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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

Kulla Vagga

 


[157]

Sixth Khandhaka

On Dwellings and Furniture

 


 

1.

1.1 Now at that time the Blessed Buddha[1] was staying at Râgagaha in the Veluvana, in the Kalandaka Nivâpa[2]. And at that time no permission had been given to the Bhikkhus by the Blessed One with respect to dwellings. So the Bhikkhus dwelt now here, now there--in the woods, at the foot of trees, on hill-sides, in grottoes, in mountain caves, in cemeteries, in forests, in open plains, and in heaps of straw. And at early morn they came in from this place or from that place--from the woods (&c., as before) decorous in their walking and turning, in their looking on or looking round, in stretching out their arms or in drawing them back, with eyes cast down, and dignified in deportment[3].

1.2 Now at that time the Setthi of Râgagaha went at early morn to his garden. And the Setthi of [158]gagaha saw those Bhikkhus coming in from this place and from that place, from the woods (&c., as in § 1, down to the end), and on seeing them he took pleasure therein[4]. And the Setthi of Râgagaha went up to those Bhikkhus, and said to them:

'If, Sirs, I were to have dwellings erected for you, would you take up your abode in those dwellings?'

'Not so, O householder. Dwellings have not been allowed by the Blessed One.'

'Then, Sirs, ask the Blessed One about it, and let me know.'

'Very well, O householder,' said they, in assent to the Setthi of Râgagaha. And they went up to the Blessed One, and saluted him, and took their seats on one side. And when they were so seated, they said to the Blessed One:

'The Setthi of Râgagaha, Lord, wishes to have dwellings erected for us. What, Lord, should be done?'

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, when he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, abodes of five kinds--Vihâras, Addhayogas, storied dwellings, attics, caves[5].'

1.3 Then those Bhikkhus went up to the Setthi of Râgagaha, and said to him: 'The Blessed One, Sir, has allowed us dwellings; do, therefore, what seemeth to thee good.' And the Setthi of Râgagaha had sixty dwelling-places put up in one day.

[159] 1.4 And when the Setthi of Râgagaha had completed those sixty dwelling-places, he went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and [invited him and the Bhikkhu Samgha for the morrow's meal; and so on, as usual[6], down to the time when, after the meal, the Setthi] said to the Blessed One:

I have had, Lord, these sixty dwelling-places made for the sake of merit, and for the sake of heaven. What am I to do, Lord, with respect to them?'

Then, O householder, dedicate[7] these sixty dwelling-places to the Samgha of the four directions, whether now present, or hereafter to arrive.'

'Even so, Lord!' said the Setthi of Râgagaha, in assent to the Blessed One, and he dedicated those sixty dwelling-places to the use of the Samgha of the four directions whether present or to come[8].'

1.5 Then the Blessed One gave thanks to the Setthi of Râgagaha in these verses[9]:

'Cold he wards off and heat, so also beasts of prey,
And creeping things and gnats, and rains in the wet season.
And when the dreaded heated winds arise, they are kept off.
[160] To give Vihâras to the Samgha, wherein in safety and in peace
To meditate and think at ease, the Buddha calls the best of gifts.
Let then the able man, regarding his own weal,
Have pleasant monasteries built, and lodge there learned men[10].
Let him with cheerful mind give food to them, and drink,
Raiment, and dwelling-places, to the upright in heart.
Then shall they preach to him the Truth--The Truth dispelling every grief
Which Truth when here that man perceives He sins no more, and dies away[11]!'

And when the Blessed One had given thanks to the Setthi of Râgagaha in these verses, he rose from his seat, and departed thence.

 


 

2.

2.1 And the people heard, saying, 'Vihâras have been allowed by the Blessed One.' And they built Vihâras zealously. Those Vihâras had no doors[12], and snakes, scorpions, and centipedes got in.

[161] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a door[13].'

They made holes in the wall, and tied the door on with string or with creepers, These were eaten by mice and white ants; and when the things by which the doors had been tied on had been eaten away, the doors fell.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, door-posts and lintel, hollow like a mortar, for the door to revolve in, and projections to the door for it to revolve on.'

The doors would not come to.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a hole to pass a string through with which to pull the door to, and a string for that purpose.'

The doors could not be made fast[14].

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, rings on the door for the bolt to work along in, blocks of wood fixed to the edge of the door-post and containing a cavity for the bolt to go into, a pin to secure the bolt by, and a bolt.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus were not able to open the door.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[162] 'I allow, O Bhikkhus, key-holes, and keys of three kinds--bronze keys, and keys of hard wood, and keys of horn.'

When anybody unlocked them[15], and entered, the Vihâras became unprotected.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a yantaka, and a pin to it[16].'

2.2 Now at that time the Vihâras were thatched; and in the cold season they were cold, and in the hot season hot.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover them (with skins)[17], and to plaster them within and without.'

Now at that time the Vihâras had no windows, and they were bad for the eyes, and had a disagreeable odour.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, windows of three kinds--windows made with railings [18], windows made with network[19], and windows made with slips of wood[20].'

[163] Squirrels and bats[21] entered through the opening for the window.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, window-blinds (or curtains)[22].'

The squirrels and bats still got in through the interstices between the blind (and the wall).

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, shutters, and rolls or bags (to fill up interstices with)[23].

2.3 Now at that time the Bhikkhus slept on the floor, and both their limbs and their robes became dirty.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, mats made of grass.'

The mats were eaten by mice and white ants.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a solid bench or divan (built up against the wall of a room, or under the verandah against the outside wall of the house)[24].

[164] On the solid bench their limbs ached.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, bedsteads made of laths of split bamboo[25].'

Now at that time a bier-like masâraka[26] bedstead--a masâraka chair--a bier-like bundikâbaddha[27] bedstead--a bundikâbaddha chair--a bier-like kulîra-pâdaka[28] bedstead--a kulîra-pâdaka chair--a bier-like âhakka-pâdaka[29] bedstead--an âhakka-pâdaka chair--had come into the possession of the Samgha.

[165] They told this matter (in each case) to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, (each of these things).'

2.4 Now at that time a rectangular chair[30]--an arm-chair[31]--a sofa[32]--a sofa with arms to it[33]--a state chair[34]--a cushioned chair[35]--a chair raised on a pedestal[36]--a chair with many legs[37]--a board (to recline on)[38]--a cane-bottomed chair[39]--a straw-bottomed chair--had come into the possession of the Samgha.

They told this matter (in each case) to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, (each of these things).'

[166] 2.5 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus slept on lofty beds.

People coming on a visit to the Vihâra, when they saw them, murmured, &c., saying, 'Like those who still live in the pleasure of the world.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to sleep on lofty beds. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[40].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, when sleeping on a low couch, was bitten by a snake[41].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, supports to your bedsteads[42].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus used lofty supports to their bedsteads, and rocked themselves with these bedstead supports, backwards and forwards[43].

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use lofty supports to your bedsteads. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you such supports up to eight inches in length.'

2.6 Now at that time a quantity of string had come into the possession of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to weave (a texture of string across) the bedstead.'

Much string was taken up by (passing it round) the sides of the bedstead.

[167]'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to pierce the sides of the bedstead, and thus to weave the string across and across[44].'

A cloth had come into their possession.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use it as a carpet[45].'

A mattress stuffed with cotton[46] had come into their possession.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to comb out the cotton, and make the cotton up into pillows[47] if it be of any of these three kinds--cotton produced on trees, cotton produced on creepers, cotton produced from Potaki-grass.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus made use of pillows half the size of a man's body.

People who came on a visit to the Vihâras murmured, &c., on seeing this, saying, 'Like those who still enjoy the pleasures of the world.'

[168] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to make use of pillows half the size of a man's body. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have pillows the size of a man's head.'

2.7 Now at that time there was a festival on a high place[48] at Râgagaha. The people provided for the use of high officials bolsters stuffed with wool, or cotton cloth, or bark, or grass, or leaves. When the festival had been held they tore open the covers of skin and carried them off. And the Bhikkhus saw much wool, and cotton cloth, and bark, and grass, and leaves thrown away on the spot where the festival had been held; and on seeing this, they told the matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, bolsters[49] of five kinds--those stuffed with wool, or cotton cloth, or bark, or grass, or talipot leaves.'

Now at that time a bed coverlet had come into the possession of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover a bolster with it.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus folded up bed bolsters on to chairs[50], and chair bolsters on to bedsteads, and the bolsters came to pieces.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, chairs and bedsteads covered (with upholstered cushions to fit them).'

[169] They covered the bedsteads and chairs without putting a cloth beneath them[51], and the stuffing came out from below.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, first to spread out a cloth under the bedsteads or chairs, and then to upholster them.'

They tore off the coverings[52], and took them away.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to bespatter (the coverings with dye)[53].'

They still took them away.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use coverings coloured in patches[54].'

They still took them away.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to colour the coverings in patches only the size of a man's hand[55].'

 


 

3.

3.1 [170] Now at that time the sleeping-rooms of the Titthiyas were whitewashed, the floors of their rooms were coloured black, and the walls coloured with red chalk[56]. Much people went to look at their sleeping-rooms.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use in your Vihâras of whitewash, black colouring, and red colouring.'

Now at that time the whitewash would not lie on to the rough walls.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply the husks of grain made up into little balls; and when you have thus removed the unevenness with your hands[57], to lay on the whitewash.'

The whitewash would not adhere.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply soft clay; and when you have thus removed the unevenness with your hands[57], to lay on the whitewash.'

(Still) the whitewash would not adhere.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of slime[58] (of trees) or of paste[59].'

[171] Now at that time the colouring matter of red chalk would not lie on the rough walls.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply the husks of grain made up into little balls; and when you have thus removed the unevenness with your hands, to lay on the colouring matter of red chalk.'

The red colour would not adhere.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply clay mixed with the red powder which adheres to the grain of rice under the husks[60]; and when you have so taken off the unevenness with your hands to lay on the red colouring matter.'

Still the red colouring matter would not adhere.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a paste made of mustard seed[61], and of oil of beeswax[62].'

It lay on the wall too thickly in great drops[63].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wipe it down with a cloth[64].'

Now at that time the black colouring matter did not lie on the rough ground.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply husks of grain [172] made up into little balls; and when you have thus removed the unevenness with your hands, to lay on the black colouring matter.'

The black colouring matter would not adhere.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply clay mixed with (the excrement of) earth-worms[65]; and when you have thus removed the unevenness with your hands, to lay on the black colouring matter.'

Still the black colouring matter would not adhere.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of slime and astringent liquid[66].'

3.2 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus had imaginative drawings[67] painted on their Vihâras--figures of men, and figures of women.

People, when they saw them on going to visit the Vihâras; murmured, &c., saying, 'Like those who still enjoy the pleasures of the world.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have imaginative drawings painted figures of men, and figures of [173] women. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, representations of wreaths and creepers and bone hooks and cupboards[68].'

3.3 Now at that time the Vihâras had too low a basement (&c., as in V, 11, 6 as to roofing, stairs, and balustrade).

Now at that time the Vihâras were crowded with people[69]. The Bhikkhus were ashamed to lie down to sleep.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of curtains.'

They lifted up the curtains and looked in.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to put up a lath and plaster wall half the height of the Vihâra.'

They looked on from over this half-wall.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make inner chambers of three kinds--chambers in shape like a palankeen[70], chambers in shape like a quart measure[71], and chambers on an upper storey[72].'

[174] Now at that time the Bhikkhus made inner chambers in the middle of small Vihâras, and there was no room to move about in.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make the inner chambers at one side of small Vihâras, and in the middle of large ones[73].'

3.4 Now at that time the lower part of the lath and plaster wall of the Vihâra decayed.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, buttresses of timber[74].'

