasu, after having been subjected by the Samgha to the Pabbâganiya-kamma, refuse (&c., as before, down to) leave the Order.?'

'It is true, Lord!'

[358] 'How can those Bhikkhus who (&c., as before, down to) leave the Order? This will not conduce, O Bhikkhus, either to the conversion of the un-converted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to the unconverted being not converted, and to the turning back of those which have been converted.' And when the Blessed One had rebuked those Bhikkhus in various ways, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let not the Samgha revoke the Pabbâganiya-kamma. There are five things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, from chapter 6, Ī2, down to the end of chapter 7, reading Pabbâganiya for Tagganiya):

Here end the eighteen cases in which there ought to be a revocation (of the Pabbâganiya-kamma).

 


 

17.[68]

17.1 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should the revocation be carried out. The Bhikkhu, who has been subjected to the Pabbâganiya-kamma, should go before the Samgha (&c., as before in chapter 8, ĪĪ1, 2, down to the end).'

Here ends the third (Kamma), the Pabbâganiya-k a mm a.

 


 

IV. The Patisâraniya-Kamma (Act of Reconciliation)

 


 

18.[69]

18.1 [359] Now at that time the venerable Sudhamma was residing at Makkhikâsanda in dependence upon Kitta the householder, superintending[70] the new buildings he erected[71], and being constantly supplied by him with food. And whenever Kitta the householder wished to give an invitation to the Samgha, or to four or five Bhikkhus[72], or to a single one, he used not to invite them without making special mention of the venerable Sudhamma.

Now at that time a number of the Thera Bhikkhus, including the venerable Sâriputta, and the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna, and the venerable Mahâ Kakkâna, and the venerable Mahâ Kotthita, and the venerable Mahâ Kappina, and the venerable Mahâ Kunda, and [360] the venerable Anuruddha, and the venerable Revata, and the venerable Upâli, and the venerable Ânanda, and the venerable Râhula, as they were journeying through the country of Kâsi, arrived at Makkhikâsanda. And Kitta the householder heard the news that the Thera Bhikkhus had arrived at Makkhikâsanda.

Then Kitta the householder went up to the place where the Thera Bhikkhus were, and on arriving there, he saluted the Thera Bhikkhus, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the venerable Sâriputta taught Kitta the householder, and incited him, and roused him, and gladdened him with religious discourse. And Kitta the householder, having been thus taught, and incited, and roused, and gladdened with religious discourse, said to the Thera Bhikkhus, 'May the venerable Theras consent to take their to-morrow's meal, as incoming Bhikkhus, at my house.' And the Thera Bhikkhus signified, by silence, their consent.

18.2Then perceiving that the Thera Bhikkhus had given their consent, Kitta the householder rose from his seat, and bowed down before the Thera Bhikkhus, and keeping them on his right hand as he passed them, went on to the place where the venerable Sudhamma was. And on arriving there, he saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and stood by on one side. And so standing, Kitta the householder said to the venerable Sudhamma: 'May the venerable Sudhamma consent to take his to-morrow's meal at my house with the Theras.'

But the venerable Sudhamma, thinking, 'Formerly indeed this Kitta the householder, whenever he wished to give an invitation to the Samgha, or to [361] four or five Bhikkhus, or to a single one, used not to invite them without making special mention of me; but now he has invited the Thera Bhikkhus without regarding me. This Kitta the householder is now incensed against me, unfavourable to me, takes pleasure in me no longer.' And so thinking he refused, saying, 'It is enough, O householder.'

And a second time Kitta the householder said to the venerable Sudhamma (&c., as before, with the same result). And a third time (&c., as before, with the same result).

Then Kitta the householder, thinking, 'What can the venerable Sudhamma do against me, whether he consents, or whether he does not consent,' saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, departed thence.

18.3And at the end of the night Kitta the householder made ready sweet food, both hard and soft, for the Thera Bhikkhus. And the venerable Sudhamma, thinking, 'I may as well go and see what Kitta the householder has made ready for the Thera Bhikkhus,' robed himself early in the morning, and went, duly bowled and robed, to the place where Kitta the householder dwelt; and, on arriving there, he took his seat on a mat spread out for him.

Then Kitta the householder went up to the place where the venerable Sudhamma was; and after he had come there, he saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the venerable Sudhamma addressed Kitta the householder, and said: 'Though this great store of sweet food, both hard and soft, has been made ready by you, O householder, there is one thing yet wanting, that is to say, tila seed cake.

'[362] Though then, Sir, there is so much treasure in the ward of the Buddhas, yet there is but one thing of which the venerable Sudhamma makes mention, and that is tila seed cake. Long ago, Sir, certain merchants of Dakkhinâpatha went, for the sake of their traffic, to the country of the East, and thence they brought back a hen. Now, Sir, that hen made acquaintance with a crow, and gave birth to a chicken. And, Sir, whenever that chicken tried to utter the cry of a cock it gave vent to a "caw," and whenever it tried to utter the cry of a crow, it gave vent to a "cock-a-doodle-do[73]." Just even so, Sir, though there is much treasure in the ward of the Buddhas, when-ever the venerable Sudhamma speaks, the sound is "tila seed cake."'

