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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

Kulla Vagga

 


[397]

Third Khandhaka

Probation and Penance (continued)

 


 

1.

1.1 Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was staying at Sâvatthi, in the Getavana, Anâthapindika's Grove. And at that time the venerable Udâyi committed an offence, to wit, the first Samghâdisesa offence, and did not conceal it. He told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I have committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--and do not conceal it. What now shall I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Samgha lay the Mânatta penalty on Udâyi the Bhikkhu for the space of six days on account of that offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which he has not concealed.

1.2 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought it to be laid upon him. Udâyi the Bhikkhu ought to go up, O Bhikkhus, before the Samgha; and, arranging his robe on one shoulder, he ought to bow down at the feet of the elder Bhikkhus, and squatting down on his heels, and stretching forth his hands with the palms together, he ought to say as follows:

'"I, venerable Sirs, have committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which I have not concealed. I ask the Samgha (to impose upon me) the Mânatta penalty for six days on account of this offence--the [398] first Samghâdisesa offence--which I have not concealed."'

[This speech is repeated three times.]

1.3 'Some discreet and able Bhikkhu should then lay the matter before the Samgha, as follows:

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. Udâyi the Bhikkhu has committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which he has not concealed. And he asks the Samgha for the Mânatta penalty for six days on account of that offence-the first Samghâdisesa offence--which he has not concealed.

'"If the time seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha impose a Mânatta of six days' duration on Udâyi the Bhikkhu for that one offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which he has not concealed.

'"This is the motion (ñatti).

'"The Samgha hereby imposes a Mânatta of six days on Udâyi the Bhikkhu for that one offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which he has not concealed.

'"Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the imposition of a Mânatta (&c., as in the last paragraph, down to) not concealed, let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not, let him speak.

'"A second time I say the same thing (&c., as before in the last two paragraphs). A third time I say the same thing (&c., as before).

'"The Samgha has imposed a Mânatta of six days' duration (&c., as before, in the words of the motion, down to) not concealed. The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

 


 

2.

2.1 [399] When he had done the Mânatta he told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'Friends, I committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which I had not concealed. And I asked the Samgha for a Mânatta of six days' duration for that offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which I had not concealed. The Samgha imposed upon me a Mânatta (&c., as before, down to) not concealed. Now I have accomplished that Mânatta. What now shall I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Samgha rehabilitate Udâyi the Bhikkhu.

2.2 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought he to be rehabilitated.

'Udâyi the Bhikkhu ought to go up (&c., as in chapter 1, Ī 2, down to) he ought to say as follows:

'"I committed, venerable Sirs, an offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which I did not conceal. I asked the Samgha (to impose upon me) a Mânatta of six days' duration for that offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which I had not concealed. The Samgha imposed upon me a Mânatta of . . . . for . . . . not concealed. I, having accomplished that Mânatta, ask the Samgha for rehabilitation."'

[This speech is repeated three times.]

2.3 'Then some discreet and able Bhikkhu [&c., as before in chapter 1, Ī 2, the rest of the kammavâkâ bearing the same relation to the petition as it does there].'

 


 

3.

3.1 [400] Now at that time the venerable Udâyi had committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which he had for one day concealed.

He told the Bhikkhus (&c., as before).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Samgha impose a probation of one day on Udâyi the Bhikkhu for an offence (&c., as in the first paragraph of this section down to) concealed.

3.2 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought it to be imposed--.'

[Here follows the kammavâkâ precisely as in chapter 1, ĪĪ 2 and 3, with the necessary changes in the wording, a. of the offence, b. of the penalty.]

 


 

4.

4.1 When he had passed through the probation he told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I committed, friends, an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which for one day I concealed. I asked the Samgha to impose upon me a probation of one day for the offence . . . . concealed. The Samgha imposed . . . . concealed. I have passed through that probation. What now should I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let then the Samgha impose upon Udâyi the Bhikkhu a Mânatta of six days' duration.'

4.2-3 [Here follows the kammavâkâ as in chapter 1, ĪĪ 2, 3, to the end.]

 


 

5.

5.1 [401] When he had accomplished the Mânatta he told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I committed (&c., as 4. 1, down to) for one day concealed. I asked, &c. . . . The Samgha imposed a probation, &c. . . . When I passed through that probation the Samgha imposed a Mânatta of &c. . . . for &c. . . . I have accomplished that Mânatta. What now shall I do?'

They told that matter to the Blessed One.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, rehabilitate Udâyi the Bhikkhu.'

5.2-3 [Here follows the kammavâkâ as in chapter 2, ĪĪ 2, 3, to the end.]

 


 

6.

6.1 [This chapter is the same as chapter 3, reading 'for two--three--four--five days, concealed,' and 'probation of two--three--four--five days.]

 


 

7.

7.1 Whilst he was undergoing that probation, he committed an offence--the first, &c.--which he did not conceal.

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I committed, &c. . . . I asked the Samgha, &c. . . . The Samgha imposed upon me a probation of two--three--four--five days. Whilst I was undergoing that probation, I committed, &c. . . .'

[402] They told that matter to the Blessed One.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, throw back Udâyi the Bhikkhu to the commencement (of his probationary course).'

7.2-3 [Here follows the kammavâkâ as in chapter 1, with the necessary alterations.]

 


 

8.

8.1 When he had undergone that probation, and was liable to the Mânatta, he committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which he did not conceal.

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, &c. . . .

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, throw back Udâyi the Bhikkhu to the commencement (of his probationary course).'

8.2-3 [Here follows the kammavâkâ in the same form as is given in chapter 1.]

 


 

9.

9.1 When he had undergone that probation he told, &c. . . .

They told, &c. . . .

Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon Udâyi the Bhikkhu a Mânatta of six days' probation for these offences.'

9.2-3 [The kammavâkâ as before.]

 


 

10.

10.1 While he was undergoing that Mânatta he [403] committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa which he did not conceal.

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I committed, &c. . . . I asked the Samgha. . . . The Samgha imposed [&c., going through all that had happened, down to the end of the first paragraph in this chapter].