Rain leaked through on to the lath and plaster wall of the Vihâra[75].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a protecting arrangement[76] and cement[77].'

Now at that time a snake fell from the roof on to the back of a certain Bhikkhu. He was terrified, and made an outcry[78]. The Bhikkhus, running up, said to that Bhikkhu: 'Why, Sir, do you make an outcry?' Then that Bhikkhu told the matter to [175] the Bhikkhus, and they told the matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a ceiling-cloth.'

3.5 Now at that time the Bhikkhus hung their bags at the feet of the bedsteads, and at the feet of the chairs; and they were gnawed by the mice and white ants.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, pins in the wall, and bone hooks[79].'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus laid aside their robes on the bedsteads and on the chairs, and the robes were torn.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, bamboos to hang your robes on, and strings to hang your robes on[80].'

Now at that time the Vihâras had no verandahs, and no defences[81].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, verandahs[82], covered terraces[83], inner verandahs[84], and over-hanging eaves[85].'

[176] The verandahs were too public; and the Bhikkhus were ashamed to lie down in them to sleep.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, an arrangement in form of a curtain that can be drawn aside[86], or an arrangement in form of a moveable screen[87].'

3.6 Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when taking their midday meal in the open air, were troubled by cold and heat.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a Service Hall.'

The Service Hall had too low a basement (&c., as in V, 11, 6, down to the end).

Now at that time the Bhikkhus spread their robes out on the ground in the open air, and they became dirty.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, bamboos to hang robes on, and strings to hang robes in, in the open air.

3.7 The water became warm.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a water-room and a water-shed.'

The water-room had too low a basement (&c., as in V, 11, 6, down to the end).

There were no vessels for the water.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, chank shells and saucers for the water.'

3.8 Now at that time the Vihâras had no fence round them.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enclose them with [177] ramparts (Pâkâra) of three kinds--brick walls, stone walls, and wooden fences.'

There was no store-room[88].

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a store-room.'

The store-room had too low a basement, and it was flooded with water.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it with a high basement.'

The store-room had no door.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a door; with door-posts and lintel, with hollows like a mortar for the door to revolve in, with projections to revolve in those hollows, with rings on the door for the bolt to work along in, with a block of wood fixed into the edge of the door-post, and containing a cavity for the bolt to go into (called the Monkey's Head), with a pin to secure the bolt by, with a connecting bolt, with a key-hole, with a hole for a string with which the door may be closed, and with a string for that purpose[89].'

Grass and plaster fell from the store-room.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus (&c., as in V, 14, 4. down to the end of V, 14, 5, as to roofing, flooring, drains, &c.).'

3.9 Now at that time the Bhikkhus made fire-places here and there in the Parivena, and the Parivena was covered with the remains of the fires[90].

[178] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make a separate room for the fire at one side.'

The fire-room had too low a basement (&c., as in V, 11, 6, as to flooring, stairs, and balustrade, followed by the paragraph as to the door, and the facing, as in V, 14, 3, &c.).

3.10 Now at that time the Ârâmas had no fences to them, and goats and cattle injured the plantations[91].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to surround them with fencing of three kinds--bamboo fences, thorn fences, and ditches.'

There was no gateway (kotlhaka), and goats and cattle, even so, injured the plantations.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a gateway, with gates made of stakes interlaced with thorny brakes[92], with fences (across the gateway) made of the akka plant[93], with ornamental screen-work over the gateway[94], and with bars.'

[Then the paragraphs allowing the roofing, &c., of this kotthaka as in V, 11, 6, and drains for the Ârâma, as in V, 14, 3.]

3.11 Now at that time Seniya Bimbisâra, the king of Magadha, wanted to build a pâsâda[95] (residence), [179] covered with cement and clay, for the use of the Samgha. And it occurred to the Bhikkhus, 'What kind of roof now has been allowed by the Blessed One, and what kind of roof has not been allowed?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, roofing of five kinds--brick roofing, stone roofing, cement roofing, straw roofing, and roofing of leaves.'

End of the First Bhânavâra
(or Portion for Recitation).

 


 

4.

4.1 Now at that time the householder Anâtha Pindika was the husband of the sister of the Râgagaha Setthi. And Anâtha Pindika the householder went to Râgagaha on some business or other. Now at that time the Samgha, with the Buddha at its head, had been bidden by the Setthi of Râgagaha for the morrow's meal. And the Setthi of Râgagaha gave command to his slaves and work-people, saying, 'So get up at early morn, my men, and cook congey, and cook rice, and prepare curries, and pre-pare delicacies[96]!'

[180] And it occurred to Anâtha Pindika the householder, 'Now formerly this householder was wont, when I arrived, to lay aside all other business, and exchange the greetings of courtesy with me; but now he appears excited, and is giving orders to his slaves and work-people. How can it be? Is he taking in marriage, or is he giving in marriage, or has he set a great sacrifice on foot, or has he invited the Mâgadhan Seniya Bimbisâra, together with his retinue, for to-morrow's meal?'

4.2 Now when the Setthi of Râgagaha had given commandment to his slaves and his work-people, he went up to the place where Anâtha Pindika the householder was, and exchanged with him the greetings of courtesy, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated, Anâtha Pindika the householder [told him the thoughts that had passed through his mind].

'I am neither taking nor giving in marriage, O householder' (was the reply), 'nor have I invited the Mâgadhan Seniya Bimbisâra to to-morrow's meal. But a great sacrifice I have set on foot, for the Samgha, with the Buddha at its head, has been invited for to-morrow's meal at my house.'

'Did you, O householder, say "the Buddha?"'

'Yes, it was "the Buddha" that I said.'

[181] [And thrice the same question was put, and the same reply was given.]

'Hard is it, O householder, to meet even with the mere expression in the world--the news, that is, of "a Buddha, a Buddha[97]." Would it be possible for us, at this very time, to go and visit that Blessed One, the Arahat, the very Buddha[98]?'

'It is not now, O householder, the proper time to pay a visit to the Blessed One; but early on the morrow you shall go and visit him.'

Then Anâtha Pindika, pondering of the visit he was about to pay, lay down to sleep with his thoughts so bent upon the Buddha that thrice in the night he arose, thinking the daylight had appeared.

4.3 And Anâtha Pindika the householder went up to the gate leading to the Sîtavana, and celestial beings opened the gate. And as he emerged from the city, the light disappeared and a thick darkness arose, and fear and trembling and consternation sprang up within him, so that a longing came upon him to turn back again from that spot. But Sîvaka the Yakkha, himself the while invisible, caused a sound to be heard, saying:

'A hundred elephants, a hundred steeds, a hundred chariots with mules[99],

'A hundred thousand virgins with their jewelled earrings on,--

[182] 'These are not worth, O householder, the sixteenth portion of one single stride.

'Go on, go on, O householder! Advance, and not retreat, shall profit thee.'

Then the darkness disappeared before Anâtha Pindika the householder, and a bright light arose, and the fear and trembling and consternation that had sprung upon within him were appeased.

[And a second and a third time the same thing happened, and the same words were heard, and with the same result.]

4.4 And Anâtha Pindika the householder arrived at the Sîtavana; and at that time the Blessed One, who had arisen at early dawn, was walking up and down (meditating) in the open air. And the Blessed One saw Anâtha Pindika the householder when he was coming from afar; and the Blessed One left the place where he had been, walking up and down, and sat himself down on the seat put out for him. And when he was so seated, he addressed Anâtha Pindika the householder, and said:

'Come hither, Sudatta!'

Then Anâtha Pindika, glad and happy at the thought that the Blessed One had addressed him by his name, went up to the place where the Blessed

One was, and bowed down before him, falling at his feet, and said:

'I trust my lord the Blessed One has slept in peace!'

'He ever sleeps in peace, the Arahat who is free[100], [183] 'Who is not touched by lusts, but calm and free from sin[101],

'Has broken all the bars (to freedom of the mind)[102], has quenched the anguish in his heart,

'Has fixed peace in his mind, and peaceful, sleeps in peace[103].'

4.5[104]. Then the Blessed One discoursed to Anâtha Pindika the householder in due order; that is to say, he spake to him of giving, of righteousness, of heaven, of the danger, the vanity, and the defilement of lusts, and of the advantages of renunciation. And when the Blessed One saw that Anâtha Pindika the householder had become prepared, softened, unprejudiced, and upraised and believing in heart, then he proclaimed that which is the special doctrine of the Buddhas; that is to say, Suffering, its Origin, its Cessation, and the Path. And just as a clean cloth from which all stain has been washed away will readily take the dye, just even so did Anâtha [184] Pindika the householder obtain, even while sitting there, the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth; (that is to say, the knowledge that) whatsoever has a beginning, in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution. Thus did Anâtha Pindika the householder see, and master, and understand, and penetrate the Truth; and he overcame uncertainty, and dispelled all doubts, and gained full knowledge, becoming dependent upon no one else for his knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher. And he addressed the Blessed One, and said:

'Most excellent, Lord (are the words of thy mouth), most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which is thrown down, or were to reveal that which is hidden away, or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms just even so, Lord, has the Truth been made known to me, in many a figure, by the Blessed One. And I, even I, betake myself, Lord, to the Blessed One as my refuge, to the Truth, and to the Order. May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple, as one who, from this day forth as long as life endures. has taken his refuge in him. And may the Blessed One consent to accept at my hand the to-morrow's meal for himself and for his Order of Bhikkhus.'

Then the Blessed One, by silence, granted his consent. And when Anâtha Pindika the householder perceived that his request had been granted, he rose from his seat, and bowed down before the Blessed One, and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, he departed thence.

4.6 Now the Setthi of Râgagaha heard that the [185] Order of Bhikkhus which has the Buddha at its head had been invited by Anâtha Pindika the householder for the morrow's meal. And the Setthi of Râgagaha said to Anâtha Pindika the householder: 'They say, O householder, that you have invited the Bhikkhu-samgha, with the Buddha at its head, for the morrow's meal, and, you are but a stranger here. I will provide the means[105], O householder, for you to provide the Order of Bhikkhus, which has the Buddha at its head, with food.'

'It is not necessary, O householder; I have means sufficient for the purpose.'

[And the townsman of Râgagaha[106], and Seniya Bimbisâra the Râga of Magadha, made the same offer in the same words, and received the same reply.]

4.7 Then Anâtha Pindika the householder, when the night was far spent, made ready in the house of the Setthi of Râgagaha sweet food both hard and soft, and had the time announced to the Blessed One, saying, 'The time, Lord, has come; and the meal is ready.'

And the Blessed One, when he had dressed himself in the early morning, went duly bowled and [186] robed to the house of the Setthi of Râgagaha, and sat down there on the seat spread out for him, together with the Order of Bhikkhus. And Anâtha Pindika the householder offered to the Order of Bhikkhus which had the Buddha at its head the sweet food both hard and soft, waiting upon them with his own hand[107]. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal, and had cleansed his hands and his bowl, Anâtha Pindika took his seat on one side; and, so seated, he said to the Blessed One: 'May the Blessed One consent to spend the rainy season of Was at Sâvatthi, together with the Order of Bhikkhus.'

'The Tathâgatas, O householder, take pleasure in solitude.'

'I understand, O Blessed One; I understand, O Happy One' (was the reply)[108].

Then the Blessed One, after he had instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened Anâtha Pindika the householder with religious discourse, arose from his seat, and departed thence.

4.8 Now at that time Anâtha Pindika the householder had many friends and' large acquaintance, and his word was held of weight[109]. When he had [187] brought the business he had in hand at Râgagaha to its conclusion, he set out towards Sâvatthi; and on the way he gave orders to people, saying, 'Build dwellings, my good men, and make rest-houses ready, and prepare gifts. A Buddha has appeared in the world, and that Blessed One has been invited by me, and by this road will he come.' And those people [did all even as they were commanded].

