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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

Kulla Vagga

 


[66]

Fifth Khandhaka

On the Daily Life of the Bhikkhus

 


 

1.

1.1 Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Râgagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, in the Kalandaka Nivâpa. And at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, when bathing, used to rub[1] their bodies--thighs, and arms, and breast, and back--against wood. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas do so, like wrestlers, boxers, or shampooers[2]?' The Bhikkhus heard the people so murmuring, &c.; and they told the matter to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, having convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, asked the Bhikkhus: 'Is this true, O Bhikkhus, what they say, that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, when bathing, rub (&c., as before)?'

'It is true, Lord.'

[67] The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 'This is improper, O Bhikkhus (&c., as usual, see I, 1, 2, down to the end).' And when he had rebuked them, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'A Bhikkhu, when bathing, is not, O Bhikkhus, to rub his body against wood. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

2. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus: when bathing, used to rub their bodies--thighs, and arms, and breast, and back--against a pillar--against a wall (&c., as in last section, down to the end).

3. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to bathe on an Attâna (a sort of shampooing stand[3]). The people (&c., as before). The Bhikkhus (&c., as before). Then the Blessed One (&c., as before, down to) addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'You are not to bathe, O Bhikkhus, on an Attâna. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

[Paragraphs similar in every respect to the last follow as to

Using a Gandhabba-hatthaka[4] when bathing.

Using a Kuruvindaka-sutti[5] when bathing.

Rubbing their bodies, when under water, up against each other[6].

[68] Using a Mallaka[7] when bathing.]

4. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had the scab, and he could not bathe with comfort without a Mallaka[7].

They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, to a sick man the use of a Mallaka not (artificially) made[8].'

5. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who was weak through old age was not able to shampoo his own body.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of an Ukkâsika[9].

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, (fearing to offend against these rules,) were afraid to shampoo one another.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the ordinary mode of shampooing with the hand[10].'

 


 

2.

2.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus [69] used to wear ear-rings[11], and ear-drops[12], and strings of beads for the throat, and girdles of beads[13], and bangles[14], and necklaces[15], and bracelets, and rings.

The people murmured, &c. . . . . The Bhikkhus heard, &c. . . . . They told the, Blessed One (&c., as in II, 1, 1, down to) he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear any of these things. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

2. [A similar paragraph concluding]

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear long hair. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, hair that is two months old, or two inches long.'

3. [Similar paragraph concluding]

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to smooth[16] the hair [70] with a comb, or with a smoothing instrument shaped like a snake's hood[17], or with the hand used as such an instrument[18], or with pomade[19], or with hair-oil of beeswax[19]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

4. [Similar paragraph concluding]

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to look at the image of your faces in a looking-glass, or a bowl of water[20]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a sore in his face. He asked the Bhikkhus what kind of a sore he had. 'Such and such a kind of sore,' replied they. He did not believe what they said. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of a disease, to look at your faces in a looking-glass, or in a bowl of water.'

5. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus (&c., down to) [71] 'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to anoint your faces, nor to rub (ointment, &c.) into your faces, nor to put chunam on your faces, nor to smear red arsenic on your faces, nor to paint your bodies, nor to paint your faces[21].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had disease in his eyes. They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of disease, to anoint your faces.'

6[22]. Now at that time there was a festival on the mountain-top[23] at Râgagaha; and the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus went to see it.

The people murmured, were annoyed, and became indignant, saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas go to see dancing, and singing, and music, like those who are still enjoying the pleasures of the world?' And they told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to go to see dancing, or singing, or music. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

3.

3.1 [72] Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to sing the Dhamma with the abrupt transitions of song-singing.

The people murmured, were annoyed, and became indignant, saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas [do so]?' The Bhikkhus heard (&c., as usual, down to) he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'These five dangers, O Bhikkhus, befall him who sings the Dhamma with the abrupt[24] transitions of song-singing.--He himself becomes captivated with respect to the sound thereof.--Other people become captivated with respect to the sound thereof.--The laymen are shocked.--The meditation of one who strains after accuracy in the sound is broken.--The common people fall into heresy[25].--These five dangers, O Bhikkhus, befall him who sings the Dhamma with the abrupt transitions of song-singing. The Dhamma is not, O Bhikkhus, to be sung [in that manner]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus were afraid to make use of intoning[26]. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to intone.'

 


 

4.

4.1 [73] Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to wear woollen cloth with long fleece to it[27].

The people murmured . . . (&c., down to) They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear woollen cloth with long fleece to it. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

5.

5.1 Now at that time the mangoes were ripe in the park of Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha. And Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, had given command, saying,' Let the venerable ones have as much fruit as they like.' Then the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus plucked even the young fruits and ate them.

Now Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, wanted a mango; and he gave orders, saying, 'Go, [74] my good men, to the park, and bring me hither a mango.'

'Even so, Lord,' said the men in assent to Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha and they went to the park, and said to the park-keepers, 'Our lord, good friends, has need of a mango. Give us one!'

'There are no mangoes, Sirs. The Bhikkhus have plucked even the young ones, and eaten them.'

Then those men told the matter to Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, and he said: 'The mangoes have been well used, my good men, by the venerable ones. Notwithstanding it is moderation that has been exalted by the Blessed One.'

The people murmured, were shocked, and were indignant, &c., saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, knowing no moderation, use up the king's mangoes?' The Bhikkhus heard those men murmuring, shocked, and indignant. Then those Bhikkhus told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to eat mangoes. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

2. Now at that time it was the turn of a certain multitude to provide the Samgha with a meal. Mango-peal was put into the curry. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not partake of it.

'Take it, O Bhikkhus, and eat. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat the peal of the mango.'

Now at that time it was the turn of a certain multitude to provide the Samgha with a meal. They did not get so far as to make (curry with) the peal, but went about in the dining-hall with whole mangoes. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not accept them.

[75] 'Take them, O Bhikkhus, and eat. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat fruit which has become allowable to Samanas in any one of these five ways--when it has been injured by fire[28]--or by sword[29]--or by nails--when it has not yet had any seed in it--and fifthly, when it has no more seed in it[30]. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat fruit which has become allowable to Samanas in any one of these five ways.'

 


 

6.[31]

6.1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu died of the bite of a snake. They told the matter to the Blessed One.

[76] 'Now surely, that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, had not let his love flow out over the four royal breeds of serpents! Had he done so, he would not die of the bite of a snake. And which are the four royal breeds of serpents? The Virûpakkhas are a royal breed. The Erâpathas are a royal breed. The Khabyâputtas are a royal breed. The Kanhâgotamakas are a royal breed. Now surely that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, had not let his love flow out over the four royal breeds of serpents! Had he done so, he would not die of the bite of a snake. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a safeguard for yourselves for your security and protection, by letting your love flow out over the four royal breeds of serpents. And thus, O Bhikkhus, are you to do so.

'"I love Virûpakkhas, the Erâpathas I love.

'"I love Khabyâputtas, the Kanhâgotamakas I love.

'"I love live things that have no feet, the bipeds too I love.

'"I love four-footed creatures, and things with many feet.

'"Let no footless thing do hurt to me, nor thing that has two feet.

'"Let no four-footed creature hurt, nor thing with many feet.

'"Let all creatures, all things that live, all beings of whatever kind, let all behold good fortune[32] and let none fall into sin.

[77] '"Infinite is the Buddha, infinite the Truth, infinite the Order. Finite are creeping things; snakes, scorpions and centipedes, spiders and lizards, rats and mice.

'"Made is my safeguard, made my defence. Let living things retreat, whilst I revere the Blessed One, the Buddhas seven supreme[33]."'

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to let blood[34].'

 


 

7.

7.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, tormented by distaste (for meditation, &c.), castrated himself[35]. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'When one thing wanted cutting off, O Bhikkhus, that foolish fellow has cut off another! You are [78] not, O Bhikkhus, to castrate yourselves. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a thullakkaya.'

 


 

8.

8.1[36] Now at that time the Setthi of Râgagaha had acquired a block[37] of sandal-wood of the most precious sandal-wood flavour. And the Setthi of Râgagaha thought, 'How would it be if I were to have a bowl carved out of this block of sandal-wood, so that the chips[38] shall remain my property, and I can give the bowl away?' And the Setthi of Râgagaha had a bowl turned out of that block of sandal-wood, and put it in a balance, and had it lifted on to the top of a bamboo[39], and tying that bamboo at the top of a succession of bamboos, he let it be known, saying, 'If any Samana or Brahman be an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi, let him get down the bowl. It is a gift to him!'

Then Pûrana Kassapa went to the Setthi of Râgagaha, and said to him, 'I, O householder, am [79] an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi. Give me the bowl.'

'If, Sir, you are an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi, let your reverence get down the bowl!'

Then Makkhali Gosâla, and Agita Kesa-kambalî, and Pakudha Kakkâyana, and Sañgaya Belatthiputta, and Nigantha Nâta-putta went severally to the Setthi of Râgagaha, [and preferred the same request, and received the same reply.]

Now at that time the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna and the venerable Pindola Bhâradvâga, having dressed themselves early in the morning, went into Râgagaha, duly bowled and robed, for alms. And the venerable Pindola Bhâradvâga said to the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna: 'The venerable Mahâ Moggallâna is both an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi. Go, friend Moggallâna, and fetch down this bowl, for this bowl belongs to thee.'

'The venerable Pindola Bhâradvâga also is both an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi. Go, friend Bhâradvâga, and fetch down the bowl, for this bowl belongs to thee.'

Then the venerable Pindola Bhâradvâga, rising up in the air, took the bowl, and went thrice round Râgagaha (in the air). And at that time the Setthi of Râgagaha stood in his dwelling-place with his wife and children, and holding up his clasped hands in reverent salutation, he exclaimed, 'May the venerable Bhâradvâga be pleased to descend upon our dwelling-place.' And the venerable Bhâradvâga descended into his dwelling-place. Then the Setthi of Râgagaha took the bowl from the hands of the venerable Bhâradvâga, and filled it with costly food, and presented it to the venerable Bhâradvâga. And [80] the venerable Bhâradvâga took the bowl, and departed to his Ârâma.

2. Now the people heard, 'The venerable Pindola Bhâradvâga, they say, has got down the Râgagaha Setthi's bowl.' And those people, with shouts loud and long, followed in the steps of Pindola Bhâradvâga. And the Blessed One heard the shouts loud and long, and on hearing them he asked the venerable Ânanda, 'What now, Ânanda, does this so great shouting mean?'

The venerable Pindola Bhâradvâga, Lord, has got down the Râgagaha Setthi's bowl; and the people thereof are following in his steps with shouts loud and long.'

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-Samgha, and asked Pindola Bhâradvâga, 'Is it true, as they say, that you, Bhâradvâga, have got down the Râgagaha Setthi's bowl?'

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'This is improper, Bhâradvâga, not according to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samana, unbecoming, and ought not to be done. How can you, Bhâradvâga, for the sake of a miserable wooden pot, display before the laity the superhuman quality of your miraculous power of Iddhi? Just, Bhâradvâga, like a woman who displays herself for the sake of a miserable piece of money[40], have you, for the sake of a miserable [81] wooden pot displayed before the laity the superhuman quality of your miraculous power of Iddhi. This will not conduce, Bhâradvâga, either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to those who have not been converted remaining unconverted, and to the turning back of those who have been converted.'

And when he had rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse[41], he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to display before the laity the superhuman power of Iddhi. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[42]. Break to pieces, O Bhikkhus, that wooden bowl; and when you have ground it to powder, give it to the Bhikkhus as perfume for their eye ointments[43]. And you are not, O Bhikkhus, to use wooden bowls. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[44].'

 


 

9.

9.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to use bowls of various kinds, made of gold and silver.

The people murmured (&c., as usual, down to) They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use bowls made [82] of gold, or made of silver, or set with jewels, or made of beryl (veluriya[45]), or made of crystal, or made of copper, or made of glass[46], or made of tin, or made of lead, or made of bronze. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, bowls of two kinds,--those made of iron, and those made of clay.'

2. Now at that time the support at the bottom of the bowls wore out[47].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use circular (pieces of metal) as the supports for your bowls.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to have various kinds of circular supports to their bowls.--silver ones, and gold ones.

The people murmured (&c., down to) They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have various kinds of circular supports to your bowls. Whosoever does [83] so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, two kinds of circular supports to your bowls,--tin ones, and lead ones.'

The thick circular supports could not be inserted[48]. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to shape them[49] (until they get to be the right size to fit in)[50].'

They would not stay in (?)[51].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to split little pieces of crocodiles' teeth (to fit them in with)[52].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus had painted circular linings to the bottoms of their bowls, with painted figures scattered over them, or painted in patches of colour[53], and they used to walk about the streets exhibiting them.

People murmured (&c., down to) They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have painted circular supports to the bottoms of your bowls, covered [84] with figures, and painted in patches of colour. Whosoever shall do so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, only ordinary linings.'

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus put away their bowls with water in them, and the bowls were split.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put away your bowls with water in them. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, to dry your bowls in the sunshine[54] before putting them away.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus dried their bowls in the sunshine, with water in them; and the bowls became evil-smelling.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to dry your bowls in the sunshine with water in them. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus; to empty out the water[55], and then warm the bowls, before you put them away.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls away in a warm place; and the colour of the bowls was spoilt.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls away in a warm place. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to dry your bowls for a short time in a warm place, and then to put them away.'

[85] 4. Now at that time a number of bowls were left in the open air without supports; and the bowls were turned over by a whirlwind[56] and broke.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of supports for your bowls (when they are left out).'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls away at the edge of the sleeping-benches in the verandahs[57], and the bowls fell down and were broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls away on the edge of the sleeping-benches in the verandah. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls away on the edge of the Paribhanda[58], and the bowls fell down and were broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls away on the edge of the Paribhanda. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus turned their bowls upside down[59] on the ground, and the lips wore out.

[86] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a mat made of grass[60].'

The grass-mat was eaten by white ants.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a small cloth[61].'

The small cloth was eaten by the white ants. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a raised parapet (?) (on which to put your bowls)[62].'

The bowls fell down from the parapet and were broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow your O Bhikkhus, the use of a wicker-work stand[63].'

On the wicker-work stand the bowls wore out. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of bags to carry your bowls in.'

They had no shoulder-straps[64]

[87] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder-strap (by which to carry the bag), or of a piece of string (by which to tie it on).'

5. Now at that time the Bhikkhus hung up their bowls on pins in the walls, or on hooks[65]. The pins or hooks falling down, the bowls were broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to hang your bowls up. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls down on a bed[66], or a chair; and sitting down thoughtlessly[67] they upset them, and the bowls were broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls on the bed, or on a chair. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus kept their bowls on their laps; and rising up thoughtlessly they upset them, and the bowls were broken.

[88] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to keep your bowls on your laps. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls down on a sunshade; and the sunshade being lifted up by a whirlwind, the bowls rolled over, and were broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls down on a sunshade. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when they were holding the bowls in their hands, opened the door[68]. The door springing back the bowls were broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to open the door with your bowls in your hands. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

10.

10.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus went on their round for alms, carrying water jugs made out of gourds[69], or water-pots[70].

