Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
Oxford, the Clarendon Press
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East
This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer
Regulations As to The Duties of the Bhikkhus Towards One Another
1.1 Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Sâvatthi, in Anâtha Pindika's Ârâma.
Now at that time incoming Bhikkhus entered the Ârâma with their sandals on, or with sunshades held up over them, or with their heads muffled up, or with their upper robe carried in a bundle on their heads; and they washed their feet in the drinking-water; and they did not salute resident Bhikkhus senior to them, nor ask them where they (the incomers) should sleep.
And a certain incoming Bhikkhu undid the bolt of an unoccupied room (Vihâra), and opened the door, and so entered by force; and a snake fell  on to his back from the lintel above, and he was terrified, and made an outcry.
The Bhikkhus, running up, asked him why he did so. He told them that matter. Then those Bhikkhus who were moderate in their desires were vexed and indignant, and murmured, saying, 'How can incoming Bhikkhus enter the Ârâma . . . .? (&c., as before, down to) . . . . where they should sleep.'
They told the matter to the Blessed One (&c., as usual, I, 1, 2, 3, down to) he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, 'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for incoming Bhikkhus, according to which they ought to behave.
2. 'An incoming Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, when he knows he is about to enter an Ârâma, ought to take off his sandals, turn them upside down, beat them (to get the dust) off, take them (up again) in his  hand, put down his sunshade, uncover his head, arrange his upper robe on his back, and then carefully and slowly enter the Ârâma.
'When he enters the Ârâma he ought to notice where the resident Bhikkhus are gone to; and whithersoever they are gone--whether to the service hall, or to the portico (mandapa), or to the foot of a tree--thither he ought to go, and laying his bowl on one side, and his robe on one side, he ought to take a suitable seat, and sit down.
'He ought to ask as to the drinking-water, and the water for washing, which is appropriated to the one use, and which to the other. If he has need of drinking-water, he ought to fetch it and drink. If he has need of water for washing, he ought to fetch it, and wash his feet. In washing his feet he ought to pour the water over them with one hand, and wash them with the other; he ought not to pour the water over them and wash them with one and the same hand.
'He ought to ask for the cloths with which sandals are cleaned, and clean his sandals. In cleaning his sandals he ought first to wipe them with a dry cloth, and afterwards with a wet cloth: and then he ought to wash the cloths, and lay them on one side.
 'If the resident Bhikkhu be senior, he ought to be saluted; if junior, he ought to be made to salute (the incomer). The incomer ought to ask as to the lodging-place, which has fallen (to his lot), and whether it is occupied or unoccupied. He ought to ask as to lawful and unlawful resorts, and as to what families have been officially declared to be in want.
'He ought to ask as to the retiring-places, (where they are), and as to the drinking-water, and as to the water for washing, and as to the staves for walking with, and as to the place for the conferences of the Samgha, (and as to) the time at which he ought to enter (it) and at which he ought to leave it.
3. 'If the Vihâra be unoccupied, he ought to knock at the door, then to wait a minute, then to undo the bolt, and open the door, and then, still standing outside, to look within.
'If that Vihâra is covered with dust, or the beds or chairs are piled one upon another, and the bedding put in a heap on the top of them,--then if  he can do so he ought to clean up the Vihâra. And when cleaning the Vihâra, he ought to take the floor matting out and put it down on one side, and the supports of the bedsteads, and the bolsters and pillows, and the mat which is used as a seat. Putting the bedsteads and chairs down on to the ground, and carefully avoiding scratching (the floor with them) or knocking them up against (the door-posts), he ought to take them outside the door, and put them down on one side. The spittoon and the board to lean up against ought to be taken out, and put down on one side.
'If the Vihâra is covered with cobwebs, they should first be removed with a cloth. The casements should be dusted, especially in the corners and joints.
'If the wall which had been plastered and red-washed, or the floor which had been laid (with earth) and black-washed, has become dirty in the corners, they should be wiped down with a  duster that has been first wetted and wrung out. If the floor has not been so prepared, it should be sprinkled over with water and swept, lest the Vihâra should be spoilt by dust. The sweepings should be gathered together, and cast aside.
 4. 'The floor coverings should be dried in the sun, cleaned, beaten to get the dust out, taken back, and spread out again in the place to which they belonged. The supports of the bed should be dried in the sun, dusted, taken back, and put in the place to which they belonged. The bed (mañka) and the chairs (pîtha) should be aired in the sun, cleaned, beaten to get the dust out, turned upside down, taken back, carefully avoiding scratching them against the floor, or knocking them up against the door-posts, and then put in the place to which they belonged. The bolsters and pillows, and the  mats used as seats, should be aired in the sun, cleaned; beaten to get the dust out, taken back, and put in the place to which they belonged. The spittoon, and the board for leaning up against, should be put in the sun, dusted, taken back, and put in the place to which they belonged.