And when Anâtha Pindika the householder had arrived at Sâvatthi, he examined all the region round about it, saying[110], 'Where now shall I fix the place for the Blessed One to stay in, not too far from the town and not too near, convenient for going and for coming, easily accessible for all who wish to visit him, by day not too crowded, by night not exposed to too much noise and alarm, protected from the wind[111], hidden from men, well fitted for a retired life?'

4.9 And Anâtha Pindika the householder saw that the garden of Geta the Kumâra had [all these advantages]. And when he saw that, he went to Geta the Kumâra, and said to him, 'Sir, let me have your garden to make an Ârâma on it.'

'It is not, Sir, for sale, even for (a sum so great that the pieces of money would be sufficient to cover it if they were) laid side by side.'

'I take, Sir, the garden at the price.'

'No, O householder, there was no bargain meant[112].'

[188] Then they asked the lords of justice whether a bargain of sale had been made or not. And the lords decided thus: 'The Ârâma is taken, Sir, at the price which you fixed.'

And Anâtha Pindika the householder had gold brought down in carts, and covered the Getavana with (pieces) laid side by side[113].

4.10 Now the gold that he had brought down the first time did not suffice (after the rest of the garden was covered) to cover one small space close by the gateway. So Anâtha Pindika the householder told his servants to go back and fetch more gold, saying he would cover that piece also.

Then thought Geta the Kumâra, 'This can be no ordinary matter[114] for which this householder is ready to lavish so much gold!' And he said to Anâtha Pindika the householder, 'It is enough, O householder. You need not have that space covered. Let me have that space, and it shall be my gift.'

Then Anâtha Pindika the householder thought[115], 'This Geta the Kumâra is a very distinguished and illustrious person. Great would be the efficacy of the adherence of so well known a man as he to this doctrine and discipline.' And he gave up that [189] space to Geta the Kumâra. And Geta the Prince erected thereon a gateway, with a room over it.

And Anâtha Pindika the householder built[116] dwelling-rooms, and retiring-rooms, and store-rooms (over the gateways), and service halls, and halls with fire-places in them, and storehouses (outside the Vihâra)[117], and closets, and cloisters, and halls for exercise, and wells, and sheds for the well[118], and bath-rooms, and halls attached to the bath-rooms, and ponds, and open-roofed sheds[119].

 


 

5.

5.1 Now when the Blessed One had stayed at Râgagaha as long as he thought fit, he set out towards Vesâlî; and journeying straight on he in due course arrived there. And there at Vesâlî the Blessed One stayed in the peak-roofed hall at the Mahâvana.

Now at that time the people were zealously engaged in putting up new buildings (for the use of the Order)[120], and as zealously provided with the [190] requisite clothes, and food, and lodging, and medicine for the sick, all such Bhikkhus as superintended their work.

Now a certain poor tailor thought; 'This can be no every-day matter on which the people are so zealously engaged. Let me too set to work on a new building.' And that poor tailor himself kneaded the clay, and laid the bricks, and raised the walls. But by his want of experience the laying was out of line and the wall fell down. And a second and a third time he [repeated his work, and with the same result].

5.2 Then that poor tailor murmured, was annoyed, and became indignant, saying, 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas exhort and teach those men who provide them with the requisite clothes, food, lodging, and medicine, and superintend their buildings for them. But I am poor, and no one exhorts or teaches me, or helps me in my building!'

The Bhikkhus heard him so murmuring, and told the matter to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One on that occasion and in that connection made a religious discourse, and gave command to the Bhikkhus, saying, 'I permit you, O Bhikkhus, to give new buildings in course of erection (for the use of the Order) in charge (to a Bhikkhu who shall superintend[121] the work). And the Bhikkhu who [191] is overseer shall zealously exert himself to the end that the work on the Vihâra may be brought to a rapid conclusion, and shall afterwards cause repairs to be executed wherever the buildings have become broken or worn out[122].

5.3 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the work to be given in charge. In the first place a Bhikkhu is to be asked (whether he will undertake the duty). When he has been asked, some able and discreet Bhikkhu is to lay the matter before the Samgha, saying, "Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha give in charge to such and such a Bhikkhu the Vihâra of such and such a householder as a navakammam. This is the motion (ñatti). Let the venerable Samgha hear me. The Samgha hereby gives in charge . . . . (&c., as before). Whosoever of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him keep silence; whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak. The Samgha has given in charge . . . . (&c., as before). Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

 


 

6.[123]

6.1 Now when the Blessed One had stayed as long as he thought fit at Vesâlî he set out towards Sâvatthi.

[192] Now at that time the pupils of the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus went on in front of the Bhikkhu-samgha which had the Buddha at its head, and occupied the rooms, and occupied the sleeping-places, saying, 'This will do for our superiors (upagghâyas), this for our teachers (âkariyas), this for ourselves.' And the venerable Sâriputta who had followed after the Bhikkhu-samgha which had the Buddha at its head, since all the rooms and all the sleeping-places had been occupied, found no place to sleep in, and took his seat at the foot of a certain tree.

Now the Blessed One, at early dawn, after he had risen, coughed. The venerable Sâriputta coughed also.

'Who is this?' (said the Blessed One.)

'It is I, Lord; Sâriputta.'

'How do you come to be sitting here, Sâriputta?'

Then the venerable Sâriputta told the matter to the Blessed One.

6.2Then the Blessed One on that occasion and in that connection convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and asked, 'Is it true, as I have been told, O Bhikkhus, that the pupils of the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus have (acted in this way)?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Then the Blessed One rebuked them, saying (as usual, see Kullavagga I, 1, 2, 3), and he said to the Bhikkhus, 'Who is it, O Bhikkhus, who is worthy of the best seat, and the best water, and the best food?'

Some of the Bhikkhus said, 'One who belonged to a Kshatriya family before he entered the Order.' Others of the Bhikkhus said, One who belonged to a Brahman family before he entered the Order.' Others again said, 'One who belonged to a [193] Gahapati[124] family before he entered the Order--one versed in the Suttas--one versed in the Rules of the Order--an expounder of the Dhamma[125]--one who has attained the first, second, third, fourth Ghâna--one who has entered the first, second, third Path--an Arahat--one who has the threefold wisdom[126]--one who has the six powers[127].'

6.3 Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, 'Long ago, O Bhikkhus, there was a great banyan tree on the lower slopes of the Himâlaya range; and near it there dwelt three friends--a partridge, a monkey, and an elephant. And they dwelt together without mutual reverence, confidence, and courtesy[128]. Then, O Bhikkhus, it occurred to those friends, "Come now, let us find out which of us is the elder by birth; and let us agree to honour and reverence and esteem and support him, and by his counsels let us abide." So, Bhikkhus, the partridge and the monkey asked the elephant,

'"How far back can you, friend, remember?"

'"Friends! when I was little I used to walk over [194] this banyan tree, keeping it between my thighs, and its topmost twig brushed against my stomach. So far back, friends, can I remember."

'Then, O Bhikkhus, the partridge and the elephant asked the monkey [the same question],

'"Friends! when I was little, sitting once on the ground, I gnawed at the then topmost twig of this banyan. So far back can I remember."

'Then, O Bhikkhus, the monkey and the elephant asked the partridge [the same question],

'"Friends! there was formerly a lofty banyan tree in yonder open space. One day after eating one of its fruits, I voided the seed here; and from that this banyan tree grew up. So I must be older than either of you."

'Thereupon, O Bhikkhus, the elephant and the monkey said to the partridge, "You, friend, are the oldest of us all. Henceforth we will honour and reverence and esteem and support you, and by your counsels will we abide."

'Thenceforth, O Bhikkhus, the partridge kept the monkey and the elephant in obedience to the Five Precepts, and observed them also himself. And dwelling together in mutual reverence, confidence, and courtesy, at the dissolution of the body after death they were reborn unto a happy state in heaven. And this (perfect life of theirs) became known as "the good life of the partridge[129]."

'Tis those who reverence the old
That are the men who Dhamma know,
[195]Worthy of praise while in this life
And happy in the life to come.

6.4 'So that, O Bhikkhus, since even animals can live together in mutual reverence, confidence, and courtesy, so much more, O Bhikkhus, should you so let your light shine forth[130] that you, who have left the world to follow so well taught a doctrine and discipline, may be seen to dwell in like manner together.' And when he had delivered a religious discourse (as in I, 1, 3), he said to the Bhikkhus:

'I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, that paying of reverence, rising up in reverence, salutation, proper respect, and apportionment of the best seat and water and food, shall be according to seniority. But property belonging to the Samgha shall not be exclusively appropriated according to seniority[131]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.

6.5 'These ten, O Bhikkhus, are not to be saluted--a Bhikkhu afterwards admitted unto the higher grade of the Order by one previously admitted--a person not admitted--a senior Bhikkhu when he belongs to a different community, and does not speak according to the Dhamma--a woman[132]--a eunuch[133]--a Bhikkhu who has been placed under probation[134]--one who, having been so placed, is [196] liable to be thrown back to the beginning of his probationary term[135]--one who is liable to have a penance (Mânatta) imposed upon him--one who is undergoing a penance--one who, so undergoing a penance, is fit to be rehabilitated.

'And these three, O Bhikkhus, ought to be saluted--one previously admitted into the higher grade of the Order by one afterwards admitted--the senior in a different community when he speaks according to the Dhamma--and, O Bhikkhus, throughout the worlds of men and gods, of Mâras and of Brahmas, by all creatures Samanas and Brahmans, gods and men, the Arahat Sammâsambuddha.'

 


 

7.

7.1 Now at that time people provided arbours (mandapas), and couches, and room for the use of the Samgha. And the pupils of the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, saying, 'It has been laid down by the Blessed One that that which pertains (wholly) to the Samgha shall be used according to seniority, but not that which is given only for the temporary use of the Samgha,' went on in front of the Samgha and occupied the mandapas, and occupied the couches, and occupied the room, saying, 'This shall be for our superiors, and this for our teachers, and this for ourselves.'

And Sâriputta (&c., as in last chapter, §§ 1, 2, down to) Then the Blessed One rebuked them, &c., and said to the Bhikkhus, 'Even that which has been set aside only for the temporary use of [197] the Samgha is not, O Bhikkhus, to be reserved for exclusive use according to seniority.'

 


 

8.

8.1 Now at that time people arranged in the eating-rooms, or in the interior courtyards of their houses, lofty and large couches, such as [here follows the list of things forbidden in Mahâvagga V, 10, 4]. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not sit down upon them.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down on seats arranged by laymen--excepting three, (that is to say) large cushions, divans, mattresses[136]--but not to lie down upon them.'

Now at that time people put in the eating-rooms, or in the courtyards, stuffed couches and stuffed chairs. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not sit down on them.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down on any [such] things arranged by laymen, but not to lie down upon them[137].'

 


 

9.

9.1 Now the Blessed One, proceeding on his journey, arrived in due course at Sâvatthi; and there, [198] at Sâvatthi, the Blessed One stayed in the Getavana, the park of Anâtha Pindika. Then Anâtha Pindika the householder [invited the Blessed One for the morrow's meal, and when the meal was over, he said to the Blessed One[138]]:

'What, Lord, shall I do with regard to the Getavana?'

You may dedicate it, O householder, to the use of the Samgha of the four directions[139] either now here present, or hereafter to arrive.'

'Even so, Lord,' said Anâtha Pindika the householder in assent to the Blessed One, and he did so.

9.2 Then the Blessed One gave thanks to Anâtha Pindika the householder in these verses. [Here follow the same verses as were used above in VI, 1, 5 on the presentation of the Getavana[140].]