[89] People murmured, were shocked, and indignant, saying, 'As the Titthiyas do.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to go on your rounds for alms with water jugs, or pots. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

2. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, who had taken upon himself a vow to wear or use nothing except what he could procure from dust-heaps or cemeteries, went on his rounds for alms carrying a bowl made out of a skull. A certain woman saw him, and was afraid, and made an outcry[71], saying, 'O horror! This is surely a devil!'

People murmured, were shocked, and indignant, saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas carry about bowls made out of skulls, as the devil-worshippers[72] do?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use bowls made out of skulls. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. And you are not, O Bhikkhus, to take a vow to wear or to use nothing except what you procure from dust-heaps or cemeteries. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus carried out odd bits, and bones, and dirty water[73] in their bowls.

People murmured, were shocked, and were indignant, saying, 'The very vessel out of which [90] these Sakyaputtiya Samanas eat, that they use as a waste-tub!'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry out odd bits, and bones, and dirty water in your bowls. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a waste-tub[74].'

 


 

11.

11.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus sewed their robes together after tearing the cloth with their hands[75]; and the robes became jagged.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a blade and of a sheath (for the blade) made of felt[76].'

Now at that time a blade with a haft to it[77] had come into the possession of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[91] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a blade with a haft to it.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used various kinds of long handles to their blades, made of silver, and made of gold.

People murmured (&c., as usual, down to) They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use various kinds of handles to your blades. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of handles to your blades made of bone, or ivory. or horn, or of the na la reed, or of bamboo, or hard wood, or of lac, or of the shells of fruit, or of bronze, or of the centre of the chank-shell[78]:

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus sewed their robes with quills or bits of bamboo rind, and the robes were badly sewn.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of needles.'

The needles got blunted[79].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a needle-case made of bamboo[80].'

Even in the needle-cases the needles became blunt.

[92] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fill the cases with chunam[81].

Even in the chunam the needles became blunt.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fill the cases with barley-meal[82].'

Even in the barley-meal the needles became blunt.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of powdered stone[83].'

Even in the powdered stone the needles became blunt.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to mix (the powder) with beeswax[84].'

The powder still did not cohere.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to mix sipâtika gum[85] with the powder[86].'

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus sewed their robes together by planting stakes here and there, and uniting them (with strings). The robes became out of shape[87].'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a Kathina[88],[93] and that you are to sew the robes together after tying down Kathina-strings here and there.'

They spread out the Kathina on uneven (ground), and the Kathina fell to pieces[89].

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to spread out the Kathina on uneven (ground). Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

They spread out the Kathina on the ground, and the Kathina became dirty.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a grass-mat.'

The edge of the Kathina decayed through age.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to strengthen it by a doubling or a binding along the edge[90].

The Kathina was not large enough[91].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a [94] danda-kathina[92], of a pidalaka[92], of a ticket, of binding strings, and of binding threads[93]; and that you sew your robes together after binding them therewith.'

The interstices between the threads became irregular in length[94].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of little marks (of the leaf of the talipot palm, or such-like things)[95].'

The threads became crooked.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of false threads (laid along the cloth to show where it is to be cut or sewn)[96].'

4. Now at that time the Bhikkhus got on to the Kathina with unwashen feet, or wet feet, or with their shoes on[97], and the Kathina was soiled.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to get on to the Kathina with unwashen feet, or with wet feet, or with your shoes on. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

5. Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when sewing [95] their robes, held the stuff with their fingers, and their fingers were hurt.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a thimble[98].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used various kinds of thimbles; gold ones, and silver ones.

People murmured, &c. The Bhikkhus heard, &c. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use various kinds of thimbles. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, thimbles made of bone, or ivory, or horn, or of the na la reed, or of bamboo, or of hard wood, or of lac, or of the shells of fruit, or of bronze, or of the centre of the chank-shell[99].'

Now at that time the needles, and scissors, and thimbles got lost.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a box or drawer[100] in the workshop.'

They got crowded together in the workshop box. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a thimble bag (to carry the thimbles about in).'

They had no shoulder-strap.

[96] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder-strap, or of a piece of string, to tie the bags on with[101].'

6[102]. Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when sewing their robes in the open air, were distressed by heat and by cold.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a hall or of a shed for the Kathina:

The Kathina hall had too low a basement, and it was inundated with water.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it with a high basement[103].'

The facing (of the basement) fell in.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to line the basement with facing of three kinds[104]--brick facing, stone facing, or wooden facing.'

They found difficulty in getting up into it.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stairs of three kinds--brick stairs, stone stairs, or wooden stairs.'

As they were going up them they fell off.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a balustrade[105].'

[97] Straw and plaster fell (from the walls and roof) into the Kathina-hall.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to first cover over (the walls and roof with skins[106]), and then plaster them within and without. (And I allow the use of) whitewash, and blacking, and red colouring[107], and wreath-work, and creeper-work, and bone hooks, and cupboards[108], and bamboos to hang robes on, and strings to hang robes on.'

7. Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when they had sewn the robes together, left the Kathina as it was, and went away; and the robes were eaten by rats and white ants.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fold up the Kathina.

The Kathina came to pieces.

[98] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fold up the Kathina in a cow-hide (?)[109].'

The Kathina got uncovered.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of strings to tie it up with.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus went away, putting the Kathina up against the wall or a pillar; and the Kathina, falling over, was broken.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to hang it on a stake of the wall,. or on a hook[110].'

 


 

12.

12.1 Now the Blessed One, when he had stayed at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, set out on his journey toward Vesâlî[111].

Now at that time the Bhikkhus went along, carrying their needles and scissors and drugs in their bowls.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to carry the drugs in[112].'

[99] They had no shoulder-strap.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder-strap[113], or of a string to tie the bags on with.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu tied his sandals on to his girdle, and then entered the village for alms[114]. A certain Upâsaka, when saluting that Bhikkhu, knocked up against the sandals with his head. The Bhikkhu was annoyed; and when he had returned to the Ârâma, he told this matter to the Bhikkhus. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to carry your sandals in,'

They had no shoulder-strap.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder-strap, or of a string to tie the bags on with.'

 


 

13.

13.1 Now at that time the water as they went along could not be drunk without breaking the rules[115], as they had no strainers.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a strainer.' The little cloth (that was used for a strainer) was not sufficient (to filter enough water for the whole party).

[100] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a strainer fixed on to a ladle[116]'.'

Still the little cloth was not sufficient for the purpose.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a regulation water-pot[117]'

2. Now at that time two Bhikkhus were travelling along the high-road in the Kosala country. One of the Bhikkhus was guilty of some transgression. The other one said to him, 'Do not, my friend, do such a thing. It is not becoming.' The first one bore a grudge against him[118]. Afterwards the other Bhikkhu, being tormented with thirst, said to the Bhikkhu who bore the grudge, 'Give me, friend, your strainer. I am going to drink some water.' The Bhikkhu who bore the grudge would not give it to him. The other Bhikkhu died of thirst[119]. Then that Bhikkhu, when he had arrived at the Ârâma, told this matter to the Bhikkhus.

[101] 'What then, Sir? when asked for your strainer, would you not lend it?'

'It is even so, Sirs.'

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were annoyed and vexed, and murmured, saying, 'How can a Bhikkhu, when asked for his strainer, refuse to lend it?' And they told this matter to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One on that occasion and in that connection (&c., as usual, see for instance in Kullavagga I, 1, 2, down to) addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'A Bhikkhu who is on a journey is not, O Bhikkhus, to refuse to lend his strainer, when he is asked for it. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. And (a Bhikkhu who is) not provided with a strainer, O Bhikkhus, is not to undertake a journey. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. If there be no strainer nor regulation water-pot, the corner of the upper robe is to be adopted[120] for the purpose of straining before drinking.'

3. Now the Blessed One, journeying straight on, arrived in due course at Vesâlî. And there at Vesâlî the Blessed One lodged in the Mahâvana, in the Kûtâgâra Hall.

Now at that time the Bhikkhus were engaged in building[121]; and the strainer did not act[122].

[102] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a double strainer[123].'

The double strainer did not act.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a filter[124].'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus were troubled[125] by mosquitoes.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of mosquito curtains.'[126]

 


[103]

14.

14.1 Now at that time at Vesâlî a regular service of sweet food had been established, the laity taking the duty in turns. The Bhikkhus, eating the sweet food, became very sick with superfluity of humors in their body[127].

Now Gîvaka Komârabhakka went to Vesâlî on [104] some business or other. And on seeing the Bhikkhus very sick with superfluity of humors, he went up to where the Blessed One was; and when he had come there, he saluted the Blessed One and took his seat on one side. And when so seated he said to the Blessed One: 'The Bhikkhus, Lord are now very sick with superfluity of humors. It would be well if the Blessed One were to prescribe, Lord for the Bhikkhus the use of the cloister[128] and of the bath-room[129]. Thus will the Bhikkhus become convalescent.'

Then the Blessed One instructed, and aroused, and incited, and gladdened Gîvaka Komârabhakka with religious discourse. And Gîvaka Komârabhakka; so instructed, and incited, and aroused, and gladdened with religious discourse, arose from his seat and saluted the Blessed One, and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, departed thence. And the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, convened an assembly of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the use of the cloister and of the bath-room.'

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus walked up and down on a cloister on uneven ground; and their feet were hurt.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it level.'

The cloister had too low a basement, and was inundated with water[130].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it with a high basement.'

The facing of the basement fell in[131].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of facing of three kinds--brick facing, stone facing, and wooden facing.'

They found difficulty in getting up into it.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stairs of three kinds--brick stairs, stone stairs, and wooden stairs.'

As they were going up them, they fell off.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a balustrade.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when walking up and down in the cloister, fell down.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to provide a railing[132] for the cloister.'

[105] Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when walking up and down in the open air, were distressed by heat and by cold.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a hall for the cloister[133],'

Straw and plaster fell (from the walls and roof) into the cloister-hall.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to first cover over (the walls and roof with skins), and then plaster them. (And I allow the use of) whitewash, and blacking, and red colouring, and wreath-work, and creeper-work, and bone hooks, and cupboards, and bamboos to hang robes on, and strings to hang robes on.'

3. [The whole of the above, from the basement down to the balustrade, is repeated of the hot-bath house.]

The bath house had no door.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a door, with door-posts and lintel[134], with hollows like a mortar (for the door to revolve in[135]), with projections to [106] revolve in those hollows[136], with rings on the door for, the bolt to work along in[137], with a block of wood fixed unto the edge of the door-post and containing a cavity for the bolt to go into (called the monkey's head[138]), with a pin[139] (to secure the bolt by), with a connecting bolt[140], with a key-hole[141], with a hole for the string with which the door can be closed, and with a string for that purpose[142].'

[107] The lower part of the wattle and daub wall[143] of the bath-room decayed (through damp).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to face round the lower half of the wall (with bricks[144]).'

The bath-room had no chimney[145].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a chimney.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus made a fire-place in the middle of a small bath-room, and there was no room to get to (the bath).

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make the fire-place at one side of a small bath-room, and in the middle of a large one[146].'

The fire in the bath-room scorched their faces.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of clay to spread over your faces[147].'

They moistened the clay in their hands.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a trough to moisten the clay in[148].'

[108] The clay had a bad smell.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to scent it.'

The fire in the bath-room scorched their bodies.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have water poured over you.'

They poured the water out of dishes and alms-bowls.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a stand for the water, and saucers[149] to pour it from.'

A bath-room with a thatched roof did not produce perspiration.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover the roof of the bath-room (with skins[150]), and to plaster it within and without.'

The bath-room became swampy.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to lay the floor with flooring of three kinds--brick flooring, stone flooring, and wooden flooring.'

It still became swampy.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wash the floor.'

The water settled on the floor.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a drain to carry off the water[151].'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus sat in the bath-room on the ground, and they had pins and needles in their limbs[152].

[109] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stools for the bath-room.'

Now at that time the bath-room had no enclosure.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enclose it with three kinds of enclosures--brick walls, and stone walls, and wooden fences.'

4. There was no antechamber[153] (in which the water could be kept).

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have an antechamber.'

The basement of the antechamber was too low, and it was inundated with water [and so on, as in II. 6, and in the last section down to the end of the description of the door, followed by the closing words of II. 6 and of § 2 from 'straw and plaster fell, &c.,' down to 'cupboards[154]'].

5. The cell[155] became swampy.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to spread gravel[156] over it.'

[110] They did not succeed in getting any[157].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to flag it with stone.'

The water settled on the floor.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have a drain to it.'

 


 

15.

15.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when naked[158], saluted one another, and received salutes; did service to one another, and received services; gave to one another, and accepted; ate, both hard food and soft; tasted; and drank.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A man, O Bhikkhus, when naked, is not to give salutations, nor receive them; is not to do services, nor to accept them[159]; is not to give, nor to receive; is not to eat either hard or soft; is not to taste; is not to drink. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

16.

16.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus in the bath-room put the robes down on the ground, and the robes became dirty.

[111] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bamboo to hang your robes on, and of a string to hang your robes on[160].'

When rain fell, it fell over the robes.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have a hall to the bath-room.'

The basement of the bath-room hall was too low [&c., as in 11. 6; 14. 2 as to basement, roof-facing, stairs, and balustrade, followed by the closing words of 11. 6 and 14. 2, down to the end].

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus were afraid[161] to do service to one another, both when in the bath-room and in the water.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, three kinds of coverings--the covering of the bath-room, the covering of the water, and the covering by clothes[162].'

Now at that time there was no water in the bath-room.

They told this matter to the Blessed One. I allow, O Bhikkhus, a well.'

The facing of the well fell in[163].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to line the well with [112] facings of three kinds[164]--brick facing, stone facing, and wooden facing.'

[Then follow the paragraphs as to the high basement, the facing of the roof, the stairs, and the balustrade, as in 11. 6; 14. 2; and above, § 1[165].]

Now at that time the Bhikkhus drew water with jungle-rope[166], or with their waistbands.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a string rope to draw water with.'

Their hands were hurt (by the rope).

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a long pole balanced as a lever[167], of a bullock machine[168], or of a wheel and axle[169].'

[113] A number of pots were broken.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, water-vessels[170] of three kinds--brass pots, wooden pots, and skins[171].'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when drawing water in the open air, suffered from heat and cold.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to build a shed over the well[172].'

Straw and plaster fell into the building over the well.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover the shed with skins, and to plaster it within and without; and I allow the use of whitewash, blacking, red-colouring, wreath work, creeper work, cupboards, bamboos to hang robes on, and strings to hang robes on.'

The well was uncovered, and it was littered over with grass, and plaster, and dirt.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a lid[173] to the well.'

Water-vessels were found wanting.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of troughs[174] and basons.'

 


 

17.

17.1 [114] Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to bathe anywhere all over the Ârâma, and the Ârâma became muddy.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a pool (at the entrance to the Ârâma).'

The pool was public, and the Bhikkhus were ashamed to bathe in it.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to surround it with enclosures of three kinds--brick walls, stone walls, and wooden fences[175].'

The pool became muddy.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to flag it with three kinds of flooring--brick flooring, stone flooring, or wooden flooring.'

The water settled.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a drain.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus' limbs became cold.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a towel[176], and to wipe the water off with a cloth.'

2. Now at that time a certain Upâsaka was desirous of making a tank for the use of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a tank.'