5. '(Then the incoming Bhikkhu) should put away his bowl and his robe. In putting away his bowl, he should hold it in one hand while he feels under the bed or the chair with the other, and then put it away; and he should not put it on a part of the floor which has been left bare. In putting away his robe, he should hold it in one hand while he feels along the bamboo or the rope used for hanging robes on with the other; and then hang it up with the border turned away from him, and the fold turned towards him.
 'If the winds, bearing dust with them, blow from the East, West, North, or South, the window spaces on the side in question should be closed up (with shutters or lattices). If it is cold weather, the lattices should be opened by day, and closed by  night: if it is hot weather, they should be closed by day, and opened by night.
'If the cell, or the store-room, or the refectory, or the room where the fire is kept, or the privy, is covered with dust, it should be swept out. If there is no drinking-water, or water for washing, they should be provided. If there is no water in the rinsing-pot, water should be poured into it.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct for incoming Bhikkhus, according to which they ought to behave.'
2.1 Now at that time resident Bhikkhus, on seeing incoming Bhikkhus, did not prepare seats for them, nor provide water and footstools and towels for them to wash their feet, nor go to meet them and take charge of their bowls and their robes, nor ask them whether they wanted drinking-water, nor salute such of the incoming Bhikkhus as were their seniors, nor make beds ready for them.
The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c., and told the matter to the Blessed One, &c., (down to) he said to the Bhikkhus: 'Therefore, O Bhikkhus,  do I establish a rule of conduct for resident Bhikkhus, according to which they ought to behave.
2. 'A resident Bhikkhu, on seeing an incoming Bhikkhu, who is senior to him, ought to make ready a seat for him, provide water and a footstool and a towel for him to wash his feet; go to meet him, and take charge of his robe and his bowl, ask him if he wants water to drink, and if he can (bring himself to do so), he ought to wipe his sandals. In wiping the sandals, they should be first wiped with a dry cloth, then with a wet one, and the cloths ought then to be washed, and put aside.
 'An incoming Bhikkhu ought to be saluted. A bed should be laid for him, saying, "This bed is for you." He should be informed whether (the bed-room) is occupied or not, what are lawful and what are unlawful resorts, and what families have been officially declared to be in want. He should be told where the retiring-places are, and the drinking and washing water, and the staves, and the place for the conferences of the Samgha, and what is the time when he ought to enter, and ought to leave (it).
3. 'If (the incoming Bhikkhu) be junior to him, then (the resident Bhikkhu), keeping his seat, should tell him where he is to put his bowl and his robe away, and on which mat he is to sit down. The incoming Bhikkhu should be informed where the drinking and washing water are, and the cloths to clean sandals with; he should be allowed to salute the resident Bhikkhu: and he should be told  where his bed is, saying, "That bed is for you." He should be informed whether (that bedroom) is occupied or not (and so on, as in last paragraph, down to the end).
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct for resident Bhikkhus, according to which they ought to behave.'
3.1 Now at that time Bhikkhus, about to leave, started without setting the wooden articles and crockery in order, leaving doors and lattices open, and without giving the sleeping-places in charge to any one. The wooden articles and crockery were spoilt, and the sleeping-places were unprotected.
The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. . . . . told the Blessed One, &c . . . . (down to) He. said to the Bhikkhus: 'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for Bhikkhus about to leave, according to which they ought to behave.
2. 'A Bhikkhu about to leave should, O Bhikkhus, put the wooden articles and earthenware in order, close the doorways and lattices, give the sleeping-places in charge (to some one, and only) then set out. If there be no Bhikkhu remaining, a Sâmanera should be put in charge. If there be no Sâmanera remaining, the attendant who keeps the grounds in order should be put in charge. If  there be neither Bhikkhu, nor Sâmanera, nor Ârâmika, the bed frame should be laid on four stones, the other bed frames put on the top of it, the chairs should be put one on the top of the other, the bedding piled in a bundle on the top, the wooden articles and the earthenware should be put away in order, and the doorways and lattices should be closed, and then should be set out.
3. 'If the Vihâra leaks, it should be repaired if he can, or he should exert himself to get the Vihâra roofed. If he should thus succeed, it is good. If not, he should put the bed frame on four stones in that part of the Vihâra which does not leak, and then put the other bed frame (&c., as in last paragraph, to the end). If the whole of the Vihâra leaks, he should if he can take all the bedding to the village, or should exert himself to get it taken there. If he should succeed, it is good. If not, he should lay a bed frame on four stones in the open air, put the others on the top of it, put the chairs one on another, pile the bedding on the top, lay the wooden and earthenware utensils in order by them, and cover the whole up with grass or leaves, so that at least the principal articles of furniture might remain (uninjured); and (only) then go away.