 


 

10.

10.1 Now at that time it had been settled that a certain high official at court, a follower of the Âgîvakas, should provide the day's meal for the Samgha. And the venerable Upananda the Sâkyan, coming late, but before the meal was over, made the Bhikkhu next (junior to him in seniority[141]) get [199] up out of his seat; and the dining-hall was thrown into confusion.

Then that minister became indignant, murmured, and was annoyed: 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas behave so! Is it not then lawful for any one, unless he have been seated, to eat as much as he requires?'

And the Bhikkhus heard him murmuring, &c. And they told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true as they say, &c.?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Then the Blessed One rebuked him, &c., and he said to the Bhikkhus, 'A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhikkhus, to be made to get up out of his seat before the meal is over. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. And if any one causes another to get up, and be then invited to partake of the meal, he shall be ordered to go and fetch water. If he shall thus receive the place, it is well; if not, the other one shall first complete his swallowing of the rice, and shall then give up the place to his senior. But in no case, O Bhikkhus, do I say that a place properly belonging to a senior Bhikkhu is to be taken (by a junior). Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[142].'

10.2 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus made sick Bhikkhus get up (from their seats). The sick men said, 'We cannot, Sirs, get up; for we are sick.'

'We insist upon your getting up,' said they; and [200] seizing them, and pulling them up, they let them go as they were standing. The sick men, as soon as they were let go, fell down.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A sick man, O Bhikkhus, is not to be made to get up. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, saying, 'We are sick, and cannot be turned out,' took possession of the best sleeping-places.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I enjoin, O Bhikkhus, that you allot to sick Bhikkhus suitable sleeping-places.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, on pretext of some slight indisposition[143], took exclusive possession of sleeping-places.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

11. [144]

11.1 Now at that time the Sattarasa-vaggiya Bhikkhus made ready a certain large Vihâra in the neighbourhood[145], with the intention of dwelling in it. And when the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus saw what they were doing, they said: 'These venerable ones, the Sattarasa-vaggiya Bhikkhus, are [201] getting a Vihâra ready; come, let us turn them out.' Some of them said: 'Let us stay here[146] whilst they get it ready, and turn them out when it is prepared.' So the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus said to the Sattarasa-vaggiyas: 'Depart, Sirs; the Vihâra has fallen unto us.'

'Why did you not, Sirs, say so sooner; and we would have got some other one ready?'

Is not, then, this Vihâra the common property of the Samgha?'

Yes, Sirs; that is so.'

'Then depart, Sirs; for the Vihâra has fallen unto us.'

It is large, Sirs, this Vihâra. You can dwell in it, and we as well.'

Then, full of anger and displeasure, they repeated, 'Depart, Sirs; this Vihâra has fallen unto us.' And seizing them by the throat, they cast them out. And the others, being ejected, wept.

The Bhikkhus asked, 'Why, Sirs, do you weep?'

Then they told them; and the moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c., and told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, as they say, &c.?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Then he rebuked them; and when he had delivered a religious discourse, he said to the Bhikkhus:

'A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhikkhus, to be cast out of a Vihâra, the common property of the Samgha, in anger and vexation. Whosoever does so, shall [202] be dealt with according to the law[147]. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to allot the lodging-places (common to the Samgha to those who have need of them)[148].'

11.2 Now the Bhikkhus thought, 'How then shall the lodging-places be allotted?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as an apportioner of lodging places a Bhikkhu possessed of these five qualifications--one who does not walk in partiality, who does not walk in malice, who does not walk in stupidity, who does not walk in fear (and so on, as in Khandhaka IV chapter 10, down to the end of the Kammavâkâ).'

11.4 Now the apportioners of lodging-places thought, 'How then ought the lodging-places to be apportioned?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, in the first place to count the Bhikkhus, then to count the sleeping-places, then to apportion accordingly[149].'

When apportioning according to the number of sleeping-places, some remained unallotted[150].

[203] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apportion according to the number of apartments (Vihâras):

When so apportioning, some apartments(Vihâras) remained unallotted.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apportion according to the number of buildings (Parivenas)[151].'

When so apportioning, some buildings (Parivenas) remained unallotted.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give a supplementary share to each Bhikkhu[152].'

When more than one share had been allotted, another Bhikkhu arrived.

'In that case a share need not be allotted to him, if the Bhikkhus do not wish to do so[153].'

Now at that time they allotted sleeping-places to a Bhikkhu who was then staying outside the boundary (of the district in which the building was situate)[154].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[204] 'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to [do so]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, after the lodging-places had been allotted, kept them to the exclusion of others for all time.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you to retain them for the three months of the rainy, but not for the dry season.'

11.5 Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'What is (it now that constitutes) an allotment of lodging-places?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'There are these three allotments of lodging-places, O Bhikkhus,--the earlier, the later, and the intermediate. The earlier is to be held on the day after the full moon of Âsâlha (June-July); the later, a month after that full moon[155]; the intermediate (literally that which involves a giving up during the intervening time) is held on the day after the Pavâranâ ceremony, with reference to the rainy season of the following year. These, O Bhikkhus, are the three allotments of lodging-places.'

Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation.

 


 

12.

12.1 Now the venerable Upananda the Sâkyan, after having had a lodging allotted to him in [205] Sâvatthi, went to a certain country-place where a community of the Samgha resided, and there also had a lodging allotted to him. Then the Bhikkhus there thought, 'Now this brother, Upananda the Sâkyan, is a maker of strife, quarrelsome, a maker of disputes, given to idle talk, a raiser of legal questions in the Samgha[156]. If he should spend the rainy season here, then shall we all dwell in discomfort. Come, let us question him.' And they asked the venerable Upananda the Sâkyan:

'Have not you, friend Upananda, had a lodging allotted to you in Sâvatthi?'

That is so, Sirs.'

'What then do you, friend Upananda, being one, yet take exclusive possession of two (lodging-places)?'

'Well, I do now, Sirs, set (the lodging) here free, and take the one there.'

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured, &c., and they told the matter to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and asked the venerable Upananda the Sâkyan:

'Is it true, Upananda, that you, being one, have taken possession of two places?'

'It is true, Lord.'

Then the Blessed One rebuked him, saying, 'How can you, O foolish one, do such a thing? What you took there, O foolish one, has been lost here; what you took here, has been lost there[157]. Thus, O [206] foolish one, you are deprived of both.' And when he had delivered a religious discourse, he said to the Bhikkhus:

'One man is not, O Bhikkhus, to take two lodging-places. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

13.

13.1 Now at that time the Blessed One spake in many a figure concerning the Vinaya, speaking in praise of the Vinaya, in praise of learning the Vinaya, and again and again in reference thereto in praise of the venerable Upâli. Then said the Bhikkhus: 'The Blessed One speaks (&c., down to) Upâli. Come, let us learn the Vinaya under the venerable Upâli.' And many Bhikkhus, senior and junior, and of medium standing, went to learn the Vinaya under the venerable Upâli. The venerable Upâli taught them standing, out of reverence for the senior Bhikkhus, and the senior Bhikkhus heard him standing, out of reverence for the law; and thereby both the senior Bhikkhus grew weary, and the venerable Upâli.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a junior Bhikkhu, when giving instruction, to sit on a seat of equal height, or higher, out of reverence for the law; and a senior Bhikkhu, when receiving instruction, to sit on a seat [207] of equal height, or lower, out of reverence for the law[158].'

13.2 Now at that time a. number of Bhikkhus stood around Upâli, waiting for seats[159]; and they grew weary.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down together with brethren entitled to sit on seats of equal height.'

Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'How many of us are entitled to sit on seats of equal height?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit on the same seat with those who are within three years of one another in seniority.'

Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus, entitled to sit on the same seat, sat down on a couch, and broke the couch down; or sat down on a chair, and broke the chair down.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a couch, or a chair, for three persons.'

Even when three sat on the couch, or chair, it broke.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, two to sit on a couch or a chair.'

Now at that time Bhikkhus who were not entitled to seats of equal height, were afraid they would offend if they sat together on a long seat. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[208] 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit together on a long seat with others not entitled to sit on seats of equal height, unless they are women, or eunuchs, or hermaphrodites.'

Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'What is the limit of length which is included under the term "long seat?"'

'I allow the term "long seat" to be used, O Bhikkhus, of any seat long enough to accommodate three persons.

 


 

14.

14.1 Now at that time Visâkhâ the mother of Migâra was anxious to have a storeyed building (pâsâda), with a verandah (âlinda) to it, supported on pillars with capitals of elephant head[160], built for the use of the Samgha. Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'Of things which appertain to a storeyed building, which has been permitted by the Blessed One, and which not[161]?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[209] 'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of all appurtenances to a storeyed building.'

Now at that time the grandmother of Pasenadi of Kosala had died, and many unauthorised things had come into the hands of the Samgha, such as couches, divans (&c., as in chapter 8 above, and Mahâvagga V, 10, 4).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use the stuffed couches (âsandi) after having broken off the legs[162], and the divans (pallaṅka) after having removed the hair, and to comb out the cotton of the mat-tresses and make pillows of it[163], and to use all the rest as floor covering[164].'

 


 

15.

15.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus who dwelt in a certain country residence, not far from Sâvatthi, were worried by having constantly to provide sleeping accommodation for travelling Bhikkhus who came in (from country-places). And those Bhikkhus [210] thought: '[This being so,] let us hand over all the sleeping accommodation which is the property of the Samgha to one (of us), and let us use it as belonging to him.' And they [did so[165]].

Then the incoming Bhikkhus said to them: 'Prepare, Sirs, sleeping accommodation for us.'

'There are no beds, Sirs, belonging to the Samgha. We have given them all away to one of us.'

'What, Sirs? Have you then made away with property belonging to the Samgha?'

'That is so, Sirs.'

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c., and told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, .as they say, that Bhikkhus make away with Samgha property?'

'It is true, Lord.'

15.2 Then the Blessed One rebuked them, &c., and said to the Bhikkhus: 'These five things, O Bhikkhus, are untransferable; and are not to be disposed of either by the Samgha, or by a company of two or three Bhikkhus (a Gana), or by a single individual. And what are the five? A park (Ârâma), or the site for a park--this is the first untransferable thing, that cannot be disposed of by the Samgha, or by a Gana, or by an individual. If it be disposed of, such disposal is void; and whosoever has disposed of it, is guilty of a thullakkaya. A Vihâra, or the site for a Vihâra--this is the second, &c. (as before). A bed, or a chair, or a bolster, or a -pillow--this is the third, &c. A brass vessel, or a brass jar, or a brass pot, or a brass vase, or a razor, or an axe, or a [211] hatchet, or a hoe, or a spade--this is the fourth, &c. Creepers, or bamboos, or muñga, or babbaga grass, or common grass, or clay, or things made of wood, or crockery--this is the fifth, &c. (as before, down to) thullakkaya.'

 


 

16.

16.1 Now when the Blessed One had dwelt at Sâvatthi as long as he thought fit, he went on on his journey towards the Kitâ Hill with a great multitude of Bhikkhus--to wit, with about five hundred Bhikkhus, besides Sâriputta and Moggallâna.

And the Bhikkhus who were followers of Assagi and Punabbasu[166] hearing the news, said one to another, 'Come, Sirs; let us divide all the sleeping accommodation belonging to the Samgha. Sâriputta and Moggallâna are men of sinful desires, and are under the influence of sinful desires. We will not provide sleeping-places for them.' And they did so.

Now the Blessed One, proceeding on his journey, arrived at the Kitâ Hill. And he addressed a number of Bhikkhus, saying, 'Do you go, O Bhikkhus, to the followers of Assagi and Punabbasu, and say: "The Blessed One, Sirs, has arrived with a large number of Bhikkhus--to wit, with about five hundred Bhikkhus, besides Sâriputta and Moggallâna. Make ready sleeping-places, Sirs, for the Blessed One, and for the Bhikkhu-samgha, and for Sâriputta and Moggallâna."'