The sides of the tank fell in[177].

[115] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to line the tank with facing of three kinds--brick facing, stone facing, and wooden facing.'

They found difficulty[178] in getting into it.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, flights of stairs of three kinds--brick steps, stone steps, and wooden steps.'

While going up them, they fell down.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a balustrade.'

The water in the tank became stale.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of pipes to lay on the water[179], and to drain the water off[180].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was desirous of erecting a bath-room with a nillekha[181] roof for the use of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a bath-room with such a roof to it.'

 


 

18.

18.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus separated themselves from the mats on which they sat down for four months[182].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to separate yourselves for four months from the mats on which you sit [116] down. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus lay down to sleep on beds scattered over with flowers.

People who came on a visit to the Vihâras saw it, and murmured, &c., saying, 'Like those who still live in the pleasures of the world.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to sleep on beds scattered over with flowers. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time people came to the Ârâma, bringing perfumes and garlands. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not accept them.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus; to accept the perfume, and to apply it to the door for a space of five finger-breadths[183]; and to accept the flowers, and put them on one side in the Vihâra.'

 


 

19.

19.1 Now at that time a sheath of felt[184] had come into the possession of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a sheath.'

The Bhikkhus considered whether a sheath was a thing which each one might keep for himself, or a thing which ought to be handed over from time to time by one Bhikkhu to another.'

[117] 'A sheath, O Bhikkhus, is neither to be appropriated nor to be handed over[185].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to eat lying on decorated divans.

People murmured, &c saying, 'Like those still living in the pleasures of the world.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to eat lying on decorated divans[186]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and when eating he was not able to hold his bowl in his hand.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a stand for the bowl[187].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used to eat out of one dish, to drink out of one vessel, and to lie on one bed, one coverlet, or one mat[188].

The people murmured, &c. . . . .

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[118] 'You are not, O Bhikkhus, [to do any of these things.] Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

20.

20.1 Now at that time Vaddha the Likkhavi was a friend of the Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummagaka[189]. Now Vaddha the Likkhavi went up to the place where those Bhikkhus were, and on arriving there he said to them, 'My salutation to you, Sirs!' When he had thus spoken, the Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummagaka gave him no reply. And a second and a third time [he said the same words, and still received no reply].

'Wherein have I offended you, Sirs? Why do you give me no reply?'

'Therein, that you, friend, sit contented while we are being molested by Dabba the Mallian.'

'But what, Sirs, can I do?'

'If you wished it, friend, to-day even would the Blessed One expel Dabba the Mallian.'

'But what shall I do, Sirs? What is that it is in my power to do?'

'Come then, friend Vaddha. Do you go up to the place where the Blessed One is, and when you have come there, say as follows: "This, Lord, is neither fit nor becoming that the very quarter of the heavens which ought to be safe, secure, and free from danger, [119] that from that very quarter should arise danger, calamity, and distress--that where one ought to expect a calm, that just there one should meet a gale! Methinks the very water has taken fire! My wife has been defiled by Dabba the Mallian!"'

2. 'Very well, Sirs!' said Vaddha the Likkhavi, accepting the word of the followers of Mettiya and Bhummagaka. And he went up to the Blessed One [and spake even as he had been directed].

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and asked the venerable Dabba the Mallian:

'Are you conscious[190], Dabba, of having done such a thing as this Vaddha says?'

'As my Lord, the Blessed One, knows.'

[And a second, and a third time, the Blessed One asked the same question, and received the same reply.]

'The Dabbas, O Dabba, do not thus repudiate. If you have done it, say so. If you have not done it, say you have not.'

'Since I was born, Lord, I cannot call to mind that I have practised sexual intercourse, even in a dream, much less when I was awake!'

3. Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let then the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, turn the bowl down[191] in respect of Vaddha the Likkhavi, [120] and make him incapable of granting an alms to the Samgha[192].

'There are eight things, O Bhikkhus, which when they characterise an Upâsaka, the bowl is to be turned down in respect of him;--when he goes about to bring loss of gifts on the Bhikkhus, when he goes about to bring harm to the Bhikkhus, when he goes about to cause the Bhikkhus to want a place of residence, when he reviles or slanders the Bhikkhus, when he causes divisions between Bhikkhus and Bhikkhus;--when he speaks in dispraise of the Buddha,;--when he speaks in dispraise of the Dhamma;--when he speaks in dispraise of the Samgha. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to turn down the bowl in respect of an Upâsaka who is characterised by these eight things[193].'

4. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the bowl to be turned down. Some able and discreet Bhikkhu is to lay the matter before the Samgha, saying, [121]

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. Vaddha the Likkhavi has brought a groundless charge against the venerable Dabba the Mallian of a breach of morality. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha turn down the bowl as respects Vaddha the Likkhavi, and make him as one who has no dealings with the Samgha.

'"This is the motion (ñatti).

'"Vaddha the Likkhavi has brought a groundless charge against Dabba the Mallian of a breach of morality. The Samgha turns down the bowl as respects Vaddha the Likkhavi, and makes him as one who has no dealings with the Samgha. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the bowl being turned down as regards Vaddha the Likkhavi, and of making him as one who has no dealings with the Samgha, let him keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.

'"The bowl is turned down by the Samgha as regards Vaddha the Likkhavi, he is as one who has no dealings with the Samgha. The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

5. Then the venerable Ânanda, having dressed himself early in the morning, went, duly bowled and robed, to the residence of Vaddha the Likkhavi. And when he had come there he spake to Vaddha the Likkhavi, and said: 'The bowl, friend Vaddha, has been turned down by the Samgha as regards you, and you are as one who has no dealings with the Samgha.' And Vaddha the Likkhavi, on hearing that saying, immediately[194] fainted and fell.

[122] 'Then the friends and companions of Vaddha the Likkhavi, and his relatives of one blood with him, said to him: 'It is enough, friend Vaddha. Weep not, neither lament. We will reconcile[195] the Blessed One to you, and the Order of Bhikkhus.'

And Vaddha the Likkhavi, with his wife and his children, and with his friends and companions, and with his relatives of one blood with him, went up, with wet garments and with streaming hair, to the place where the Blessed One was; and when he had come there, he cast himself down with his head at the feet of the Blessed One, and said: 'Sin has overcome me, Lord--even according to my weakness, according to my folly, according to my unrighteousness--in that without ground I brought a charge against Dabba the Mallian of a breach of morality. In respect thereof may my Lord the Blessed One accept the confession I make of my sin in its sinfulness[196], to the end that I may in future restrain myself therefrom[197].'

'Verily, O friend Vaddha, sin hath overcome you--even according to your weakness, and according to your folly, and according to your unrighteousness--in that you brought without ground against Dabba the Mallian a charge of breach of morality. But since you, O friend Vaddha, look upon your sin as sin, and make amends for it as is meet, we do accept at your hands your confession of it. For this, O friend Vaddha, is the advantage of [123] the discipline of the noble one, that he who looks upon his sin as sin, and makes amends for it as is meet, he becomes able in future to restrain himself therefrom[198].'

6. Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let then the Samgha turn up the bowl again as regards Vaddha the Likkhavi, and make him as one who has dealings with the Samgha.

'There are eight things, O Bhikkhus, which when they characterise an Upâsaka the bowl should be turned up again as regards him;--when he goes not about to bring loss of gifts on the Bhikkhus, when he goes not about to bring harm to the Bhikkhus, when he goes not about to cause the Bhikkhus to want a place of residence, when he reviles or slanders not the Bhikkhus, when he causes not divisions between Bhikkhus and Bhikkhus;--when he speaks not in dispraise of the Buddha;--when he speaks not in dispraise of the Dhamma;--when he speaks not in dispraise of the Samgha.

7. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the bowl to be turned up[199]. That Vaddha the Likkhavi should go before the Samgha, with his upper robe arranged over one shoulder[200], and squatting down, and raising [124] his hands with the palms joined together, should speak as follows:

'"The bowl has been turned down against me, Sirs, by the Samgha, and I am become as one having no dealings with the Samgha. I am conducting myself, Sirs, aright in accordance thereto, and am broken in spirit[201], and I seek for release; and I request the Samgha for a turning up again of the bowl."

'And a second time he is to prefer the same request, and a third time he is to prefer the same request in the same words.

'Then some discreet and able Bhikkhu should lay the matter before the Samgha, saying,

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. The bowl has been turned down by the Samgha against Vaddha the Likkhavi, and he is conducting himself aright in accordance thereto, and is broken in spirit, and seeks for release, and requests the Samgha for a turning up again of the bowl. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha turn up the bowl again as regards Vaddha the Likkhavi, and make him as one who has dealings with the Samgha.

'"This is the motion (ñatti).

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. The bowl has been turned down (&c., as before), and he is conducting himself (&c., as before), and he requests the Samgha (&c., as before). The Samgha turns up again the bowl as regards Vaddha the Likkhavi, and makes him as one who has dealings with the [125] Samgha. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him keep silence; whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.

'"The bowl is turned up again by the Samgha as regards Vaddha the Likkhavi, and he is as one who has dealings with the Samgha. The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

 


 

21.

21.1 Now the Blessed One, when he had stayed at Vesâlî as long as he thought fit, set out on his journey toward Bhaggâ[202]. And journeying straight on he arrived in due course at Bhaggâ. And there at Bhaggâ the Blessed One resided on the Dragon's Hill, in the hermitage in the Bhesakalâ Wood[203].

Now at that time Bodhi the king's son's mansion, which was called Kokanada, had just been finished, and had not as yet been used[204] by Samana, or by Brâhman, or by any human being. And Bodhi the king's son gave command to the young Brahman, the son of the Sañgika woman[205], saying, 'Come [126] now, my friend Sañgikâ-putta, go thou to the place where the Blessed One is, and when you have come there, bow down in salutation at his feet on my behalf, and enquire in my name whether he is free from sickness and suffering, and is in the enjoyment of ease and comfort and vigorous health, saying, "Bodhi the king's son, Lord, bows down in salutation at thy feet, and enquires [as I have said][206], and asks: 'May my Lord the Blessed One consent to take his to-morrow's meal with Bodhi the king's son, together with the Samgha of Bhikkhus.''

'Even so, Sir!' said the young Brahman Sañgikâ-putta, in assent to Bodhi the king's son. And he went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and when he had come there he exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of friendship and civility. And when he had done so, he took his seat on one side, and se seated he [delivered to him the message even as me king's son had commanded]. And the Blessed One gave, by silence, his consent.

2. And when the young Brahman Sañgikâ-putta had perceived that the Blessed One had consented, he arose from his seat, and went up to the place where Bodhi the king's son was. And when he had come there, he said to him: 'We have spoken, Sir, in your behalf to that venerable Gotama, saying (&c., as before), and have received the consent of the Samana Gotama.'

Then Bodhi the king's son made ready at the end [127] of that night sweet food, both hard and soft; and had the mansion Kokanada spread over with white cloths even unto the last planks in the flight of steps (at the entrance)[207]; and gave command to the young Brahman Sañgikâ-putta, saying, 'Come now, my friend Sañgikâ-putta, go thou up to the place where the Blessed One is; and when you have come there, announce the time, saying, "The meal, Lord, is ready, and the time has come."'

'Even so, Lord,' said Sañgikâ-putta in assent [and went to the Blessed One and announced accordingly].

Now the Blessed One, having dressed himself early in the morning, went, duly bowled and robed, to Bodhi the king's son's mansion. And Bodhi the king's son stood at that time at the portico over the outer door to welcome the Blessed One. And he saw the Blessed One coming from afar; and on seeing him he went forth thence to meet him, and when he had saluted the Blessed One, he returned again to the mansion Kokanada.

Now the Blessed One stopped at the last plank on the flight of steps at the entrance. And Bodhi the king's son said to the Blessed One, 'May my Lord the Blessed One walk over the cloths. May the Happy One walk over the cloths, that the same may be to me for a long time for a weal and for a joy.'

And when he had thus spoken, the Blessed One remained silent. And a second time he [preferred the same request in the same words with the same [128] result]. And a third time he [preferred the same request]. Then the Blessed One looked round at the venerable Ânanda.

And the venerable Ânanda said to Bodhi the king's son, 'Let them gather up, O prince, these cloths. The Blessed One will not walk on a, strip of cloth (laid down for ceremonial purposes)[208]. The Tathâgata has mercy even on the meanest thing.'

3. Then Bodhi the king's son had the cloths gathered up, and spread out a seat on the top of Kokanada. And the Blessed One ascended up into Kokanada, and sat down on the seat spread out there with the Samgha of Bhikkhus. And Bodhi the king's son satisfied the Bhikkhu-samgha with the Buddha at their head with the sweet food, both hard and soft, waiting upon them with his own hand[209]. And when the Blessed One had cleansed his bowl and his hands, he (Bodhi) took his seat on one side. And the Blessed One instructed, and roused, and incited, and gladdened him thus sitting with religious discourse. And when he had been thus instructed, and roused, and incited, and gladdened [129] with religious discourse, Bodhi the king's son rose from his seat and departed thence.

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, convened an assembly of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and after he had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus and said:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to walk upon cloth laid down (for ceremonial purposes). Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

4. Now at that time a certain woman who had had a miscarriage, and had invited the Bhikkhus, and spread cloths in their honour, said to them. 'Step, Sirs, over the cloth.'

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not do so.

'Step, Sirs, over the cloth, for good luck's sake.'

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not do so.

Then that woman murmured, was annoyed, and was indignant, saying, 'How can their reverences refuse to step over the cloth when they are asked to do so for good luck's sake?'

The Bhikkhus heard of that woman's murmuring, and being annoyed, and indignant. And they told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, when asked to do so for the sake of good luck to laymen, to step over cloth laid down for ceremonial purposes.'

Now at the time the Bhikkhus were afraid to step on to a mat to be used for wiping the feet[210].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[130] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to step on to a mat to be used for wiping the feet.'

Here ends the second Portion[211] for Recitation.

 


 

22.

22.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Bhaggâ as long as he thought fit, he set out on his journey towards Sâvatthi. And journeying straight on he arrived in due course at Sâvatthi, and there, at Sâvatthi, he stayed in the Getavana, in the Ârâma of Anâtha-pindika.

Now Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra, bringing small jars[212], and earthenware foot-scrubbers[213], and brooms, went up to the place where the Blessed One was; and when she had come there, she saluted the Blessed One, and took her seat on one side. And so sitting, Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra said to the Blessed One, 'May the Blessed One accept these things at my hands, that that may be to me for long for a blessing and a joy.' And the Blessed One accepted the small jars and the brooms; but the Blessed One did not accept the earthenware foot-scrubbers.

[131] Then the Blessed One instructed (&c., as usual, see 21. 2, down to) she departed thence. And the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, after having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, small jars and brooms. You are not, O Bhikkhus, to make use of earthen-ware foot-scrubbers. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, three kinds of things to rub the feet with--to wit, sandstone[214], gravel[214], and sea-foam[215].'

2. [A similar paragraph ending]

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of fans and flower-stands[216].'

 


 

23.

23.1 Now at that time a mosquito-fan had come into the possession of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of mosquito-fans.'