This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct for  Bhikkhus about to leave, according to which they should behave themselves.'
4.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus did not give thanks in the place where a meal was served. People murmured, &c.; the Bhikkhus heard, &c.; the Blessed One on that occasion, &c. said to the Bhikkhus:
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the giving of thanks.'
Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'By whom should the thanks be given?'
They told this matter to the Blessed One.
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the elder Bhikkhu (present) to give thanks in the place where a meal is served.'
Now at that time (the turn to provide) the Samgha with a meal had fallen to a certain company; and the venerable Sâriputta was the senior (Bhikkhu in that) Samgha. The Bhikkhus, thinking, 'The Blessed One has permitted the senior Bhikkhu to return thanks in the place where a meal is served,' went away, leaving the venerable Sâriputta alone. And the venerable Sâriputta gave thanks to those people, and then came away alone.
The Blessed One saw the venerable Sâriputta coming from the distance; and on seeing him, he said to him: 'Did the meal, then, Sâriputta, pass off well?'
 'The meal, Lord, passed off well. But the Bhikkhus went away and left me alone.'
Then the Blessed One, in that connection, having delivered a religious discourse, said to them:
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, four or five of the Bhikkhus, who are senior or next to the seniors, to wait.'
Now at that time a certain elder waited in the dining hall, though he wanted to retire, and through holding himself back, he fainted and fell.
They told this matter to the Blessed One.
'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if necessity should arise, to leave the hall after informing the Bhikkhu sitting immediately next (to the one who wants to go).'
2. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus went to the place where a meal was to be served with their under-garments or their robes improperly put on, and not decently attired; and turning aside, they pushed on in front of the senior Bhikkhus; and they encroached on (the space intended for) the senior Bhikkhus when taking their seats, and they compelled the junior Bhikkhus to give up their seats to them; and spreading out their upper robes  (as mats) they took their seats in the space between the houses.
The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. . . . told the Blessed One, &c. . . . he said to the Bhikkhus:
'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for the Bhikkhus at a meal, which they are to observe thereat.
3. 'When time has been called in the Ârâma, a Bhikkhu should put on his waistcloth so as to cover himself all round from above the navel to below the knees, tie his belt round his waist, fold his upper robes and put them on, fasten the block on, wash (his hands), take his alms-bowl, and then slowly and carefully proceed to the village. He is not to turn aside (from the direct route) and push on in front of senior Bhikkhus. He is to go amidst the houses properly clad, with (his limbs) under control, with downcast eye, with (his robes) not tucked up, not laughing, or speaking loudly, not swaying his body or his arms or his head about, not with his arms akimbo, or his robe pulled over his head, and without walking on his heels. And he is to take his  seat amidst the houses properly clad (&c., all as before, down to) not with his arms akimbo, or his robes pulled over his head, and without lolling, and without encroaching on (the space intended for) the senior Bhikkhus, or ejecting the junior Bhikkhus from the seats, or spreading his upper robe out (as a mat).
4. 'When the water is being given out (before the meal), he is to hold his bowl with both hands, receive the water (in it), lower the bowl carefully down to the ground so as to avoid scratching the floor, and then wash it. If there be (a person there) whose duty it is to take away the water (which has been so used), (the Bhikkhu) should lower (his bowl on to the ground) and pour the water into the waste tub without splashing the person in question, nor the Bhikkhus near, nor (his own) robes. If there be no such person, he should lower his bowl on to the earth and pour the water away, without splashing the Bhikkhus near or (his own) robes.
'When the boiled rice is being given out, he should hold his bowl with both hands, and receive the rice in it. Room should be left for the curry. If there is ghee, or oil, or delicacies, the senior Bhikkhu should say: "Get an equal quantity for all." The alms (given) are to be accepted with mind alert, paying attention to the bowl, with equal curry, and equally heaped up. And the senior  Bhikkhu is not to begin to eat until the boiled rice has been served out to all.
5. 'The alms given are to be eaten with mind alert, paying attention to the bowl, with equal curry, and equally heaped up; without pressing down from the top; without covering up the curry or the condiment with the rice, desiring to make it nicer; and without asking for either rice or curry for the Bhikkhu's own particular use, unless he be sick. Others' bowls are not to be looked at with envious thoughts. The food is not to be rolled up (by the fingers) into balls that are too large, but into round mouthfuls. The door of the mouth is not to be opened till the ball is brought close to it. When eating, the whole hand is not to be put into the mouth. He is not to talk with his mouth full, nor to toss the food into his mouth as he eats, nor to nibble at the balls of food, nor to stuff his cheeks out as he eats, nor to shake (particles of food off) his hands, nor to scatter lumps of rice about, nor to put out his tongue, nor to smack his lips, nor to make a hissing sound as he eats, nor to lick his fingers, or his bowl, or his lips. And the jar containing drinking-water is not to be taken hold of with hands soiled with food.