[212] 'Even so, Lord,' said those Bhikkhus in assent to the Blessed One and they did so.

'There is no sleeping accommodation belonging to the Samgha. We have divided it all' (was the reply). 'The Blessed One, Sirs, is welcome: and he may stay in whatever Vihâra he chooses. But Sâriputta and Moggallâna are men of sinful desires, and under the influence thereof; for them we will provide no sleeping-places.'

16.2 'What then, Sirs? Have you divided sleeping accommodation that is the property of the Samgha?'

'That is so, Sirs.'

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. (down to) The Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus:

'These five things, O Bhikkhus, are unapportionable, and are not to be divided either by the Samgha, or by a Gana, or by an individual. If divided, the division is void; and whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a thullakkaya. And what are the five (&c., as in V I, 15, 2)[167]?'

 


 

17.

17.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at the Kitâ Hill as long as he thought fit, he proceeded on his journey towards Âlavî; and in due course he arrived at Âlavî, and there, at Âlavî, the Blessed One stayed at the Aggâlava Shrine.

Now at that time the Bhikkhus of Âlavî[168] used to [213] give new building operations in charge (to one or other of their number)[169], such as the following[170] when some clay or earth had merely to be put aside in heaps, when a wall had merely to be re-plastered, when a door had merely to be made, when the socket for a bolt had merely to be made, when some joinery-work had merely to be done to a window, when some whitewashing merely had to be done, or some black colouring laid on, or some red colouring[171], or some roofing-work, or some joinery, or a bar had to be fixed to a door[172], when breaches or decay had merely to be repaired[173], or the flooring to be re-plastered[174]; and they assigned this office to one another for terms of twenty or thirty years, or [214] for life; or they gave in charge a completely finished Vihâra to a Bhikkhu for such time as should elapse till the smoke rose (from the funeral pyre on which his body should be burnt[175]).

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. (as usual, down to) The Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus:

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to confer the office of building overseer when clay has merely to be put aside in heaps . . . . (&c., as before, down to) body shall be burnt. Whosoever shall so confer it, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give a Vihâra not yet begun, or not yet finished[176], in charge as a new building. And with reference to the work on a small Vihâra, it may be given in charge as a navakamma for a period of five or six years, that on an Addhayoga for a period of seven or eight years, that on a large Vihâra or a Pâsâda for ten or twelve years.'

17.2 Now at that time the Bhikkhus gave the whole of a Vihâra as a navakamma (to one Bhikkhu to superintend)--or two Vihâras to one Bhikkhu--or the Bhikkhu who had taken the work in charge got another (Bhikkhu to live there and take charge for him)--or the Bhikkhu who had taken in charge a [215] building belonging to the Samgha kept exclusive possession of it--or the Bhikkhus gave work in charge to one not at that time within the boundary[177]--or Bhikkhus who had once taken charge kept exclusive possession for all time.

They told [each of] these matters to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do [any one of these things]. Whosoever does, he is guilty of a dukkata. And the Bhikkhu in charge may take one good sleeping-place into his exclusive possession for the three months of the rainy, but not during the dry season.'

17.3 Now at that time Bhikkhus who had taken charge of building operations left the place [or otherwise became incompetent in one or other of the twenty and three ways set out in the next paragraph[178]].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'In case that occurs, O Bhikkhus, as soon as he has taken charge, or before the building has been completed, let the office be given to another lest there should be loss to the Samgha. In case the building has been completed, O Bhikkhus, if he then leaves the place, it (the office and its privileges) is still his--if he then returns to the world, or dies, or admits that he is a sâmanera, or that he has abandoned the precepts, or that he has become guilty of an extreme offence, the Samgha [216] becomes the owner[179]--if he then admits that he is mad, or that his mind is unhinged, or that he is afflicted with bodily pain, or that he has been suspended for his refusal to acknowledge an offence, or to atone for an offence, or to renounce a sinful doctrine, it (the office and its privileges) is still his--if he then admits that he is a eunuch, or that he has furtively attached himself to the Samgha, or that he has gone over to the Titthiyas, or that he is an animal, or that he has murdered his mother, or his father, or an Arahat, or that he has violated a Bhikkhunî, or that he has caused a schism in the Samgha, or that he has shed (a Buddha's) blood, or that he is an hermaphrodite, then the Samgha becomes the owner.'

 


 

18.

18.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus made use elsewhere of beds which were appurtenances[180] to the Vihâra of a certain lay-disciple (upâsaka).

Then that upâsaka murmured, &c.

They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Things appurtenant to one place are not, O Bhikkhus, to be used in another. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend if they took (things to sit upon) even into the [217] Uposatha Hall, or the meeting-place, sat on the ground; and their legs and robes got soiled.

They told the matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take things away for a certain time only[181].'

Now at that time a large Vihâra belonging to the Samgha went to ruin[182]. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did not take the bedding in it away.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take away things in order to save them from destruction.'

 


 

19.

19.1 Now at that time there was a very valuable rug, and a very valuable piece of cloth, among the bedding furniture belonging to the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One[183].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to barter either of these things in order to increase the stock of legally permissible furniture[184].'

Now at that time the Samgha had received a [218] bear-skin, and a kakkali[185] rug, and a kolaka cloth[186].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use them as mats to wipe your feet on[187]'

 


 

20.

20.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus walked over the mats used for sleeping upon with unwashen or wet feet, or with their sandals on; and the matting was soiled.

They told these matters to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever does, shall be guilty of a dukkata[188].'

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus spat on the newly prepared floor[189], and the colour was spoilt.

[219] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever does, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a spittoon.'

Now at that time the legs of the bedsteads and chairs made scratches on the newly prepared floor. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover it up with floor-cloth.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus leant up against the newly prepared walls[190], and the colouring was spoilt.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever does, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a board to lean up against[191].'

The board scratched the floor at the bottom, and ruined the wall at the top.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover it at the top and bottom with cloth.'

Now at that time, fearing to offend, they would not lie down on places over which it was permissible to walk with washen feet[192].

[220] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to lie down in such a place when you have spread something over it.'

 


 

21.

21.1 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Âlavî as long as he thought fit, he set out on his journey towards Râgagaha. And proceeding straight on, he arrived in due course at Râgagaha. And there, at Râgagaha, the Blessed One stayed at the Veluvana in the Kalandaka Nivâpa.

Now at that time there was a scarcity of food at Râgagaha[193]. The people were unable to provide food for the (whole) Samgha and they were desirous of providing food[194] (to be sent to the Vihâra) for the use of a special Bhikkhu (designated by the donor)[195] or for special Bhikkhus invited (by the donor in his own house)[196] or for (single Bhikkhus) appointed by ticket (issued by the Samgha)[197], or of providing food during a fortnight[198], or on Uposatha [221] days (that is, on the last days of each fortnight) or on the first days of each fortnight.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, each of three ways of obtaining food.'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus having received good food for themselves, gave over the worse food (which they had also received) to the other Bhikkhus.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as apportioner of rations[199] a Bhikkhu who is possessed of the following five qualifications--(&c., as in IV, 9, down to the end of the Kammavâkâ):

Now the Bhikkhus who were apportioners of rations, thought: 'How then are the rations to be apportioned?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you. O Bhikkhus, to apportion them by arranging the food in small heaps, and fastening tickets or marks upon them[200].'

21.2 Now at that time the Samgha had no distributor [222] of lodging-places--no overseer of stores--no receiver of robes--no distributor of robes, of congey, or of fruits--and no distributor of dry foods, and through not being distributed it went bad.

They told each of these matters[201] to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as distributor of lodging-places, &c., a Bhikkhu who has (&c., as in § 1, down to the end of the Kammavâkâ, inserting throughout the appropriate variations in the fifth qualification).

21.3 Now at that time articles of trifling value had accumulated in the storehouse of the Samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as disposer of trifles a Bhikkhu who has (&c., as before, down to the end of the Kammavâkâ). Each separate needle, and pair of scissors, and pair of sandals, and girdle, and pair of braces, and filtering cloth, and regulation strainer[202], and plait[203], and half-plait[203], and gusset[203], and half-gusset[203], and binding[204], and braiding[204], is to be given away. If the Samgha has any ghee, or oil, or honey, or molasses, he is to give it away for personal consumption only, and if it be wanted, he is to give it a second and a third time[205].'

[223] Now at that time the Samgha had no receiver of under-garments[206], or of bowls,--no superintendent of those who kept the grounds in order (the Ârâmikas), and the Ârâmikas not being looked after, the necessary work was not done,--no superintendent of sâmaneras, and the sâmaneras not being looked after did not perform their duties.

They told each of these matters to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as receiver of under-garments, &c., a Bhikkhu who has (&c., as before, down to the end of the Kammavâkâ).'

End of the Sixth Khandhaka, on Sleeping Arrangements, &c,

 


[1] Our readers will have noticed that the phrase at the beginning of each Khandhaka is 'the Blessed Buddha,' and not merely 'the Blessed One.' It recurs besides only in the constantly-repeated paragraph 'The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, &c.' (see, for instance, Kullavagga I, 1, 2, where the connection is given in full).

[2] Compare the note on Mahâvagga III, 1, 1.

[3] So also Mahâvagga I, 23, 2, and frequently in the Suttas.

[4] So also of Bimbisâra in the Gâtaka Commentary, I, 66.

[5] Buddhaghosa's note on these pañka lenâni has already been given in our note above, Mahâvagga I, 30, 4.

[6] See, for instance, Mahâvagga VI, 30, or Kullavagga V, 27.

[7] Literally, 'establish' (patitthâpehi).

[8] This formula of dedication has been constantly found in rock-inscriptions in India and Ceylon over the ancient cave-dwellings of Buddhist hermits. See Rh. D. in the 'Indian Antiquary' for May, 1872.

[9] The following verses recur below at VI, 9, 2; and also in that connection in the Gâtaka Commentary, I, 93.

[10] This verse forms the subject of one of the 'Questions of Milinda' (ed. Trenckner, p. 211).

[11] The above verses may have stood originally in a different con-text from that in which they have been handed down, as the opening phrase sîtam patihanti would be more intelligible if the word vihâro occurred in the immediately preceding clause.

[12] Kavâta. This is the special word for door. Dvâra often roughly translated door, is not really 'door,' but 'door-' or 'gate-way,' with special reference to the aperture and not to that by which the aperture could be closed. The latter word is also different from 'door,' in that it is never used for the entrance into an inner chamber. It is always the outer entrance (and the entrance at the front as distinguished from the entrance at the back) of a house, or one of the principal entrances to a walled town or village. See, for instance, Pâkittiya XIX; Kullavagga VIII, 5, 1, VIII, 8, 1; Gâtaka I, 63, 114, 346, 361, II, 63, 140.

[13] On this and the following details, compare V, 14, 3, and the notes there.

[14] Thakîyanti: literally, 'covered, or stopped, up.' The same word is used at Kullavagga VIII, 1, 5, of closing up the lattices mentioned in the next section (VI, 2, 2).

[15] Ugghâtetvâ, an expression used in VIII, 1, 1 of undoing the bolt (ghatikâ) just referred to.

[16] Yantakamkikam, which is the only expression here used which has not already occurred above at V, 14, 3. Buddhaghosa says, Yantaka-sûkikan ti ettha yam yam gânâti tam tam yantakam. Tassa vivara-sûkikam kuñkikam kâtum vattati.

[17] See the note at V, 14, 3.