A châmara (a tail of the Bos Gruniens or Tibetan ox, mounted on a stick, to be used by [132] an attendant to whisk off flies) had come into the possession of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a châmara. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[217]. I allow, O Bhikkhus, three kinds of flywhisks--those made of bark, those made of Usîra-grass, and those made of peacocks' tails[218].'

2. [Similar paragraph ending]

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of sun-shades[219].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiyas went about with sun-shades up. And at that, time a certain Upâsaka went to a garden with a number of men who were followers of the Âgîvakas (naked ascetics). And those followers of the Âgîvakas saw the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus coming along in the distance with sun-shades held over them; and on seeing them, they said to that Upâsaka:

'Are these, Sir, the men whom you reverence coming along, like lords of the treasury, there with sun-shades held over them?'

'No, Sirs. These are not Bhikkhus; they are Paribbâgakas (wandering mendicants).'

So they made a bet whether they were Bhikkhus or not. And when that Upâsaka recognised them, when they came up, he murmured, was annoyed, and was indignant, saying, 'How can their reverences go about with sun-shades held over them?'

The Bhikkhus heard of that Upâsaka's thus murmuring, &c.

[133] And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say?'

'It is true, Lord.'

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying (&c., as usual, see I, 1, 2, 3). And when he had rebuked them, and had delivered a religious discourse, he, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have sun-shades held over you. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and without a sun-shade (being held over him) he was ill at ease.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a sun-shade for the sick.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, thinking, 'It is for the sick only that sun-shades have been allowed by the Blessed One, and not for those who are not sick,' were afraid to use sun-shades in the Ârâma, or in the precincts of the Ârâma.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, either a sick man, or one who is not sick, to have a sun-shade held over him either in the Ârâma, or in the precincts of the Ârâma[220].

 


 

24.

24.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu tied his bowl with a string, and suspending it on a staff[221], went after noon out of a certain village gate. The people calling out, 'There goes a thief; his sword is glistening,' fell upon him, and seized him. But on recognising him, they let him go. That Bhikkhu, returning to the Ârâma, told this matter to the Bhikkhus.

'What then, Sir, did you carry a staff with a string to it?'

'It is even so, Sirs.'

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured (&c., as usual, see I, 1, 2, 3) . . . . told the Blessed One . . . . he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry a staff with a string to it. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

2. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and he could not wander about without a staff. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[135] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give to a sick Bhikkhu the permission (license) to use a staff. And thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be given. That sick Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, should go up to the Samgha [here follow the words of a Kammavâkâ, precisely as in V, 20, 7]'

3. [Similar paragraphs ending with Kammavâkâs for license to lift the bowl with a string, and with both a staff and a string.]

 


 

25.

25.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was a ruminator[222], and he, continually ruminating, used to chew the cud.

The Bhikkhus murmured, were annoyed, and were indignant, saying, 'This Bhikkhu eats food out of hours[223].' And they told this matter to the Blessed One.

'This Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, has but lately fallen from the condition of being an ox. I allow, O Bhikkhus, to a ruminator the chew of the cud. But nothing, O Bhikkhus, brought from the door of the mouth to the outside thereof is to be so chewed[224]. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to the law[225].'

 


 

26.

26.1 Now at that time a certain multitude had [136] arranged for the privilege of supplying food to the Samgha, and in the dining-hall many fragments of rice were allowed to fall.

The people murmured, were annoyed, and were indignant, saying, 'How can the Sakya-puttiya Samanas, when food is being given to them, take it so carelessly. Each single ball of rice is the result of hundredfold labour!'

The Bhikkhus heard of the people thus murmuring, &c., and they told the matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, whatever thing falls when it is being given to you, yourselves to pick it up and eat it. That has been presented, O Bhikkhus, by the givers.'

 


 

27.

27.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu went on his round for alms with long finger-nails. A certain woman, seeing him, said to that Bhikkhu: 'Come along, Sir, and have connection with me.'

'Nay, Sister, that is not becoming.'

'If you do not, Sir, I will at once scratch[226] my limbs with my own nails, and will make as if I were angry, saying, "This Bhikkhu has ill-treated me."'

'Settle that with yourself, Sister.'

That woman did as she had said, and people running up seized that Bhikkhu. Then they saw skin and blood on the woman's nails; and on seeing that, they let the Bhikkhu go, saying, 'This is the [137] work of the woman herself. The Bhikkhu has not done it.'

Then that Bhikkhu, returning to the Ârâma, told the matter to the Bhikkhus.

'What then, Sir, do you wear long nails?'

'It is even so, Sirs.'

The Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured (&c. . . . .) told the matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear long nails. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus tore off their nails with the nails, bit them off with their teeth, or rubbed them down against the wall; and their fingers were hurt.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, nail-cutters.'

They cut their nails down to the blood, and their fingers were hurt.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cut your nails according to the length of the flesh.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus had all the twenty nails (on their hands and feet) polished.

People murmured, &c., saying, 'Like those who still live in the pleasures of the world.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have the twenty nails polished. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to remove the dirt only.'

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus' hair grew long.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Are the Bhikkhus able, O Bhikkhus, to remove one another's hair?'

'They are, Lord.'

[138] Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, after he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of razors, of a hone to sharpen the razors on, of powder prepared with Sipâtika-gum to prevent them rusting[227], of a sheath to hold them in[228], and of all the apparatus of a barber[229].'

4. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus wore (&c., as usual, down to)

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have your beards cut (by barbers)[230], nor to let them grow long, nor to wear them long on the chin like a goat's beard[231], nor so cut that they have four corners[232], nor to cut off the hair growing on your breast[233], nor to cut the hair on your bellies into figures[234], nor to wear whiskers[235], nor to remove the hair from your private parts[236]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

[139] Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a fistula[237], and the ointment would not stick to it.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of disease, to remove the hair from the private parts.'

5. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to)

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have your hair cut off with a knife[238]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a sore on his head, and the hair could not be removed with a razor.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of disease, to have your hair cut off with a knife.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus wore the hair in their nostrils long.

People murmured, &c., saying, 'Like the devil-worshippers[239].'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear the hair in your nostrils long. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus had the hair in their nostrils pulled out with a potsherd[240], or with beeswax; and their nostrils were hurt.

[140] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of pincers[241].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus (&c.; as before, ending with)

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have the white hairs pulled out (off your heads). Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

6. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu's ears were stopped with the wax.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of an instrument to remove the wax from the ear[242].'

[Then a paragraph as to the substances of which it may be made, word for word, as in Mahâvagga VI, 6, 21; 12, 3; Kullavagga V, 5, 2; 29, 2, &c.]

 


 

28.

28.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus laid up much store of brass ware and copper ware.

People who came on a visit to the Vihâras, seeing it, murmured, &c., saying, 'Like those who spread out copper (for sale)[243].'

They told this matter to the blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to lay up much store of brass ware and copper ware. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[200].'

[141] 2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus were afraid to use boxes to put eye-ointment in[245], and little flat sticks to lay it on with[246], and instruments for removing wax from the ear[247], and handles (for razors, staves, &c.)[248].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of these things.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus sat down lolling up against their waist-cloths (arranged as a cushion)[249], and the edges of the waist-cloths wore out[250].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to loll in this way. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and without some handicraft[251] he was ill at ease.

[142] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a loom, and of shuttles, strings, tickets, and all the apparatus belonging to a loom.

 


 

29.

29.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu entered the village for alms without a girdle on, and in the highway[252] his waist-cloth fell down[253]. The people made an outcry, and that Bhikkhu was abashed.

On his return to the Ârâma, that Bhikkhu told this matter to the Bhikkhus, and the Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to enter the village without a girdle on. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow, O Bhikkhus, a girdle[254].'

2. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus wore (&c., as usual, ending with)

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear special girdles[255]--those made of many strings plaited [143] together[256], those made like the head of a water-snake[257], girdles with tambourines on them[258], girdles with beads on (or with ornaments hanging from them)[259]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, girdles of two kinds--those made of strips of cloth, and those . . . .[260]'

The borders of the girdles decayed through age.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, an edging of brighter material[261] and strengthening at the ends[262].'

The end of the girdle where the knot was tied decayed through age[263].

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a buckle[264].'

[A paragraph on the substances of which it may be made, as usual, see Mahâvagga VI, 12, 3; Kullavagga V, 5, 2, &c., [144] adding at the end 'and made of string.']

3. Now at the time the venerable Ânanda went into the village for alms with light garments on[265] and his garments were blown up by a whirlwind.

The venerable Ânanda, on returning to the Ârâma, told this matter to the Bhikkhus; and the Bhikkhus told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a block[266] (to be used as a weight) or a chain[267].'

[Similar paragraph to that just above as to the substances of which the block may be made.]

Now at that time the Bhikkhus fastened the block or the chain immediately on to their robes; and the robes gave way.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a piece of phalaka cloth[268] to attach the block or the chain to.'

They fastened the phalaka cloth for the block or the chain on to the edge of the robe; and the corner came open[269].

[145] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fasten the phalaka cloth for the block on the edge of the robe, and to fasten the phalaka cloth for the chain seven or eight finger-breadths up the robe.'

4. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus wore (&c., as usual, ending with)

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear your under garments arranged as laymen do, nor arranged with appendages like elephant-trunks[270], nor arranged like fishing-nets[271], nor arranged with four corners showing[272], nor arranged like flower-stands[273], nor arranged like rows of jewelry[274]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.

[Similar paragraph, ending]

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear your upper[275] [146] garments as the laymen do. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

5. [Similar paragraph, ending]

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear your under garments[276] as the king's porters do[276]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

30.

30.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus carried a double pingo (a yoke over the shoulders with the weight to be carried on both sides).

People murmured, &c., saying, 'Like the king's porters[277].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry a double pingo. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to carry a single pingo, a pingo for two bearers[278], and to carry weights on your head, or your shoulders, or against your hips[279], and suspended over your backs.'

 


 

31.

31.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus did not use tooth-sticks[280], and their mouths got a bad odour.

[147] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'There are these five disadvantages, O Bhikkhus, in not using tooth-sticks--it is bad for the eyes[281]--the mouth becomes bad-smelling--the passages by which the flavours of the food pass are not pure--bile and phlegm get into[282] the food--and the food does not taste well[283] to him (who does not use them). These are the five disadvantages, O Bhikkhus, in not using tooth-sticks.'

There are five advantages, O Bhikkhus, (&c., the converse of the last)

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, tooth-sticks.'

2. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used long tooth-sticks; and even struck the Sâmaneras with them.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use long tooth-sticks.

[148] Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, tooth-sticks up to eight finger-breadths in length. And Sâmaneras are not to be struck with them. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, when using too short a tooth-stick, got it stuck in his throat.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use too short a tooth-stick. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, tooth-sticks four finger-breadths long at the least.'

 


 

32.

32.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus set the woods on fire.

People murmured, &c., saying, 'Like the charcoal burners.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to set woods on fire. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Vihâras were hidden under masses of grass[284], and when the woods were set on fire the Vihâras were burnt. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not make a counter-fire for their own protection.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus. when the woods are [149] on fire to make a counter-fire[285], and thus afford yourselves protection.'

2. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus climbed up trees, and jumped from tree to tree.

People murmured, &c., saying, 'Like monkeys.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to climb up trees. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time, when a certain Bhikkhu in the Kosala country was going to Sâvatthi, an elephant pursued him on the way. And that Bhikkhu, when he had run up to the foot of a tree, fearing to offend, did not climb up. The elephant passed on another way.

That Bhikkhu, on arriving at Sâvatthi, told this matter to the Bhikkhus (and the Bhikkhus told this matter to the Blessed One[286]).

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, when there shall be something to be done to ascend a tree to the height of a man; and in cases of misfortune as high as you like.'

 


 

33.

33.1 Now at that time there were two brothers, Bhikkhus, by name Yamelu and Tekula[287], Brâhmans [150] by birth, excelling in speech, excelling in pronunciation. These went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and when they had come there, they saluted the Blessed One, and took their seats on one side. And so sitting those Bhikkhus spake to the Blessed One thus:

'At the present time, Lord, Bhikkhus, differing in name, differing in lineage, differing in birth, differing in family, have gone forth (from the world). These corrupt the word of the Buddhas by (repeating it in) their own dialect. Let us, Lord, put the word of the Buddhas into (Sanskrit) verse[288].'

'How can you, O foolish ones, speak thus, saying, "Let us, Lord, put the word of the Buddhas into verse?" This will not conduce, O foolish ones, either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to those who have not been converted being not converted, and to the turning back of those who have been converted.'

And when the Blessed One had rebuked those Bhikkhus, and had delivered a religious discourse [289], he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

[151] 'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put the word of the Buddhas into (Sanskrit) verse. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to learn the word of the Buddhas each in his own dialect[290].'

2. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus learnt the Lokâyata system[291].

People murmured, &c., saying, 'Like those who still enjoy the pleasures of the world!'

The Bhikkhus heard of the people thus murmuring; and those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Now can a man who holds the Lokâyata as valuable reach up, O Bhikkhus, to the full advantage of, or attain to full growth in, to full breadth in this doctrine and discipline[292]?'

'This cannot be, Lord.'

'Or can a man who holds this doctrine and discipline to be valuable learn the Lokâyata system?'

[152] 'This cannot be, Lord.'

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to learn the Lokâyata system. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus taught the Lokâyata system.

People murmured, &c., saying, 'Like those still enjoying the pleasures of the world!'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to teach the Lokâyata system. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

[Similar paragraphs to the last, ending]

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to learn--to teach--the low arts[293] (of divination, spells, omens, astrology, sacrifices to gods, witchcraft, and quackery).'

3. Now at that time the Blessed One when, surrounded by a great assembly, he was preaching the Dhamma, sneezed. The Bhikkhus raised a great and mighty shout, 'Long life to our Lord the Blessed One! Long life to the Happy One!' and by the sound thereof the discourse was interrupted. Then the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus:

'Now if when a man has sneezed, O Bhikkhus, some one says, "Long life to you," can he live or die on that account?'

'Not so, Lord.'

[153] 'You are not, O Bhikkhus, when one has sneezed, to call out, "Long life to you." Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[294].'

Now at that time people said to the Bhikkhus when they sneezed, 'Long life to your reverence!' and the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, gave no reply. The people murmured, were annoyed, and were indignant, saying, 'How can the Sakya-puttiya Samanas omit to reply when people say, "Long life to your reverence?"'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Laymen, O Bhikkhus, are given to lucky phrases[295]. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to reply, "May you live long!" to laymen who say to you, "Long life to your reverence!"'

 


 

34.

Onions. Ms. Horner: 'garlic' which is more reasonable given it's medicinal properties and alternatively given the wide use of onions in prepared foods.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

34.1 Now at that time the Blessed One when, surrounded by a great assembly, he was preaching the Dhamma, was seated. And a certain Bhikkhu, who had eaten onions, sat down apart, thinking, Let not the Bhikkhus be annoyed [296]!'

The Blessed One saw that Bhikkhu sitting apart; and on seeing him, he said to the Bhikkhus, 'Why now, O Bhikkhus, is that Bhikkhu seated apart?'

'This Bhikkhu, Lord, has eaten onions, and has [154] seated himself apart in order not to annoy the Bhikkhus.'

'But ought, O Bhikkhus, anything to be eaten, that will cause the eater to keep away from such a preaching of the Dhamma as this?'