6. 'The senior Bhikkhu is not to accept water (to rinse out his bowl with) until all Bhikkhus have finished eating. When water is being given out (after the meal . . . . &c., as in the first paragraph of § 4, down to the end). The water that has been used for washing the bowl is not to be thrown with the rinsings in it into the inner court.
 'In returning, the junior Bhikkhus are to go back first, and the senior Bhikkhus after them. Each Bhikkhu is to pass amidst the houses properly clad . . . . (&c., as above, § 3, down to) without walking on his heels.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct that I establish for Bhikkhus at a meal, which they are to observe thereat.'
Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.
5.1 Now at that time Bhikkhus who were going on their rounds for alms did so with their under garments or their robes improperly put on, and not decently attired, and they entered dwellings without deliberation, and left them without deliberation, and they entered dwellings roughly, and left them roughly, and they stood at too great a distance or too near, and they stood too long or turned back too soon.
And a certain Bhikkhu, on his round for alms, entered a dwelling without noticing where he was going to, and taking (a doorway) for a house-door he passed into an inner chamber. A woman was lying asleep naked on her back in that chamber; and when the Bhikkhu saw her he went out again, perceiving that that was no house-door, but a chamber. Now the husband of that woman, seeing his wife in that position in the chamber, thought: 'My wife has been defiled by that Bhikkhu.' And he seized him, and beat him.
 But the woman, being woke up by the noise, said to the man, 'Why, Sir, are you beating this Bhikkhu?'
'You have been defiled by this Bhikkhu.'
'Not so, Sir. This Bhikkhu has done nothing' (said she), and had the Bhikkhu set free.
Then the Bhikkhu, on going to the Ârâma, told the matter to the Bhikkhus . . . murmured . . . . told the Blessed One . . . . he said to the Bhikkhus:
'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for Bhikkhus going their rounds for alms, which they are to observe therein.
2. 'A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who intends to go his round for alms, should put on his waistcloth (&c., as in chapter 4, § 3, sentences 1 and 3, down to the end).
'When he enters a dwelling, he should take notice (where he goes, saying to himself), "By this way will I go in, and by this way will I come out." He should not go in, nor come out, roughly. He should not stand too far off, nor too near, nor too long; and he should not turn back too easily.
'As he stands still he should notice where (the people in the house) seem willing or not willing to give (him food). If she lays aside her work, or rises from her seat, or wipes a spoon, or wipes or puts ready a dish, he should stand still, perceiving that she seems willing to give.
'When food is being given to him, he should lift up his robe (Samghâti) with his left hand so as to disclose his bowl, take the bowl in both his hands,  and receive the food into it. And he should not look into the face of the woman who is giving the food.
'He should take notice whether she seems willing or not to give curry. If she wipes a spoon, or wipes or puts aside a dish, he should stand still, perceiving that she seems willing to give.
'After the food has been given, he should cover up the bowl with his robe, and turn back slowly and carefully. He should pass through the houses (on his way back) properly clad . . . . (&c., as in § 3, sentence 3, down to the end).
3. 'He who comes back first from the village, from his round for alms, should make seats ready, and place the water and footstools and towels ready there for washing feet, and clean the waste-tub and put it ready, and put ready water to drink and water for washing.
'He who comes back last from the village, from his round for alms, may eat if there be any food left (from the meal of the other Bhikkhus), if he desires to do so. If he does not desire to do so, he should throw away the leavings on the (ground at a place) which is free from grass, or pour them away into water in which there are no living things. He should put away the water, footstools, and towels used for washing feet, clean the waste-tub and put it away, put away the drinking-water and the water  for washing, and sweep the room where the meal was eaten.
'Whosoever sees a pot for drinking-water or for washing-water, or a chamber utensil empty and void, should put it in its proper place. If he is not able to do so single-handed, he should call some one else, and they should put it away with their united effort, and silence should not be broken on that account.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct which I establish for Bhikkhus going their rounds for alms, which they are to observe therein.
6.1 Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus dwelt in the woods; and they provided neither drinking-water, nor water for washing, nor fire, nor drill sticks nor tinder (for starting a fire); nor did they know the stations of the constellations, nor the divisions of the (ten) 'directions' (of the sky).
Thieves went there and said to the Bhikkhus, 'Have you, Sirs, got drinking-water?'
 'No, friends, we have not.'
'Have you, Sirs, got water for washing?'
'No, friends, we have not.'
'Have you, Sirs, got fire?'
'No, friends, we have not.'
'Have you, Sirs, got sticks and tinder for producing fire?'
'No, friends, we have not.'
'With what (constellation is the moon now in) conjunction?'
'That, friends, we do not know.'
'Which direction is this?'
'That, friends, we do not know.'