18.4 'You are abusing me, householder. You are finding fault with me, householder. This place, householder, is yours. I must go away from it,' said the venerable Sudhamma.

'I do not intend, Sir, to abuse the venerable Sudhamma, nor to find fault with him. Let, Sir, the venerable Sudhamma still dwell at Makkhikâsanda. Pleasant is this grove of plum trees, and I shall take good care to, provide the venerable Sudhamma with those things a recluse requires--to wit, with robes and food and lodging and medicine when he is sick.'

And a second time the venerable Sudhamma said: You are abusing me (&c., as before, with the same reply). And a third time the venerable Sudhamma said: 'You are abusing me (&c., as before, down to) I must go away from it.'

[363] 'Whither then, Sir, will the venerable Sudhamma go?'

'I shall go to Sâvatthi, O householder, to visit the Blessed One.'

'Then, Sir, let the Blessed One know all, both what you yourself have said, and what I have said. And I should not, Sir, be surprised if the venerable Sudhamma were to return again even to Makkhikâsanda.'

18.5 So the venerable Sudhamma gathered together his sleeping mat, and set out, with his bowl and his robe, for Sâvatthi. And he journeyed straight on to Sâvatthi, to the Getavana, Anâthapindika's Grove, to the place where the Blessed One was; and on arriving there he bowed down before the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side. And when he was thus seated the venerable Sudhamma informed the Blessed One of all, both that he himself had said, and that Kitta the householder had said.

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'This was improper, O foolish one, not according to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samana, and ought not to have been done. How is it that you, O foolish one, could put down[74] and could lower by your censure[75] Kitta the householder, he being a man of faith, a believing disciple, and a donor, a provider, and a supporter of the Samgha?' This will not conduce, O foolish one, either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to the unconverted not being converted, and to the turning back of those who have been [364] converted.' And after he had rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let therefore the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, carry out the Patisâraniya-kamma (Act of Reconciliation)[76] against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma, saying, "You are to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder."'

18.6 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Sudhamma ought to be warned: when he has been warned, he ought to be reminded (of the Rule in the Pâtimokkha against which he has offended); when he has been reminded, he ought to be charged with the offence; when he has been charged with the offence, some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the Samgha, saying,

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This Bhikkhu Sudhamma has put down, and has lowered by censure Kitta the householder, a man of faith, a believing disciple, a donor, provider and supporter of the Samgha. If the time is fit for the Samgha to do so, let the Samgha carry out the Patisâraniya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma.

'"This is the motion (ñatti).

[365] '"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This Bhikkhu (&c., as before, down to) supporter of the Samgha. The Samgha hereby carries out the Patisâraniya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma with the words, 'You are to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder.' Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the carrying out of the Patisâraniya-kamma against Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.

'"A second time I say the same thing. Let the venerable. Samgha (&c., as before). A third time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c:, as before).

'"The Patisâraniya-kamma has been carried out against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma with the words, 'You are to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder.' The Samgha approves the motion. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

 


 

19.

19.1 [Here the twelve cases of a proceeding against, and the twelve cases of a proceeding according to law are repeated of the Patisâraniya-kamma in the words of chapters 2 and 3 of the Tagganiya-kamma.]

 


 

20.[77]

20.1 'There are five things, O Bhikkhus, which when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Samgha, if it likes, should carry out the Patisâraniya-kamma against him; (that is to say), when he goes about to bring [366] loss on the laity--when he goes about to do harm to the laity--when he goes about to deprive the laity of their dwellings--when he reviles and finds fault with the laity--when he brings about division between the laity. These are the five things, O Bhikkhus, which (&c., as above, down to) against him.

'There are other five things, O Bhikkhus, which when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Samgha, if it likes, should carry out the Patisâraniya-kamma against him; (that is to say), when he speaks to the laity in dispraise of the Buddha--when he speaks to the laity in dispraise of the Dhamma--when he speaks to the laity in dispraise of the Samgha--when he puts laymen down, and lowers them by censure--when he does not fulfil a promise made in accordance with the Rules to the laity. These are the other five things, O Bhikkhus, which (&c., as before, down to) against him.

'There are five kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, against whom the Samgha, if it likes, should carry out the Patisâraniya-kamma; (that is to say), one who goes about to bring loss on the laity (&c., as in the last paragraph, down to the end).'

Here end the four times five cases of suspicion.

 


 

21.

21.1 [Chapter 5, as to the right conduct of a Bhikkhu subjected to the Tagganiya-kamma, is repeated, reading Patisâraniya for Tagganiya.]

Here end the eighteen duties which follow on a Patisâraniya-kamma.

 


 

22.

22.1 [367] So the Samgha carried out the Patisâraniyakamma against Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, saying, 'You are to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder. And after he had been subjected by the Samgha to the Patisâraniya-kamma, though he went to Makkkikâsanda, he was unable, being greatly troubled in his mind, to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder, but returned again even to Sâvatthi.

Then the Bhikkhus asked him, 'Has Kitta the householder been induced by you to give you his pardon?'