'No, indeed, Lord.'

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to eat onions. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[297].'

2. Now at that time the venerable Sâriputta had wind in his stomach. And the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna went up to the place where the venerable Sâriputta was, and when he had come there, he said to the venerable Sâriputta:

'How did you formerly, friend Sâriputta, get relief, when you had wind in the stomach?'

'By eating onions, my friend[298].'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat onions on account of disease.'

 


 

35.

35.1 Now at that tune the Bhikkhus made water here and there in the Ârâma, and the Ârâma was defiled.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make water at one side (of the Ârâma).'

[155] The Ârâma became offensive. . . . . .

[The rest of this chapter is scarcely translateable. It records in like manner the various sanitary difficulties which arose from the living together of a number of Bhikkhus. Each such difficulty is quite solemnly said to have been reported to the Blessed One, and he is said to have found a way out of it. The result of the whole is, that the building of privies is enjoined, and all the contrivances, such as seats, doors, steps, plastering, &c., already mentioned with respect to the bath-room, above, V, 14, are here repeated verbatim[299].]

 


 

36.

36.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus followed evil practices such as these--they used to plant [&c., word for word as in the long list at I, 13, I, 2, down to the end].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to follow manifold evil practices. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to the law.'

 


 

37.

37.1 Now at the time when the venerable Kassapa of Uruvela went forth (from the world), much property in brass and wood and earthenware came into the possession of the Samgha[300]. And the [156] Bhikkhus thought, 'What kinds of brass ware--of wooden things--of earthenware[301]--has the Blessed One allowed, and what kinds has he not allowed?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, when he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, all kinds of brass ware, except weapons[302]--all kinds of wooden things, except divans[303], and long-armed chairs[303], and bowls[204], and shoes[305],--and all kinds of earthenware, except katakas[306], and large earthen vessels to be used as huts to live in [307].'

Here ends the Fifth Khandhaka, on minor details.

 


[1] Ugghamseti. The simple verb occurs below, V, 9, 2, 4, X, 10, 2, and at Gâtaka, vol. i, p. 190. It is the Sanskrit root gharsh.

[2] On malla-mutthikâ Buddhaghosa merely says mutthika-mallâ. His note on gâma-poddavâ (already given by H.O. at p. 3.15 of the edition to the text) says, 'town’s people given to adorning themselves by painting their skin' (on which compare below, V, 2, 5). But it is difficult to see how that fits in with the connection here.

[3] So Buddhaghosa loc. cit.

[4] A wooden instrument in the shape of a hand, which was firs; covered with chunam (fine lime), and then rubbed over the body. See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 315 of H.O.'s edition of the text.

[5] Apparently a string of beads which was first covered with the chunam made from Kuruvindaka stone (a ruby-coloured stone), and then held at both ends and rubbed over the body. See Buddhaghosa's note loc. cit.

[6] As Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., explains this by 'rubbing their bodies up against each other'(!), vigayha has here probably nothing to do with gâh, but is simply vigrihya.

[7] A kind of back-scratcher, made according to Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., by placing together, by the roots, hooks made of the teeth of crocodiles (makara-dantaka; see V, 11, 6; VI, 3, 2), which had previously been split. Such hooks of split crocodiles' teeth are mentioned in the text itself below, V, 9, 2; and pins or hooks made of raga's teeth at V, 9, 5, and VI, 3, 5 (nâga-dantaka), and V, It, 7 (nâga-danta).

[8] Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., makes this phrase mean only 'made of teeth that had not been previously split.'

[9] Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., explains this word by vattovatti; which is to us equally unintelligible.

[10] Pudhu-pânikan ti hattha-parikammam vukkati. Tasmâ sabbesam hatthena pitthi-parikammam kâtum vattati (B.).

[11] Vallikâ ti kannato nikkhanta-mutt-olambakâdînam etam adhivakanam. Na kevalañ ka vallikâ eva, yam kiñki kanna-pilandhanam antamaso tâla-pannam pi na vattati (B.). Compare satavallikam at V, 29, 4.

[12] Pâmaṅga. The meaning of which is not clear from Buddhaghosa's note loc. cit. It occurs also at Dîpavamsa XII, 1, and below in Buddhaghosa's note on maddavina at V, 29, 2 (twice).

[13] Kati-suttakam. This is not mentioned in the similar paragraph at V, 29, 2, where all special kinds of girdles are enumerated. It is forbidden below to the Bhikkhunîs at X, 16.

[14] Ovattika. This word is explained by Buddhaghosa as the same as valayam. Ovattiya occurs, apparently in a different sense, at Mahâvagga VII, 1, 5, and the present word in Buddhaghosa on sata-vallikam at V, 29, 4.

[15] Kâyura, on which Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., merely says that the meaning of this, and of the following words, is evident. But the Gâtaka commentary (Fausböll III, 437, 14) says kâyûan ti gîvâya pilandhana-pasâdhanam.

[16] Osanheti. Compare the Sanskrit slakshnayati. The art of hair-dressing had, at the time when the Kullavagga was composed, been already carried to a high state of efficiency in the valley of the Ganges, as may reasonably be concluded from the numerous kinds of headdresses figured in bas-relief on some of the oldest Buddhist sculptures.

[17] Phanakenâ ti dantamayâdisu yena kenaki (B.).

[18] Hattha-phanakenâ ti hatthen’ eva phanaka-kikkam karonti, aṅgulîhi osanhenti (B.). It is clear from this last explanation that the phanaka was a kind of very primitive brush, but without bristles. In passing the fingers through the hair the fingers are naturally held separate, slightly forward, and stiff--precisely as one would hold them if one wished to imitate the hood of a cobra. To make a real brush with bristles was evidently beyond the mechanical appliances of those times, or such an article would certainly have been mentioned in this connection.

[19] On the use of Telaka, compare Mahâvagga VI, 13, I, and Sittha-telaka at Kullavagga IV, 3, 1.

[20] Compare Kullavagga X, 10, 4.

[21] All these practices are seriatim forbidden to the Bhikkhunîs also in Kullavagga X, 10, 3.

[22] The following section recurs, almost word for word, of the Bhikkhunîs, in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya X (Sutta-vibhaṅga, vol. ii, p. 267).

[23] Giragga-samagga. Compare Dîpavamsa XXI, 32, and Mahâvamsa, p. 214, line 2. It occurs also in the Introductory Story in the Sutta-vibhaṅga on the 37th Pâkittiya, and Buddhaghosa there explains it as follows: Giragga-samaggo ti girimhi agga-samaggo girissa vâ agga-dese samaggo. He is evidently in doubt about the word, which is probably connected with ancient local worship or custom, a worship in high-places, as little allied to Vedic Brahmanism as it was to Buddhism.

[24] Âyatakena gîta-ssarena. Compare âyataken’ eva papâto at Kullavagga IX, 1, 3.

[25] Probably this is supposed to result because dhamma being sung and not said is not intelligible to them--a complaint often made against the singing of prayers among Protestant Christians. On pakkhimâ ganatâ, compare the closing words of V, 21, 2; and on the rest of the phrase, Puggala III, 10, 14 The translation of sarakuttim is also very doubtful.

[26] Sara-bhaññam. So in the Mahâvagga we hear that So intoned before the Buddha a chapter from the Sutta Nipâta. The expression there used is sarena abhâsi, of which our word is used as the verbal noun, the roots bhan and bhâs being not only synonymous but interchangeable. (See, for instance, Vin. Pit. vol. iv, p. 353.) Perhaps 'recitative' would be a good rendering. I have several times heard the Dhamma thus recited by living Buddhists in accordance with the traditional interpretation of this passage, and their Sara-bhaññam was precisely like the intoning of prose passages as practised in our cathedral churches (Rh. D.).

[27] Bâhira-lomim-unnim. Literally, 'with the fleece outside.' Compare Mahâvagga V, 10, 4, and the Magghima Sîla, § 5 (p. 193 of Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas').

[28] Buddhaghosa gives in the Samanta Pâsâdikâ on the 11th Pâkittiya the following explanations of these terms. Aggi-parigitan ti agginâ parigitam abhibhûtam daddham phutthan ti attho. The reading parigitam is correct and should be inserted in the text for parikitam.

[29] Sattha-parigitan ti satthena parigitam abhibhûtam khinnam viddham vâ ti attho. Esa nayo nakha-parigite (B., loc. cit.).

[30] These last two clauses have already occurred at Mahâvagga VI, 21. The principle of the injunction throughout its five divisions is one and the same--the seed, or the capacity of fructification, must either have never existed, or have passed away, or have been destroyed.

[31] This ancient legend has been expanded into a Gâtaka story, under the title of Khandha-vatta Gâtaka, No. 203 in Professor Fausböll's edition (vol. ii, pp. 144-148), in which recur all the verses here given as a snake-charm. The names of the serpents are derived from the ancient mythology, and are not to be supposed to refer to actual breeds of real snakes. Below, Kullavagga VI, 2, 5, where a Bhikkhu is bitten by a snake, the simple precaution enjoined is the use of a higher bedstead.

[32] This phrase occurs in the passage at Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta I, 31, by which Buddhaghosa is so much perplexed.

[33] This is only one of the many passages from which it is evident that in the oldest Buddhism only the seven Buddhas, from Vipassi down to Gotama inclusive, were known by name to the members of the Buddhist community. Compare Rh. D.'s 'Hibbert Lectures, 1881,' p. 142. It is nevertheless probable that, with their ideas as to the infinite number of worlds which had succeeded one another in the past, they considered that the number of previous Buddhas had also been infinite.

[34] This last injunction, which comes in here so tamely, is omitted in the Gâtaka story, and is merely a hook on which to hang an excuse for introducing this ancient and evidently favourite prescription into the Vinaya. That it is quite out of place is sufficiently evident from the fact that it has already been laid down in identical terms in the Mahâvagga VI, 14, 4, where it is found in its natural connection.

[35] Anabhiratiyâ pîlito attano aṅgagâtam khindi. This anabhirati is constantly referred to, and always as the result of falling in love, or in connection with sexual desire.

[36] A Burmese version of the following legend is translated by Bishop Bigandet in his 'Legend of the Burmese Buddha,' vol. ii, pp. 212-216 (Third Edition).

[37] Kandana-ganthî uppannâ hoti ti kandana-ghattikâ uppannâ hoti (B.). Compare ganthikâ at Gâtaka I, 150 = gandikâ at ibid. II, 124, and our note below on that word at V, 29, 3.

[38] Lekham. It is clear from V, 9, 2, below, and Buddhaghosa's note there, that likhitum is used in the sense of 'to plane' or 'to adze' wood or metal; and the Sinhalese MSS. read here likham instead of lekham. It cannot be 'to turn,' as the turning lathe is quite a modern invention.

[39] A similar proceeding is related of a Bhikkhu at 24, 1.

[40] Mâsaka-rûpassa. On the mâsaka, see Rh. D.'s 'Ancient Coins and Measures, &c.,' p. 13. It is evident from the use of the word rûpa here that stamped pieces of money were known in the valley of the Ganges as early as the time when the Kullavagga was composed. The word occurs also below at Kullavagga XII, 1, X.

[41] See Kullavagga I, 1, 2.

[42] Compare the 4th Pârâgika.

[43] The use of sandal-wood for this purpose is allowed by the closing words of Mahâvagga VI, 11.

[44] This injunction is repeated below in the summary at V, 37.

[45] It is clear from verses 192-196 of the 13th chapter of the Râga-nighantu, written by Narahari of Kashmîr in the thirteenth century A. D., that at that time Vaidûrya meant 'cat's-eye: But it is uncertain whether that was the only meaning of the word veluriya at the time when this passage was composed. (See especially V. 124, p. 25, of Dr. Richard Garbe's edition in his work, 'Die Indischen Mineralien,' Leipzig, 1882.) See also Professor Max Müller's interesting note at p. 266 of his 'What can India teach us?'

[46]kamayo. There was probably no glass in our modern sense of the word when the Kullavagga was written. But kâka is a silicious earth, and some sort of glass-like earthenware may very well have been in use. The phrase has already occurred, together with all the others in this passage, at Mahâvagga V, 8, 3, of foot-coverings, but is omitted in the list at Khudda Sikkhâ V. 10.

[47] Ghamsîyati. Literally, 'were rubbed.' See below, § 3, and our note below on V, 9, 2, 4.

[48] Akkhûpiyanti. On the use of this word, compare Mahâvagga VIII, 14, 1, where it is used of inserting a slip of cloth in a torn garment.

[49] See our note above on V, 8, I. Buddhaghosa says here likhitun ti tanu-karan-atthây’ etam vuttam. The 'shaping' may be by carving, adzing, or planing.

[50] Compare above, V, 8, 1, and see Buddhaghosa's note at p. 316 of the edition of the text.

[51] The reading is corrupt; and therefore this rendering is merely conjectural. See H.O.'s note at p. 316 of his edition of the text.

[52] On these split crocodiles' teeth, see our note above on V, 1, 4.

[53] Rûpakokinnâni bhati-kamma-katâni. Buddhaghosa has nothing on these words. On the second, see below, VI, 2, 7, and H.O.'s note on that passage at p. 321 of the edition of the text. It is most probable that the reading in both passages should be bhatti-kamma, 'patchwork,' as further explained in our note below on VI, 2, 7; and we have translated accordingly.

[54] Otâpetvâ. The word has already occurred in Mahâvagga I, 25, 16. Compare Khudda Sikkhâ V. 6.

[55] Vodakam katvâ. Vodakam bears, of course, the same relation to sa-udakam, used just before, as vagga does to samagga. The expression has occurred already at Mahâvagga I, 25, 13.

[56] Vâta-mandalikâya. So also in the next section and in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya 96. The reading at Gâtaka I, 72 is vâta-mandalam.

[57] Midhante. This word recurs below in VI, 2, 3, where see our note. Buddhaghosa's note is given at p. 317 of the edition of the text. See also Khudda Sikkhâ V. 7.

[58] Used of a house, this probably means a plastered flooring of scented earth or dried cowdung. See Kullavagga VI, 17, 1, and Buddhaghosa's note there. On the use of the word in tailoring, see Mahâvagga VII, 1, 5, VIII, 21. Buddhaghosa, loc. cit. (p. 3 i 7), uses the expression mattika-paribhanda-katâya-bhûmiyâ.

[59] Nikkugganti. See the use of this word at V, 20, 3.

[60] Tina-santhârakam. That this word means a mat, and not a layer, of grass is clear from its use at Gâtaka I, 360, and below, V, II, 3.

[61] Kolaka. The meaning of the word is doubtful, but see Mahâvagga VIII, 18. In the uddâna (at p. 143) the corresponding word is kola. See also below, VI, 3, I, VI, 19, VI, 20, 2.

[62] Patta-mâlakam. Buddhaghosa says merely, 'It should be made either of bricks or of wood.' He confirms the reading of the text (with l as against Childers's reading mâlako).

[63] Patta-kandolikâ ti mahâ-mukha-kunda-santhânâ bhandakukkhaliknâ vukkati (B.). Kandola is a wicker-work basket; see Böhtlingk-Roth, sub voce.