[On hearing these answers], the thieves said, 'These are thieves. These men are no Bhikkhus.' And they beat them, and went away.
The Bhikkhus told this matter to the Bhikkhus. The Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that connection, after delivering a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus:
'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for Bhikkhus dwelling in the woods, according to which they are to behave themselves therein.
2. 'A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who is dwelling in the woods, should rise betimes, place his bowl in the bag, hang it over his shoulder, arrange, his upper robe over his back (over both shoulders), get on  his sandals, put the utensils of wood and earthenware in order, close the doorway and lattice, and then leave his lodging-place.
'When he perceives that he is about to enter a village, he should take off his sandals, turn them upside down, beat them to get the dust out, put them into a bag, hang it over his shoulder, put on his waistcloth [and so on as laid down for a Bhikkhu entering the village for alms above, VIII, 5, 2, paragraph 1, to the end].
3. 'On leaving a village he should put the bowl into its bag, hang it over his shoulder, roll his robes up, put them on his head, get on his sandals, and then go.
'A Bhikkhu living in the woods, O Bhikkhus, should keep drinking-water, and water for washing, and fire, and drill sticks and tinder, and walking staves ready. He should learn the stations (of the moon) in the constellations, either in the whole or in part, and he should know the directions of the sky.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct that I lay. down for Bhikkhus dwelling in the woods, according to which they should behave themselves therein.'
7.1 Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus carried on robe-making in the open air. The Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus beat their bedding to get  the dust out in the open space to windward of them, and covered the Bhikkhus (who were at work) with dust.
The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. . . . . told the Blessed One, &c. . . . . and he said to the Bhikkhus:
'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for the Bhikkhus in respect of lodging-places, according to which they are to behave themselves in respect thereof.
2. 'In whatever Vihâra he is staying, if that Vihâra is dirty, he should, if he can, make it clean. When cleaning the Vihâra, he should first take out his bowl and his robe and the mat used for sitting upon, and the bolster and . pillows, and put them down on one side. Taking the bed-frame down (from its stand), he should carry it out [and so on as in VIII, 1, 2, down to the end].
'He should not beat the bedding to get the dust out close to the Bhikkhus, or to the Vihâra, or to the drinking-water, or to the water for washing, or in the open space (in front of the Vihâra) to wind-ward of it or the Bhikkhus, but to leeward.
 3. 'The floor coverings should be dried in the sun [and so on as in VIII I, 4, and 5, to the end, reading "in the place where it stood (or lay)" for "in the place to which it belongs"].
4. 'If he is dwelling in the same Vihâra with an older (Bhikkhu), no recitation should be given, nor examination held, nor exhortation made, nor Dhamma spoken (to a pupil), without leave being asked of the senior. Nor should a lamp be lighted or extinguished, nor the lattices opened or closed, without his leave.
'If he is walking up and down on the same Kaṅkama with an older (Bhikkhu), then he should turn back at the spot where his senior turns back; and he should not touch his senior even with the corner of his robe.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct, that I lay down for the Bhikkhus in respect of lodging-places, according to which they are to behave themselves therein.'
8.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, on being hindered by the senior Bhikkhus in (their use of) the hot bath-room, out of spite piled up a quantity of sticks (in the fireplace), set fire to them, closed up the doorway, and sat down in the door-way. The Bhikkhus, scorched by the heat, and not being allowed a way out, fell down in a faint.
The sober Bhikkhus murmured, &c. . . . . told the Blessed One, &c. . . . . He said to the Bhikkhus,
 'No one, O Bhikkhus, is to [do so]. Whosoever does, shall be guilty of a dukkata.
2. 'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for the Bhikkhus, in respect of the hot bath-room, according to which they ought to behave themselves therein.
'Whosoever first enters the bath-room, if ashes have accumulated (in the fireplace) should throw the ashes out. If the hot bath-room, or its prepared flooring, or the cell, or the ante-chamber of the bath, or the cooling-room, or the hall are dirty, they should be swept. The chunam should be pounded, the clay moistened with water, and water poured into the water jar.
'When entering the hot bath-room, the face should be smeared over with clay, and the person well covered up in front and behind before entering. A seat is not to be taken so as to hustle the senior Bhikkhus, and junior Bhikkhus are not to be ousted from their seats. If possible, shampooing is to be performed for the senior Bhikkhus in the hot bath-room.
'When leaving the hot bath-room, the chair (that has been used to sit on before the fire) should be carried off, and the person well covered up before and behind before leaving. If possible, shampooing is to be performed for the senior Bhikkhus in the water also.
'A bath is not to be taken in front of the senior Bhikkhus, nor above them. One who has bathed  and is getting up out (of the water) is to make way for one who is getting down into the water.