They told, &c.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon Udâyi the Bhikkhu a Mânatta of six days' duration, throwing him back to the commencement (of his Mânatta).

[The kammavâkâ as before.]

 


 

11.

11.1 When he had accomplished that Mânatta, and while he was worthy to be rehabilitated, he committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa offence--which he did not conceal.

He told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened from chapter 6 onwards down to this last offence]. They told, &c.

Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon Udâyi the Bhikkhu a Mânatta of six days' duration, for that he when he had (&c., as in first paragraph down to) not conceal, throwing him back to the commencement (of his Mânatta).

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follows the kammavâkâ as before.]

 


 

12.

12.1 [404] When he had accomplished that Mânatta he told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened].

They told, &c.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, rehabilitate Udâyi the Bhikkhu.

'Now thus [here follows the kammavâkâ as before].

 


 

13.

13.1 Now at that time the venerable Udâyi committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--and for half a month he concealed it.

[The rest of this chapter is precisely the same as chapter 3, reading 'for half a month' instead of 'for one day.']

 


 

14.

14.1 Whilst he was undergoing that probation he committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which for five days he concealed.

He told, &c. . . . 'I committed, &c. . . . I asked, &c. . . . The Samgha imposed a probation of half a month, &c. . . . Whilst I was undergoing, &c. . . What now shall I do?'

They told, &c.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, for that whilst (&c., as in the first paragraph) throw Udâyi the Bhikkhu back to the beginning of his probationary [405] term, and impose upon him an inclusive probation (to include his new offence together) with the former offence[1].

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follow two kammavâkâs, one for the throwing back, and one for the additional probation, each of them as in chapter 1.]'

 


 

15.

15.1 When he had undergone that probation, and while he was liable to the Mânatta, he committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which for five days he concealed.

He told, &c. . . . [all that happened, from chapter 1 3 downwards].

They told, &c.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, for that he when he had (&c., as in the first paragraph) throw Udâyi the Bhikkhu back to the commencement of [406] his probationary term, and impose upon him an inclusive probation (for this and) for the former offence.

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follow two kammavâkâs, as in the last chapter.

 


 

16.

16.1 When he had undergone that probation he told the Bhikkhus, &c. [all that had happened since chapter 13]

They told, &c.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon Udâyi the Bhikkhu a Mânatta of six days' duration for these offences[2].

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follows one kammavâkâ in the form given in chapter 1.]'

 


 

17.

17.1 While he was undergoing that Mânatta he committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa which he for four days concealed.

He told, &c. . . . [all that had happened, from chapter 13 downwards].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, for that while (&c., as in the first paragraph) throw Udâyi the Bhikkhu back to the commencement (of the probationary term he had already undergone), and impose [407] upon him an inclusive probation (for this and) for the first offence, and also a Mânatta of six days' duration.

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follow three kammavâkâs, one for the throwing back, one for the inclusive probation, and one for the new Mânatta, each of them on the same form as that given in chapter r.]'

 


 

18.

18.1 When he had accomplished that Mânatta, and while he was worthy to be rehabilitated, he committed an offence--the first Samghâdisesa--which for five days he concealed.

He told, &c. [all that happened, from chapter 13 downwards].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, for that when he had (&c., as in the first paragraph) throw Udâyi the Bhikkhu back to the commencement (of the probationary term he had already undergone) and impose upon him an inclusive probation for this and for the first offence, and a Mânatta of six days' duration.

'Now thus, &c. . . . [Here follow three kammavâkâs as in chapter 17.]'

 


 

19.

19.1 When he had accomplished the Mânatta he told the Bhikkhus [all that happened, from chapter 13 downwards].

[408] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Let then the Samgha rehabilitate Udâyi the Bhikkhu.

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follows the kammavâkâ as in chapter 5.]'

Here end the proceedings on the breach of the first Samghâdisesa.

 


 

20.

20.1 [409] Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had committed numerous Samghâdisesa offences, one of which he had concealed for one day, one for two days, one for three days, [and so on down to] and one for ten days.

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I have committed, (&c., as before, down to) and one for ten days. What now shall I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon that Bhikkhu an inclusive probation according to one of those offences which has been concealed for ten days[3].'

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought it to be imposed.'

[410] [Here follows the kammavâkâ in the form given at chapter 1, ĪĪ 2, 3, to the end.]

 


 

21.

21.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had committed numerous Samghâdisesa offences, one of which he had concealed for one day, two for two days, three for three days, [and so on down to] and ten for ten days.

He told, &c.

They told, &c.

'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon that Bhikkhu an inclusive probation equal in duration to the longest time during which he has concealed any one or more of those offences[4].'

[Then follows the kammavâkâ as before.]

 


 

22.

22.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had committed two Samghâdisesa offences which he had concealed for two months. And it occurred to him, 'Lo! I have committed two Samghâdisesa offences which I have concealed for two months. Let me now ask the Samgha for a probation of two months for one offence concealed for two months.' And he asked the Samgha for a probation of two months for [411] one offence concealed for two months. And the Samgha imposed upon him a probation (&c., as before, down to) for two months. Whilst he was undergoing that probation, shame overcame him in that he thought, 'I have committed, &c. . . . And it occurred to me, &c. . . . And I asked, &c. . . . And the Samgha imposed . . . . And whilst I was undergoing . . . . (&c., as before, down to) for two months.'

'Let me now ask the Samgha for a probation of two months for the other offence concealed for two months.'

22.2 He told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened]. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

22.3 'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon that Bhikkhu a probation of two months for that other offence concealed for two months.'

[Here follows the kammavâkâ as before.]

'Then that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, should undergo probation for two months from that date[5].'

 


 

23.

23.1 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have committed two Samghâdisesa offences [&c., as before, in the first paragraph of the last chapter down to the end]. And he asks the Samgha for a probation of two months for that other offence concealed for two months. And the Samgha imposes upon him a probation of two months for that other offence [412] concealed for two months[6]. That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, ought to continue on probation for two months from that date.