[64] See H.O.'s note on the reading here; and compare the table of contents to this chapter (at p. 143), where the reading amsabaddham confirms the suggested alteration. If there were any further doubt it would be removed on comparing the closing words of Mahâvagga VI, 12, 4, which are identical with the present passage and contain the correct reading. The same remarks apply to other passages, where the same words occur below, V, It, 5, V, 12, VI, 12, 3.

[65] The use of these appliances is formally allowed at VI, 3, 5.

[66] Mañka. Compare Rh. D.'s note at p. 277 of the 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' and Khuddha Sikkhâ V. 7.

[67] Sati-sammosâ. The word occurs at Milinda-panha (ed. Trenckner), p. 260. It must be connected with muttha-sati, of which the Buddhist Sanskrit equivalent is mushita-smritih (see Kathâ Sarit Sâgara 56, 289). It is evident that Childers's original explanation of muttha-sati from mûlha was wrong, and that both words must be referred to the root mush, as he points out at p. .618 of his Dictionary.

[68] Kavâtam panâmetvâ. The construction of doors is described in detail at V, 14, 3, with reference to the bath-house, and again at VI, 2. That panâmeti is to open, and not to shut, is clear from VIII, 1, 1, just as pattam panâmeti at VIII, 5, 2 is to uncover, disclose, the bowl. Compare Khuddha Sikkhâ V. 8.

[69] Tumba-katâhan ti lâpu-katâham vukkati (B.). Tumba is gourd, according to Böhtlingk-Roth. See Khuddha Sikkhâ V. 11.

[70] Ghati-katâhan ti ghati-kapâlam (B.). The whole section is repeated in the text of each kind of vessel.

[71] Vissaram akâsi, on the use of which idiom see the passages quoted below, Kullavagga VIII, 1, 1.

[72] Pisâkillikâ. See below, 27, 5, and Mahâvagga III, 12, 3.

[73] This list recurs in the Old Commentary on the 10th Pâkittiya in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga. As an explanation of vighâsa, Buddhaghosa says here ukkhittodakan ti mukha-vikkhâlanodakam.

[74] Patiggaho. Slop-basin, waste-tub, 'receptacle' for odd bits. It is so used below at VIII, 4, 4.

[75] Vipatetvâ. The three MSS. read vippâdetvâ, the same corrected to vipphâdetvâ, and vipphâmetvâ. M for L is a common-mistake in Sinhalese MSS., and the correct reading may possibly be vipphâletvâ, if it is not vipphâtetvâ, as suggested in H.O.'s note, vol. v, p. 259.

[76] Namatakan ti satthaka-vethanakam pilotika-khandam (B.). The word occurs again below at V, 19, I, V, 27, I, and X, 10, 4 (where the nuns are forbidden to use it). Namata is felt; and nâmatika-aṅga, the wearing of felt, is inserted by some Sanskrit Buddhist writers in the list of Dhutaṅgas. (Burnout, Introduction, &c., p. 306.)

[77] Danda-satthakan ti vippalikam vâ aññam pi vâ yam kiñki dandam yogetvâ kata-satthakam (B.). Compare danda-kathinam at V, II, 3, and danda-parissâvanam at V, 13, 3.

[78] This list is given in the Mahâvagga VI, 12, 1 (where see our notes), as the materials of which ointment-boxes may be made; and below, V, 11, 5, of thimbles.

[79] Kannakitâ hontî ti malagga-kitâ (B.). Mala may probably here. mean 'rust,' if the needles were made of iron. Kannakitâ, 'spoiled,' is used of plastered walls and the floors of a Vihâra at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15 = Kullavagga VIII, 1, 3; and pamsu-kitâ occurs just below in our present passage. Compare also the note on vikannam in the following section.

[80]ki-nâlikam. On these needle-cases compare the Introductory Story to the 10th Gâtaka. It is Pâkittiya to have them made of ivory, horn, or bone. (80th Pâkittiya, but they are there called Sûki-gharam.)

[81] Kinnena kunnena (B.).

[82] Satthuyâ ti halidda-missakena pittha-kunnena (B.).

[83] Saritakan ti pâsâna-kunnam vukkati (B.).

[84] Madhu-sitthakena sâretun ti madhu-sitthakena makkhetum (B.).

[85] The use of this gum for medicine purposes is allowed at Mahâvagga VI, 7, where see our note. The present use is again mentioned below, V, 27, I.

[86] Sarita-sibbâtikan ti madhu-sitthaka-pilotikam (B.).

[87] Vikannam hoti. See the note on this expression at Mahâvagga VI, 21, I. The 'robes' were lengths of cloth, and 'out of shape' (vikannam) must mean either that one side was larger than the other, so that each corner (kanno) was not a right angle, or perhaps that each edge (kanno) was not straight.

[88] What Kathina may meats in this connection is not exactly clear to us, but it is evidently a sort of framework, or bench, for the tailors to lay out their work upon. Our notes above on the 1st Nissaggiya and on Mahâvagga VII, 1, 3, refer to a different and secondary use of the word in the Kathina ceremonies--so-called doubtless because the Kathina-dussa (the supply of cloth to be dyed, sewn, and made up into robes, and distributed, on one and the same day) was to be so sewn with the aid of the Kathina here referred to. Buddhaghosa says here, Kathinan ti nisseni pi tattha attharita-katasâraka-kilañkanam aññataram pi kathinam vukkati yâya dupatta-kîvaram sibbenti kathine kîvaram pi bandhanti. On Dupatta, see Mahâvagga VIII, 14, I.

The use of obandhitvâ (in reference to the Kathina), in opposition to sambandhitvâ (in reference to the mere stakes), is worthy of notice.

[89] Paribhiggati. Perhaps we should translate, 'did not hold together.' See the last section.

[90] Anuvâtam paribhandam. See Mahâvagga VII, 1, 5, VIII, 21, Kullavagga V, 9, 4, VI, 17, I, XI, I, 14, and our notes there.

[91] Kathinam na ppahotî ti dîghassa bhikkhuno pamânena katam kathinam tattha rassassa bhikkhuno kîvaram patthariyamânam na ppahoti auto yeva hoti (B.).

[92] On these terms, which we do not attempt to translate, see Buddhaghosa's notes as quoted by H.O. at p. 317 of the edition of the text. The first seems to be a Kathina with a cross-bar, but danda at V, 11, 1, and V, 13, 3, means handle.

[93] Vinandhana-raggum vinandhana-suttakam. See Buddhaghosa's notes loc. cit., and compare Mahâvagga V, 11.

[94] Visamâ honti ti kâki khuddakâ honti kâki mahantâ (B.). Sutta here probably means those threads or strings just referred to by which the stuff was to be tied on to the Kathina.

[95] Kalimbhakam: so explained by Buddhaghosa, loc. cit.

[96] Mogha-suttakam. Buddhaghosa says, 'the making of a mark with a green thread, as carpenters do on wood with a black thread.' Compare also our notes 2 and 3 on Mahâvagga VII, 1, 5.

[97] The whole section is repeated in the text at length for each of these three cases.

[98] Patiggaho, 'receptacle' for the finger. See our note above on V, 10, 3, where the same word means a waste-tub. For other secondary uses of the word, see Gâtaka I, 146, II, 9, 26. Buddhaghosa says here, patiggahan ti aṅguli-kosakam.

[99] So of ointment-boxes, Mahâvagga VII, 12, 1; and of scissors, above, V, 1, 1.

[100] Âsevana-(sic)vitthakam nâma yam kiñki pâtîi-kaṅgotakâdi (B.).

[101] See our note above on V, 9, 4.

[102] The whole of this paragraph is repeated below, though not in the same order, of the Kaṅkama or cloister, and of the Gantâghara, or bath-house. (See V, 14, 2, 3.)

[103] That is, to build it on a raised platform, the technical term for which is kaya.

[104] See our note below on V, 14, 3. The whole passage recurs of the lining of a well at V, 16, 2, and of Vihâras themselves at VI, 3, 3.

[105] Âlambana-bâham. At Mahâ-sudassana Sutta I, 59, there is a description of flights of stairs (sopânâ), each of which had thambhâ, evidently posts or banisters; sûkiyo, apparently cross-bars let in to these banisters; and unhîsam, either a head-line running along the top of the banisters, or a figure-head at the lower end of such a head-line. (See Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 262.) This and the previous paragraphs are repeated below, V, 14, 2, of the Kaṅkama.

[106] See Mahâvagga V, 11, where the same technical term (ogumpheti) is used. Buddhaghosa's note is given at p. 317 of the text. See also V, 14, 3, below.

[107] Geruka-parikammam. This reading, and not gerika, is confirmed by VI, 3, 1, VI, 17, 1, where the two previous words also occur. On this mode of preparing walls and floors, see our note below on VI, 20.

[108] Pañka-patikam or -patthikam, a term of doubtful signification which recurs, together with all the previous words, in the Old Commentary on the 19th Pâkittiya. Compare pañka-prastha in BR. The word is perhaps however connected with Sanskrit pattikâ, as kela-pattikam at V, 21, 2 undoubtedly is. It occurs below, in a similar connection, at VI, 3, 1.

[109] Go-ghamsikâya. Compare pâda-ghamsani at 22. 1; and on the use of samharati in a similar connection, see VI, 2, 7.

[110] Nâga-dante. See the note on Mallaka at Kullavagga V, I, 4.

[111] This is merely introduced to show that the following rules or privileges in this and the next chapter (§§ 1, 2) were to be in force when the Bhikkhus were on a journey.

[112] Neither here nor in V, 11, 5 are we to understand that the needles and scissors are to be carried in bags. They are mentioned in both passages merely to show the inconvenience of having no separate receptacles for the thimbles and the drugs.

[113] See the note on V, 9, 4.

[114] He would require the sandals only when he came, in his journey, to rough places; not on the smooth, well-trodden, village paths.

[115] The rule, that is, against destroying the life of living things.

[116] Katakkhu-parissâvanam nâma tîsu dandakesu vinandhitvâ katam (B.).

[117] Dhamma-karakam. Doubtless a water-pot with a strainer so fixed into it that a quantity of water could be filtered quickly. The word occurs at Mahâvamsa, p. 90, and below, VI, 21, 3.

[118] So tasmim upanandhi. The Introductory Story in the Sutta-vibhaṅga on the 36th Pâkittiya is, so far, word for word the same as this section. Buddhaghosa there explains upanandhi by ganita-upanâho. See vol. iv, p. 359, of H.O.'s edition of the Vinaya Pitaka. The Introductory Story to the 31st Gâtaka is also based on a similar incident, and there the corresponding expression is vivâdam akamsu. (Fausböll's Gâtaka, vol. i, p. 198.)

[119] In the Gâtaka commentary this tragic result of the refusal is absent. The Bhikkhu who has no strainer merely drinks without straining. (Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' vol. i, p. 278.)

[120] Adhitthâtabbo, that is, the Bhikkhu is to determine in his mind that that part of his robe is a strainer for the time.

[121] Navakammam karonti. On the use of this and allied idioms, see Gâtaka I, 92, line 22; Kullavagga I, 18, 1, VI, 5, 2; Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, 1; Indian Antiquary XI, 29; Senart's Kakkâyana, p. 189.

[122] Na sammati, which is curious. For 'did not suffice,' the standing expression would be na ppahoti.

[123] Danda-parissâvanam. Apparently a long box, both ends of which strain the water, which is poured into the middle by means of a pipe (dandaka). Buddhaghosa says, Danda-parisâvanan ti (sic; only one s) raganakânam khâra-parisâvanam viya katusu pâdesu baddha-nisenikâya sâtakam bandhitvâ magghe dandake udakam âsiñkitabbam. Tam ubhohi kotthâsehi pûretvâ parisâvati. Compare danda-satthakam and danda-kathinam, above, V, 11, 1, 3.

[124] Ottharakam nâma yam udake ottharitvâ ghatakena udakam ganhanti. Tam hi katusu dandakesu vettham bandhitvâ sabbe pariyante udakato moketvâ magghe ottharitvâ ghatena udakam ganhanti (B.).

[125] Ubbâlhâ. See Mahâvagga III, 9, 1-4, and Gâtaka I, 300.

[126] Makasa-kutikâ ti kîvara-kutikâ (B.). Literally, a 'mosquito hut,' the walls of which are to be of cloth.

[127] Abhisannakâyâ ti semhâdi-dos’-ussanna-kâyâ (B.). This word has already occurred at Mahâvagga VI, 14, 7, where Buddhaghosa's explanation is much the same. See also Mahâvagga VIII, 1, 30.

[128] Kaṅkama. A straight piece of ground cleared and levelled for the purpose of walking up and down upon for exercise and meditation. See our note on this word at Mahâvagga V, 1, 14.

[129] Gantâghara. See our note above on Mahâvagga I, 25, 12. It was not ordinarily used for cold baths, which were taken in the rivers or tanks, but for a kind of hot-water bath, or perhaps steam bath, the exact mode of taking or administering which is not as yet certain. Several Bhikkhus took the bath at the same time, but it is not likely that they got into the water (though the expression uttarati is used, loc. cit., of their leaving the bath), as they scarcely would have made vessels large enough to contain a man. It rather seems that they sat on stools close to a large fire, and had water poured over them. The use of this kind of bath is forbidden to the Bhikkhunîs at Kullavagga X, 27, 4.

[130] All the following paragraphs are the same as above, V, 11, 6, where see our notes.

[131] As we have pointed out above, in our note on Mahâvagga V, 1, 14, it is not probable that the Kaṅkama at first had a roof and stairs and balustrade. These were later improvements.

[132] Vedikâ. See Mahâ-sudassana Sutta I, 60, and Rh. D.'s note there ('Buddhist Suttas,' p. 262), and below, VI, 2, 2.

[133] Kaṅkamana-sâla, already referred to at Mahâvagga III, 5.

[134] Pittha-samghâtam. See Childers under saṅghâta, and the Samanta Pâsâdikâ on the 19th Pâkittiya. Kavâta-pittha occurs in Mahâvagga I, 25, 15, and in the Samanta Pâsâdikâ on Pâkittiya 19 (compare upari-pitthiti at Kullavagga VIII, 1, 1), and this and the two following phrases below, VI, 2, 1. Buddhaghosa has nothing on them, either here or there; and they were probably therefore in quite common use even in his day. The whole of this paragraph recurs below, VI, 3, 7.

[135] Udukkhalikam. Presumably the door had no hinges, but the upper and lower ends of one side projected into hollows pre-pared for them in the lintel and the threshold. This suggestion is confirmed by the connection in which these words are used at VI, 2, I.

[136] Uttara-pâsakam. See the last note. Pâsaka recurs also in the next but one. Compare aggala-pâsaga in Ayâraṅga Sutta II, 1, 5, 2.

[137] Aggala-vatti nâma dvâra-bâhâye samappamâno yeva aggalatthambho vukkati yattha tîni kattâri khiddâni katvâ sûkiyo denti (B.).

[138] Kapi-sîsakam nâma dvâra-bâham vigghitva tattha pavesito aggala-pâsako vukkati (B.). The word recurs in the Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta V, 32, where it is said of Ânanda that he kapisîsakam âlambitvâ atthâsi, just as in the Mahâ-sudassana Sutta II, 24 it is said of the queen under similar circumstances that she dvâra-bâham âlambitvâ atthâsi. Buddhaghosa's commentary on the word in the former of these two passages is given by Rh. D. in his note at p. 95 of the 'Buddhist Suttas.'