'Indeed, though I went to Makkkikâsanda, I was unable, being greatly troubled in my mind, to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder.'

'They told this thing to the Blessed One.

22.2 'Let, then, the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, appoint a companion messenger to Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder.

'Now thus, O Bhikkhu, should the companion messenger be appointed. In the first place the Bhikkhu (who is to be sent) is to be asked (whether he is willing to go). After he has been asked, let some discreet and able Bhikkhu lay the matter before the Samgha, as follows:

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the venerable Samgha, let the Samgha appoint such and such a Bhikkhu as a companion messenger to Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder.

'"This is the motion (ñatti).

[368] '"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. The Samgha hereby appoints such and such a Bhikkhu as a companion messenger to Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of such and such a Bhikkhu being appointed as a companion messenger to Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.

'"Such and such a Bhikkhu has been appointed by the Samgha. (&c., as before). The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."

22.3 'Then, O Bhikkhus, let Sudhamma the Bhikkhu go, together with the Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger, to Makkhikâsanda, and ask pardon of Kitta the householder, saying, Pardon me, O householder; I desire to gain once more thy good pleasure." If, when he thus speaks, he pardons him, it is well. If he pardon him not, the Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger should say, "Pardon him, O householder; he desires to gain once more thy good pleasure." If, when he thus speaks, he pardon him, it is well. If he pardon him not, the Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger should say, "Pardon him, O householder; I desire to gain thy good pleasure." If, when he thus speaks, he pardon him, it is well. If he pardon him not, the Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger should say, "Grant pardon, O householder, to this Bhikkhu, in the name of the Samgha (I ask it)." If (&c., as before, down to). If he pardon him not, 'the Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger--without going out of sight, and without going out of hearing, [369] of Kitta the householder--should make Sudhamma the Bhikkhu arrange his robe on one shoulder, and squat down on his heels, and stretch forth his two hands with the palms together, and so confess his fault.'

 


 

23.

23.1 So the venerable Sudhamma went, with another Bhikkhu as companion messenger, to Makkhikâsanda, and obtained pardon of Kitta the householder. And he conducted himself aright, and he became subdued, and he sought for release (&c., as above, in chapters 6, 7, down to the end).

Here end the eighteen cases in which there ought to be a revocation of the Patisâraniya-kamma.

 


 

24.

24.1 [In this chapter the Kammavâkâ of the revocation of the Patisâraniya-kamma is given in words precisely similar to those of chapters 8 and 12.]

Here ends the fourth (Kamma), the Patisâraniya-kamma.

[370]

 


 

V. The Ukkhepaniya-Kammas (Acts of Suspension)
for not acknowledging, and for not atoning for, an offence[78]

 


 

25.

25.1 Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was dwelling at Kosambî, in the Ghosita Ârâma. And at that time the venerable Khanna[79], when he had committed a fault, was not willing to acknowledge the fault. Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 'How can the venerable Khanna act so?' And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, after he had convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, asked the Bhikkhus:

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that Khanna [371] when he has committed a fault, is not willing to acknowledge the fault?'

'It is true, Lord!'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'How, O Bhikkhus, can that foolish one act so? This will not conduce either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to those who have not been converted being not converted, and to the turning back of those who have been converted.'

And when the Blessed One had so rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus and said: 'Let therefore the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, carry out against Khanna the Bhikkhu the âpattiyâ adassane Ukkhepaniya-kamma (the Act of Suspension which follows on not acknowledging a fault) to the intent that he shall not eat or dwell together with the Samgha[80].

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out.' [Here follow the formal words of' the Kammavâkâ as in chapter 1, 4, with the necessary alterations owing to the difference of the fault and of the K am ma following on it. And at the end of the Kammavâkâ (after the words 'Thus I understand') the following sentence is added.]

'And send a proclamation, O Bhikkhus, from residence to residence[81]; saying, "Khanna the Bhikkhu has been subjected by the Samgha to the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a fault."'

 


 

26.

26.1 [372] [Here follow the twelve cases in which a Kamma is against the law, and the twelve in which it is according to law; and also the six permissive cases in which it may be carried out, if the Samgha likes, precisely as in chapters 2, 3, and 4.]

 


 

27.[82]