23.2 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have committed two Samghâdisesa offences, which he has concealed for two months. And he is aware of one offence, but of the other offence he is not aware. And he asks the Samgha for a two months' probation for that offence of which he is aware, concealed for two months. And the Samgha gives him a probation of two months for an offence concealed for two months. And whilst he is undergoing that probation he becomes aware of the other offence. Then it occurs to him,

Lo! I have committed two Samghâdisesa offences (&c., as in the last paragraph, down to) I became aware of the other offence. Let me now ask the Samgha for a probation of two months for that other offence concealed for two months."

And he asks the Samgha for a probation of two months for that other offence concealed for two months. And the Samgha imposes upon him a probation of &c. . . . for &c. . . . That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, ought to continue on probation for two months from that date.

23.3 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit two Samghâdisesa offences, which he conceals for two months; and one offence he recollects, but the other offence he does not recollect. And he asks the Samgha (&c., as in the last section, down to the end, reading "recollect" for "be aware of").

[413] 23.4 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit two Samghâdisesa offences, which he conceals for two months; and of one offence he is not doubtful[7], but of the other offence he is doubtful. And he asks the Samgha (&c., as in the last section, reading "is doubtful" for "does not recollect").

23.5 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit two Samghâdisesa offences, which he conceals for two months; and one offence he conceals wittingly, but the other offence he conceals unwittingly. And he asks the Samgha for a probation of two months for those two offences concealed for two months. And the Samgha imposes upon him a probation of two months for those, two offences concealed for two months. And whilst he is undergoing that probation there arrives a Bhikkhu who is versed in the traditions, acquainted with the tradition, a custodian of the Dhamma, of the Vinaya, and of the Mâtikâs[8], clever, discreet, wise, modest, sensitive, willing to learn. And he speaks thus:

"What has this Bhikkhu, O friends, been guilty of, and why is he on probation?"

'And they reply: "This Bhikkhu, O friend, has committed two Samghâdisesa offences, which he concealed for two months; and one offence he concealed wittingly, and one offence he concealed unwittingly, He asked the Samgha for a probation of two months for those two offences concealed for two months. And the Samgha imposed upon him a probation of two months for those two offences concealed [414] for two months. Therein, O friend, is this Bhikkhu guilty, and therefore is he on probation."

'And he rejoins: "The offence which he wittingly concealed, O friends, for that the imposition of a probation is valid, and by reason of its validity it takes effect[9]. But the offence which he unwittingly concealed, O friends, for that the imposition of a probation is invalid, and by reason of its invalidity it does not take effect. For this offence, O friends, the Bhikkhu is liable to a Mânatta."

23.6 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit two Samghâdisesa offences, which he conceals for two months. And one offence he conceals recollecting it, but the other offence he conceals without recollecting it.'

[Here follow the same remarks as in the last section, down to the end, reading 'recollecting it' for 'wittingly.]

 


 

24.

24.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu committed two Samghâdisesa offences which he concealed for two months. And it occurred to him, Lo! I have committed, &c. . . . for two months. Let me now ask the Samgha for a probation of one month for &c. . . .' He asked the Samgha for a probation of one month for &c. . . . The Samgha imposed upon him a probation of one month for &c. . . . Whilst he was undergoing that probation, shame (for the way [415] in which he had acted) overcame him. 'Let me now ask the Samgha for a (further) probation of one month for the two Samghâdisesa offences concealed for two months.'

24.2 He told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened, in the words of Ī 1, and asked them], 'What now shall I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.,

24.3 'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon that Bhikkhu a probation for a further month for those two Samghâdisesa offences concealed for two months.'

[Here follows the kammavâkâ in the form given in chapter 1, ĪĪ 2, 3.]

'Thus that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, should undergo probation for two months from that date[10].'

 


 

25.

25.1 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit two Samghâdisesa offences which he conceals for two months. And it occurs to him (&c., as in last chapter). . . . And he asks . . . . And the Samgha imposes . . . . And whilst he is undergoing that probation, shame (&c.) overcomes him, &c. . . . And he asks the Samgha for a probation of a further month for those two Samghâdisesa offences concealed for two months. And the Samgha imposes upon him a further probation, &c. . . . Then, O Bhikkhus, that Bhikkhu should from that date undergo that further [416] probation of one month for those two Samghâdisesa offences concealed for two months[11].

25.2-3 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have committed two Samghâdisesa offences, which he conceals for two months. And of one month he is aware, but of the other month he is not aware . . . . one month he recollects, but the other month he does not recollect . . . . one month he wittingly conceals, but the other month he unwittingly conceals.'

[This chapter is word for word the same as chapter 23, reading 'month' for 'offence.']

 


 

26.

26.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had committed numerous Samghâdisesa offences; but he was not aware of the degree of the offences[12], and was not aware of the duration of the times[12]; or he did not recollect the degree of the offences, and did not recollect the duration of the times; or he was uncertain as to the degree of the offences, and was uncertain as to the duration of the times.

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I have committed, &c. . . . but I am not aware, &c. . . . I do not recollect, &c. . . . I am uncertain, &c. . . . What now shall I do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

Then let the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon that Bhikkhu a probation of complete purification [417] (that is to say, a probation for as many days as have elapsed since the date of his upasampadâ)[13].

26.2 Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be imposed.'. . .

[Here follows the kammavâkâ in the same form as is given in chapter 1.]

26.3 'In the following cases, O Bhikkhus, is the probation of complete purification to be imposed; and in the following cases is the (ordinary) probation to be imposed. Now in what cases is the probation of complete purification to be imposed? When he is not aware of the degree of the offences, nor of the duration of the times; when he does not recollect the degree of the offences, nor the duration of the times; and when he is not certain as to the degree of the offences, nor as to the duration of the times--then is the probation of complete purification to be imposed.

'When he is aware of the degree of the offences, but not of the duration of the times; when he does recollect the degree of the offences, but not the duration of the times; when he is certain as to the degree of the offences, but not as to the duration of the times--then is the probation of complete purification to be imposed.