[139]kikâ ti tattha (that is, kapi-sîsake) magghe khiddam katvâ pavesitâ (B.). Apparently a pin to pass through the monkey's head so as to secure the bolt in its place after it has been shot into the cavity. See the next note and below, VI, 2, I.

[140] Ghatikâ ti upari-yogitâ (B.). At Gâtaka I, 360 (compare Kullavagga IX, 1, 2), we are told of a man who dvârâni pidahanto sabba-dvâresu sûkighatikâdayo datvâ talam (sic, query tâlam) abhiruhitvâ tattha pi dvâram pidahitvâ nisîdi. As the principal bolt was probably called aggala (unless that were the name for the whole machinery), this was some smaller bolt. And in Kullavagga VIII, 1, I an instance is given of a man undoing the bolt (ghatikam ugghâtetvâ) of an uninhabited vihâra, such as is referred to in VI, 2, I.

[141] Tâlakkhiddam. See the end of VI, 2, 1, and Childers under the word tâlo. Buddhaghosa says nothing. The word tâla occurs in the last note.

[142] Âviñkhana-kkhiddam âviñkhana-raggum. These are said in VI, 2, 1 to be necessary because the door could not be put to, and doubtless have the meaning above assigned to them. Âviñki (or âviñgi?) at Sutta-vibhaṅga, Samghâdisesa II, 4, 9, means he drew towards himself; and Âviñkanâ (âviñganâ?), ibid. II, 2, 2, is used as an equivalent of âkaddhanâ, which is much the same thing.

[143] Kudda-pâdo. Compare Rh. D.'s note on Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta V, 41. The phrase recurs below of Vihâras at VI, 3, 4.

[144] Mandalikam kâtun ti nîka-vatthukam kinitum (B.). Kinâti is the technical word for laying bricks one above another; the comment therefore means 'to line or face the lower part with bricks.' (Compare pokkharaniyo itthikâhi kinitum at Mahâsudassana Sutta I, 58; Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 262, 'to face the ponds with bricks or tiles;' and on facing a well below, V, 16, 2.)

[145] Dhûma-nettan ti dhûma-nikkhamana-khiddam (B.). The word is used of a surgical instrument at Mahâvagga VI, 13, 2.

[146] A similar paragraph occurs below, VI, 3, 3, of Vihâras.

[147] Mukha-mattikam. See our note 4 on Mahâvagga I, 25, 12.

[148] Mattikâ-donikam. See the last words of V, 16, 2.

[149] Sarâvakam. See Mahâvagga VI, 12, I, and Gâtaka, vol. i, p. 8.

[150] Ogumphetvâ. See above, V, II, 6, and our note there.

[151] Udaka-niddhamanam. See Gâtaka I, 175, 409, 425, 489, in which passages an entrance to, or an exit from, a palace or a city is effected respectively niddhamana-mukhena, niddhamana-dvârena, niddhamanena, and niddhamana-maggena. Our phrase here recurs below, V, 35, 4.

[152] Gattâni kanduvanti. Gattâni is nominative, not accusative. Compare Mahâvagga VI, 14, 5, where kanduvati is used in the neuter sense. ('The sore was irritable!)

[153] Kotthako. This word means a room without a window; and it is used either of 1. 'a room over a gateway,' or 2. 'a room used as a store-room.' (Compare Mahâvagga III, 5, 6, 9; Kullavagga IV, 4, 6, 7, VI, 3, 7, 9, VI, 4, 10, IX, I, 2; and Gâtaka I, 179, 227, 230, II, 168.) The whole of this paragraph recurs below, V, 35, 4, of the kotthaka to a privy; and the two passages taker together show that an entrance room or passage, a porch or ante-chamber, is meant, in which the water was kept ready for use For that reason this particular kind of kotthaka is elsewhere called, in both connections, udaka-kotthaka (Mahâvagga VI, 14, 3, of the bath-room--where see Buddhaghosa's note quoted in our 'Vinaya Texts,' vol. ii, p. 57--and Dhammapada, p. 103, of the privy). Buddhaghosa explains it here by dvâra-kotthako; and it occurs again below, VIII, 8, 2, in the same sense.

[154] The last two items in § 2 are supplied for this case also in the next chapter but one.

[155] Parivena is doubtless here, and below at VIII, 8, 2 in the same connection, a cell used as a cooling-room, after the steam bath. Buddhaghosa says nothing here, but gives a note below, V, 35, 4.

[156] Marumba. This word occurs-in a description of different kinds of earths in the Old Commentary on the 10th Pâkittiya (Sutta-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya X, 2, I); and in a similar connection at Dîpavamsa XIX, 2. Also below, V, 35, 4, VI, 3, 8.

[157] Na pariyâpunanti. See the use of this phrase at Kullavagga V, 5, 2.

[158] That is, while in the Gantâghara, which explains the otherwise inexplicable fact of this chapter being inserted here instead of at the commencement of 16. 2.

[159] In Mahâvagga I, 25, 13, services are to be rendered to a Bhikkhu who is in the bath. This is permitted by 16. 2 below.

[160] So also above, 11. 6 (at the end), and 14. 2 (at the end).

[161] On account of the rule laid down in chapter 15.

[162] This rule abrogates that laid down in chapter 15, so far as regards bathing and shampooing. Buddhaghosa says accordingly, Tisso patikkhâdayo ti. Ettha gantâghara-patikkhâdi ka udakapatikkhâdi ka parikammam karontass’ eva vattati, sesesu abhivâdanâdisu na vattati. Vattha-patikkhâdi sabba-kammesu vattati.

[163] Kûlam luggati. (The reading is not without doubt.) Compare Paluggati. The same expression occurs below, V, 17, 2; and luggati at Mahâvagga VIII, 21, 1.

[164] Kinitum tayo kaye. See our note 4 above on V, 14, 3, and the passages there quoted. The whole passage occurs V, 11, 6.

[165] All this refers doubtless to the kind of shed or portico to be erected over the well. (See below.) One would expect that the formal licence for such a mandapa would have been inserted here in due course as above, 11. 6, for the Kathina-sâlâ.

[166] This is the usual Anglo-Indian term for the creepers so commonly used for such purposes. The Pâli word is vallikâ, which occurs in a different sense at V, 2, I.

[167] Tulâ. This is the ordinary and simple machine, so common in all countries where irrigation is carried on, for raising water from canals or from shallow wells. Buddhaghosa says here: Tulan ti pannikânam viya udaka abbhâhana-tulâ. Pannika is 'florist' (see Gâtaka I, 411, II, 180). Abbhâhana must be wrong (see Sutta Nipâta III, 8, 8); possibly abbhâvâhana is the correct reading.

[168] The name of this machine is spelt differently in the MSS. (karakataṅka the Sinhalese MS., and karakadaka the Burmese MSS.), and the reading is doubtful. Buddhaghosa says: Dakadakatako (sic! In the next note but two the same MS. reads katadakatake) vukkati gone vâ yogetvâ hatthehi vâ gahetvâ dîgha-varattâdîhi âkaddhana-yantam. We can only say negatively that the word can have nothing to do either with karkataka, a hook in the form of a crab's claw; or with kara-kantaka, finger-nail.

[169] Kakkavattakam, on which Buddhaghosa has the unintelligible note arahatta(!)-ghati-yantam.

[170] Vârake. The spelling of this word in Childers's Dictionary (varâko) is a misprint. Both the passages he quotes read vârako. Other water-vessels, besides these three, are allowed by the closing rule of this chapter.

[171] Kamma-khandam nâma tûlâya vâ katadakatake vâ yogetabbam kamma-bhâganam (B.). The rendering adopted by Childers from Turnour (Mahâvamsa, p. 3) is therefore incorrect.

[172] The following passage has already occurred above, V, 11, 6 and V, 14, 3.

[173] Apidhânam. See Mahâvagga VI, 12, 2.

[174] Udaka-donim. At Gâtaka I, 450, such a doni is said to have been made out of the trunk of a tree. Compare the use of mattikâ-donikam at V, 14, 3.

[175] So also the closing words of V, 14, 3.

[176] Udaka-puñkhani. This is also mentioned in the Old Commentary on the 86th Pâkittiya. The verb recurs in the same Sense below, VI, 3, I.

[177] Kûlam luggati. See V, 16, 2.

[178] Vihaññanti. See V, 11, 6.

[179] Udakâyatikan ti udakassa âgamana-mattikam (B.). Compare âyataka at IX, 1, 3.

[180] See above our note on V, 14, 3.

[181] Nillekha-gantâgharam nâma âviddha-pakkha-pisakam vukkati. Gopânasînam upari-mandale pakkha-pâsake thapetvâ kata-kûta-kkhadanass’ etam nâmam (B.).

[182] Compare the 2nd Nissaggiya.

[183] Kavâte pañkaṅgulikam dâtum, on which Buddhaghosa has no note. This measure occurs in Gâtaka I, 166, 192; Fausböll's 'Five Gâtakas' 6; and Mahâvamsa, p. 193.

[184] Namatakam. See V, 11, 1.

[185] Na adhitthâtabbam na vikappetabbam. That is, it is always to be kept as common property of the Samgha (Samghika). See Mahâvagga VIII, 20, 2, where the same expressions occur.

[186] Âsittaktlpadhânam nâma tamba-lohena vâ ragatena vâ katâya pelâya (MS. belâya) etam adhivakanam. The use of an ubhato-lohitakûpadhânam is condemned, among other things of a like kind, in the Magghima Sîla, § 5 (Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 193), and above, Mahâvagga V, 10, 2.

[187] Malorikâ ti dandâdhârako vukkati. Yatthi-âdhâraka-pannâ-dhâraka-pakkhita-pitthâni pi etth’ eva pavitthâni. Âdhâraka-samkhepana-gamanato hi patthâya khiddam viddham pi aviddham pi vattati yeva (B.).

[188] All these words have already occurred above at Kullavagga I. 13, 1. 'Sitting on one seat' is there added to the list.

[189] These are two of the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus; and the evil deeds of the followers form the subject of Kullavagga IV, 4, 5 and following sections. Our sections 1, 2 are nearly the same as g 8, 9 there.

[190] See the note above on IV, 4, 9.

[191] Pattam nikkuggatu. This phrase is used in the ordinary signification above, V, 9, 4. It is characteristic of the mildness of early Buddhism that this should be the only penalty imposed upon a layman. Compare H.O.'s remarks in his 'Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde,' pp. 391-393. The house of such a layman becomes then an agokaro, 'an unlawful resort.' (Kullavagga VIII, 1, 2.)

[192] Asambhogam samghena karotu. This phrase is used in regard to a Bhikkhu at Kullavagga I, 25, 1, as the distinctive mark of the Act of Suspension (Ukkhepaniya-kamma), and there means 'depriving him of his right to eat and dwell with the other Bhikkhus.' Sambhoge anâpatti at Mahâvagga I, 79, 2 (at the end), means that it is not an offence for the Bhikkhus to eat and dwell together with a guilty Bhikkhu under certain conditions there specified. As an Upâsaka never, under any circumstances, either eats or dwells together with the Bhikkhus (in Pâkittiya 5 the reference is to sâmaneras), the meaning here must be to make him one who has no dealings with the Samgha, to withdraw his privilege of providing food or lodging for the Samgha. The sabhoganam kulam in the 43rd Pâkittiya has probably nothing to do with this.

[193] When a Bhikkhu behaves towards the laity in any one of the first five of these eight ways the Patisâraniya-kamma is to be carried out against him--that is to say, he has to ask pardon of the layman against whom he has offended. See I, 20. The whole eight recur below, § 6.

[194] Literally, 'on that very spot.'

[195] This is precisely the expression made use of in the converse case, when a Bhikkhu has offended against the laity. See I, 22, 3.

[196] Akkayam akkayato patiganhâtu. See the parallel passages in Mahâvagga IX, 1, 9; Kullavagga VII, 3, 6, &c.

[197] Âyatim samvarâya. So also above of an offending Bhikkhu, IV, 14, 30.

[198] Samvaram âpaggati. Compare the use of vikappam âpaggeyya in the 8th Nissaggiya.

[199] The following paragraphs are precisely the same as those in which the revocation of the Tagganiya-kamma is described in the reverse case of a Bhikkhu, above, I, 8.

[200] Ekamsam uttarâsaṅgam karitvâ. Unless these words have been introduced by mistake from the corresponding passage in I, 8 (which is not probable), they show that the uttarâsaṅga (on which see the note on Mahâvagga VIII, 13, 4) was also worn by laymen. But this is the only passage known to us in the earlier literature in which such a use of it is mentioned or implied. Compare Rh. D.'s note on the 'Book of the Great Decease,' VI, 26.

[201] Lomam pâtemi. See the note on Kullavagga I, 6, 1.

[202] Bhaggesu. Compare Buddhaghosa's note on a similar plural at Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta III, 5, quoted in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 24.

[203] This place is also mentioned in the Sutta-vibhaṅga on the 55th and 56th Sekhiyas.

[204] Anagghâvuttho, literally, no doubt, 'dwelt in.' But it is clear that the meal afterwards taken in it by the Buddha was supposed to be the dedication, so to say, or the house-warming, after which it was agghâvuttho.

[205] On this habit of naming people after the family or tribal (not the personal) name of their mothers, see Rh. D.'s note in his Buddhist Suttas,' p. 1.

[206] So far this conversation is the stock phrase for a message from a royal personage to the Buddha. See 'Book of the Great Decease,' I, 2 (Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 2).

[207] Sopâna-kaliṅgarâ. Compare the Sanskrit Kadaṅkara (also written kadaṅgara). The correct reading is doubtless l, not l.

[208] Kela-pattikâ ti kela-santharam, says Buddhaghosa. See pattikâ in Childers, and compare pañka-patthikam at V, 11, 6. Kela is not merely ordinary cloth; it is cloth regarded as a means of giving a decorative or festive appearance to a house by spreading canopies, &c. See Gâtaka I, 178, and Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 26 (p. 64). On such festive occasions the whole house (or the Mandapa erected in special honour of the guest) is covered with lengths of clean cotton cloth--the same as are otherwise used for ordinary apparel--white being the colour signifying peculiar respect. It is such lengths of cloth so used honoris causâ that are called kela-pattikâ. Compare Rh. D.'s note in 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 122.

[209] See the note above on Mahâvagga I, 8, 4.

[210] Dhota-pâdaka.

[211] There is no mention in the text of where the first such Portion (Bhânavâra) ends. There is also no division into Bhânavâras in the previous books of the Kullavagga.

[212] Ghatakam. At Gâtaka I, 32 this word seems to mean the capital of a pillar. We have taken it as the diminutive of ghata, especially as Buddhaghosa says nothing; but this is doubtful.

[213] Katakam. To the note quoted at p. 318 of the text, which shows that this is a kind of foot-rubber, Buddhaghosa adds that this article is forbidden bâhulikânuyogattâ. This injunction is repeated below at V, 37, where kataka is mentioned as a kind of earthenware.

[214] Sakkharâ and kathala, the exact distinction between which two terms is not stated.