27.1 'A Bhikkhu against whom the Ukkhepaniyakamma that follows on not acknowledging a fault has been carried out ought to conduct himself aright. And herein this is the right conduct: he ought not to confer the upasampadâ--he ought not to give a nissaya[83]--he ought not to provide himself with a sâmanera[83]--he ought not to accept the office of giving exhortation to the nuns[83]--if he have accepted that office, he ought not to exhort the nuns[83]--he ought not to commit the offence for which the Ukkhepaniya-kamma that follows on not acknowledging a fault has been carried out against him--nor any offence of a similar kind--nor any worse offence--he ought not to find fault with the proceeding (that has been carried out against him)--nor with (the Bhikkhus) who have carried it out--[84]he ought not to accept from a regular Bhikkhu reverence, or [373] sic service, or salutation, or respect, nor allow him to provide a seat, or a sleeping-place, or water for the feet, or a foot-stool[85], or a foot-towel[86] for him, nor to carry his bowl or his robe, nor to shampoo him[84]--he ought not to harass a regular Bhikkhu with a complaint that he has failed in morality, or in conduct, or in doctrine, or in the mode of obtaining a livelihood--he ought not to cause division between a Bhikkhu and the Bhikkhus--he ought not to wear the outward signs of being a layman, or of being a follower of some other doctrine[87]--he ought not to follow the professors of other doctrines--he ought to follow the Bhikkhus--he ought to train himself in the training of the Bhikkhus--he ought not to dwell under one and the same roof with a regular Bhikkhu, whether in a place formally declared to be a residence, or to be not a residence, or in a place which is neither the one nor the other,--on seeing a regular Bhikkhu he ought to rise from his seat--he ought not to touch[88] a regular Bhikkhu, either inside or outside (of the residence)--he ought not to raise objections against a regular Bhikkhu's taking part in the Uposatha ceremony[89]--or in the Pavâranâ [374] ceremony--he ought not to issue command (to a junior, inhibiting him from going beyond the bounds, or summoning him to appear before the elders)--he ought not to set on foot a censure against any other Bhikkhu--he ought not to ask another Bhikkhu to give him leave (to rebuke that Bhikkhu)--he ought not to warn (another Bhikkhu whom he supposes to be offending)--he ought not to remind (another Bhikkhu of a law against which he supposes that Bhikkhu to be offending)--and he ought not to associate with the Bhikkhus.'

Here end the forty-three duties which follow on an Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a fault.

 


 

28.

28.1 So the Samgha carried out against Khanna the Bhikkhu the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a fault to the effect that he should not at or dwell together with the Samgha. And after he had been subjected by the Samgha to the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging his fault he went from that residence to another residence. And the Bhikkhus there did no reverence to him, rose not from their seats to welcome him, rendered him not service, offered him not salutation, paid not respect to him, offered him not hospitality, nor esteemed him, nor honoured him, nor supported him. And when he received from the Bhikkhus neither hospitality, nor welcome, nor esteem, nor honour, nor [375] support, he went from that residence to another residence. And the Bhikkhus there did no reverence to him, rose not from their seats to welcome him, rendered him not service (&c., as before, down to:) he went from that residence to another residence. And when he received no hospitality he returned back again even to Kosambî. Then he conducted himself aright, and he became subdued, and he sought for release, and going up to the Bhikkhus he spake as follows: 'I, Sirs, having been subjected by the Samgha to the Ukkhepaniyakamma am conducting myself aright in accordance thereto, and I am become subdued, and I seek for release. What now should I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Samgha revoke the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging his fault carried out against Khanna the Bhikkhu.

28.2 'There are five things, O Bhikkhus, [&c., the rest of this section bearing the same relation to the last, which chapter 6, Ī2, does to chapter 5.]'

Here end the forty-three cases [in which an Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a fault is not to be revoked].

 


 

29.

29.1 'There are five things, O Bhikkhus, [&c., as in chapter 7. This chapter being the exact opposite of chapter 28.]

Here end the forty-three cases [in which an Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a fault ought to be revoked].

 


 

30.

30.1 [376] 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, should the revocation be carried out [&c., as before, in chapters 8, 12, &c.]'

Here ends the fifth Kamma, namely, the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a fault.

 


 

31.

31.1 Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was dwelling at Kosambî, in the Ghosita Ârâma. And at that time the venerable Khanna, when he had committed a fault, was not willing to atone for that fault [&c., the proceeding in this case being the same, and laid down in the same words as the proceeding in the last case, chapters 25-30].

Here ends the sixth Kamma; namely, the Ukkhepaniya-kamma on not atoning for a fault[90].

 


 

VI. The Ukkhepaniya-Kamma
for not renouncing a sinful doctrine.

 


 

32.

32.1 [377] Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was staying at Sâvatthi, in the Getavana, the grove of Anâthapindika. And at that time a certain Bhikkhu by name Arittha, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor[91], had fallen into a sinful belief of this kind; (that is to say), 'In this wise do I understand the Dhamma preached by the Blessed One, that to him who practises those things which have been declared by the Blessed One to be impediments[92], [378] there will arise no impediment sufficient (to prevent his acquiring spiritual gifts)[93].'

Now many Bhikkhus heard that Arittha, who had formerly (&c., as before, down to:) to be impediments. And those Bhikkhus went up to the place where Arittha the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor, was; and on arriving there they asked Arittha the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor, 'Is it true, friend Arittha, as they say, that you have fallen into a sinful belief (&c., as above, down to) spiritual gifts?'