'When he is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain . . . . of the degree of some, but not of others of the offences, and is not aware of . . . . does not recollect. . . . is not certain of the duration of the times[14]--then &c.

'When he is not aware . . . . does not recollect . . . . [418] is not certain . . . . of the degree of the offences, and is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain . . . . of the times of some, but not of the times of the others--then, &c.

'When he is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the degree of the offences, and is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the times of some, but not of the times of others--then, &c.

'When he is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the degrees of some of the offences, but not of others; and is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the times of some, but not of the times of others--then, &c.

'In these cases, O Bhikkhus, is the probation of complete purification to be imposed.

26.4 'And in what cases, O Bhikkhus, is the (ordinary) probation to be imposed? When he is aware . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the degree of the offences, but is not aware . . . . does not recollect . . . . is not certain of the duration of the times--then is the (ordinary) probation to be imposed.

When he is not aware . . . . does not recollect . . . . is not certain of the degree of the offences, but is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the duration of the times--then &c. . .

'When he is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the degree of some of the offences, but not of others; and is aware . . . . recollects . . . . is certain of the duration of the times--then &c. . . .

'In these cases, O Bhikkhus, is the (ordinary) probation to be imposed[15].'

Here ends the probation.

 


 

27.

27.1 [419] Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, whilst he was under probation, threw off the robes. After-wards he came back again, and asked the Bhikkhus for upasampadâ. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu throws off the robes whilst he is under probation, there can follow no probation to him, O Bhikkhus, so long as he is out of the Order. If he afterwards receive the upasampadâ, the original probation (previously imposed upon him, still remains obligatory) upon him. A probation once imposed, is imposed for good; a probation once undergone, is undergone for good; if any (portion of the time) remain over, the probation must be again undergone (from the beginning).

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, whilst he is undergoing probation, becomes a Sâmanera. There can happen no probation to him, O Bhikkhus, so long as he is a Sâmanera. If he afterwards receives the upasampadâ (&c., as in the last paragraph, down to the end).

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, whilst he is undergoing probation, goes out of his mind . . . . be-comes weak in his mind . . . . diseased in his sensations . . . . is suspended for not acknowledging an [420] offence . . . . for not atoning for an offence . . . . for not recanting a sinful doctrine[16]--there can happen no probation to him, O Bhikkhus, so long as he is out of his mind . . . . weak in his mind . . . . suspended, &c. If he afterwards becomes not out of his mind . . . . becomes not weak in his mind . . . . is restored from the suspension, the original probation is still obligatory upon him. A probation once imposed (&c., as in the first paragraph, down to the end).

27.2 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, whilst he is liable to be thrown back to the commencement of his probation, throws off the robes (&c., as in all the paragraphs of section 1, reading "liable to be thrown back," for "undergoing probation").'

27.3 [The same for a Bhikkhu who throws off the robes, or becomes any of the seven things specified, whilst he is liable to be subjected to the Mânatta discipline;

27.4 Or is undergoing the Mânatta discipline;

27.5 Or is fit to be rehabilitated.]

Here end the forty[17] cases (of interruption to a major disciplinary proceeding from a change of state in the person undergoing that discipline).

 


 

28.

28.1 'In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is undergoing probation, he commit numerous Samghâdisesa [421] offences, definite[18], but not concealed, that Bhikkhu is to be thrown back to the commencement of his probation.

28.2 'In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is undergoing probation, he commit numerous Samghâdisesa offences, definite, and concealed, that Bhikkhu is to be thrown back to the commencement of his probation; and an inclusive probation is to be imposed upon him according to the duration of time since the first of the offences which he has thus concealed.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is undergoing probation, he commit numerous Samghâdisesa offences, grievous, and some of them concealed, some of them not concealed, that Bhikkhu must (as in the last paragraph to the end).

'In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is undergoing probation, he commit numerous Samghâdisesa offences, not definite, and not concealed . . . . not definite, and concealed[19] . . . . not grievous, and some of them concealed, others not concealed . . . . some definite, and some not definite and not concealed . . . . some definite, and some not definite and (all) concealed . . . . some definite, and some not definite, some concealed, some not concealed--then that Bhikkhu is to be thrown back, and an inclusive probation is to be imposed upon him, according to the duration of [422] the time since the first of the offences which he had concealed.'

[The same if the offences are committed whilst he is liable to the Mânatta discipline, or undergoing the Mânatta discipline, or pending his rehabilitation.]

Here end the thirty-six cases (of fresh offences being committed whilst under probation)[20].

 


 

29.

29.1 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has committed numerous Samghâdisesa offences, but has not concealed them, throw off the robes, and he, having afterwards again received the upasampadâ, does not conceal them. A Mânatta, O Bhikkhus, is to be imposed upon that Bhikkhu.

In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c., as before, down to) throw off the robes, and he, having afterwards again received the upasampadâ, does conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, a probation is to be imposed according to the duration of the time during which he has concealed any offence in the batch of offences thus afterwards concealed[21]; and after that a Mânatta is to be imposed.

[423] 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has committed numerous Samghâdisesa offences, and has concealed them, throw off the robes, and he, after having again received the upasampadâ, does not conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, a probation is to be imposed according to the duration of the time during which he has concealed any offence in the batch of offences thus previously concealed[22]; and after that a Mânatta is to be imposed upon him.

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has committed numerous Samghâdisesa offences, and has concealed them, throw off the robes, and, after again receiving the upasampadâ, he does conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, a probation is to be imposed corresponding to the duration of the time during which he has concealed any offence either in the first or in the batch of offences thus afterwards concealed; and after that a Mânatta is to be imposed upon him.

[23] 29.2 '[In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have committed [424] numerous Samghâdisesa offences, and some of his offences have been concealed, and some not concealed; and he, having thrown off the robes, and again received the upasampadâ, does not afterwards conceal those offences which he had previously concealed, and does not afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had not concealed,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is to be the same as in section 1, paragraph 4].]