[215] Samudda-phenaka. By this name are designated the bones of the cuttle-fish which, when cast up by the waves on the sea-shore, are not unlike petrified foam, and have actually been introduced from the East into use in Europe as a kind of rough natural soap; and are now sold for that purpose in most chemists' shops in England (compare Meerschaum). The same word is found in later Sanskrit works.

[216] Tâlavantam. See Gâtaka I, 26, 5 (at the end); and compare tâlavantakam below, V, 29, 4.

[217] Probably because this, like a white umbrella, was considered an appanage of royalty.

[218] Mora-piñkha. This word is spelt piñga by Childers, and by Fausböll, Gâtaka I, 38, 207.

[219] See the note at the end of the chapter.

[220] There is an ambiguity, either in the use of the word khatta, or in the use of the verb dhâreti, or both, running through this chapter. As a matter of fact, the Bhikkhus now use sun-shades (usually those made of paper in China) of the same shape as the umbrellas now used in England; and they make no distinction as to the place in which they use them. But there is another shape for shades, to be carried by a dependant walking behind the person to be shaded, in which the handle is fastened to the rim at the side of, and not in the middle underneath that part of it which [134] actually keeps off the sun. Both kinds are figured on the most ancient Buddhist sculptures. The Old Commentary on the corresponding rule for the nuns (Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya LXXXIV, 2, 1) says that suit-shades are either white, or made of matting, or made of leaves (doubtless of the talipot palm); and it adds that they are either mandala-baddham or salâka-baddham, which apparently refers to these two ways in which the handle was joined on to the shading-part. In the 57th Sekhiya (compare also the 23rd and the 67th), and in Kullavagga VIII, 1, 1, will be found rules of etiquette which show that it was a sign of courtesy or of respect to put down a sun-shade.

[221] See the similar phraseology at V, 8, 1. On uttitvâ, compare oddeti.

[222] Romanthaka.

[223] Which is against the rule laid down in the 27th Pâkittiya.

[224] That would be a breach of the 30th Pâkittiya.

[225] That is, according to the 27th, 28th, or 30th Pâkittiya.

[226] On vilikhati, compare VI, 20.

[227] Khura-sipâtikam. See the notes on V, 11, 2, and Buddhaghosa's note at p. 319 of the text.

[228] Namatakam. See above, V, 11, 1, and V, 19, 1.

[229] Khura-bhandam. Compare Mahâvagga VI, 37.

[230] Massum kappâpentî ti kattariyâ massum khedâpenti (B.). On Kattari (a knife), see Gâtaka I, 223. It is clear from the first words of the next section that Buddhaghosa's explanation here is not quite accurate.

[231] Go-lomikan ti hanukamhi dîgham katvâ thapitam elakamassum vukkati (B.).

[232] Katurassan ti katu-konam (B.).

[233] Parimukhan ti ure Loma-samharanam (B.).

[234] Addharûkam. See the various readings and Buddhaghosa's note at p. 319 of the text.

[235]thikam. It is the Sanskrit dâdhikâ or damshtrikâ; and occurs at Gâtaka I, 305.

[236] On the corresponding rule in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, the 2nd Pâkittiya, the Old Commentary has sambâdho nâma ubho upakakkhakâ mutta-karanam.

[237] Compare Mahâvagga VI, 22, 2.

[238] Kattarikayâ ti ganda-rudhi-(sic MS.)-sîsa-rog’-âbâdha-pak-kayâ vattati, which is simply a repetition of the next paragraph, is all that Buddhaghosa here says. See note above on § 4.

[239] Pisâkillikâ. So also V, 10, 2, of carrying a skull about; and Mahâvagga III, 12, 3, of living in the hollow of a tree.

[240] Sakkharikâ, said at Mahâvagga VI, 14, 5 to be used as a lancet.

[241] Sandâsa. So at Gâtaka I, 138, 4, a barber pulls out a white hair from the king's head, suvanna-sandâsena.

[242] This license is-repeated in the next chapter.

[243] Kamsa-pattharikâ tî kamsa-bhanda-vânigâ (B.).

[244] They might have all kinds of brass ware, except certain articles, according to chapter 37 below.

[245] Añganim. The use of these has been already allowed at Mahâvagga VI, 12, I, 2, 4.

[246] In the text read añgana-salâkam, on which see Mahâvagga VI, 12, 3, 4.

[247] Already allowed in the last chapter.

[248] Bandhana-mattan ti vâsi-kattara-yatthi-âdînam vâ bandhanamattam (B.). It is clear from this note, and the repetition of the pi in the text, that we have to do here with a special object, and not a mere qualification of the other three.

[249] Samghâti-pallatthikâya nisîditvâ. See IV, 4, 7 at the end, and the Old Commentary on the 26th Sekhiya. Childers translates it as if it were the same as ukkutikam nisîditvâ; but it must be different from it as that was allowed and constantly practised.

[250] Pattâ lugganti. So read (not pattâ as in the text) in accordance with our note 3 on Mahâvagga VIII, 21, I. The second word occurs also above, V, 16, 2; 17, 2. From this passage here it is probable that attha-pâdaka at Mahâvagga VIII, 21, means a stool.

[251] Âyogam. Compare the Sutta-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya LXXXVIII, 2, 2; Gâtaka III, 447, 6.

[252] Rathiyâya. The Old Commentary on the Bhikkhunî., vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya XIV, says, Rathiyâ ti rakkhâ. The word recurs, ibid., Pâkittiya LXXXVI, XCVI (the last of which is nearly the same as our passage here). For the more usual form rathikâ, see Kullavagga X, 12.

[253] Pabhassittha. Compare Sutta-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya LXXXIII, 1, 2. It is from the root bhrams, not bhâs.

[254] The use of this has already been enjoined at Mahâvagga I, 25, 9, 10. It was to be tied on round the waist, over the waist-cloth, to keep it in its place.

[255] It is curious that kati-suttakam, a kind of girdle which would seem properly to belong here, has been included in a former list of forbidden articles at V, 2, I.

[256] Kalâbukam. See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 3'9 of the text, and compare Böhtlingk-Roth under kalâpa, kalâpaka.

[257] Deddubhakam nâma udaka-sappi-sîsa-sadisam (B.). Deddubha corresponds to the later Sanskrit dundubha, an older form of which is dundubha.

[258] Muraga, literally, 'tambourines;' but see Buddhaghosa's note, loc. cit.

[259] Maddavînam nâma pâmaṅga-santhânam (B.). On pâmaṅga, see our note at Kullavagga V, 2, I.

[260] Sûkarantakam. See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 319 of the text. We do not venture to translate the term.

[261] Sobhanam nâma vetthetvâ mukha-vatti-sibhanam (B.). In the Magghima Sîla, § 3, sobhanakam or sobh.ana-karanam (so Rh. D.'s MS.) is a kind of game or show.

[262] Gunakam nâma mudika(?muddhika)-santhânena sibbanam (B.). Clough, under guna, gives inter alia, 1. fastening; 2. a plant of the fibres of which bow-strings are made; 3. bow-string.

[263] Pavananto ti pâsanto (B.).

[264] Vidho. But both the reading and the explanation are uncertain, and Buddhaghosa says nothing. The word occurs also, and apparently in the same sense, in the Old Commentary on the 86th Pâkittiya.

[265] Samghâtiyo in the plural must mean garments and not waist-cloths only. See the parallel passage in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya XCVI.

[266] Ganthikam. The use of this article is referred to in VIII, 4, 3, and at Dhammapada, p. 372. That ganthi means a block, usually of mood, is clear from the use of dhamma-ganthikam at Gâtaka I, 150 (spelt gandika however at II, 124), compared with ganthi (block of sandal-wood) above, V, 8, I. The word occurs also in the Old Commentary on the 86th Pâkittiya.

[267] Pâsakam, which does not correspond to Sanskrit prâsaka here, but to pâsaka = pâsa (Böhtlingk-Roth. give inter alia, 'Sahl oder Leiste am Anfange eines Gewebes'). Compare pâsanta in Buddhaghosa on makkhavâlakam in the next section.

[268] See our note on this word at Mahâvagga VIII, 28, 2.

[269] That is, perhaps, the weight dragged the robe to one side and the legs were visible through the opening.

[270] Hatthi-sondakam nâma nâbhi-mûlato hatthi-sonda-santhânam olambakam katvâ nivattham, kolika-itthînam nivâsanam viya (B.).

[271] Makkha-vâlakam nâma ekato dasantam ekato pâsantam olambitvâ nivattham (B.).

[272] Katu-kannakam upari dve hetthato dve evam kattâro kanne dassetvâ nivattham (B.).

[273] Tâla-vantakam nâma tâlavant’-âkârena sâtakam olambitvâ nivâsanam (B.). See our note on tâlavanta above, V, 22, 2, and on âmalaka-vantika-pîtham below, VI, 2, 4.

[274] Sata-vallikam nâma dîgha-sâtakam aneka-kkhattum obhaiñgitvâ ovattikam karontena nivattham vâ, padakkhina-passesu vâ nirantaram valiyo dassetvâ nivattham. Sake pana gânuto patthâya eko vâ dve vâ valiyo paññâyanti, vattati (B.). Compare vallikâ and ovattikam at V, 2, I. Buddhaghosa's second explanation would be possible if the reading were sata-valikam, and is probably only a pis aller, due to the difficulty of the first, which we have adopted doubtfully.

[275] Pârupati as opposed to nivâseti above. Compare Dhammapada, pp. 154, 376; Gâtaka, vol. i, p. 57, line 16.

[276] Samvelliyam nivâsetabbam See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 319 of the text.

[277] Munda-vatti or -vetthi. See the note from the Samanta Pâsâdikâ at p. 319 of the text.

[278] Antarâ-kâgam nâma magghe laggetvâ dvîhi vahitabbam bhâram (B.).

[279] That is held round by the arm, and resting against the side of the hips. Women in India commonly carry their children so, the children sitting on the hip, with one leg in front and one behind.

[280] Danta-kattham, not 'tooth-brushes,' as Childers translates. Mechanical skill had not advanced so far in those days; and we hear nothing of brushes of any kind (see above, V, 2, 3, as to hair-dressing). The 'tooth-sticks' were bits of sweet-smelling wood or root, or creeper (see Gâtaka I, 80; Mahâvamsa, p. 23), the ends of which were to be masticated as a dentifrice, not rubbed on the teeth. After using them the mouth was rinsed out with water; and so in all other passages in the Khandhakas where they are mentioned (always in reference to the duty of providing them), it is in connection with the bringing of water for that purpose.

[281] This has of course nothing to do with keeping the teeth white and beautiful; that was not the purpose which the tooth-sticks were designed to effect. There seems to have been really some idea that the use of them was good for the eye-sight. So Buddhaghosa says here, akakkhussan ti kakkhûnam hitam ma hoti, parihânim ganeti, quite in accordance with the Sanskrit kakshushya. The words recur below, VI, 2, 2, in the same sense.

[282] Pariyonandhanti. Literally, 'envelope,' 'cover.'

[283] Na kkhâdeti. This is a different word from khâdeti, 'to cover.' It is khad No. 2 in Böhtlingk-Roth.

[284] Tina-gahanâ. Not covered with thatch, the word for which is tina-kkhadana. See V, 11, 6; V, 14, 3, &c.

[285] Pataggim dâtum. See the story at Gâtaka I, 212, and foll.

[286] Omitted in the text.

[287] Yamelutekulâ. It is possible that this compound should be dissolved into Yamela and Utekula. Compare the word Yamele at verse 35 of the Uddâna (which stands where a nominative should stand, judging by the form of the other words in the Uddâna). A comma has there been omitted by misprint after Yamele.

[288] We think that in these words (khandaso âropema) there does lie a reference to the earlier Sanskrit. And this especially for four reasons: firstly, this is required by the antithesis to 'their own dialect;' secondly, the use of the word khandasi in Pânini, where it always means precisely 'in the Veda-dialect,' requires it; thirdly, it is difficult to understand otherwise the mention of 'Brâhmans by birth;' and fourthly, this is in accordance with the traditional interpretation of the passage handed down among the Bhikkhus. Buddhaghosa says, khandaso âropemâ ti Vedam viya sakkata-bhâsâya vâkanâ-maggam âropema. Sakkata is of course Samskrita.

[289] See the substance intended at Kullavagga I,1, 3.

[290] On the historical conclusions which may be drawn from this tradition, see H.O.'s introduction to the text of the Mahâvagga, pp. xlix and following.

[291] This is mentioned also in the Assalâyana Sutta (at the beginning), and in the same terms in the Milinda Panha, p. 10, as one of the branches of learning distinctive of well-educated Brâhmans. It is condemned among other 'low arts' in the very ancient Mahâ Sîla, § 5. (See Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli; p. 199, and his note on the age of this work, ibid. p. 188.) Among later works, the Nepalese Buddhists refer to it as one of the things with which a Bodhisattva will not condescend to occupy himself (Lotus of the Good Law, ch. xiii, Burnouf's version, p. 168), and in which good disciples will take no pleasure (ibid. p. 280). Buddhaghosa has a note on the passage in the Mahâ Sib. (quoted by Childers sub voce), which shows that it was understood in his time to be, or rather to have been, a system of casuistry.

[292] So also in the Ketokhila Sutta 2 (translated in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' p. 223).

[293] Tirakkhâna-viggâ. Literally, 'brutish, or beastly, wisdom.' These are set out in full in the seven sections of the Mahâ Sîla (translated in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' pp. 196-200). As noticed above, the Lokâyata system is there mentioned (§ 5) as one of them. Learning or teaching these things are forbidden in almost identical terms to the Bhikkhunîs in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiyas XLIX and L.

[294] This story forms the Introductory Story also to the Gagga Gâtaka (No. 155 in Fausböll's edition). On the superstition here condemned, see Dr. Morris's remarks in the 'Contemporary Review' for May, 1881.

[295] Gihî bhikkhave maṅgalikâ.

[296] Vyâbâhimsu is for vyâbâdhimsu. See p. 320 of the edition of the text.

[297] There is a similar rule for the Bhikkhunîs in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya I. So also onions are mentioned among the things a Gain Bhikkhu may not accept (Ayâraṅga Sutta II, 1, 8, 13).

[298] It is gruel of various kinds that is prescribed for this malady in Mahâvagga VI, 16, 3-17, 2.

[299] For some of the details, compare Mahâvagga V, 8, 3, and Mahâvagga I, 25, 19=Kullavagga VIII, 1, 5, and Kullavagga VIII, 9 and 10.

[300] See Mahâvagga I, 20, 19-21.

[301] See Kullavagga VIII, 3, I.

[302] Paharanattham katam paharanî ti vukkati. Yassa kassa ki âvudha-samghâtass’ etam adhivakanam (B.).

[303] See Mahâvagga V, 10, 4, 5.

[304] See Kullavagga V, 8, 2.

[305] See Mahâvagga V, 6, 4.

[306] On this word see our note above at V, 22, I.

[307] This is the only one of the things here mentioned not referred to in previous rules. Buddhaghosa says, Kumbha-kârikâ ti Dhaniyass’ eva sabba-mattikâmaya-kuti vukkati. The story of Dhaniya is given in the text of the Vinaya, vol. iii, pp. 42 and following.


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