'Certainly[94]! I do so understand the Dhamma preached by the Blessed One (&c., as before):

32.2 'Say not so, friend Arittha. Bear not false-witness against the Blessed One. For neither is it seemly to bring a false accusation against the Blessed One, nor could the Blessed One have spoken so. By many a figure, friend Arittha, have the things which are impediments been declared to be impediments by the Blessed One, and also to be sufficient to prevent him who cultivates them (from attaining to spiritual gifts)[95]. Lusts have been declared by the Blessed One to be of short taste[96], full of pain, and full of despair, things wherein the danger is great. Lusts have been declared by the Blessed One to be like the bones of a skeleton, full of pain, and full of despair, things wherein the danger is [379] great. Lusts have been declared by the Blessed One to be like lumps of raw meat, full (&c., as before, down to:) is great. Lusts have been declared by the Blessed One to be like torches made of a wisp of hay . . . ., like a pit full of live coals[97] . . . ., like the visions of a dream . . . ., like a beggar's portion . . . ., like the fruits of trees . . . ., like the sword and the slaughter-house . . . ., like darts and clubs . . . ., like snakes and creeping things, full of pain, and full of despair, things wherein the danger is great.'

Yet notwithstanding that Bhikkhu Arittha, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor, when thus being addressed by the Bhikkhus, remained steadfastly adhering, in the very same way, and with violence, to that sinful doctrine, declaring, 'Verily I do so understand the Dhamma preached by the Blessed One (&c., as before, in Ī1).'

32.3 Then since those Bhikkhus were unable to move Arittha the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor, from that sinful doctrine, they went up to the place where the Blessed One was; and when they had come there, they told this thing to the Blessed One.

And the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhusamgha, and asked Arittha the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor, 'Is it true, as they say, Arittha, that you have fallen into a sinful doctrine of such a kind (&c., as before, in Ī1)?'

'Certainly, Lord! I do so understand (&c., as before, in Ī1).'

[380] 'How can you, O foolish one, so understand the Dhamma preached by me? Have I not, by many a figure, O foolish one, declared the things which are impediments to be impediments, and sufficient to prevent him who cultivates them (from attaining to spiritual gifts)? Have not lusts been by me declared to be of short taste (&c., as above, down to:) like snakes and creeping things, full of danger, full of despair, things wherein the danger is great? Yet now you, O foolish one, by your having grasped that doctrine wrongly[98], are not only bearing false-witness against us, but you are also rooting yourself up, and are giving rise to much demerit, the which will be to you for a long time for an evil and a woe. This will not conduce, O foolish one, either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to those who are unconverted not being converted, and to the turning back of those who have been converted[99].'

When he had thus rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: Let therefore the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, carry out against Arittha the Bhikkhu, who was formerly a vulture tormentor, the Ukkhepaniyakamma, for not renouncing a sinful doctrine, to the intent that he shall not eat or dwell together with the Samgha.'

32.4 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Arittha ought [381] to be warned [&c., as in chapter 25, down to the end of the Kammavâkâ, including the supplementary sentence as to the proclamation].'

 


 

33.

33.1 [Here follow the twelve cases in which the Kamma is against the law, the twelve cases in which it is according to law, the six permissive cases in which it can be carried out if the Samgha likes, and the eighteen divisions of the right conduct for the convicted Bhikkhu to pursue, precisely as in chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5, reading 'Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not renouncing a sinful doctrine,' instead of 'Tagganiya-kamma. ]

 


 

34.

34.1 So the Samgha carried out against Arittha the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor, the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not renouncing a sinful doctrine, to the intent that he should not eat nor dwell with the Samgha. And when he had been thus subjected by the Samgha to the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not renouncing a sinful doctrine, he left the Order.

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 'How can Arittha the Bhikkhu, having been subjected by the Samgha to the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not [382] renouncing a sinful doctrine, leave the Order?' And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and asked the Bhikkhus, 'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that Arittha the Bhikkhu, having been subjected (&c., as before, down to) left the Order?'

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'How can Arittha the Bhikkhu (&c., as before, down to) leave the Order? This will not conduce either to the conversion of the unconverted, nor to the increase of the converted; but rather to those who have not been converted not being converted, and to the turning back of those who have been converted.'

And when he had rebuked him, and delivered a religious discourse, the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, revoke the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not renouncing a sinful doctrine, which has been carried out against Arittha the Bhikkhu.

'There are five things, O Bhikkhus, [&c., as before, in chapters 6 and 7, down to the end.]'

Here end the eighteen cases in which a revocation of the Ukkhepaniya-kamma on not renouncing a sinful doctrine should be carried out.

 


 

35.

35.1 [383] 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out,' &c. [Here follows the Kammavâkâ for the re-vocation of a Kamma precisely as in chapter 8, with the necessary alterations.]

Here ends the seventh (Kamma), the Ukkhepaniya-kamma on not renouncing a sinful doctrine.

Here ends the First Khandhaka, the Khandhaka on the Kammas.

 


[1] These were two out of the six notorious Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, who are so frequently mentioned elsewhere. Buddhaghosa says, tesam nissitakâ pi Pandukalohitakâ tv’ eva paññâyanti.

[2] In addition to the passages referred to in the two following notes, compare the closing words of the Pâtimokkha, and the 2nd, 3rd, 12th, 13th, 17th, 54th, 74th, and 75th Pâkittiyas.

[3] Such persons were formerly dealt with according to the 10th, 11th, and 12th Samghâdisesas.

[4] Such persons were formerly dealt with according to the 8th and 9th Samghâdisesas and the 76th Pâkittiya. Compare also below, IV, 14, and the 63rd and 79th Pâkittiyas.