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu [&c., as in last paragraph, down to] does not afterwards conceal those offences which he had previously concealed, and does conceal those offences which previously he had not concealed,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is to be the same as in section 1, paragraph 4].

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c., as in last paragraph, down to) does afterwards conceal those offences which he had previously concealed, and does not afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had not concealed,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is to be the same as in section 1, paragraph 4].

In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c., as in last paragraph, down to) does afterwards conceal those offences which he had previously concealed, and does afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had not concealed,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is to be the same as in section 1, paragraph 4].

29.3 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have committed numerous Samghâdisesa offences, and of some [425] of them he is aware, but of some of them he is not aware; and he conceals those offences of which he is aware, but does not conceal those offences of which he is not aware; after having thrown off the robes, and again received the upasampadâ, those offences of which he had previously been aware, and which he did then conceal, of them, afterwards, he is still aware, and he does not conceal them; and those offences of which previously he had not been aware and did not then conceal, of them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does not conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the same as in section 1, paragraph 3].

In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c., as in the last paragraph, down to) and again received the upasampadâ, those offences of which he had previously been aware, and which he did then conceal, of them, afterwards, he is still aware, and he does not conceal them; and those offences of which previously he had not been aware, and did not then conceal, of them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the same as in section 1, paragraph 4].

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c., as in the last paragraph, down to) which he did then conceal, of them, afterwards, he is still aware, and does conceal them; and of those offences of which previously he had not been aware, and did not then conceal, of them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does not conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the same as in section 1, paragraph 4].

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c., as in the last paragraph, down to) which he did then conceal, of them, afterwards, he is still aware, and does conceal [426] them; and of those offences of which previously he had not been aware, and did not then conceal, of them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the same as in section 1, paragraph 4].'

29.4 [This section is the same as the last, reading 'he recollects' for 'he is aware,' and 'he does not recollect' for 'he is not aware.]

29.5 [This section is again the same as section 3, reading 'he is certain' for 'he is aware,' and 'he is not certain' for he is not aware.']

 


 

30.

30.1 [The whole of the last chapter is 'repeated in the case of a Bhikkhu who, having committed offences, becomes a Sâmanera, goes out of his mind, or becomes weak in his mind[24], and the text then goes on] 'He becomes diseased in his sensations. His offences are some of them concealed, some not concealed. Of some offences he is aware, of some he is not aware. Some offences he recollects, some he does not recollect. Of some offences he is certain, of some he is not certain. Those offences of which he was not certain, those he conceals; those offences of which he was certain, those he does not conceal. Then he becomes diseased in his sensations. When he has recovered power over his sensations, those offences of which he previously had been certain and had concealed, of those he is afterwards still certain, but does not conceal them; and those offences of which he previously had been [427] uncertain and had not concealed, of those he became certain but did not conceal them. Those offences of which he previously had been certain and had concealed, of those he was afterwards still certain and did not conceal while those offences of which he previously had been uncertain, and had not concealed, of those offences he afterwards became certain and did conceal them. Those offences of which previously he had been certain, and had concealed, of those offences he was afterwards still certain and did conceal them; while those offences of which he previously had been uncertain and had not concealed, of those offences he afterwards became certain, and did not conceal them. Those offences of which he previously had been certain, and had concealed them, of those offences he was afterwards still certain and did conceal them; whilst those offences of which he previously had been uncertain and did not conceal them, of those offences he afterwards became certain and did conceal them,--on that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, [the same penalty is to be imposed. as in chapter 29, section 1, paragraph 4.]'

Here end the hundred cases[25] in which a Mânatta (is to be imposed after a change of state in the guilty Bhikkhu).

 


 

31.

31.1 [428] In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is undergoing probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, and without concealing them then throws off the robes, and he, when he has again received the upasampadâ, does not conceal those offences-that Bhikkhu ought to be thrown back to the commencement (of his term of probation).

'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c., as before, down to) and he, when he has again received the upasampadâ, does conceal those offences--that Bhikkhu ought to be thrown back to the commencement (of his term of probation), and an inclusive probation ought to be imposed upon him (corresponding to the time which has elapsed since) the first offence among those offences which he has concealed.

'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is undergoing probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, and, concealing them, throws off the robes; and he, when he has again received the upasampadâ, does not conceal those offences--that Bhikkhu ought to be thrown back to the commencement of his term of probation, and an inclusive probation ought to be imposed upon him (corresponding to the period which has elapsed since) the first offence among those offences which he has concealed.'

[The same judgment if he has concealed the offences before he throws off the robes, and also after he has again received the upasampadâ.][26]

[429] 31.2 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is undergoing probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, and some of them he has concealed and some of them he has not concealed; and after he has thrown off the robes and again received the upasampadâ, he does not afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had concealed, and he does not afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had. not concealed--[the judgment is the same as in the last paragraph of Ī 1].'

[In the same case down to] he does not afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had concealed, and he does afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had not concealed [the judgment is the same].

[In the same case, down to] he does afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had concealed, and he does not afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had not concealed [the judgment is the same].

[In the same case, down to] he does afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had concealed, and he does afterwards conceal those offences which previously he had not concealed [the judgment is the same][27].

31.3 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is undergoing probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, and he is aware of some of those offences, and not aware of others; and he conceals those offences of which he is aware, but does not conceal those offences of which. he is [430] not aware. After having thrown off the robes and again received the upasampadâ, those offences of which he had previously [&c., as in chapter 29, section 3, down to] on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the same as in the last section, chapter 31, Ī 2].'

[The rest of this chapter corresponds exactly to chapter 29, ĪĪ 4, 5, and chapter 30; the penalty being always the same.]

 


 

32.

32.1 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has rendered himself liable to the Mânatta discipline, or is undergoing the Mânatta discipline, or is fit to be rehabilitated, is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences which he does not conceal; and he then throws off the robes, and again receives the upasampadâ,--then with regard to the Bhikkhu so liable to the Mânatta discipline, or undergoing the Mânatta discipline, or fit to be rehabilitated, the same rules are to apply as in the case of a Bhikkhu so acting while undergoing probation[28].