'Whoso comes last out of the hot bath-room is to wash it, if it be dirty; to wash the vessel in which the clay is kept, to put the chairs used in the hot bath-room in order, to extinguish the fire, to close up the doorway, and then come out.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct which I lay down for the Bhikkhus, in respect of the hot bath-room, according to which they are to behave themselves therein.'
These chapters deal with the manner of using the privies, and other sanitary arrangements described in V, 35, where see our note.]
[These chapters simply repeat, word for word, Mahâvagga I, 25, 14-24; I, 26, 1-11; I, 32, 3; and I, 33 respectively.]
Here ends the Eighth Khandhaka, containing the Rules for Conduct.
 That this was a sign of disrespect is clear from Mahâvagga V. 12, and the 61st and 62nd Sekhiyas.
 See our discussion of the sunshade question in the note on Kullavagga V, 23, 2.
 Ogunthitâ. See the 23rd and the 67th Sekhiyas.
 Sîse katvâ. Compare VIII, 6, 3.
 Ghatikâ. This word is discussed at Kullavagga V, 14, 3.
 Such an act has been already guarded against by the rule laid down at the end of Kullavagga V, 9. 5, where the same expression is made use of.
 Upari-pitthito. On pittha (which we should possibly read here), as the lintel of a door, see our note above at Kullavagga V, 14, 3. It recurs immediately below, VIII, I, 3.
 Vissaram akâsi. As Childers, sub voce, expresses doubt as to the meaning of this word, it may be well to note that this phrase occurs above, Kullavagga V, 10, 2 and VI, 3, 4, and also in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya LX, and always in the sense here given. The meaning of the allied idiom, vissaro me bhavissati, might be just doubtful as used in a peculiar connection at Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, 1, and Samghâdisesa III, 3, were it not clear from ibid., Pâkittiya LXXXVI, that it means simply 'there will be an outcry against me.'
 The form of this speech bears very clear testimony to the artificial way in which these introductory stories are put together, for the speech does not arise out of the story. Similar instances are not infrequent. See VIII, 5, I.
 Nîkam katvâ. So also at VIII, 6, 2. The word is used below and at Mahâvagga I, 25, II and 15 of a bedstead and chair, and below, VIII, 4, 4, of a bowl when it is being washed.
 See the note below on VIII, 8, 2.
 On these expressions, compare the note above on Kullavagga IV, 4, 4 (at the end), and Kullavagga VIII, 2, 5 = Mahâvagga I, 25, 19.
 These cloths (kolakam) are not specially permitted anywhere in the Khandhakas, as cloths for wiping the face and feet are in Mahâvagga VIII, 18, and Kullavagga VI, 19, respectively. The word is used for 'duster' below, VIII, 2, 3, and for 'tinder' at Milinda Pañha, p. 53.
 See the rules as to the division of lodging-places according to the number of applicants at Kullavagga VI, 21, 2, and especially VI, II, 3.
 Gokaro agokaro. There were some places or families to which the Bhikkhus of a particular residence were not allowed to resort for alms. See the rule as to 'turning down the bowl' with respect to a person at Kullavagga V, 20.
 Sekha-sammatâni kulâni. See the note on the 3rd Pâtidesaniya.
 All the following expressions have occurred together at Kullavagga IV, 4, 4, where an example is given of the course of proceeding here laid down. And they are repeated below, VIII, 2, 2.
 Uklâpo. Compare Kullavagga VI, 3, 9, and below, § 5.
 This was the way in which a Bhikkhu, on going away from it  was to leave his Vihâra. See below, VIII, 3, 2, and on the details of the terms used, see our note below on VIII, 1, 4.
 The rest of this section is repeated in full below, VIII, 7, 2.
 Patipâdakâ. Doubtless the same as forms part of the âhakka-mañka mentioned in the 18th Pâkittiya and above, VI, 2, 5.
 Bhisi. See the note on Mahâvagga VIII, 13.
 Apassena-phalakam. See the note on Kullavagga VI, 20, 2.
 All the expressions in this sentence and the next are the same as those used in a similar connection at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15.
 Ullokâ. See the note at Kullavagga VI, 2, 7, according to which our rendering at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15 should be corrected.
 On this mode of preparing walls and floors, see the notes above on Kullavagga VI, 20.
 Kannakitâ. See our note above on Kullavagga V, II, 3.  The translation of our present passage at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15, must be corrected accordingly.
 Kolaka. See the note on this word in last section.
 Sammaggati is to sweep (not to scrub), as is apparent from Mahâvagga VI, 34, I.