[18] Vedikâ-vâtapânam nâma ketiye vedikâ-sadisam (B.). See our note on vedikâ above, V, 14, 2. These windows or lattices are mentioned in Kullavagga VIII, 1, 5; Mahâvagga I, 25, 18.

[19] Gâla-vâtapânam nâma gâlaka-baddham (B.). Gâlam, literally 'net,' is given as a word for 'window' at Abhidhânappadipikâ, verse 216. The expression probably corresponds to our 'lattice,' and does not mean that an actual net was used. Compare the Anglo-Indian 'jalousie.'

[20] Salâka-vâtapânam nâma thambhaka-vâtapânam (B.). Possibly this means with slips of wood arranged horizontally as in our venetian blinds.

[21] Vagguliyo. This habit of the bat and its harmlessness are referred to in Milinda Panha, p. 404. Compare the Sanskrit valgulî.

[22] Kakkalikan ti. Ettha kolaka-pâda-puñkhanam bandhitum anugânâmî ti attho (B.). The word kakkali occurs below, VI, 19, probably in the sense here meant.

[23] Vâtapâna-bhisî ti vâtapâna-pamânena bhisim katvâ bandhitum anugânâmî ti attho (B.). Probably like the sand-bags used in England to keep out draughts. On the use of the word in other connections, see our note on Mahâvagga VIII, 13, 1, and the Old Commentary on Pâkittiya XIV (where five kinds are named) with the Kankhâ-vitaranî on the last passage quoted by Minayeff, p. 86.

[24] Midhim. See the note on V, 9, 4. Native huts in Ceylon always have such solid benches (of brick or mud covered with plaster) built up against the wall under the verandah: and they are commonly used as sleeping-places for the unmarried males in the house. Waskaduwa Subhûti has this in his mind in the explanation he gives in English of vedikâ (Abhidhâna-ppadîpikâ, verse 222), though he applies it to the wrong word.

[25] Bidala-mañkakam nâma vetta-mañkam, velu-vilîvâhi vâ vîtam (B.). The word occurs in the Gâtaka Commentary I, 9, lines 26, 34. Compare the Sanskrit bidala and vidala.

[26] Masârako, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing here; but on the Old Commentary to the 14th Pâkittiya, where all the four words in this paragraph also occur, he has the following note (see Minayeff, p. 68): Masârako ti mañka-pâde vigghitvâ tattha ataniyo pavesetvâ kato--just the opposite therefore of âhakka-pâdako below. On atani, compare our note to the 87th Pâkittiya. The four names recur, of chairs only, in the Old Commentary on the 87th and 88th Pâkittiyas.

[27] Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., says, Bundikâbaddho ti atanîhi mañka-pâde damsâpetvâ pallaṅka-samkhepema kato. The first word, bundika, may mean a small bolt.

[28] Kulîra-pâdako ti assa-mendâdînam pâda-sadisehi pâdakehi kato: yo vâ pana koki vaṅka-pâdako ayam kulîra-pâdako (B. loc. cit.). A bedstead or chair with curved or carved legs, especially when carved to represent animals' feet. Kulîra is a crab.

[29] Âhakka-pâdako ti. Ayam pana âhakka-pâdako nâma mañko aṅge vigghitvâ kato hotîti evam parato pâliyam yeva vutto. Tasmâ ataniyo vigghitvâ tattha pâda-sikham pavesetvâ upari ânim datvâ kata-mañko âhakka-pâdako ti veditabbo (B. loc. cit.). This is in agreement with the Old Commentary on the 18th Pâkittiya in which this word already occurs. Compare âhakka in the Âyâranga Sûya II, 1, 1, 2, II, 1, 10, 6.

[30] Âsandiko. Buddhaghosa says, Âsandako (sic) ti katurassapitham vukkati. An âsandi (cushioned chair) is forbidden at Mahâvagga V, 10, 4.

[31] Ukkakam pi âsandikan ti vakanato ekato-bhagena dîghapîtham eva hi atthaṅgula-pâdakam vattati (B.).

[32] Sattaṅgo nâma tisu disâsu apassayam katvâ mañko (B.). On apassayam, compare note 9.

[33] Ukkako pi sattaṅgo. Compare note 2.

[34] Bhadda-pîthan ti vetta-mayam pîtham vukkati (B.). We follow Böhtlingk-Roth sub voce bhadra-pîtha.

[35]thikâ ti pilotika-baddham pîtham eva (B.). Childers says 'bench, stool.' Compare Sanskrit pîthaka (in the addenda to the Petersburg Dictionary).

[36] Elaka-pâdaka-pîtham nâma daru-pattikâya upari pâde thapetvâ bhogana-phalakam viya kata-pîtham vukkati (B.).

[37] Âmalaka-vantika-pîtham nâma âmalakâkârena yogitam bahu-pâda-pîtham (B.). Compare tâlavanta at V, 22, 2, and tâla-vantaka at V, 29, 4.

[38] Phalakam. Compare apassena-phalakam at Mahâvagga I, 25, 12, and below, Kullavagga VI, 20, 2.

[39] Kokkham nâma vâkamayam vâ usîramayam vâ muñgamayam vâ babbagamayam vâ anto samvethetvâ baddham hoti, says the Old Commentary on the 14th Pâkittiya. Buddhaghosa gives here the same explanation, omitting vâka.

[40] Compare the 8th Kûla Sîla (Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 191).

[41] Compare Kullavagga V, 6.

[42] Mañka-patipâdakam mentioned in Mahâvagga I, 25, 16.

[43] Pavedhenti. The reading is doubtful, but the suggestion at p. 321 of the text must be withdrawn.

[44] Atthapadakam vetum. Buddhaghosa says nothing, either here or at Mahâvagga VIII, 21, where the word also occurs. Atthapada-tthâpana at Gâtaka II, 5, 14, is a mode of dressing the hair, probably in broad plaits crossing each other so as to resemble the squares of a chessboard.

[45] Or 'rug.' Kilimikâ ti nâma parikammakatâya bhûmiyâ khavi-samrakkhanatthâya attharanam vukkati (B.). It is probably the same word as, or connected with, kimilikâ, used by Buddhaghosa in note 5 on Mahâvagga VII, 1, 5, and explained by him (in Minayeff, p. 87, line 5) as tâla-pannâdîhi katâ. Both words are possibly diminutives of kola, and it is not improbable that the reading should be kilimikâ in both cases, as Buddhaghosa so spells the word again in his note below on VI, 2, 7.

[46] Tûlika. This is undoubtedly what is meant to be forbidden in § 5 of the Magghima Sîla, although Grimblot, 'Sept Suttas Palis,' p. 9, reads kulikam. See Mahâvagga V, 10, 4.

[47] Compare IV, 4, 4, VIII, 1, 3, where such pillows are mentioned among the ordinary belongings of a Vihâra. The present rule is repeated below in VI, 14.

[48] Giragga-samaggo. See our note above on V, 2, 6.

[49] Bhisi. See the note on this word at Mahâvagga VIII, 13, I.

[50] Buddhaghosa says here mañka-bhisimthe samharantî ti mañka-pîthe attharanti attharanatthâya harantî ti yuggati (B.), On this use of samharati compare above, V, 11, 7.

[51] Ullokam akaritvâ hetthâ kilimikam adatvâ (B.). The word occurs again at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15 = Kullavagga VIII, 1, 3, where cobwebs are to be removed with a cloth (ullokâ!).

[52] Khavim; but perhaps not necessarily of leather. See the commencement of this section.

[53] So that the coverings would be useless for other purposes. The Pâli word is positum, which Buddhaghosa explains thus--hesitun ti (so the Berlin MS.) raganena vâ haliddhâya vâ upari pusitâni dâtum. The word is evidently connected not with the root push, but with the roots prish and prush, 'to be, spatter;' and is the same as phositun at Mahâvagga VI, 14, 5, which is probably the better reading of the two.

[54] Bhatti-kammam. The meaning is doubtful, because the reading is uncertain. Buddhaghosa says, Bhitti-kamman ti (sic) bhisi-khaviyâ upari bhitti-kammam. The word is probably analogous in formation to our English 'patchwork,' though the 'patches' are not of pieces of different coloured stuffs, but of bits of different colour spread over the same stuff, and whatever its meaning, it is probably the same word as bhati-kamma at V, 9, 2.

[55] Again both reading and interpretation are open to question. Hattha-bhittin ti pañkaṅgula-bhittim is all that Buddhaghosa says; and we have followed in our translation the reading of the Sinhalese MS. (see p. 321 of the edition of the text), which brings the word into connection with the preceding phrase.

[56] See V, 11, 6, where all these words recur.

[57]nikâya. Buddhaghosa says nothing.

[58] Ikkâsa, on which we have nothing to add to Buddhaghosa's note at p. 321 of the edition of the text. It recurs below again in this section.

[59] Pittha-maddan ti pittha-khalam (B.). Compare the Sanskrit mrid.

[60] Kundaka-mattikan ti kundaka-missaka-mattikam (B.). Compare kundaka-pûvam in the Gâtaka Commentary I, 423 (cakes made of flour mixed with this powder).

[61] Sâsapa-kuttan ti sâsapa-pittham. The word has occurred already at Mahâvagga VI, 14, 5, where the reading is kutta instead of kudda given in the text here. The latter should be altered in accordance with that passage, and with Buddhaghosa here.

[62] Sittha-telakan ti vilîna-madhu-sitthakam (B.). It is mentioned as used for hair-oil at Kullavagga V, 2, 3.

[63] Akkussannam hotî ti bindum bindum hutvâ titthati, says Buddhaghosa.

[64] Kolakena pakkuddharitum. Buddhaghosa says pakkuttharitun ti muñkitum; but compare for the right form V, 17, 1.

[65] Gandu-mattikan ti ganduppâda-gûtha-mattikam (B.).

[66] Kasâvan ti âmalaka-haritakânam kasâvam (B.). Compare Mahâvagga VI, 4.

[67] Patibhâna-kittam. The Bhikkhunîs were forbidden by the 41st Pâkittiya of the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga to go and see such paintings. (Sutta-vibhaṅga II, 298, where a picture gallery, Kittâgâra, belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, is mentioned.) We. are not quite sure of the connotation of the term, which appears to imply some reproach. Perhaps it means 'suggestive.' Figures as such were not forbidden; and remains of statues and bas reliefs erected in the Vihâras, illustrative of every-day life, have been found in great numbers. In the introductory story to the 26th Pâkittiya it certainly means 'indecent.'

[68] All these words occur above at V, 11, 6, and V, 14, 4. The meaning of the two last is very doubtful. Perhaps it is intended that these should occupy the space on the walls instead of any ornamentation.

[69] Âlakamandâ, literally, 'like Kuvera's city in heaven.' Buddhaghosa tells us why. Âlakamandâ ti ekaṅganâ manussâbhikinnâ. Âkinna-yakkhâ, corresponding to this last word, recurs in the standing description of Âlakamandâ at Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta V, 43 = Mahâ Sudassana Sutta I, 3. The name of the city is spelt in both those passages with l not l.

[70] Sivikâ-gabbho ti katurassa-gahbho says Buddhaghosa.

[71]likâ-gabbho ti vitthârato dviguna-tigun-âyâmo dîgha-gabbho (B.). That nalikâ is used like nâli for a bushel measure follows from a comparison of Gâtaka 1,124, last lines, with I, 126, line 3.

[72] Hammiya-gahbho ti âkâsa-tale kutâgâra-gabbho mudanda-kkhadana-gabbho vâ (B.). Compare our note on Mahâvagga I, 30, 4.

[73] There is a similar injunction at V, 14, 3, with respect to fire-places in bath-rooms.

[74] Kulaṅka-pâdakam. See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 321 of the edition of the text. The remedy here is different from that provided in the similar case, at V, 14, 3, with respect to bath-houses.