'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is fit to be rehabilitated[29] is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences which he does not conceal; and he then becomes a Sâmanera, goes out of his mind, becomes weak in his mind, or becomes diseased in his sensations; his offences are some of them [431] concealed, some of them not concealed . . . . [and so on, as in chapter 30, down to the end, excepting that the penalty is here the same as it is in the previous chapters 31 and 32].'

 


 

33.

33.1 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, definite, and not concealed--not definite, and not concealed--of one designation, and not concealed--of various designations, and not concealed--similar, and not concealed--dissimilar, and not concealed--connected[30], and not concealed--disconnected, and not concealed--and then throws off the robes[31].' . . .

 


 

34.

34.1 [432] 'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Samghâdisesa offence, and as touching that Samghâdisesa offence they are of opinion that it is a Samghâdisesa offence[32]. One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. He who has concealed it should be compelled to confess himself guilty of a dukkata offence, and a probation corresponding to the period during which he has concealed it having been imposed upon him, a Mânatta should be imposed upon them both.

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Samghâdisesa offence, and as touching that Samghâdisesa offence they are in doubt. One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. [The penalty is the same.][33]

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Samghâdisesa offence, and as touching that Samghâdisesa offence they are of opinion that it is a mixed offence[34]. One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. [The penalty is the same.][33]

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a mixed offence, and as touching that mixed offence they are of opinion that it is a Samghâdisesa offence. One of [433] them conceals, the other does not conceal it. [The penalty is the same.][35]

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a mixed offence, and as touching that mixed offence they are of opinion that it is a mixed offence. One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. [The penalty is the same.]

Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a minor offence[36]; and as regarding that minor offence they are of opinion that it is a Samghâdisesa offence. One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. He who has concealed it should be compelled to confess himself guilty of a dukkata offence, and both of them should be dealt with according to law.

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a minor offence, and as touching that minor offence they are of opinion that it is a minor offence. One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. He who has concealed it should be compelled to confess himself guilty of a dukkata offence, and both of them should be dealt with according to law.

34.2 'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Samghâdisesa offence, and as touching that Samghâdisesa offence they are of opinion that it is a Samghâdisesa. One of them thinks: "I will tell (the Samgha of it)." The other thinks: "I will not tell (the Samgha of it);" and during the first watch of the night he conceals it, and during the second watch of the night he conceals [434] it, and during the third watch of the night he conceals it. After the sun has arisen the offence is a concealed one. He who has concealed it [&c.; the penalty is the same as in section 1, paragraph 1].

Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Samghâdisesa offence, and as touching that Samghâdisesa offence they are of opinion that it is a Samghâdisesa offence. They set out, intending to tell (the Samgha of it). On the way there springs up in one of them a desire to conceal it; and during the first watch of the night he conceals it, and during the second watch of the night he conceals it, and during the third watch of the night he conceals it. After the sun has arisen the offence is a concealed one. He who has concealed it [&c.; the penalty is the same as before].

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Samghâdisesa offence, and as touching that Samghâdisesa offence they are of opinion that it is a Samghâdisesa offence. They go out of their mind; and afterwards when they have recovered their senses one of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. He who has concealed it [&c.; the penalty is the same as before][37].

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Samghâdisesa offence. When the Pâtimokkha is being recited they say thus: "Now do we come to perceive it; for this rule they say has been handed down in the Suttas, is contained in the Suttas, and comes into recitation every half month." As touching that Samghâdisesa offence, they (thus) come to be of [435] opinion that it is a Samghâdisesa offence. One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it. He who has concealed it [&c.; the penalty is the same as before].'

 


 

35.

35.1 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of a number of Samghâdisesa offences--definite, and not definite--of one designation, and of various designations--similar to each other, and dissimilar--connected with each other, and disconnected[38]. He asks the Samgha for an inclusive probation on account of those offences[39]. The Samgha imposes upon him an inclusive probation on account of those offences. He undergoing that probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, definite ones, which he does not conceal. He asks the Samgha to throw him back on account of those intervening offences to the commencement (of his term of probation). The Samgha [does so] by a lawful proceeding that cannot be quashed[40], and fit [436] for the occasion; and it also imposes a Mânatta upon him, but by an unlawful proceeding, and then by an unlawful proceeding rehabilitates him. That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is not purified from those offences.

And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of a number of Samghâdisesa offences--definite, and not definite--of one designation, and of various designations--similar to each other, and dissimilar--connected with each other, and disconnected. And he asks the Samgha for an inclusive probation on account of those offences. The Samgha imposes upon him an inclusive probation on account of those offences. He undergoing that probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, definite ones, which he does conceal. He asks the Samgha to throw him back on account of those intervening offences to the commencement (of his term of probation). The Samgha [does so] by a lawful proceeding that cannot be quashed, and fit for the occasion; and it also imposes upon him an inclusive probation by a lawful proceeding, and imposes upon him a Mânatta, but by an unlawful proceeding, and by an unlawful proceeding it rehabilitates him. That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is not purified from those offences.'

[The same decision is given if, of the intervening offences, all of which are definite, some have been concealed, and some not concealed.]

35.2 [The same if the intervening offences have been not definite and not concealed, or not definite and concealed, or all not definite but some concealed and some not concealed, or, all not concealed but some definite and some not definite, or all concealed [437] but some definite and some not definite, or some definite and some not definite and some concealed and some not concealed.]

Here end the nine principal cases (which serve as a basis for the variations in the following chapter) in which a Bhikkhu is not purified (by undergoing a term of probation).

 


 

36.

36.1 [The same nine cases of the throwing back is carried by unlawful proceeding, though the Mânatta and the rehabilitation are by a lawful proceeding.]