[5] We have here the substance of that 'religious discourse' (dhammim katham) which the Buddha is so frequently stated to have held before he laid down the rule for the guidance of the Bhikkhus in the particular matter which had been brought before him. It recurs in the Mahâvagga (I, 25, 6), and is constantly to be supplied both there and below.

[6] The motion just proposed is repeated down to the end.

[7] Repeated below, chapters Io, 14, and 19.

[8] All these details are involved in the meaning of the technical term asammukhatâ, which is fully explained in Kullavagga IV, 14, 16, and following.

[9] Buddhaghosa says, Adesanâgâminiyâ ti Pârâgikâpattiyâ vâ Samghâdisesâpattiyâ vâ.

[10] As in the first paragraph of this section more fully described, The word here used is the same.

[11] Adhammena; perhaps 'contrary to the Rules.'

[12] Vaggena for vi + aggena, the opposite of samaggena. See our note on the 21st Pâkittiya, and Mahâvagga IX, 3, 5.

[13] This refers to the Introductory Story, I, 1, 1.

[14] Compare Mahâvagga I, 36, 8, and our note there.

[15] This chapter is repeated below for the Nissaya-, Pabbâganiya-, and Patisâraniya-kammas (chapters 10, 15, and 21). The corresponding rule for the first two Ukkhepaniya-kammas is different, and much more stringent (chapter 27, repeated in chapter 31); but that for the third (chapter 33) is again the same as the rule laid down in this chapter. In the second Khandhaka(s, 2) the list of restrictions is again longer.

[16] Sammâvattanâ. See Mahâvagga I, 26, 1; 27,1; 33, 1; 34, 1.

[17] Buddhaghosa says, âgantukânam nissayo na dâtabbo. The relation of a junior Bhikkhu either to his upagghâya or to his âkariya is alike called nissaya (Mahâvagga I, 36, 1); but the term is more especially applied to the latter (Mahâvagga I, 32, 2, whereas in the corresponding formula for the upagghâya, Mahâvagga I, 25, 7,-- the word nissaya does not occur). In other words, nissaya means all that is included in the phrase 'nissâya te vatthabbam' (Kullavagga I, 9, 2).

[18] Compare Mahâvagga I, 36, 37.

[19] See below, Kullavagga X, 9, 4, and also the 21st Pâkittiya.

[20] Compare Minayeff, Pâtimokkha, p. 63.

[21] Compare Pâtimokkham thapetum at Kullavagga IX, 2.

[22] Compare Mahâvagga IV, 16, 2.

[23] As, for example, under the rule at Mahâvagga I, 27, 2. Buddhaghosa says, Na savakaniyam kâtabban ti aham âyasmantam asmim vatthusmim vakaniyam karomi imamhâ âvâsâ param pi mâ pakkâmi yâva na tam adhikaranam vûpasantam hotîti. He also gives a longer note, partly to the same effect, on the corresponding passage in II, 1, 2, which will be found in our note there, and from which we have taken the second clause in the parentheses.

[24] See the note on this word in the next chapter.

[25] Compare Mahâvagga II, 16, 1.

[26] Compare Kullavagga IX, 5

[27] Compare below, chapters ii, 16, 23, 28, 34.

[28] Lomam pâtenti. See the commentary as given by H. Oldenberg at p. 309 of his edition of the text. That our translation is correct is evident from the use of panna-lomo (at Kullavagga VII, 1, 6), that being simply the opposite of hattha-lomo, which signifies 'having the hair of the body erect in consequence of the excitement produced by fear, joy, or amazement;' and hence simply 'troubled, excited.' The opposite of this is 'pacified, subdued.'

[29] Netthâram vattanti. See the commentary in the edition of the text loco citato.

[30] Pakatattassa, that is a Bhikkhu who has not made himself liable to any disciplinary proceeding, has committed no irregularity. It is one of the expressions unknown to the Pâtimokkha, but occurs in the much later Introduction to that work (Dickson, p. 11). See below, III, 1,1.

[31] Compare below, chapters 12 and 17.

[32] There is no rule in the Pâtimokkha in which any of these things are declared to be an offence. The 31st and 85th Pâkittiyas only refer to a Bhikkhu's staying an unreasonable time in a public rest-house, and to his frequenting a village beyond the ordinary occasions. Stupidity, and keeping low company, are not mentioned. Why then should Seyyasaka have been placed upon probation? We think the answer will appear from our note I on II, I, X.

[33] Pakatâ, 'done up,' explained by vâvatâ. See Oldenberg's quotation from Buddhaghosa at p. 310 of his edition of the text.

[34] Compare Mahâvagga I, 38, 1; Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta V, 64, 65; and Kullavagga III, 3. On the distinction between these kinds of probation, see also our note below on II, 1, I.

[35] See below, II, 2, I. Compare also Subhûti's explanation in Childers, and the passages quoted in the index to Oldenberg's edition of the text, p. 348, sub voce, especially Kullavagga III, 7.

[36] See below, Kullavagga III, 1; III, 4.

[37] See below; Kullavagga III, 2; III, 5.