 Ûhaññi. So also at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15. At Mahâvagga I, 49, 4, we should have rendered 'defiled their beds' instead of 'threw their bedding about,' correcting uhananti of the text there into ûhadanti. Ûhan (originally 'to throw up,' 'raise,' &c.) seems, like samûhan, to have acquired the meaning of to destroy, injure, spoil. From this meaning of spoiling, ûhan evidently came to be used for, or confounded in the MS. with, ûhad, 'to defile (with excrement).' So the phrase 'ûhananti pi ummihanti pi' (at Mahâvagga I, 49, 4) exactly corresponds in meaning to 'omuttenti pi ûhadayanti pi' in Dhammapada, p. 283. There are other passages showing the same confusion. (1) The gerund, ûhakka, which occurs in Gâtaka II, p. 71 ('idâni kho (ahan) tam ûhakka'), is explained by the commentator to mean 'vakkan te sîse katva.' (2) ûhanti, in Gâtaka II, p. 73 ('aggihuttañ ka ûhanti, tena bhinnâ kamandalûti'), must mean the same and be = ûhadeti. For the monkey here referred to is said to have been guilty of the following dirty trick:--'kundikâ bhindati, aggisâlâya vakkam karoti.' (3) mutteti ohaneti at Kariyâ Pitaka II, 5, 4, represents ukkâra-pasâvam katvâ at Gâtaka II, 385. In the first of these passages uhakka may well be a copyist's blunder, arising from the similarity of the words, for uhagga. Dr. Morris, to whom we owe the comparison of these passages and the suggested emendation of Mahâvagga I, 49, 4, is rather of opinion that the words were confounded by the writers. For it is not an uncommon thing to find two words, not very remote in form or meaning, confounded together. It is well known that the English word livelihood properly and originally meant 'liveliness,' and has only afterwards replaced the earlier livelode, to which the sense of livelihood properly belongs. And something of this kind  must have occurred, he thinks„in Pâli in the use of ûhan for it had. The past participle ûhata occurs at Kullavagga VIII, 10, 3.
 Bhummattharanam; usually, no doubt, matting of various kinds, but occasionally also skins or rugs of the kinds specially allowed by VI, 14, 2.
 Yathâbhâgam. The use of this word here constitutes the only variation between our passage and that in the Mahâvagga I, 25 = below, VIII, 7, 2, where it is replaced by yathâtthâne or yathâpaññattam.
 This passage throws a welcome light on the meaning of mañka and pîtha: for as they were to be beaten to get the dust out, it is clear that they were upholstered. The mañka, or bed, must have been a wooden framework, stuffed (probably with cotton), covered at the top with cotton cloth, and made underneath and at the sides of wood. It had no legs fixed to it, but was supported on movable tressels--the patipâdakâ. When using it, the sleeper covered it with a mat, or a cotton sheet, and had over him a coverlet of some kind; and these articles, which he would also use if he slept on the ground, constituted, together with the bolster and pillows, the senâsanam or bedding,--that is, in the more special and limited use of that term (as, for instance, above, § 3, and perhaps below, 7, 1). In its larger sense the same word is used, putting the part for the whole, for the whole sleeping apparatus, and is nearly equivalent to seyyâyo (so, for instance, in VI, 11 and 12, and below, VIII, 2, I; 6, 2 and perhaps VIII, 7, 1; whereas the latter term is used in the same connection at VI, 6,  and VI, II, 3). Sayana, in VI, 8, is a generic term including bed, couch, sofa, and divan, but probably with special reference to these three latter things used in the day-time.
 The following paragraph occurs, word for word, at Mahâvagga I, 25, II, and below, VIII, 7, 2.
 The following paragraph is the same as Mahâvagga I, 25,18.
 Saragâ vâtâ. These are the well-known hot winds (like the sand-bearing simoom that blows from North Africa over Italy), against which modern residents endeavour to protect themselves by the use of 'tats.'
 There were, of course, no windows in our modern sense, but only spaces left in the wall to admit light and air, and covered by lattices of three kinds allowed by VI, 2, 2.
 The following paragraph is the same as Mahâvagga I, 25, 19, and part of it is repeated below, VIII, 10, 3.
 Âkamana-kumbhi. This formed part of the sanitary apparatus for use in the privy. See above, Mahâvagga V, 8, 3, and below, Kullavagga VIII, 9 and 10.
 All the above expressions are used at the opening of Mahâvagga IX.
 This paragraph corresponds to the last paragraph of VIII, 1, 2.
 Senâsanam âpukkhâ. Compare the Old Commentary on the 14th and 15th Pâkittiyas. The lengthening of the last vowel in âpukkhâ is noteworthy.
 Ârâmiko. In Mahâvagga VI, 15, the king wishing to present a man for this purpose, it is there laid down that the Bhikkhus  may accept him; and at Kullavagga VI, 21, 3, a superintendent of such slaves is mentioned as one of the officials of the Order.
 This is the usual method still adopted by native servants as a safeguard against white ants, who would eat up into the legs of furniture left standing on the ground.
 This arrangement is referred to above at VIII, 1, 3.
 Aṅgâni pi seseyyum. See Buddhaghosa's note as appended to the edition of the text (p. 325).