36.2 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of a number of Samghâdisesa offences--definite, and not definite--of one designation, and of various designations--similar to each other, and dissimilar--connected with each other, and disconnected[41]. He asks the Samgha for an inclusive probation on account of those offences. The Samgha imposes upon him an additional probation on account of those offences. He undergoing that probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, definite ones, which he does conceal. He asks the Samgha to throw him back on account [438] of those intervening offences to the commencement of his term of probation. The Samgha [does so] by an unlawful proceeding that is liable to be quashed, and unfit for the occasion; and it also imposes an inclusive probation upon him, but by an unlawful proceeding. He thinking, "I am undergoing that probation," is guilty meanwhile of a number of Samghâdisesa offences, definite ones, which he does conceal. When he has arrived at this condition he calls to mind the other offences committed while the first offences were being committed, and he calls to mind also the other offences committed while the latter offences were being committed.

Then it occurs to him, "I have been guilty of a number of Samghâdisesa offences (&c., as in the whole of the section from the beginning to the end of the last paragraph, down to) and I called to mind also the. other offences committed while the latter offences were being committed. Let me now ask the Samgha to throw me back on account of those offences committed while the former offences, and while the latter offences, were being committed, to the commencement of my term of probation, by a lawful proceeding that cannot be quashed, and is fit for the occasion; and let me ask for an inclusive probation to be imposed by a lawful proceeding, and for a Mânatta to be imposed by a lawful proceeding, and then for rehabilitation by a lawful proceeding."

'And he asks the Samgha [accordingly], and the Samgha [does so]. That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is purified from those offences.'

[The same if some of the offences in each case have been concealed and some not concealed.]

[439] 36.3-4 [The Bhikkhu is not purified from such intervening and remembered offences as are specified in the last section, if the Samgha has proceeded, as in the first section of this chapter, by an unlawful proceeding.]

Here ends the Third Khandhaka, on the Accumulation of Offences.

 


[1] Samodhâna-parivâsa. It is clear from the next chapter that this probation did not affect the Mânatta to which he was liable for that first offence. The Mânatta always lasted six days, and was preceded by a probation equal in length to the time during which the offence had been concealed. If now, during that probation, another offence was committed and concealed, the penalties for this new offence and for the old one were not accumulative but concurrent. The offender lost the advantage of the probation he had already undergone, he was thrown back to the commencement of his term of probation, and had to begin again. But the new term of probation--equal in length to whichever was the longest of the two periods during which he had concealed the two offences--satisfied both the concealments, and the Mânatta which still, as it would have done before, followed at the end of the probation, satisfied both the offences. See our note below on chapter 20.

[2] As in chapter 9.

[3] From this and what follows it is clear that however many are the offences, and however various the periods of concealment, the probation is only to last for the same period as the longest of the concealments has lasted. Thus the Samanta Pâsâdikâ says here: agghasamodhâno nâma sambahulâsu âpattîsu yâ ekâ vâ dve vâ tisso vâ sambahulâ vâ âpattiyo sabbakirapatikkhannâyo tâsam agghena samodhâya tâsam rattiparikkhedavasena avasesânam ûnatarapatikkhannânam âpattînam parivâso diyyati. Yassa pana satam âpattiyo dasâhapatikkhannâ, aparam pi satam âpattiyo dasâhapatikkhannâ ti, evam dasakkhattum katvâ âpattisahassam divasasatapatikkhannam hoti, tena kim kâtabban ti? Sabbam samodhâpetvâ dasa divase parivasitabbam, evam eken’ eva dasâhena divasasatam pi parivasitam eva hoti. Vuttam pi k’ etam:

[4] Literally, 'according to the value of whichever offences among those offences have been the longest concealed.'

[5] Tadupâdâya; see chapters 23. 1 and 2, 24. 3.

[6] This is merely repeated to lay a basis for the following variations. See below, chapter 25.

[7] In chapter 34, Ī 1, ditthî, instead of nibbematiko, is put in opposition to vematiko.

[8] See our note above, on Mahâvagga II, 21, 2, and compare VII, 1, 7; VIII, 32, 1; X, 1, 2; Kullavagga I, 11, 1.

[9] This expression recurs below, chaps. 25, 27, &c. Compare the use of rûhati at Mahâvagga VI, 14, 5.

[10] See above, chap. 22. 3.

[11] This repetition of the last chapter is again only to afford a basis for the succeeding variations, as above, in chap. 23.

[12] That these are plurals, and not singulars, is clear from Ī 3, below.

[13] Suddhanta-parivâso. The Samanta Pâsâdika says, Tam gahetvâ gahita-divasato yâva upasampadâ-divaso tâva rattiyo ganetvâ parivasitabbam.

[14] This and the following sentences are given in the text in full, as in the last paragraph.

[15] That is to say, shortly; if the guilty Bhikkhu can determine the time during which the offence has been concealed (on which the length of the probation depends), then he is to undergo the corresponding probation. If not, he is to undergo the so-called 'probation of complete purification,' which, as it is computed from the date of his ordination, is quite certain to be as long as the time of the longest concealment of any offence.

[16] The text has a separate paragraph for each of these cases.

[17] That is, on any of the above eight events occurring in any of the above five cases.

[18] Parimânâ, the meaning of which is open to much doubt. The Samanta Pâsâdikâ merely says, Antarâ sambahulâ âpattiyo âpaggati parimânâ patikkhannâyo ti âdisu âpatti-parikkhedavase parimânâyo k’ eva appatikkhannâyo kâ ’ti attho. The only conclusion to be drawn from this is that the word is acc. fem. plur., and not an adverb. Compare chap. 33, below.

[19] The text has a full paragraph for each of these cases.

[20] This chapter is repeated below, chap. 33, for the cases in which a new ordination has followed after the offences have been committed.

[21] The Samanta Pâsâdikâ says, Pakkhimasmim âpattikkhandhe ti eko ’va so âpattikkhandho, patikkhâditattâ pana pakkhimasmim âpattikkhandhe ti vuttam. Purimasmin ti etthâpi es’ eva nayo.

[22] See the close of the last note.