[38] These are the distinctive and technical words of the Nissaya-kamma, just as the corresponding clause in chap. 13, Ī7 contains the technical words of the Pabbâganiya-kamma.

[39] As explained above, chap. 1. 4.

[40] Compare above, chapter 6.

[41] Compare Dhammapada, ver. 357.

[42] The whole of this chapter recurs in the Sutta Vibhaṅga on the 13th Samghâdisesa. The proceeding here laid down is really only a later method of acting under the circumstances similar to those for which that rule had previously been the authorised dealing.

[43] The Samanta Pâsâdikâ says, Ekatovantikan ti pupphânam vante ekato katvâ kata-mâlam. Ubhatovantikan ti ubhohi passehi puppha-vante katvâ kata-mâlam.

[44] Perhaps 'like an anklet.' The Sam. Pâs. says, Mañgarî viya katâ puppha-vikati mañgarikâ ti.

[45] Perhaps 'like a fan.' The Sam. Pâs. says, Vidhutikâ ti sûkiyâ vâ salâkâya vâ sinduvâra-pupphâdîni vigghitvâ katâ (mâlâ).

[46] Perhaps 'like a crest.' The Sam. Pâs. says, vatamsako ti avatamsako. Compare the close of Rh. D.'s note on vegha for avegha, 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 37.

[47] Perhaps 'like an earring.' The Sam. Pâs. says, akelo (sic) ti kannikâ. Compare Sanskrit âpîda, and Gâtaka, vol. i, pp. 12, 95, 269.

[48] The Sam. Pâs. says, Urakkhado ti hâra-sadisam ure-thapanaka-puppha dâmam. 'Like mail-armour.'

[49] All these games are forbidden seriatim in paragraph 4 of the Magghima Sîla, and the whole list of offences recurs in the Suttavibhaṅga, Samghâdisesa XIII, 1, 2. See Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 193. We adhere to the translations there given and based on the Sumaṅgala Vilâsinî.

[50] Usselhenti. We are quite uncertain how to render this word. One might be tempted to think that a denominative verb from ussolhi may have acquired a technical sense appropriate to this passage. But we do not favour any such conjectural alteration of the clear reading of the MSS., at all events at present.

[51] Appothenti. See Buddhaghosa's note quoted by Rh. D. in his note on the Book of the Great Decease, II, 19.

[52] Nibbugghanti, which Buddhaghosa explains by malla-yuddham karonti. Compare ubbugghati at Kullavagga VIII, lo, and Sutra-vibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, 10, 26.

[53] The Sam. Pâs. says, Nalâtikam pi denti sâdhu sâdhu bhaginîti attano nalâte aṅgulim thapetvâ tassâ nalâte thapenti.

[54] Compare Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta II, 15.

[55] The Sam. Pâs. says, Samkutita-mukhatâya bhâkutika-bhâkutikâ viya.

[56] On this meaning of Sâriputta, see the note on Mahâvagga X, 4, 3.

[57] That is, out of the particular place where they have caused the scandal, not of the Order. When they in anger left the Order, their conduct in doing so is blamed. See chap. 16, Ī1.

[58] See Mahâvagga I, 25, 6, and following, and Kullavagga VIII, 11, 12, and compare above 9, 1.

[59] On this section compare chap. 1, Ī4, chap. 9, Ī2.

[60] Buddhaghosa points out that whereas the Tagganiya-kamma is directed against quarrelsomeness, and the nissaya-kamma against foolishness, it is scandal to the community against which the Pabbâganiya-kamma is directed.

[61] The corresponding clause to the words 'to the effect,' &c., is wanting in chap. 1, Ī4, but occurs in chap. 9, Ī2.

[62] The Sam. Pâs. says, Kâyiko davo nâma kâya-kilâ vukkati.

[63] The Sam. Pâs. says, Kâyikam upaghâtitam nâma kâya-dvâre paññatti-sikkhâpadassa asikkhana-bhâvena upahananam vukkati.

[64] Corresponding to chapters 6 and 11 above.

[65] Compare Samghâdisesa 13

[66] These are the four so-called Agatis, usually occurring as the faults of a judge (Rh. D., 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. xxii, and Dasaratha Gâtaka, p. 1), but compare Sigâlovâda Sutta, ed. Grimblot, p. 299.

[67] Compare Gâtaka I, 117, and Mahâvagga I, 39, 5.

[68] Compare chapters 8 and 12.

[69] The whole of this story of Kitta and Sudhamma recurs in the Dhammapada commentary, pp. 262-264. There is no Rule in the Pâtimokkha by which giving offence to a layman, the cause of the proceeding described in the following chapters, is considered worthy of censure.

[70] Navakammiko, not 'newly appointed to an office,' as Dr. Rudolf Hoernle translates in the Indian Antiquary, XI, 29, in dealing with one of the Bharhut Inscriptions. See Gâtaka I, 92, and below, V, 13, 3, VI, 5, 2, VI, 17, 1, X, 24, This duty of superintending a new building was even filled by Bhikkhunîs; see the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, where the details of the duty are incidentally mentioned.

[71] Compare below, Kullavagga VI, 5, 2, and Gâtaka I, 92, 22.