[75] On the use of ovassati compare V, 16, 1, and VIII, 3, 3.

[76] Parittâna-kitikan ti tassa parittânattham kitikam is all that Buddhaghosa says. Compare the end of § 5.

[77] Uddha-sudhan ti vakkhaka-gomayena ka kharikâya ka saddhim maddita-mattikam (B.).

[78] Vissaram akâsi. See the note on Kullavagga VIII, I, where the whole incident is similar.

[79] The use of these has been already referred to at V, 9. 5.

[80] These have already been allowed in Kullavagga V, It, 6, and V, 14, 3. The license under the present rule extends only to their use in Vihâras.

[81] Apatissaranâ, which must have some special, technical, meaning unknown to us. Buddhaghosa says nothing.

[82] Âlindo nâma pamukham vukkati (B.). Compare Abhidhâna-ppadîpikâ, verse 218.

[83] Paghanam nâma yam nikkhamantâ ka pavisantâ ka pâdehi hananti. Tassa vihâra-dvâre ubhato kuttam (?) niharitvâ katapadesass’ etam adhivakanam. Paghânan ti pi vukkati (B.).

[84] Pakuttan ti magghe gabbhassa samantâ pariyâgâro vukkati. Pakutan ti pi pâtho (B.).

[85] Osarako ti anâlindake vihâre vamsam datvâ tato dandake osâretvâ katam khadana-pamukham (B.). At Gâtaka III, 446, it is said of a dying man 'niharitvâ osârake nipaggâpesum.'

[86] Samsarana-kitiko nâma kakkala-yutto kitiko (B.). Kakkala should be compared with kakkhalikâ at VI, 2, 2, and kakkhali at VI, 19.

[87] Ugghâtana-kitiko, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing.

[88] Kotthaka. See our note above on V, J4, 4, as to the various allied meanings of this word. Perhaps 'gateway' should be chosen as the rendering here, as it clearly must be in the closely allied passage in the next section but one (§ 10). As the chamber supposed always to be built over the gateway could be used as a store-room, the difference is not very essential.

[89] The whole as above in V, 14, 3, where see the note.

[90] Uklâpo. On this use of the word compare Kullavagga VIII. 1, 3.

[91] Uparope. Compare Uparopaka at Gâtaka II, 345.

[92] Apesiyam. See p. 321 of the edition of the text, reading of course kanthaka.

[93] Akkavâta, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing. A kind of dress made from the stalks of the akka plant is mentioned in Mahâvagga VIII, 28, 2.

[94] Tosana, which is the ornamental erection over a gateway of which such excellent examples in stone have been found at the Sânchi and Bharhut Topes.

[95] The exact meaning of the word Pâsâda at the time when this book was written has not yet been precisely ascertained. In later times it meant a building of several storeys, each successive storey being smaller in superficial area than the one immediately beneath it. Compare the Mahâ-loha-pâsâda so often mentioned in the Mahâvamsa (pp. 161-257), the stone pillars of the lowest stories of which are still one of the sights of Anurâdhapura.

[96] Uttari-bhaṅgam. Childers sub voce uttari is in doubt what the meaning of this phrase is. It is no longer uncertain that the word means 'delicacy' of some sort. Whether the term was more precise, and denoted some particular delicacy or not, is still doubtful. Compare the passages quoted in our note above on Mahâvagga VI, 14, 3 (adding Gâtaka I, 186, and Kullavagga IV, 4, 5, VIII, 4, 4), which show that it was eaten with boiled rice or congey; is mentioned along with ghee and oil; and could be made from the flesh (or other parts) of a sucking-pig. If it were not for the latter circumstance (Gâtaka I, 197) it might well be pickles or chutney.

[97] 'Much more so with the reality' is to be understood. Compare Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 63 (at the end).

[98] On this rendering of Sammâ-sambuddham, see Rh. D.'s Hibbert Lectures,' pp. 145-147.

[99] Assatari. Compare vakkhatarî at Mahâvagga V, 9, 1, 3. The word recurs below at VII, 2, 5.

[100] Brâhmano parinibbuto. To translate the first of these words by 'Brahman' would mislead English readers. It is constantly used in early Buddhist texts for Arahat. On the use of parinibbuto not in the sense of 'dead,' but of a living man in the sense of 'spiritually free,' compare Dhammapada, verse 89; Sutta Nipâta II, 13, I, 12, III, 12, 35; and Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta IV, 3.

[101] Nirûpadhi, i.e. free from Kâma, Kilesa, and Kamma.

[102] Sabbâ âsattiyo khetvâ. Having cut or broken all the âsatti's (from the root sañg, 'to hang'), the things which hang on to and burden a man in his spiritual progress. Compare the figure of speech at Gâtaka I, 5 (âsattam kunapam khaddetvâ). Buddhaghosa says sabbâ âsattiyo khetvâ ti . . . . hadaye daratham kitte kilesa-daratham ginetvâ.

[103] Vineyya and appuya are no doubt gerunds. In a corresponding passage of the Aṅguttara Nikâya the Phayre MS. reads appeyya, which smoothes over a difficulty at the expense of the better reading.

[104] The following section is in identical terms with Mahâvagga I, 7, 5, 10, V, I, 9, 10, VI, 26, 8, 9.

[105] Veyyâyikam formed from vyaya, expenditure. Veyyâyikan ti vayakaranam vukkati (B.).

[106]gagahako negamo. This person has been already mentioned, and there also in intimate connection with the Setthi of Râgagaha, in the Mahâvagga VIII, 1, 2, 16. It is tolerably clear from the connection that this is no ordinary citizen, but one holding a distinct and semi-official position. In this respect the word is an exact parallel to its neighbour the Setthi. For instances of the word in its more general sense, see Kakkâyana (ed. Senart), p. 219, and Dâthâvamsa III, 3.

[107] Compare the note on Mahâvagga I, 8, 4.

[108] Aññâtam bhagavâ aññâtam sugatâ ti. The first word is the standing expression used when the Buddha or a Thera has signified a request, not in so many words, but in some phrase from which the request may be implied, and the person addressed desires to express that he has perceived the intended implication. Compare Dîpavamsa XIV, 65, XV, 5.

[109] Adeyyavâko ti tassa vakanam bahuganâ mânetabbam maññantî ti attho (B.). In Puggala III, 11, we have the phrase tassa vakanam âdheyyam gakkhati, which the commentary explains by hadaye âdhâtabbam thapitabbam.

[110] The following speech is identical with that put into Bimbisâra's mouth on choosing the Veluvana, above Mahâvagga I, 22, 16, 17.

[111] Viganavâtam, of which neither the reading nor the meaning is certain. See the various forms given from the commentaries in the notes on the text of the passage in the Mahâvagga, loc. cit.

[112] Na gahito: literally, 'it is not taken.'

[113] It is evident from the illustration of this story on a bas relief at the Bharhut Tope that these pieces of money were supposed to be square, not round. See Cunningham's 'The Stûpa of Bharhut,' Plate No. LVII and pp. 84-86.

[114] Na orakam bhavissati. Compare Mahâvagga I, y, I, and the commencement of our next chapter below. The idiom recurs in VII, 3, 3.

[115] The following phrase is identical with that put into the mouth of Ânanda, at Mahâvagga VI, 36, 3, with respect to Roga the Malla. In the text here there is a slight misprint; the full-stop after ñâtamanusso should be struck out.

[116] With the following list should be compared the list of things that laymen build for themselves given in Mahâvagga III, 5, 7.

[117] Kappiya-kutiyo. See Mahâvagga VI, 33.

[118] Udapâna-sâlâyo. See above, V, 16, 2.

[119] Mandape. See Mahâvagga VIII, 1, 1, and above, Kullavagga VI, 3, 7.

[120] Navakammam karonti. This idiom always connotes buildings for the use of the Order. See the passages quoted in our note on Kullavagga I, 18, I. If the buildings were for the Bhikkhus, then a Bhikkhu, if for the Bhikkhunîs, then a Bhikkhunî, was appointed to superintend the works in order to ensure the buildings being in accordance with the rules of the Order as to size, form, and object of the various apartments.

The buildings referred to in this section are no doubt intended to be the same as those referred to in Kullavagga V, 13, 3.

[121] Navakammam dâtum. For the works which ought not to be included, and for those which might be lawfully included. in this term, see below, Kullavagga VI, 17. Hence the overseer is called navakammika.

[122] Khandan ti bhinnokâso: phullan ti phalitokâso (B.). The expression recurs below at VI, 17, I.

[123] The incident related in the following chapter is identical with the 37th Gâtaka (including the Introductory Story there given) already translated by Rh. D. in the 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 310-314.

[124] On this mention of gahapati as the name of a caste or rank, compare the passage in the Tevigga Sutta I, 47 = Sâmaññaphala Sutta, p. 133 (translated by Rh. D. in 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' S.B.E. vol. xi, p. 187), where the word is opposed to aññatarasmim kule pakkâgâto.

[125] Dhamma is here possibly already used in the special sense to which the term Abhidhamma was afterwards applied. So Punna, who in the Aṅguttara Nikâya I, 14, is called the chief of the expounders of the Dhamma (compare Dîpavamsa IV, 4), says of himself in the Apadâna abhidhammanayañño ’ham.

[126] Teviggo. See Rh. D.'s remarks in 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 161, 162.

[127] This list contains one or two terms which are omitted in the Gâtaka introduction.

[128] These terms recur at Mahâvagga I, 25, 6.

[129] Tittiriyam brahmakariyam. It is quite possible that a covert sarcasm is here intended to be understood against the Taittirîya Brahmans.

[130] Tam sobhetha yam (one illegible word--JBH). On this idiom compare Mahâvagga X, 2, 20.

[131] Compare chapter and also chapter 12. It would seem from these passages that the prohibition to reserve exclusively according to seniority the use of property belonging to the whole Samgha was held to imply that the temporary use of it was to go according to seniority. Compare X, 18.

[132] See Kullavagga X, 3.

[133] Compare Mahâvagga I, 61, 2.

[134] See Kullavagga II, 1, 2.

[135] See Kullavagga III, 14.

[136] These are Nos. 1, 2, and 7 in the list just referred to, and may be kept if treated in the way laid down in VI, 14, 2 below.

[137] This rule has already occurred in identical terms at Mahâvagga V, 11. Probably both here and there the word such, which we have here added in brackets, is to be understood.

[138] The usual terms are here followed throughout: see, for instance, above, VI, 4, 6, 7.

[139] That is 'of all the world.' See our note above on Mahâvagga VIII, 27, 5, where the phrase has already occurred.

[140] The verses are quoted in the account of Anâtha Pindika's gift given in the Gâtaka commentary (Fausböll I, 93; Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' I, 131).

[141] Ânantarikam; perhaps 'the Bhikkhu (who happened to be) next (to him).' The text reads anantarikam, which is a misprint. Compare Mahâvagga IX, 4, 8, and Kullavagga VII, 3, 9, VIII, 4, 1.

[142] Compare the rule for Bhikkhunîs at X, 18.

[143] Lesakappenâ ti appakena sîsâbâdhâdimattena (B.).

[144] The story in this section forms also the introductory story to the 17th Pâkittiya.

[145] Pakkantimam; perhaps 'in the border-country.' Compare pakkantam nagaram, a frontier fort at Dhammapada, p. 56.

[146] Âgametha yâva. Compare the introductory story to the 46th Pâkittiya.

[147] That is, under the 17th Pâkittiya.

[148] Senâsanam gâhetum. Buddhaghosa has nothing on this idiom, but its meaning is sufficiently clear from the connection.