 For the passages here implied, see I, 1, 2, 3.
 Aññatarassa pûgassa. This sentence has already occurred at V, 5, 2.
 On this use of iddho, compare ovâdo iddho in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya LVI.
 Anantarikam bhikkhum. See the note on this phrase at VI, 10, 1. Ânantarikam in the text (with long â) is a misprint.
 Vokkamma, which is not, as Childers supposes, equal to okkamma with euphonic v, but to vyavakramya or vyutkramya.
 Anupakhagga: which is here used, not in the sense it has at IV, 14, 1, but in the sense in which it is used in the 16th and 43rd Pâkittiyas, in both which passages it is explained by the Old Commentary by anupavisitvâ. This clause and the next occur also at Mahâvagga I, 25, 13.
 Samghâtim ottharitvâ. This use of the Samghâti is referred to at Gâtaka I, 212, and above, I, 13, 2.
 Antaraghare. See Sekhiyas 3-26, repeated in the next section. It is perhaps doubtful whether this word may not mean here. (as in Sekhiya 27--below, § 6) the inner courtyard of a house which is surrounded by buildings; but we follow the interpretation we have adopted, loc. cit.
 The following section repeats the Sekhiyas, Nos. 3-26, where see further notes. Much of it recurs below in VIII, 5, 2.
 Sagunam katvâ. Compare Mahâvagga I, 25, 9.
 Ganthikam. See the note on V, 29, 3. It was to prevent the robe being blown up by the wind. The word occurs again in VIII, 5, 2.
 The following sentence is repeated, word for word, below, § 6.
 Patiggahe. See the note on V, 10, 3. Avakkâra-pâtî, at Mahâvagga IV, 1, 2 = Kullavagga VIII, 5, 3, seems to have very nearly the same meaning. The whole of this paragraph is repeated below, § 6.
 Uttaribhaṅgam. See the note on VI, 4, I.
 On the expressions in this sentence, compare the notes on Sekhiyas 27-32.
 This paragraph repeats Sekhiyas 31-55, where see our notes.
 This is the 57th Sekhiya.
 The bowl is always carried by the left hand under the robe. On panâmeti, see the note at V, 9, 5.
 The following section is, word for word, parallel to Mahâvagga IV, I, 2-4.
 Avakkâra-pâtî. We have had patiggaha used just above (VIII, 4, 4) in a very similar sense and connection. The present word occurs also at Mahâvagga IV, I, 2.
 Vâkam bhindati. To break silence by speaking. See Mahâvagga IV, 1, 3, where it makes good sense.
 Arani-sahitam, on which Buddhaghosa merely says arani-sahite sati aggim kâtum pi vattati. In the Gâtaka Commentary (I, 212, ed. Fausböll) we have the phrase arani-sahitam nîharitvâ aggim karonti. At p. 34 of the Assalâyana Sutta (ed. Pischel) we hear of there being an upper and lower stick to the arani; and at p. 53 of the Milinda Pañha (ed. Trenckner) we find the same upper and lower sticks, the thong by which to turn the latter, and the piece of rag for tinder mentioned as the constituent parts of this ancient means of producing fire. The expression in the text is probably a collective term for the whole of these.
 They are all repeated in the text.
 Thavikâ. This is possibly one of the bags referred to in the permission granted by Mahâvagga VIII, 20, but it was only to be used when the bowl had to be carried a long distance, and not when passing through a village. (See the beginning of the next section.)
 Kîvaram khandhe katvâ: either in contradistinction to  ekamsam kîvaram katvâ (on which question there is a great division among modern Buddhists. Compare Rh. D.'s note on the Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 47), or possibly 'put it in a roll on his back.'
 On this expression, see above, VIII, 1, 2.
 See Mahâvagga VIII, 13, 1.
 Aṅgana. This is not 'courtyard,' as Childers renders it, but a part of the Ârâma, immediately in front of the hut or Vihâra, which is kept as an, open space, and daily swept. The Sinhalese name for it is midula; there those who sleep in the hut spend the greater part of the day, and not even grass is allowed to grow upon it. The term is a very common one, and its meaning is not doubtful. Compare the Gâtaka book, I, 124, 151, 421; II, 249, 250, 345. Ekaṅganam bhavati, at ibid. I, 53, 12, is to become one open space, as ekaṅganam karoti at II, 357, is to clear a forest, and turn it into an open space.
 The order is slightly different, but all the details are the same. The only addition is that in speaking of taking out the floor covetings, he is directed to notice where they lay.
 All the preceding expressions have occurred at Mahâvagga I, 26, 1; see also 32, 1, and 38, 6.
 Gantâghara, not simply bath-room, but room in which hot or steam baths were taken. Most of the following expressions occur in Mahâvagga I, 25, 12, or above at V, 14, 3.