[72] This clause, both here and below, is omitted in the Sinhalese MS.

[73] Compare Gâtaka I, 432; II, 307.

[74] Compare Dhammapada, p. 263, and Gâtaka I, 191.

[75] Compare Gâtaka I, 191, 356, 359, and Sutta Nipâta, verse 905.

[76] Childers proposes doubtingly to derive the word Patisâraniya from the root smar; but that that is impossible is probably sufficiently evident from the meaning of the word, which is quite clear from the context of this, and from the following chapters. Now at p. 530 of the Lalita Vistara the common Pâli phrase sammodanîyam katham sârânîyam vîtisâretvâ is represented by the Sanskrit sammodanîh samrañg.anîh kathâh kritvâ. It is by no means impossible that this parallel may offer the true solution of the etymology of the Pâli words in question; (compare Sârâga as equal to samrâga, sâratta to samrakta, &c. &c.) Patisâraniya would then be equal to pratisamrañganîya. See Senart, Mahâvagga, p. 599.

[77] See above, chapter 4.

[78] There is no mention in the Pâtimokkha of any such proceeding. At the close of each of the four Pâtidesaniya Rules there is a form of confession to be observed. It would seem from the following chapters, which are nowhere expressly confined to these four cases, that a similar confession was expected after the commission of an offence against any of the Pâtimokkha Rules. In the closing words of the Samghâdisesa Rules, an older proceeding is mentioned, under which an offending Bhikkhu who has not confessed any breach of either of those thirteen Rules is to remain on probation for as many days he has allowed to go by without confessing.

[79] On Khanna's character, see also below, IV, 14, I, XI, I, 12-14, and Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 4.

[80] Compare Mahâvagga I, 79 generally, and Ī2 of that chapter on the last clause (asambhogam samghena).

[81] On this phrase the Samanta Pâsâdikâ says, Âvâsa-paramparañ ka bhikkhave samsathâ ti sabbâvâsesu âroketha.

[82] As this chapter, containing the sammâ-vattanâ or right conduct, differs from the corresponding chapters of the preceding Kammas (chapters 5, 10, 15, and 21), it is here set out in full.

[83] See the passages quoted above (chapter 5).

[84] The passage between these two figures recurs at II, 1, 1.

[85] At II, 1, 1. Buddhaghosa explains this word as confined to a stool on which to place feet that have been washed (dhota-pâda-thapanakam).

[86] Buddhaghosa says on the same expression in II, 1, 1, pâdakathaliyan (sic) ti adhota-pâda-thapanakam pâda-ghamsanam vâ.

[87] The Samanta Pâsâdikâ says, Na titthiya-dhago ti kusakîrâdim na dhâretabbam. Compare the use of arahad-dhagam at Gâtaka I, 65.

[88] The Samanta Pâsâdikâ says, Na âsâdetabbo ti na pâsâdetabbo (compare the use of âsâdesi, Gâtaka I, 481). Anto vâ bahi vâ ti vihârassa anto vâ bahi vâ.

[89] On this and the following sentences compare the passages quoted above, chapter 5.

[90] It will be seen from the above chapters, and especially from chapter 27, that the Ukkhepaniya-kamma is an Act, not of expulsion, but only of suspension. The ten cases in which a member of the Order could be expelled are those given above in Mahâvagga I, 60; and the technical word for 'expel' is nâseti.

[91] In his commentary on the Pâkittiya, quoted by Oldenberg in his note on this passage, Buddhaghosa explains this expression to mean 'born in a family of vulture slayers.' This does not, help us much, vulture slaying as a regular occupation being somewhat incomprehensible, and not referred to elsewhere. Whatever its meaning, the occupation referred to is perhaps the origin of, or should at least be compared with, the statement of Ktesias (circa B.C. 400) in his 'Indika' (ed. C. Müller, Fragment xiii), that the Indians used not dogs but vultures, which they trained for that purpose, in hunting hares and foxes. Lassen in his 'Indische Alterthumskunde,' II, 638, 639, thinks this statement not incredible, very fairly comparing the use of falcons in Europe in the Middle Ages. It is not impossible that the correct rendering here should be 'vulture-catcher,' or 'vulture-trainer;' but we prefer to be literal.

[92] The only one of such things (Dhammâ) known to us elsewhere in the Vinaya Pitaka itself is deliberate falsehood. This is stated in Mahâvagga II, 3, 3 to be an impediment, which is explained by the Old Commentator, at Mahâvagga II, 3, 7, to mean an impediment to the attainment of the Ghânas, and other things of similar nature.

[93] This is word for word the same speech as that which is condemned in the 68th and 70th Pâkittiyas.

[94] Byâ is only known to us as an intensive particle occurring in passages like the present one.

[95] So far this section is word for word the same as the 68th and the 70th Pâkittiyas.

[96] Quoted at Dhammapada, ver. 186.

[97] Gâtaka I, 231, 232.

[98] Compare Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta IV, 8-11.

[99] Up to this point the whole chapter recurs as the Introductory Story in the Sutta-vibhaṅga on the 68th Pâkittiya.


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