[149] Seyyaggena gâhetum. Buddhaghosa has no special explanation of agga here, but in his explanation of the passage says that this is to be so done that each Bhikkhu receives room for a couch (mañkatthanam). Agga must here be agra, to which Böhtlingk-Roth give, from Indian lexicographers, the subsidiary meaning of 'multitude.' So below in XII, 1, 1, the Vaggiputtakas divide money amongst themselves bhikkhu-aggena, 'according to the number of the Bhikkhus.' Seyyâ is here used in the same meaning as that in which senâsana is used throughout the rest of this chapter and the next. See VIII, 1, 4.

[150] Ussâdiyimsu. Buddhaghosa says ussârayimsû ti mañkatthânâni atirekâni ahesum. His reading is in a copy of his work in Burmese characters, and is supported, both here and in Pâkittiya XLVI, 2, where the word recurs, by a Burmese copy of the text. The Sinhalese reading is the correct one, but one may compare the idiom ganam, or parisam, ussâreti at Mahâvagga VIII, 1, 22, and Gâtaka I, 419, 434. So at IX, I, 3, 4, the reading ussâreti given in the text is corrected at p. 363 into ussâdeti, in accordance with the reading of the Sinhalese MS.

[151] The relation of the Vihâra to the Parivena is here curious. In the later language parivena means 'cells.' Here it evidently includes several vihâras.

[152] Anubhâgan ti puna aparam pi bhâgam dâtum (B.).

[153] Na akâmâ is used here in a sense precisely parallel to that in which it occurs at Mahâvagga VII, 24, 4. See the passages quoted in our note there.

[154] Nissîme thitassa. See on this phrase above, Mahâvagga VII, I, 5, and VIII, 2, 3. It is repeated below, VI, 17, 2.

[155] These first two dates are the days on which the earlier and the later Vassa begins. See Mahâvagga III, 2.

[156] These are the acts which render a Bhikkhu liable to the Tagganiya Kamma. See Kullavagga I, 1, 1.

[157] That is, by taking a lodging here you ipso facto renounced your right to a lodging there, and by taking one there you ipso facto renounced your right to get one here.

[158] Compare the fifteen rules of a similar character, Sekhiyas 57-72, and especially No. 69.

[159] Onlookers apparently, not strictly learners. On the force of patimâneti, compare the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, 1, and Gâtaka II, 423.

[160] Hatthi-nakhakam, 'supported on the frontal globes (kumbhe) of elephants,' says Buddhaghosa.

[161] On the meaning of paribhoga here compare VI, 18, 1. The doubt here expressed is curious, as a storeyed building (pâsâda) is one of the five kinds of abodes (lenâni) specially sanctioned by Mahâvagga I, 30, 4, and Kullavagga VI, 1, 2; and a verandah (âlinda) has been also authorised by Kullavagga VI, 3, 5. No doubt the special point here is as to the carved pillars: but, even so, that this rule should be thus separated from the other rules as to buildings, in the commencement of this book (VI, 1-4), is a proof of the unsystematic way in which the Khandhakas have been put together. Even the final redaction which we have now before us contains much similar evidence of the gradual growth of these rules. See note 3 on the next paragraph.

[162] Compare the 87th Pâkittiya.

[163] This rule has already been given in VI, 2, 6.

[164] It is distinctly laid down without any reservation in Mahâvagga V, 10, 5 (in the paragraph erroneously numbered V, 10, 4 in vol. ii, p. 28, of the present work), that the use of any of these things is a dukkata offence. That this relaxation of that rule should be inserted only here, looks very much like an after-thought, even though the former passage merely refers to the use of these things as seats. This is more. especially noteworthy from the fact mentioned in the last note.

The rules as to new rugs or mats to be used for sitting upon, are contained in the 11th to the 15th Nissaggiya Pâkittiyas.

[165] This is a direct infringement of the 82nd Pâkittiya, which forbids property dedicated to the Samgha being diverted to the use of any individual.

[166] On these Bhikkhus and their relations with Sâriputta and Moggallâna, see above, Kullavagga I, 13-16.

[167] These expressions 'untransferable' (avissaggiyâni) and 'unapportionable' (avebhaṅgiyâni) have already occurred above at Mahâvagga VIII, 27, 5.

[168] The Bhikkhus of Âlavî are frequently mentioned in connection with offences in relation to the navakammam. See, for instance, Pârâgika III, 5, 30.

[169] For the rule authorising such giving in charge in general cases, see above, VI, 5.

[170] For most of the following technical terms in building, see our notes above on Kullavagga V, 11, and V, 1, 2.

[171] See our note on this phrase above, V, 11, 6.

[172] Gandikadhâna-mattenâ ti dvâra-bâhânam upari-kapota-gandika-yogana-mattena (B.). Gandi is used in this sense at Gâtaka I, 237. Compare the use of Dhamma-gandikâ, 'block of execution,' at Gâtaka I, 150, II, 124. The word gandikâ occurs also at Gâtaka I, 474 (last line), in the sense of 'bunch:' but it is there probably a misprint; for Oldenberg, in the parallel passage at Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya I, 1, reads bhandike. That the two words are easily confused in Burmese writing is shown by the fact that the Berlin (Burmese) copy of Buddhaghosa reads here also bhandikâdhâna-mattenâ ti, &c., and again afterwards bhandika.

[173] See our note on this phrase above, VI, 5, 2.

[174] Paribhanda-karana-mattenâ ti gomaya-paribhanda-kasâva-parikarana-mattena (B.). The very same expression is used in a wholly doubtful sense, and of some process of tailoring, in. Mahâvagga VII, 1, 5.

[175] Dhûmakâlikan ti idam yâv’ assa kitaka-dhûmo na paññâyatîti tâva ayam vihâro etass’ evâ ti evam dhûma-kâle apaloketvâ kata-pariyositam vihâram denti (B.). The word recurs below, applied to sikkhâpadam, in XI, 1, 9.

[176] Vîppakatan ti ettha vippakato nâma yâva gopânasiyo na ârohanti. Gopânasîsu pana ârulhâsu bahukato nâma hoti: tasmâ tato patthâya na dâtabbo (B.). The use of bahukato is noteworthy. for in the only other passage where we have found the word (Mahâvagga VI, 36, 2), it has a totally different application. There is possibly a misreading in the one MS. available. (? pakato.)

[177] See above, VI, 11, 3.

[178] See Mahâvagga II, 22, 3, and II, 36, 1-3. In the latter of these two passages the three cases are omitted. In Mahâvagga IX, 4, 2, and 8, the whole 23 are given.

[179] That is, the navakammiko loses his privileges (his lien on the best sleeping-place, &c.).

[180]Vihâra-paribhogam. 'Meant for use only in that Vihâra.'. Compare above, VI, 14, I.

[181]Tâvakâlikam. The word occurs in Gâtaka I, 121, 393 (on which see Rh. D. in 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 170, and 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 241), in Buddhaghosa's notes on Mahâvagga VII, 5, 1 (above, II, 154, note 7), in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya XXV, 2, and in Kullavagga X, 16, 1.

[182]Samghassa vihâro udriyati. The whole phrase has already occurred at Mahâvagga III, 8.

[183] Because such things were forbidden by Mahâvagga V, 10, 4, though kambala is not there specially mentioned.

[184] Phâtikammatthâyâ ti vaddhikammatthâyâ ti. Vaddhikammatthâya phâtikammam k’ ettha samakam vâ atirekam va agghanakam mañka-pîthâdi-senâsanam eva vattati (B.).

[185] According to VI, 2, 2, and VI, 3, 5, this could also be used as a screen or curtain over the space in a wall left for a window.

[186] According to Mahâvagga VIII, 18, this might be used to wipe faces with; and according to Kullavagga V, 9, 4, VI, 19, to place crockery or furniture on. The word kola means simply cotton cloth, but it is clear from these passages that kolaka has some special connotation.

[187] Not to sit upon.

[188]With this should be compared the other rule in Mahâvagga V, 6, 1, according to which the Bhikkhus were to wear sandals when getting upon bedsteads or chairs, lest these should become soiled. The two passages are parallel in wording throughout.

[189]Parikammakatâya. The floors were of earth, not of wood, and were restored from time to time by fresh clay or dry cowdung being laid down, and then covered with a whitewash, in which sometimes black or red (geruka) was mixed. See above, V, 11, 6; VI, 3, 1; 17, 1; 27. From the parallel passage at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15, and Kullavagga VIII, 3, 1, it would seem that the red colouring was used rather for walls, and the black one for floors.

[190]'The walls were no doubt usually made with 'wattle and daub;' that is, sticks with clay between the interstices. This was treated from time to time like the flooring (see last note).

[191]Apassena-phalakam. This article of furniture is mentioned, with the spittoon, in Mahâvagga I, 45, 15, 16, and in the parallel passage at Kullavagga VIII, 1, 3. We have rendered it in the Mahâvagga by 'board to recline on.' Compare the use of apassayam in Buddhaghosa's note on Kullavagga VI, 2, 4 (above, p. 153, note 3) of an arm-chair or sofa.

[192]Dhotapâdakâ ti dhotapâdakâ hutvâ dhotehi pâdehi akkamitabbathâne nipaggitum kukkukkâyanti. Dhotapâdake ti pi pâtho. Dhotehi pâdehi akkamitabbatthânass’ eva etam adhivakanam (B.).

[193] Other special rules for times of scarcity will be found at Mahâvagga VI, 17, 7; 18, 4; 19, 2; 20, 4 (repealed for times of plenty in VI, 32). Compare also Pârâgika IV, 1, 1.

[194] The above modes of receiving food (instead of collecting in a bowl morsels of food given in alms) are the dispensations allowed by Mahâvagga I, 30, 4.

[195] Uddesa-bhattam kâtum. Compare the story of Upananda at Mahâvagga VI, 19, I.

[196] Nimantanam kâtum. The word is only used in this special technical sense. Compare the whole story of Kulla-panthaka at Gâtaka I, 116, and especially the last line.

[197] Salâka-bhattam kâtum. See especially above, Kullavagga IV, 9; IV, to.

[198] Pakkhikam kâtum. Both Childers sub voce and Frankfurter ('Pali Handbook,' p. 165), in interpreting the passage at Mahâvagga I, 30, 4, take this to mean a feast given on the eighth day of the month. But paksha is the half-month. The expression much more probably means, therefore, to provide food either during the whole of a half-month for one or more specially invited Bhikkhus, or for a larger number on any one day of the half-month to be chosen by the Samgha.

[199] Compare above, Kullavagga IV, 4, 1.

[200] Buddhaghosa says, Salâkâya vâ patikâya vâ upanibandhitvâ opuñkhitvâ uddisitun ti vakanato rukkhasâramayâya salâkâya vâ veluvilivatâlapannâdinayâya patikâya vâ asukassa nâma salâkabhattan ti evam akkharâni upanibandhitvâ pakkhiyamkîvarabhoge vâ katvâ sabbâ salâkâyo omuñkhitvâ [sic] punappunam hetthâ-vasena âloletvâ . . . dâtabbâ.

[201] There is another officer (âsana-paññâpaka) mentioned at Kullavagga XII, 2, 7, whose omission from the list here is worthy of notice.

[202] Dhamma-karako. See V, 13, I.

[203] On these words, see Mahâvagga VIII, 12, 2.

[204] On these two words, see Mahâvagga VIII, 1, 5.

[205] These things were to be used only as medicines, according to Mahâvagga VI, 1, 1-5, where butter is also added. That would be under the charge of the distributor of dry foods (§ 2), as if kept it would go bad. According to VI, 15, 10, none of these five kinds of medicine were to be kept for a period exceeding seven days, but that was a rule that was not very probable to be strictly followed.

[206]tiya; no doubt the same as is spelt elsewhere sâtikâ or sâtakâ, and is used for such purposes as bathing in.


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