[23] This section should correspond to chap. 31, section 2, but as noted by H. O. in his edition of the text, p. 312, there is very great confusion in the MSS. We ought to have four cases of which the distinctions are as under. Those offences

1 concealed before are afterwards not concealed + -
not concealed before are afterwards not concealed - -
2 concealed before are afterwards not concealed + -
not concealed before are afterwards concealed - +
3 concealed before are afterwards concealed + +
not concealed before are afterwards not concealed - -
4 concealed before are afterwards concealed + +
not concealed before are afterwards concealed - +

All these four cases are required to make up the one hundred cases mentioned in the title at the close of chap. 30; but the first is altogether omitted in the text, and the others are not properly discriminated. We have supplied the first in brackets, and corrected the others accordingly.

[24] See above, chap. 27, and Mahâvagga II, 22, 3; IX, 4, 7.

[25] The hundred cases are made up thus: Chap. 29, ĪĪ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 contain each of them four cases (after our correction of 29. 2); so that chap. 29 gives altogether twenty cases. Then in chap. 30, each of these twenty cases is repeated in the four other cases there given; so that chap. 30 gives altogether eighty cases. Of these eighty cases, as usual, at the end of a repetition, the last (four cases) are set out in full.

[26] This section corresponds to chap. 29, section 1.

[27] This section corresponds to chap. 29, section 2.

[28] As laid down in chap. 31.

[29] This includes, of course, the two other cases of a Bhikkhu who has rendered himself liable to, or'is undergoing the Mânatta discipline.

[30] On the opposition of vavatthita and sambhinna, compare Minayeff Pâtimokkha, p. 29, where these two expressions are used of language.

[31] The chapter is translated as it stands. To supply the implications involved, the words 'a Bhikkhu' at the beginning should be understood as 'a Bhikkhu undergoing probation, or liable to the Mânatta discipline, or undergoing the Mânatta discipline, or fit to be rehabilitated.' And the conclusion should be supplied as in chap. 28, except that the penalty in each case is not an additional probation, but a probation corresponding in length to the period which has elapsed since the first of those offences which the re-ordained Bhikkhu has concealed (either before or after the second ordination). The details are only worked out, in chap. 28, of the first of the several pairs here enumerated, and are intended to be supplied here for each of the other pairs in a similar way. All the pairs recur in chaps. 35, 36.

[32] Compare chap. 23, Ī 4.

[33] The concluding words of the last paragraph are here repeated.

[34] The Samanta Pâsâdikâ says, Missakan ti thullakkayâdîhi missitam; that is an act which involves not only a Samghâdisesa, but also some one or other of the lesser offences. Compare the use of missaka at Gâtaka II, 420, 433, and at Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta, ed. Childers, p. 22.

[35] The concluding words of the last paragraph are here repeated.

[36] That is, any offence less than a Samghâdisesa. The Samanta Pâsâdikâ says, Suddhakan ti Samghâdisesam vinâ lahukâpattikkhandham eva.

[37] It is probably to be understood that a like rule is to apply in the other similar cases mentioned in the last paragraph of chap. 32.

[38] See chap. 33 for this list.

[39] In accordance with the rule laid down in chap. 28, which shows that by 'a Bhikkhu' must be understood 'a Bhikkhu who is under probation;' and the offences he has committed must have been concealed by him.

[40] Akuppa. The technical term kammam kopeti is not to revoke the valid decision of a kamma regularly held, but to show that the kamma by reason of some irregularity was no real kamma, and its whole proceedings therefore void. One may compare akuppâ me keto-vimutti spoken by the Buddha immediately after he had attained Nirvâna under the Bo Tree (Ariyapariyosâna Sutta in H. O.'s 'Buddha,' p. 429) and the opposite idea in Sutta Nipâta IV, 3, 5.

[41] These offences must be understood to be offences committed while under probation, and concealed. See the note on chap. 35, Ī 1.

 


 

NOTE ON ABHIHATTHUM.

[440] In the 7th Nissaggiya, in the 34th Pâkittiya, and in the 36th Pâkittiya there occurs the phrase abhihatthum pavâreyya, regarding the correct translation of which, as will be seen from the note on the first passage, we were in doubt. The connection is always 'if A should offer B,' &c.; and the only difficulty is the force of the word abhihatthum which precedes the 'should offer,' and in some way qualifies it. In all three passages the Old Commentary preserved in the Sutta-Vibhaṅga explains the two words abhihatthum pavâreyya by 'Take just as much as you want' (yâvatakam ikkhasi tâvatakam ganhâhi), which does not solve the difficulty. On the following words of the third passage, however, the Old Commentary (see H. O., 'Vinaya Pitakam,' vol. iv, p. 84) uses the word abhiharati in its usual sense of 'he brings up to, offers to, hands over to,' as practically equivalent to abhihatthum pavâreti; and Buddhaghosa, in the Samanta Pâsâdikâ on the 7th Nissaggiya, uses abhiharitvâ as directly equivalent to abhihatthum.

Now in a passage quoted from the Thera-gâthâ in H. O.'s 'Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, and seine Gemeinde' (p. 425, note 1), nikkhamitumna occurs as the gerund of nikkhamati instead of nikkhamitvâna. The existence in Prâkrit of corresponding gerunds in -tu, -tum for -tvâ, and in -tûna, -tuâna for -tvâna, is laid down in Hemakandra II, 146 (Pischel, vol. i, p. 62). And Professor Weber has given corresponding forms (âhattu, kattu, &c.) from the Gain dialect in his Bhagavatî I, p. 433.

What we have in the phrase in question is therefore simply a gerund in -tum, and the two words taken together mean, 'if A should lay before and offer to B,' &c. The thing offered in one case is robes, in the other two cases food; and abhiharati is the usual word in Pâli for serving food, laying it before another person. Compare thâli-pâka-satâni abhihari at Gâtaka I, 186; and the phrase bhattâbhihâro abhihâriyittha constantly repeated in the Mahâ-sudassana Sutta (Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas,' in the last paragraph of chap. II, Ī 12, 29, 31, 33, 37).


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